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MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE TRANSFORMING PHILADELPHIA’S WATERFRONT


Delaware River Waterfront Corporation (DRWC) is a nonprofit corporation organized exclusively for the benefit of the city of Philadelphia and its citizens. DRWC acts as the steward of the Delaware River waterfront to provide benefits to all citizens of the city and to its visitors. The fundamental purpose of DRWC is to design, develop, and manage the Central Delaware River waterfront in Philadelphia between Oregon and Allegheny Avenues, from I-95 east to the Delaware River. DRWC intends to transform the Central Delaware River waterfront into a vibrant destination location for recreational, cultural, and commercial activities for Philadelphia’s residents and visitors. DRWC will serve as a catalyst for high-quality investment in public parks and trails as well as maritime, residential, retail, hotel, and other improvements that will create a vibrant amenity, extending Philadelphia to the river’s edge. DRWC is open, transparent, and accountable in its operations and activities with respect to the waterfront. Through the judicious use of financing, land acquisition, and development capabilities, DRWC will work cooperatively with civic groups, property owners, and its many other stakeholders, as well as with relevant city, state, and federal agencies, to ensure the successful implementation of this master plan.


MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE TRANSFORMING PHILADELPHIA’S WATERFRONT Full Report, October 2011

Illustrative rendering showing multi-use trails near Schirra Drive


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Delaware River Waterfront Corporation (DRWC) commissioned the preparation of this master plan, which was overseen by the DRWC board of directors. The project was led by the Planning Committee of the board of directors, supported by the DRWC president and staff.

Delaware River Waterfront Corporation Board of Directors Rina Cutler, Deputy Mayor for Transportation and Utilities, City of Philadelphia Avi D. Eden, Law and Finance Consultant Terry Gillen, Director of Federal Affairs, Office of the Mayor, City of Philadelphia Jay R. Goldstein, Board Vice Chairman, Founder, President, and CEO of Valley Green Bank Alan Greenberger, Deputy Mayor for Economic Development, City of Philadelphia William P. Hankowsky, Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer

Gary J. Jastrzab, Executive Director of the Philadelphia City Planning Commission William R. Miller, IV, CEO, Ross Associates, Inc. Donn G. Scott, Board Chairman, Executive Vice President, Mid-Atlantic Banking Group, Wells Fargo Marilyn Jordan Taylor, Dean and Paley Professor, University of Pennsylvania School of Design William L. Wilson, Principal-in-Charge, Synterra Ltd. Diane Dalto Woosnam, Immediate Past Chair, Pennsylvania Council on the Arts

of Liberty Property Trust

Ellen Yin, Owner, Fork Restaurant and Fork:etc

Michael I. Hauptman, AIA, Partner, Brawer & Hauptman Architects

Mario Zacharjasz, AIA, Co-founder and Principal, PZS Architects, LLC;

Alan P. Hoffmann, President, VITETTA Architects/Engineers

President of Puente Construction Enterprises, Inc.

Delaware River Waterfront Corporation Tom Corcoran, President Joe Forkin, Vice President for Operations and Development Jodie Milkman, Vice President for Marketing, Programming, and Corporate Partnerships Sarah Thorp, Master Planning Manager The project was funded by the William Penn Foundation.


The master plan was developed in close consultation with the following stakeholder groups: Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia

PennPraxis

Central Delaware Advocacy Group

Pennsport Civic Association

Citizens for Pennsylvania’s Future

Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development

City of Philadelphia Department of Commerce

Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources

City of Philadelphia Department of Parks and Recreation

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection

City of Philadelphia Department of Streets

Pennsylvania Department of Transportation

City of Philadelphia Historical Commission

Pennsylvania Environmental Council

City of Philadelphia Law Department

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society

City of Philadelphia Mayor’s Office of Sustainability

Philadelphia Archaeological Forum

City of Philadelphia Mayor’s Office of Transportation and Utilities

Philadelphia City Planning Commission

City of Philadelphia Office of Arts, Culture, and the Creative Economy

Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation

City of Philadelphia Office of Economic Opportunity

Philadelphia Redevelopment Authority

City of Philadelphia Office of the Mayor

Philadelphia Regional Port Authority

Court at Old Swedes Homeowners’ Association

Philadelphia Water Department

Delaware River Port Authority

Port Richmond on Patrol & Civic Association

Delaware River Yachtmen’s League

Preservation Alliance of Greater Philadelphia

Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission

Public Art Forum

Development Workshop

Queen Village Neighbors Association

Fishtown Neighbors Association

River’s Edge Community Association

Franklin Bridge North Neighbors Association

Society Hill Civic Association

Neighbors Allied for the Best Riverfront

Society Hill Towers Homeowners’ Association

New Kensington Community Development Corporation

Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority

Northern Liberties Neighbors Association

South Street Headhouse Business District

Old City Civic Association

Whitman Council


Current conditions at Penn Treaty Park and the Delaware Generating Station


TABLE OF CONTENTS OVERVIEW

81 PUBLIC REALM—EXTENDED PLAN

3 A PHILADELPHIA WATERFRONT

119 WATERFRONT ACTIVATION

5 THE PLANNING CONTEXT

143 TRANSPORTATION

9 FROM VISION TO PLAN

179 ECONOMICS

11 THE PROJECT AREA

203 WEALTH-BUILDING STRATEGIES

14 PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE

IMPLEMENTATION

CENTRAL DELAWARE WATERFRONT

217 LAND USE POLICIES AND STRATEGIES

THE MASTER PLAN

253 SUSTAINABILITY

29 A FRAMEWORK

256 SUMMARY

39 OVERALL ILLUSTRATIVE PLAN

259 CONCLUSION

ELEMENTS OF THE MASTER PLAN

261 SHORT-TERM PROJECTS

71 PUBLIC REALM INTRODUCTION

APPENDIX

73 PUBLIC REALM–BASE PLAN


TABLE OF MAPS AND PLANS OVERVIEW

120 Waterfront Activation Map

10 Project Area Map

98 Overall Park Guidelines

THE MASTER PLAN

150 Street Improvements

30 Land Use Map

154 Trail Implementation

32 Open Space Plan

162 Delaware Avenue Transit Corridor

34 Trails Plan

170 Columbus Boulevard Conflict Zones

36 Ownership

176 Water Taxi and Ferry Stops

38 Overall Illustrative Plan

188 Three Priority Sites

40

Oregon Avenue to Piers 38 and 40

IMPLEMENTATION

46

Piers 38 and 40 to Market Street

228 Ground-Floor Activation, Four Panels

56

Market Street to Penn Treaty Park

232 Height, Four Panels

62

Penn Treaty Park to Allegheny Avenue

236 Screening, Four Panels

ELEMENTS OF THE MASTER PLAN

240 Connector Streets, Four Panels

72 Public Realm–Base Plan

244 Architectural Features, Four Panels

80 Public Realm–Extended Plan

248 Street Line Build-to Locations, Four Panels

86 Neighborhood Parks: Significant Underserved Areas

SHORT-TERM PROJECTS

88 Open Space Plan

260 Overall Illustrative Plan

90 Park Typologies Plan

262 Public Realm Improvements

92 Proposed Edge Conditions

264 Transportation Improvements

94 Water Zones

266 Development Sites

96 Trails Plan

268 Projects to Be Completed by Others


OVERVIEW 3

A PHILADELPHIA WATERFRONT

5

THE PLANNING CONTEXT

9

FROM VISION TO PLAN

11

THE PROJECT AREA

14

PRINCIPLES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENTRAL DELAWARE WATERFRONT


Illustrative rendering from south of Washington Park and Pier 38 and 40 renovation


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The goal of this master plan is to transform a six-mile length of Philadelphia’s Central Delaware River waterfront into an authentic extension of the thriving city and vibrant neighborhoods immediately to its west. Breathing life back into an abandoned industrial waterfront that was once at the heart of the Philadelphia economy is a tremendous challenge, but meeting this challenge will yield great benefits to the city and its region. The city of Philadelphia is informal, innovative, proud, relaxed, walkable, resilient, and vibrant. Those qualities should be extended to the Delaware waterfront. Unlike the Upper Schuylkill, which is rooted in a history of pastoral retreats and which serves as a natural preserve for the protection of the city’s water supply, the Delaware River has historically been Philadelphia’s front door, a center of activity, industry, and commerce, bounded at its north and south ends by active port facilities. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware recognizes this character and aims to create region-serving amenities while also reconnecting the city’s residents and visitors with the waterfront. The inspiration and foundations for this plan are found in the waterfront’s distinctive qualities:

■■ The singular geography: a sweeping and gentle bow of piers and wetlands that offers broad views up, down, and across the river; ■■ The many historical and cultural resources that are identifiable and integral to the character of Philadelphia’s waterfront; ■■ The vibrancy and low-rise scale of the many adjoining upland neighborhoods; and ■■ The powerful integration of the manmade piers and structures with natural ecological systems. This master plan, created through the collective work of the design team, the Delaware River Waterfront Corporation (DRWC), governmental, nonprofit and civic organizations, property owners, and other stakeholders, provides a roadmap for transforming Philadelphia’s distinctive Central Delaware River waterfront.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

A PHILADELPHIA WATERFRONT


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Each great city has its own specific character; it also has a specific regulatory and planning context. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware has been formulated in the context of five interrelated planning and regulatory initiatives that affect Philadelphia today. The first of these was a highly successful citizen-engagement process, funded by the William Penn Foundation and led by PennPraxis, that created a vision and recommended a set of core principles to guide the development of the Central Delaware River waterfront. This effort resulted in two documents: A Civic Vision for the Central Delaware, released in November 2007, and An Action Plan for the Central Delaware: 2008–2018, released in July 2008. The civic vision created considerable momentum, and the action plan made a series of recommendations to continue this momentum. The following list presents some of the recommendations, along with progress made since July 2008:

■■ Appoint an open, accountable, effective waterfront manager. This recommendation was executed by Mayor Nutter in January 2009 with the creation of the Delaware River Waterfront Corporation with a new board of directors.

■■ Adopt clear zoning, a detailed master plan, and a coordinated regulatory policy. This master plan is now complete and makes specific recommendations for zoning and regulatory policies.

■■ Implement waterfront projects in a variety of categories, including parks, trails, streets, traffic, and parking. In two short years, while this master plan was being developed, DRWC completed a series of four “early action” projects: •

The first phase of the Delaware River Trail between Pier 70 Boulevard and Washington Avenue, which was accomplished in conjunction with the Center City District and opened in the spring of 2010;

Washington Avenue Green, a one-acre park just south of the Coast Guard station, which opened in the fall of 2010;

The Race Street Pier, a spectacular new public space at Race Street and Columbus Boulevard, which opened in the spring of 2011; and

The Race Street Connector, an intensive streetscaping, lighting, and artistic treatment of Race Street between 2nd Street and Columbus Boulevard, which was completed in the fall of 2011.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

THE PLANNING CONTEXT


The Washington Avenue Green, Race Street Pier, and Race Street Connector projects all included a vigorous civic-engagement process organized by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society and were completed on time and within budget by DRWC staff. The second planning and regulatory initiative that provides a context for the Master Plan for the Central Delaware is Philadelphia’s sustainability plan, Greenworks Philadelphia, which was released in the spring of 2009. This City of Philadelphia plan outlines sustainability goals and initiatives in the areas of energy, environment, equity, economy, and engagement. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware proposes that the waterfront will provide a leading example of how Greenworks’ principles and objectives can be applied to a regenerating waterfront district. The third initiative, Philadelphia 2035: The Comprehensive Plan, has been prepared concurrently with this master plan. Philadelphia 2035 will be the city’s first new comprehensive plan in six decades. It establishes a framework for the city and a basis for the development of 18 neighborhood-specific district plans. The master plan is designed to support Philadelphia 2035. The fourth initiative is Connections: The Regional Plan for a Sustainable Future. This regional plan for southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey was created by the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC). Connections reviews long-term and recent trends in development and considers future land use scenarios in order to create a regional vision to guide future development in the nine-county DVRPC region. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware supports numerous goals included in this regional strategy. Finally, the City of Philadelphia has been preparing a new zoning code over the past three years. The waterfront, like all other areas of the city, will be subject to the new zoning provisions. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware makes recommendations for use, density, and form for the entire project area, and these recommendations could be translated by the Philadelphia City Planning Commission into new base zoning for the waterfront after the new zoning code is passed. The new zoning code contains a placeholder section for a waterfront overlay, which could be introduced by the Planning Commission as an amendment to the zoning code. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware also outlines recommendations for design guidelines that are advisory in nature and can further guide development on the waterfront during a Civic Design Review process. Because these actions will be taken by the Planning Commission, DRWC consulted with the Planning Commission during the development of the master plan.


Overview: The Planning Context

7

planning studies:

■■ Green 2015: An Action Plan for the First 500 Acres (2010) Commissioned by City of Philadelphia Parks and Recreation

■■ Northern Liberties Neighbors Association Neighborhood Plan (2005) Plan by Interface Studio LLC

Plan by PennPraxis

■■ Northern Liberties Waterfront Plan: An Addendum to the Northern ■■ Industry Works: An Industrial Market & Land Use Strategy for the City of Philadelphia (2010)

Liberties Neighborhood Plan (2007) By Interface Studio LLC; Orth-Rodgers & Associates, Inc.

Commissioned by the Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation Report by AECOM Economics, Interface Studio, Institute for a Competitive Inner City, and CHPlanning

■■ Philadelphia Pedestrian and Bicycle Plan (2010) By the Philadelphia City Planning Commission

■■ Inclusion Works: Economic Opportunity Strategic Plan (2010) By the City of Philadelphia Department of Commerce

■■ New Kensington Neighborhood Plan (2003) Plan by Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC

■■ New Kensington Riverfront Plan (2008) Plan by Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC

■■ East Coast Greenway Feasibility Study (2009) By the East Coast Greenway Alliance, Pennsylvania Environmental Council

■■ North Delaware Riverfront Greenway Master Plan (2006, revised 2010)

■■ Penn Treaty Park Master Plan (2010)

By the Pennsylvania Environmental Council, Delaware River City

Commissioned by City of Philadelphia Parks and Recreation

Corporation

Plan by Studio Bryan Hanes

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

All of the core documents listed above have greatly informed this master plan. In addition, the master plan was informed by the following documents and


A model from the alternatives phase of the planning process

A sketch of ideas for the Spring Garden site from the alternatives phase

The consulting team at work

A mapping of different waterfront conditions


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The master plan was funded by a $1 million grant from the William Penn Foundation to the DRWC in the spring of 2009. DRWC selected a team led by Cooper, Robertson & Partners, with OLIN, Kieran Timberlake, and HR&A Advisors completing the core team. These firms, which work in the fields of urban planning, architecture, landscape architecture, and real-estate economics, were complemented by sub-consultants with expertise in community outreach, waterfront policy, historical and archaeological resources, transportation, civil engineering, and park programming. The project was kicked off in January 2010 and was substantially completed by June 2011. In creating an implementable, long-term plan for the waterfront, the planning team completed in-depth technical analyses and careful parcel-by-parcel studies of constraints and opportunities, then developed alternatives and created the final plan documents. Economic analysis was included in every phase of the process to insure that the recommendations in the final plan were grounded in economic realities. Therefore, this Master Plan for the Central Delaware includes a detailed framework of open space, cultural and environmental resources, transportation, and economic development.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

FROM VISION TO PLAN


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The Master Plan for the Central Delaware covers the waterfront area from I-95 to the river, from Allegheny Avenue in the north to Oregon Avenue in the south. The project area encompasses almost six linear miles of waterfront and over 1,100 acres of property, approximately 150 acres of which are underwater. Only 10 percent of the land is publicly owned or under public control, so realization of the master plan and its principles will depend upon coordinated public and private planning, design, and investment. Because the project area is large, the transformation envisioned in this plan will take decades to achieve, and two areas at the northern and southern extremes are not likely to undergo significant changes within the 25-year time period of this plan:

■■ Lehigh Avenue to Allegheny Avenue: This heavily industrial area at the northern end of the project area is served by an active rail corridor owned and operated by Conrail.

■■ Mifflin Street to Oregon Avenue: This area, extending from Mifflin Street past Oregon Avenue to Pattison Avenue and beyond, is an active port facility with supporting land uses. The continuation of this port activity is important for the city’s economy and for the vitality of adjacent neighborhoods. Additionally, the area of existing large-format retail stores on the west side of Columbus Boulevard from Snyder south will most likely not change in use in the time frame of the master plan. The master plan shows that the existing use will remain in both of these areas. In addressing the next 25 years of development along the Central Delaware River waterfront, this master plan sets out a specific framework for the redevelopment and reuse potential of the area between Mifflin Street on the south and Lehigh Avenue on the north. At the same time, despite the current conditions and challenges for the far north and far south, considerable thought and effort has gone into making significant recommendations for trail connections at these north and south ends. These trail connections can serve to connect these districts to the core study area.

Opposite page: Project Area Map

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

THE PROJECT AREA


The gantry cranes near Pulaski Park

Degraded pier structures

Port facilities at Packer Marine Terminal

Penn’s Landing


Overview: The Project Area

13

now and 2035. In order to spur this development in the earlier years of implementation, the master plan identifies three priority sites—Washington Avenue, Penn’s Landing, and Spring Garden Street—where strategic public investment should be focused. These three sites will make excellent starting points for the transformation of the waterfront. The location and boundaries of these sites are detailed in the Overall Illustrative Plan portion of the Master Plan section of this document. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware also identifies important connections between the waterfront and the city and region that extend beyond the defined project area. This integration of the waterfront with the existing city is a critical part of the urban design and economic strategy employed in the master plan because improvements to the streets connecting past the boundary of the master plan and into the neighborhoods are essential. Likewise, improving the eastern end of Market Street and reinvigorating Front Street just west of I-95 are essential to the success of a transformed Penn’s Landing and the creation of a renewed connection between the waterfront and Old City. Lastly, city-wide and regional trail connections are critically important to the objective of linking the larger city and region to the Delaware River. These connections include the East Coast Greenway (which continues north past Allegheny Avenue and, at Spring Garden Street, proceeds west across the city), the Lehigh Viaduct (which is proposed as a future trail connection through North Philadelphia), and a connection to the Spruce and Pine Street bicycle lanes (which run across the city).

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

For the area between Mifflin Street and Lehigh Avenue, the master plan proposes development that can extend across the private and public sites between


PRINCIPLES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENTRAL DELAWARE WATERFRONT In September 2010, as the analysis phase of the master plan process was ending, the DRWC Planning Committee prepared a statement of guiding principles to provide a framework for the preparation of the master plan. These guiding principles are key to the achievement of the DRWC’s goal: to regenerate the Central Delaware by making strategic investments in the public realm, thereby creating amenities for the public as well as enhancing the value and opportunity for adjacent private development. Over time, this combination of public investment and private development will create the conditions for the transformation of the Central Delaware River waterfront. The guiding principles follow: 1.

Create a network of civic and public spaces that are distinctive public amenities as well as catalysts for private development.

2. Promote the development of new, low- to mid-rise, dense and walkable residential neighborhoods. 3. Accommodate diverse land uses along the waterfront. 4. Incorporate best practices in sustainability. 5. Participate in creating a pedestrian-friendly and balanced transportation plan that supports the walkability of the waterfront and its strong connection to the city and the region. 6. Create strong inclusionary opportunities for economic development for minority-owned, women-owned, and disadvantaged businesses. 7. Create a plan that can be implemented in discrete increments over time. 8. Create a truly Philadelphia waterfront.


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PRIVATE DEVELOPMENT The current economy is challenging for both the public and the private sectors. One of the primary and most important principles of this plan is that scarce public funding must be used to implement targeted infrastructure projects in the form of streets, utilities, and distinctive and attractive open spaces and parks in order to create value on degraded and severely challenged waterfront sites. The waterfront is currently a landscape of derelict piers and vacant land, most of which was formerly industrial. It is disconnected from the vibrant adjacent neighborhoods, and in many locations it has no public amenities and offers no access points to the river. By implementing infrastructure projects, the public sector will stimulate and leverage private investment. This economic development will bring new residents, businesses, and industry, all of which increase the tax base for the city and contribute funding for ongoing maintenance and programming at public waterfront spaces. The open-space system planned for the waterfront will only become activated, sustainable, and maintainable if dense and successful development exists around it. Public spaces cannot exist on the waterfront without new private development, and private development will not happen on the waterfront without quality public spaces as amenities. Therefore, the master plan team has developed a framework for a network of civic and public spaces connected by a waterfront trail based on the following precepts:

■■ An attractive network of public space along the length of the waterfront will improve quality of life for all Philadelphians and will contribute to making the city a vibrant place to live and work.

■■ A rich public realm along the waterfront creates incentive for and catalyzes private development in a challenged development environment. ■■ A connected system of open space along the waterfront creates brand value for the city, serving as an attraction for regional visitors and tourists.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

1. CREATE A NETWORK OF CIVIC AND PUBLIC SPACES THAT ARE DISTINCTIVE PUBLIC AMENITIES AS WELL AS CATALYSTS FOR


Limited public resources must be invested wisely to achieve multiple goals: recreational, environmental, connective, and economic. In other words, public funding should be used to achieve what is sometimes called a triple bottom line—to contribute simultaneously to economic, environmental, and social goals. This plan has been crafted to utilize public funding not only to catalyze economic development, but also to help advance other city-wide goals. For example, the master plan contributes to the Philadelphia Water Department’s watershed restoration and stormwater management goals and incorporates wetland mitigation projects to accommodate essential city projects such as airport expansion. Additionally, the public realm laid out by this master plan has been designed to contribute to the health and social equity of the city by providing fair and equal access to parks within walking distance and by incorporating wealth-building strategies for traditionally disadvantaged communities. In summary, investing public funding in waterfront infrastructure will stimulate economic development, create an attractive and memorable set of amenities, and contribute to Philadelphia’s health and vitality.


Overview: Principles for the Development of the Central Delaware Waterfront

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The master plan recommends that the primary form of waterfront development should be a high-density, low- to mid-rise form for three principal reasons:

■■ This form of development complements the character and scale of adjacent neighborhoods. ■■ This scale of development matches the near-term market potential for new residential development along the waterfront. Current demand and absorption suggest that height should be regulated to promote low- to mid-rise development, with provisions for exceptions at appropriate locations. This will create incentives for developers and property owners to spread the development along the entire waterfront rather than trying to concentrate it at a few locations to the detriment of the adjacent parcels.

■■ Additionally, this development approach will not compete with the character of Center City or other neighborhoods. For example, high-rise office development is not proposed for the waterfront, as this use should be promoted for Center City; nor is large-format retail, which already serves many neighborhoods throughout the city. Rather, a program of residential development with supporting service retail, cafes, restaurants, and entertainment will establish a year-round amenity for the city. Reclaiming the riverfront for 21st-century urban living, complemented by ongoing and new water-related and new industrial activities that will generate jobs, will offer a resilient and lasting place along the Delaware River.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

2. PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW, LOW- TO MID-RISE, DENSE AND WALKABLE RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOODS


3. ACCOMMODATE DIVERSE LAND USES ALONG THE WATERFRONT The master plan recognizes the need to incorporate important land uses such as port, industry, and commerce, as well as entertainment, residential, and neighborhood-scale commercial. Uses that are somewhat incompatible with each other have transition zones in between; the land-use plan has been designed to minimize these conflicts of use. For example, at the north end, a buffer of office/industrial use is proposed just south of the heavy industrial use, and entertainment is shown as a transition to the more neighborhood-scale development. At the south end, a short-term buffer from the port/industrial use is the existing large-format retail. The proposed long-term buffer is park space, which could be used as an observation and interpretation platform where the public could see and understand the role that the port and maritime industry plays in the region’s economy. The remainder of the waterfront is proposed as a mixture of residential, entertainment, and retail uses organized around a network of high-quality open space and an improved transportation system.


Overview: Principles for the Development of the Central Delaware Waterfront

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Sustainability means different things in different contexts. The master plan team used sustainability as an underlying principle for its decisions and recommendations. Specific recommendations address sustainability by taking into account these aims:

■■ Create a waterfront place that will not only economically sustain itself, but that will also contribute positively to the economic development of the city.

■■ Contribute to the sustainability goals set forth in the Greenworks Philadelphia plan. ■■ Utilize best practices in sustainability for architecture, landscape architecture, and city planning to insure that the built environment achieves multiple goals. The system of parks and open space recommended in this plan are designed to function as much more than green spaces or places for active recreation; they will also help manage stormwater, prevent flooding, restore natural ecologies, contribute to the health of the river, reduce the heatisland effect of the city, and restore tree canopy. The type of development planned for the waterfront not only establishes new, vibrant economic development for the city, but also creates dense and walkable communities, reduces vehicular emissions through improved mass transit, incorporates new and emerging green building technologies into building design, and utilizes the existing history and character of the waterfront to inform new development forms.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

4. INCORPORATE BEST PRACTICES IN SUSTAINABILITY


5. PARTICIPATE IN CREATING A PEDESTRIAN-FRIENDLY AND BALANCED TRANSPORTATION PLAN THAT SUPPORTS THE WALKABILITY OF THE WATERFRONT AND ITS STRONG CONNECTION TO THE CITY AND THE REGION The current transportation network on the waterfront is centered on vehicular travel and provides limited access for other types of users. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware shapes and serves walkable communities, links waterfront destinations to each other and to Center City, connects waterfront residents to employment centers, and functions as an integral part of the regional transportation network. It also provides access to people visiting the waterfront for recreation and entertainment. Here are the components of the transportation plan:

■■ A long-term plan for a light-rail/streetcar system along Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard with a direct connection to Center City, including short- and mid-term strategies for improved bus and shuttle service. The transit system is designed to serve people visiting the waterfront for recreation and entertainment in the short term and long term. As residential development occurs, it provides a primary mode of daily transportation for waterfront residents;

■■ Incremental transformation of Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard from a high-speed vehicular corridor to a multi-modal, pedestrian-friendly corridor with significant facilities for mass transit, bicycles, and pedestrians;

■■ A comprehensive system of streets that connect the waterfront with the city and provide safe and welcoming waterfront access to existing and new development;

■■ Bicycle facilities for all types of users: commuters, athletic and recreational bikers, and families with young children; and ■■ A water transportation system, including ferry and water-taxi service.


Overview: Principles for the Development of the Central Delaware Waterfront

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DISADVANTAGED BUSINESSES The implementation of this master plan must offer a means for minorities and women to build wealth. This outcome can be achieved when entrepreneurs are able to participate in an inclusive environment and grow their businesses, workers are able to freely participate in professional endeavors, and individual investors are able to recognize profit from well-placed risk. The opportunity to engage in wealth-building practices exists in every aspect of the master plan, most strongly in the private development of sites currently owned by DRWC and other public entities. Given the 25-year time frame of the master plan, the opportunity exists to create a phased pipeline of projects that, properly formulated and executed, will result in significant wealth creation for minorities and women as individuals, business owners, and investors. In addition, the master plan envisions a significant amount of new retail, dining, and entertainment serving both existing and new residential communities. The master plan envisions that significant opportunities will be created for entrepreneurial minority and women businesses to be commercial tenants in these mixed-use developments.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

6. CREATE STRONG INCLUSIONARY OPPORTUNITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FOR MINORITY-OWNED, WOMEN-OWNED, AND


7. CREATE A PLAN THAT CAN BE IMPLEMENTED IN DISCRETE INCREMENTS OVER TIME

In order to create incentives for private development on the waterfront, scarce but essential public funding must be carefully targeted and phased over

the 25-year span of the master plan. Therefore, a detailed phasing strategy has been crafted to concentrate initial public funding at key locations where

private development can occur in the relative near term in a manner consistent with current absorption rates. Additionally, various elements of the

Master Plan for the Central Delaware have been designed to be built discretely, without requiring other major public investments at the same time.

Lastly, projects of various scales have been proposed, allowing DRWC, the City of Philadelphia, and other partners to undertake small and large projects

to create and maintain a constant momentum of transformation across the six-mile project area. Three priority sites have been selected at which publicly owned land at key locations can be used to initiate early development activity:

■■ Washington: Tasker Avenue to Piers 38 and 40 This priority site contains a conglomeration of publicly and privately owned land at the base of Washington Avenue, from Tasker Street to Piers 38 and 40, on the east side of Columbus Boulevard.

■■ Penn’s Landing: South Street to Market Street The Penn’s Landing priority site is entirely owned by DRWC and is bounded by Market Street, South Street, Columbus Boulevard, and the Delaware River.

■■ Spring Garden: Benjamin Franklin Bridge to Frankford Avenue This priority site is anchored by the 10-acre, DRWC-owned Festival Pier and former City Incinerator sites on Delaware Avenue at the end of Spring Garden Street. Also included in this large priority site is the “Uplands Area,” defined as the entire area between the Benjamin Franklin Bridge and Frankford Avenue, between the Delaware River and I-95.


Overview: Principles for the Development of the Central Delaware Waterfront

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this document. As development occurs in these three areas, the plan anticipates that the parcels in between or adjacent to these sites will fill in with new development within the 25-year anticipated life of the plan. Other portions of the Elements of the Master Plan section (Public Realm—Base Plan, Public Realm—Extended Plan, Waterfront Activation, and Transportation) have also been designed to be implemented in phases, with improvements that are not necessarily dependent upon each other. The Implementation section of this document contains a description of projects that could be undertaken in the short term. As is true of any implementation plan, this plan has been designed with flexibility so that projects can be implemented as unexpected funding opportunities arise.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

These priority sites and their phasing strategies are more specifically described in the Economics portion of the Elements of the Master Plan section of


8. CREATE A TRULY PHILADELPHIA WATERFRONT The Central Delaware River waterfront was once seamlessly integrated into the city; it had close physical connections as well as a Philadelphia character and identity. However, these connections have been severed over the past 100 years, and the waterfront must now be carefully redeveloped to reestablish them. Redevelopment must be sensitive to the qualities that are essentially Philadelphia instead of creating a “new� place that has no physical connection to the character and fabric of the city. The waterfront should simultaneously possess a Philadelphia character and a special identity as a waterfront place. It can be difficult to identify the particular traits that create character in a place, as these are somewhat intangible; however, all components of this master plan, including open space, new development, and infrastructure, were formulated with the specific purpose of creating a uniquely Philadelphia place. The master plan aims to accomplish this by drawing on the rich history of the waterfront and of the city as a whole; by making use of the city’s strong cultural assets, including its significant public art program; and by considering the scale and massing of the buildings in the dense adjacent neighborhoods. The project area contains historical and archaeological resources of national and in some cases international significance. They range in time, spanning from the period prior to European occupation to colonial America, when the waterfront was one of the most important ports, to the massive scale of industry that dominated the waterfront and served the United States and the world through the 18th, 19th, and part of the 20th centuries. These resources make the Philadelphia waterfront unique; they create a sense of place that can draw both tourists and residents to the waterfront. The plan recommends integrating these resources by various means, such as reusing historic buildings and structures, interpreting archaeological sites, and installing a comprehensive interpretive signage program. The historic and archaeological resources inventory prepared for this plan will help inform potential archaeological sites and buildings and structures that have adaptive reuse potential for future development. DRWC will use best practices in preservation and cultural resource management on its property to serve as an example for other development. Additionally, the master plan recommends that, as a next step, a full historic interpretive plan be developed that will provide a strategy for highlighting the many historic resources found on the waterfront.


Overview: Principles for the Development of the Central Delaware Waterfront

25

plan recommends that public art be installed as an integral component of the waterfront landscape in both permanent and temporary ways. Locations for iconic pieces of art have been identified in the plan, such as the park at Penn’s Landing. Additionally, DRWC intends to comply with the City of Philadelphia’s Percent for Art Program, which dedicates 1 percent of the total costs of a project to public art, in its waterfront projects. DRWC will also encourage private developers to take advantage of incentives for public art. Finally, the strongest component of a successful waterfront that draws on the past while embracing the future is the continued role of Philadelphians themselves. Public participation has been key to the success of waterfront planning efforts since the Civic Vision process, and this participation will continue as redevelopment moves forward. The history of the waterfront and the city as a whole demonstrates that Philadelphia is always evolving, inventing, and innovating. In continuing this tradition, the waterfront can draw from its past and present to create a truly Philadelphia waterfront for the future.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Public art and programming are also important character-building elements that connect people to the waterfront and act as attractions. Therefore, the


THE MASTER PLAN 29

A FRAMEWORK

39

OVERALL ILLUSTRATIVE PLAN


29

This master plan was developed within a framework that considered open space, development, transportation, and economics as equally important components. Therefore, an iterative process was used to formulate the open space plan and create development sites, insuring an appropriate balance that is both economically feasible and supported by the existing and realistic future transportation networks. For example, too much open space would not be financially feasible for DRWC and the city to acquire, build, and maintain, and too much development space (and therefore too little open space) would not create the quality public realm that is the hallmark of any successful waterfront. The master plan therefore creates a mixed-use waterfront, interwoven within a network of public parks, a multi-use trail, and related transportation improvements, as summarized in the following pages and illustrated in the Overall Illustrative Plan portion of this section. The master plan proposes investment in high-quality public spaces not only to provide valuable recreational, cultural, and entertainment attractions, but also to increase the value and development potential of privately owned parcels. Additionally, the Elements of the Master Plan section (which follows this section) includes a more detailed discussion of the public realm; a description of waterfront activation strategies, including recommendations for recreation, public art, and historic preservation; detailed transportation recommendations; and an economics section that outlines a phased implementation strategy grounded in economic realities and market opportunities.

Opposite page: A collection of mapping techniques that informed the final framework of the master plan

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

A FRAMEWORK


4th Street 3rd Street

nue Ave wn nto a m Ger

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rden Spring Ga

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ue et rd Aven e Frankfot Str e gh e re St rou venu o n b o A arl ax ia M m b ka ue lum et ac en Co tre Sh Av rS y r e e lm om et Pa ntg re Mo ks St r Be

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EXISTING LAND USE

Land Use Map

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The land use framework provided in the Master Plan for the Central Delaware is based on extending the pattern of abutting neighborhoods to the waterfront. Proposed development will be high-density, low- and midrise, and mixed-use and will be organized in relation to a rich network of open spaces serving the neighborhoods, city, and region. The Washington Avenue, Penn’s Landing, and Spring Garden priority sites are the focus of development analysis in the design team’s work and are anticipated to begin in the short term. The mixed-use development projected on these sites is targeted for market absorption by 2050. Beyond these early sites, large, private land holdings ideal for later development include the significant tracts of land south of Tasker Street and between Schirra Drive and Lehigh Avenue to the north. The Public Realm—Extended Plan portion of the Elements of the Master Plan section proposes a vision of longer-term land use changes for the existing largeformat retail sites between Tasker and Mifflin Streets on the waterfront and the properties west of Delaware Avenue between Tasker Street and Snyder Avenue. The area extending south from Mifflin Street past Oregon Avenue to Pattison Avenue and the area north of Lehigh Avenue are unlikely to undergo significant changes within the 25-year time period of this plan.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

A Mixed-Use Plan


The Basin Washington Park

Penn’s Landing Park Race Street Pier Spring Garden Plaza

Dickinson Park Penn Treaty Park Mifflin Park Berks Park

Cumberland Park

Lehigh Park

WETLANDS NEIGHBORHOOD PARKS PUBLIC REALM PRIMARY CONNECTOR STREETS

Open Space Plan

Pulaski Park


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The master plan proposes parks located approximately every half-mile along the waterfront, at the ends of key streets, to provide amenities and add value to the adjacent neighborhoods and the city as a whole. The park system is designed to have a wide variety of open-space types to provide diversity and interest along the six-mile waterfront. Thus these open spaces range from park-like settings with predominantly planted landscapes to urban plazas and promenades that are more hardscape in nature. The parks are also designed to be as distinct in their character, activities, and design as the neighborhoods they abut and the portions of the waterfront on which they are located. The master plan proposes ten new parks along the six miles of waterfront at Mifflin Street, Dickinson Street, Washington Avenue, Penn’s Landing Basin, Penn’s Landing Park, Spring Garden Plaza, Germantown Avenue, Berks Street, Cumberland Street, and Lehigh Avenue; these will complement the existing public spaces at Race Street Pier, Penn Treaty Park, and Pulaski Park.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Parks Every Half-Mile


Fairmo unt Av enue

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Washin gton A venue

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ue ven nA ow t n ma Ger

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nue rd Ave et Frankfo t tre e hS e re g t u u S n oro Ave on rlb ax a Ma mbi am k ue lu et ac en Co tre Sh Av r S ery e m lm t Pa ntgo ree Mo s St rk e B

ue en Av ard Gir

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Multi-Use Trail Columbus Boulevard Trail Multi-Use Trail MULTI-USE TRAIL Existing Regional COLUMBUS BOULEVARD TRAIL Columbus Boulevard Trail Bikeway EXISTINGExisting REGIONAL BIKEWAY Bikeway Existing RegionalLocal Bikeway EXISTING LOCAL Existing Local BIKEWAY Bikeway

Trails Plan

ue en Av


A Bicycle and Trail Network A multi-use trail for bicycles and pedestrians is proposed for the full length of the project area, with varied configurations across the waterfront. This trail connects on the north end with the North Delaware Greenway, which extends north from Allegheny Avenue along Delaware Avenue and is being developed by the Delaware River City Corporation. The section of trail from Allegheny Avenue running south to Spring Garden Street is also a section of the East Coast Greenway, a 2,000-mile trail that stretches from Maine to Florida and that passes through urban areas on the East Coast. At Spring Garden Street, the East Coast Greenway proceeds west across the city to join the Schuylkill River Trail at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The Spring Garden portion of the East Coast Greenway is currently being developed by the Pennsylvania Environmental Council. The trail proposed in this plan makes a connection at Dock and Spruce Streets to the cross-town bicycle lanes on Spruce and Pine Streets. In addition to serving as a continuous six-mile waterfront trail, the trail connects the parks located every half-mile along the waterfront and provides access to the development sites. South of Mifflin Street, a series of on-street bicycle improvements will provide connectivity to the existing bicycle lanes on Oregon Avenue. North of Cumberland Street, the long-term plan calls for a multi-use trail that proceeds along the river’s edge to Allegheny Avenue. In the short to mid-term, this connection will be made utilizing on-street buffered bike lanes. Additional information about the trail network and cross-sections can be found in the Transportation portion of the Elements of the Master Plan section of this document.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

e

35


PRIVATELY OWNED OR LEASED DRWC OWNED PUBLICLY OWNED PUBLIC PARK

Ownership: Less than 10 percent of the land on the waterfront is publicly controlled.

Penn’s Landing Washington

Ownership: Clusters of publicly controlled land

Spring Garden


37

Ninety percent of the project area is in private ownership, as shown on the opposite page. Land and/or easements must be acquired in order to implement the master plan. Even if adopted by the Planning Commission, the master plan does not have the legal effect of a zoning ordinance. Nonetheless, DRWC is committed to advocating for the acquisition of property in conformity with applicable law. Public sector investments on publicly owned property are critical to stimulate development on privately owned sites. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware selects three priority sites where it is suggested that strategic public investment be focused in the short term.

■■ Washington: Tasker Avenue to Piers 38 and 40 This site at the base of Washington Avenue includes several parcels under both public and private ownership.

■■ Penn’s Landing: South Street to Market Street This site contains the DRWC-owned land between Lombard and Market Streets. ■■ Spring Garden: Benjamin Franklin Bridge to Frankford Avenue This site is anchored by the Festival Pier and former City Incinerator sites (owned by DRWC), as well as by a large area of privately owned parcels in between I-95 and the river, from the Benjamin Franklin Bridge to Frankford Avenue.

The Economics portion of the Elements of the Master Plan section of this document describes in more detail the process of selecting the priority sites, as well as a detailed phasing and investment strategy for these sites.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Ownership, Economics, and Implementation


Overall Illustrative Plan


Overview

The illustrative plan and artistic renderings that follow are the graphical representation of the 25-year build-out of the highly interrelated elements of the master plan. These include a new street grid, which creates new development blocks, new development on existing parcels, and an extensive, high-quality system of parks and trails. The illustrative plan and renderings also illustrate a multi-use trail stretching the length of the project area, as well as the critically important improvements to key connector streets and improvements to Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard. Each section that follows contains a narrative describing plan elements and details, including current conditions, property ownership, and the timing and phasing of various improvements. The master plan was very carefully formulated to be implemented based on discussions held with property owners, a detailed cost-estimating and financing strategy, and the input of numerous stakeholder groups. It is recognized that several sites already have approved zoning, plans of development, and/or other entitlement arrangements with the City of Philadelphia, which are not shown on this plan. This plan is not intended as a legal document; it is a master plan that makes recommendations for development in keeping with the overall vision established for Philadelphia’s waterfront. For development of property under DRWC ownership, DRWC is committed to an open, transparent, and meaningful public process.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

OVERALL ILLUSTRATIVE PLAN

39


6th Street

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n Street

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Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard

Piers 38 - 40 Pier 53

Illustrative Plan: Oregon Avenue to Piers 38 and 40


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

41

This area has distinctive characteristics that will determine its quality and pace of development. The master plan recommends the following public-realm elements to organize and incentivize development on parcels that are now either privately owned or owned by other public agencies not affiliated with DRWC: •

Three major new parks, Mifflin, Dickinson, and Washington, located at the ends of their respective primary connector streets. The Washington Park is located across the street from Old Swedes’ Church.

Significant wetland restoration utilizing the degraded piers from Pier 53 at the foot of Washington Street south to Pier 72. This area has been identified by the Philadelphia Water Department as a valuable habitat for spawning fish and is therefore not suitable for river commerce or pier development.

A 50-foot waterfront trail and linear park on the adjacent upland that would extend the same length as the wetlands park.

The extensions of Tasker Street, Dickinson Avenue, and Reed Street to a new road along the river’s edge, connecting the city to the new park and trail system.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Illustrative Plan: Oregon Avenue to Piers 38 and 40


Illustrative rendering from south of Washington Park and Pier 38 and 40 renovation


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

In addition, based on preliminary discussions that DRWC has had with the respective property owners, the following changes in current use for

•

The eventual conversion of Piers 38 and 40, which are owned by the Philadelphia Regional Port Authority, into mixed-use residential piers. This conversion would necessitate the relocation of existing tenants, one port-related and one commercial.

•

The eventual relocation of the Coast Guard station to a site such as the Philadelphia Navy Yard, where there would be the opportunity to expand its offices and to be in a more secure environment. This relocation would allow the extension of Washington Avenue

Existing conditions

from Columbus Boulevard to the river, as well as the creation of a major new park on the existing Coast Guard site. It would require the consent of the U.S. Coast Guard and a significant federal appropriation. This master plan recommends that the primary use of the property between Washington Avenue and Tasker Street be a major new residential neighborhood, which would be organized in mid-rise buildings to preserve and maximize view corridors to the river and the wetlands park and trail. Parking for each parcel would be wrapped by the buildings. The western edge of this property fronting on Columbus Boulevard could consist of mid-rise residential with ground-floor retail designed to make this section of the boulevard more walkable and pedestrian oriented. The master plan assumes that the large-format retail stores between Tasker and Mifflin Streets will remain in the short term. However, these large-format retail stores are subject to frequent changes in form. It is

Key plan

proposed that these stores be phased into a more urban-friendly design

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

properties just north of Washington Avenue are contemplated:

43


Illustrative rendering of wetland park at Dickinson Street


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

containing a series of hybrid buildings that include first-floor retail, rear parking garages, and upper-floor residential. It is recommended that these

east side of Columbus Boulevard is proposed to be primarily residential, these retail uses should be located immediately adjacent to Columbus Boulevard. The integration of these stores with other uses, including other retail, structured parking, and even residential uses, would be encouraged. Long term, this area is shown as residential development with neighborhood-scale retail.

In terms of phasing, DRWC plans to begin development of the future Existing conditions

wetlands park by restoring habitat adjacent to Pier 53 and by making the pier accessible to the public via an elevated boardwalk. DRWC also plans to continue to make improvements to the existing trail between Pier 53 and Pier 70 Boulevard.

The timing of the recommended residential redevelopment of the area between Washington and Tasker will be determined by the ultimate disposition and reuse of the properties by their current or future owners. DRWC’s role will be to help catalyze this development by making substantial investments in the public realm.

The area from Mifflin south to Oregon is an active port facility with supporting land uses and large-format retail stores. These areas will most likely not change in use in the time frame of the master plan.

Key plan

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

retail uses be located on the west side of Columbus Boulevard. As the

45


6th Street

5th Street

2nd Street

Callowhill Street

Race Street

Market Street

Benjamin Franklin Bridge

Illustrative Plan: Piers 38 and 40 to Market Street

Chestnut Street

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The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

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Since its creation in the 1970s, Penn’s Landing has been a major destination on the waterfront and the site for large-scale events, including concerts, multicultural festivals, and fireworks displays. It also serves as a gathering place for people seeking to enjoy the Delaware River. The master plan maintains these large-scale civic functions and enhances accessibility and year-round use. It also proposes substantial new residential and retail development. A new, spacious, green park will be constructed between Chestnut and Walnut Streets, stretching from the riverfront to Front Street. This park will be built over the remaining undecked portion of I-95 and Columbus Boulevard and will be stepped gently from Columbus Boulevard to the river. The park will be approximately the same size as Rittenhouse Square and will accommodate a full variety of public uses, including space for daily passive recreation, large and small events, iconic public art, and a new ice-skating rink to activate the park year round. The creation of this park will effectively join Penn’s Landing to Old City and establish Front Street as the gateway to the waterfront. The great water basin to the south of the new park, which is bordered on the north by the Independence Seaport Museum and on the northwest by the Hyatt Hotel, will be transformed into an intensely programmed place for marina and water activities, such as kayaking, using paddle boats, and enjoying fountains and public art. The land on the west and south edges of the basin will be developed as mid-rise residential, with waterfront restaurants and retail on the bottom two floors and floating restaurants attached to the inboard side of the quay. Two historic ships, the Jupiter and the Gazela, are in a highvisibility location at the end of the quay.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Illustrative Plan: Piers 38 and 40 to Market Street


Illustrative rendering showing proposed improvements at Penn’s Landing Basin, Penn’s Landing Park, and new development at the end of Market Street


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

49 MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Key plan

The plan for the basin assumes that the Moshulu will be located to a nearby site acceptable to the owners. The Independence Seaport Museum has decided to divest itself of the Olympia and the submarine Becuna. The relocation of these ships from their current sites is key to the successful redevelopment of the basin. DRWC does hope that both of these vessels will be adopted by financially-sound non-profits dedicated to their preservation. DRWC would work with these groups to find suitable locations for these vessels in Philadelphia.


Illustrative rendering showing Penn’s Landing Park and new development at the end of Market Street


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

The redevelopment of the basin will be greatly facilitated by an extension of the South Street pedestrian bridge from its current terminus on the

thereby connecting the energy of South Street to the river. Another major development site will be on the existing Market Street parking lot on the north side of the new park, which would be increased in size by the demolition of the scissor-ramp infrastructure. This large, mixed-use development will contain residential, hotel, and conferencing facilities, along with retail and entertainment frontage that will be accessible to the public. Existing conditions This site will be linked back to Old City by a new pedestrian bridge at Market Street, which will provide direct access to the site. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware recommends a phasing strategy that will start with the redevelopment of the marina basin, which requires relatively modest investments in public infrastructure. The creation of the new waterfront park that will span Columbus Boulevard and I-95 and the development of the Market Street site will involve significant public investment and are therefore planned to be implemented in later stages. As it has been throughout the process of creating the master plan, DRWC is committed to an open and transparent public process for all projects that are under DRWC ownership. Key plan

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

west side of Columbus Boulevard to the southwest corner of the basin,

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Illustrative rendering of proposed improvements at Penn’s Landing Basin


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

53

Key plan

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Existing conditions


Illustrative rendering showing Penn’s Landing Park


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

55 MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Existing conditions

Key plan


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The Spring Garden area is one of the most complex, rich, and highly developable sections of the waterfront. It is anchored by substantial existing buildings, some of which will remain, including significant historical structures. Spring Garden Street, a wide and impressive major east-west street, provides a connection across the city. Unlike the streets in the Penn’s Landing area that proceed over I-95, Spring Garden is located under I-95, making an at-grade connection to the waterfront. A stop on the SEPTA Market-Frankford line at 2nd and Spring Garden provides the opportunity for transit-oriented development. Much of the energy that can be harnessed for the redevelopment of this area comes from the Northern Liberties neighborhood, where an impressive amount of creative new development has occurred in recent years. For the purposes of the master plan, the Spring Garden area is divided into two sections: the 10-acre Festival Pier/former City Incinerator site, owned by DRWC, and an area designated as the uplands, which encompasses all of the land and buildings between Delaware Avenue and I-95, from the Benjamin Franklin Bridge north to Frankford Avenue. The master plan proposes that the Festival Pier site be redeveloped into a compact, mixed-use residential community that will be surrounded on three sides by the Delaware River. The buildings would be organized around a new park and public plaza that would be activated at the street level by restaurants, retail activities, public events, and a linear water feature that will connect the existing inlet through the plaza to the Spring Garden view corridor. The master plan also recognizes an opportunity to create a wetlands park between this site and Waterfront Square, the gated residential development just north of the DRWC-owned property. The uplands section of the Spring Garden area contains many existing buildings, as well as a considerable amount of vacant and underutilized land, particularly south of Spring Garden Street. The master plan proposes that the intimately scaled and irregular street system, including the uniquely shaped and historic Canal Street, be extended to the south, creating small blocks for conventional residential development, small parks, and recreational facilities, including some of the land under I-95. The environment in the uplands area will mirror historic Philadelphia in scale and intent. The pocket of buildings

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Illustrative Plan: Market Street to Penn Treaty Park


Illustrative rendering of development at Festival Pier site


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

between Water and Front Streets between Callowhill and Vine Streets, known as the River’s Edge neighborhood, is one of the only locations in

of the original waterfront was demolished when I-95 was constructed in the 1970s. The historic Wood Street steps and the West Shipyard site are in this area. On the waterfront in this location, an enhanced marina and new development are proposed for the piers owned by the Brandywine Realty Trust. Existing conditions

DRWC plans to make both the Festival Pier site and the uplands area more attractive for private investment by working with a variety of partners to design and install an attractive series of streetscape improvements on Spring Garden Street from Delaware Avenue to 2nd Street, including artistic and impactful lighting under the I-95 and subway overpasses. These partners include the Northern Liberties Neighborhood Association, the Pennsylvania Environmental Council (which is designing a new bikeway on Spring Garden), the Philadelphia Streets Department, PennDOT, and SEPTA. The master plan also proposes extending Germantown Avenue to connect to Delaware Avenue in order to rationalize traffic within and beyond the site and to finally complete the southeast end of Germantown, which is an important city arterial and currently ends at Front Street.

Key plan

To the north of the Spring Garden area, the plan incorporates the previously permitted and approved build-out of Waterfront Square, as well as the expansion over time of the SugarHouse Casino.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Philadelphia where the original colonial waterfront is preserved, as much

59


Illustrative rendering of development at Festival Pier site


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

In terms of phasing, the master plan proposes that DRWC begin the redevelopment of the Festival Pier site by completing the environmental

a qualified private developer. The complete build-out of the recommended development program, which would most likely be done in two or more phases, could be accomplished within the first seven to ten years of plan implementation. The complete redevelopment of the uplands section of the Spring Garden area is anticipated to take longer, but timing will depend upon the investment decisions of some developers who are actively pursuing new opportunities in this area, as well as upon DRWC’s ability to identify public Existing conditions

funding for some of the street extensions and streetscape improvements. As it has shown through the process of creating this master plan, DRWC is committed to an open and transparent public process for all projects that are under DRWC ownership.

Key plan

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

remediation of the Festival Pier while preparing a Request for Proposal for

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facilities is six to ten years;

The master plan identifies two sets of potential uses in this large area, which extends from Penn Treaty Park to Allegheny Avenue. Development

The development of a distinctive, seasonal performance venue that

within this area south of Lehigh Avenue is expected to occur within the

could accommodate up to five to six thousand patrons. This facility

plan’s 25-year time frame, while the active industrial area north of Lehigh is

would be designed not only to accommodate the concert activities

anticipated to remain for the time frame of the plan.

that currently occur at Festival Pier, but also to complement the existing festivals at Penn Treaty Park and to provide a location for

Penn Treaty District

events and performances sponsored by the city, community groups,

The first area is the riverfront land east of I-95 between Penn Treaty Park

DRWC, and others; and

and Schirra Drive. This area will have major new regional access when the I-95 Girard Avenue Interchange (GIR) project is completed in the next five

developed into a major recreational facility. It could include a variety

to seven years. The master plan proposes an exciting, mixed-use area of

of elements, such as an urban beach, a boat launch, a set-off point

recreational, cultural, and commercial uses that could include the following

for kayaks, playgrounds, and athletic facilities. While this public use

elements, described from south to north: •

The creation of a new park at the end of Berks Street that would be

is proposed, DRWC notes that there are existing vested rights to develop this site with uses consistent with G-2 or C-3 zoning districts.

A renovated Penn Treaty Park, as detailed in the Penn Treaty Park Master Plan completed by Philadelphia Parks and Recreation with

The Far North

the Friends of Penn Treaty Park and New Kensington Community

This section of the master plan covers recommended uses for a large area

Development Corporation;

of waterfront comprised of the parcel of approximately 50 acres owned by

The adaptive reuse of the historic Delaware Generating Station next

James Anderson, which runs from an east-west alignment roughly along

to Penn Treaty Park, which would be acquired from PECO at the end

the axis of Aramingo Avenue north to Cumberland, and the Conrail property,

of its remaining life and redeveloped into a vibrant mix of cultural,

which runs from Cumberland north to Allegheny. The Conrail property can

museum, archival, office, studio, gallery, retail, and entertainment

be thought of as two separate parcels: approximately 100 acres of vacant

uses. Although PECO has agreed to allow the incorporation of

land located between Cumberland and Lehigh that is not served by rail, and

possible reuse of these properties in the master plan, the utility

another 100 acres from Lehigh to Allegheny that is served by an active rail

has made no final decision as to the ultimate disposition or reuse of

line.

this property. PECO is currently operating combustion turbines and transformers on the site and estimates that the useful life of these

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Illustrative Plan: Penn Treaty Park to Allegheny Avenue


Illustrative rendering showing new performance venue north of renovated Delaware Generating Station


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

Based on studies conducted by the Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC), a significant unmet demand exists in the Philadelphia

Demand is particularly significant for the flex building use that combines office space, assembly or light manufacturing, and/or distribution, uses that would create a job center on the waterfront that has been absent for Existing conditions

decades. Because of the size of the Anderson and Conrail parcels and the site access provided by the new I-95/Girard Avenue interchange, the master plan proposes that the Anderson property and the southern portion of the Conrail property be used to accommodate this demand. The intention of the master plan is for new flex buildings to incorporate principles of sustainable design, including energy efficiency, green roofs, and innovative treatment of stormwater runoff. This type of development is compatible with the waterfront’s public realm of parks and trails; given the acreage of these parcels, generous setbacks for the public realm can be created. Neither property owner has committed to these uses at this time. The public realm elements recommended include the following: •

Two new parks to be developed at Cumberland Street and Lehigh Avenue, continuing the recommended rhythm of a major park at halfmile intervals;

Key plan •

Improvements to the existing Pulaski Park, which are currently underway and are being led by Philadelphia Parks and Recreation, which owns this park;

Preservation of the spectacular Ore Pier structure near the park at Cumberland;

Creation of a kayaking basin in the water between Cumberland Street and Lehigh Avenue;

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

area for large tracts of land that can be used as light industrial space.

65


Illustrative rendering showing multi-use trails near Schirra Drive


The Master Plan: Overall Illustrative Plan

A 50-foot trail and linear park that would run along the river’s edge, providing continuous public access from the southern edge of the

on the southern portion of the Conrail property; •

An interim off-road, multi-use trail that would utilize the west side of Richmond Street from Lehigh to Allegheny Avenues, portions of which would likely be under I-95, and which would connect to the North Delaware Greenway at Allegheny Avenue, currently being developed by the Delaware River City Corporation; and

Existing conditions •

Streetscape improvements to Cumberland Street, Lehigh Avenue, and Allegheny Avenue to make these important connector streets more attractive to people seeking access to the new park/trail system.

The master plan also envisions a future beyond its 25-year horizon for the area north of Lehigh Avenue. With the cooperation of Conrail, the park at Lehigh Avenue could be made larger, and a permanent waterfront trail could be extended so that it would run from Lehigh to Allegheny. This public park could also include the unused and degraded piers that abut the Conrail property, which offer scenic overlooks and the opportunity to restore habitat for fish and wildlife. The redevelopment of the far north is by definition a longer-term element of this master plan. The timing of development of the flex commercial/ industrial parcels will be a function of market conditions and decisions made by private developers and tenants. DRWC can help catalyze this Key plan

development by implementing portions of the recommended public realm, and PIDC has an array of loan programs and financing mechanisms that can help accelerate this development.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Anderson property to Lehigh Avenue, incorporating the three piers

67


ELEMENTS OF THE MASTER PLAN 71

PUBLIC REALM INTRODUCTION

73

PUBLIC REALM—BASE PLAN

81

PUBLIC REALM—EXTENDED PLAN

119

WATERFRONT ACTIVATION

143

TRANSPORTATION

179

ECONOMICS

203

WEALTH-BUILDING STRATEGIES


71

Introduction The Master Plan for the Central Delaware proposes a significant expansion of the public realm. The primary goal of this expansion is to reorganize the formerly industrial waterfront into a landscape of 21st-century, urban development. Urban planners and others who care about cities have long recognized the crucial role of quality public space in creating vibrant places to live, work, and play. In addition, for centuries, cities have used their power to lay out streets and create public spaces as ways to create valuable development parcels. The public realm proposed for the Delaware River waterfront in Philadelphia has been designed to accomplish many goals, including the organization of development parcels, the creation of more valuable parcels, the improvement of water quality and ecological function (including the prevention of flooding and flood control), and the provision of space for civic gatherings and recreation. The public realm consists of two components: the Delaware River Park (as explained on the following page) and a network of existing and new streets, including a new waterfront drive south of Washington Avenue and north of Penn Treaty Park. In developing the public realm element of the master plan, a thorough analysis of existing conditions was completed. This analysis found three factors to be key: the creation of additional neighborhood park space, the enhancement of existing ecological systems, and the recognition of Philadelphia’s robust industrial heritage. Historic preservation and a significant public-art program are incorporated into the plan to ensure that the public realm will be infused with a strong sense of place and authenticity. These aspects should be considered vital to success when individual projects are designed and constructed.

Opposite page: Stormwater management techniques in Vancouver

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PUBLIC REALM


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ealm Plan—Base Plan


73

Delaware River Park The public realm element of the master plan, which has been named the Delaware River Park, is shown in its entirety on the opposite page and in detail on the following pages. This park provides the armature to the proposed development along the six miles of the Delaware River waterfront. The Delaware River Park is comprised of parks, the multi-use trail, and the Delaware River itself, including wetland areas. The proposed new streets, extensions of existing streets, and significant improvements to streetscapes here also play a critical role in helping to organize development sites. The Delaware River Park accommodates uses at the regional, civic, and neighborhood level. Its success is derived from its contiguous and connected configuration, which beckons all Philadelphians to experience the unique qualities of the expansive Delaware River. The Delaware River Park builds upon the strength of the upland neighborhoods to the west and both builds incentives and creates character for the envisioned adjacent development.

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PUBLIC REALM–BASE PLAN


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Public Realm Plan — Base Plan: Oregon Avenue to South Street


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Public Realm Plan—Base Plan: South Street to Spring Garden


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Public Realm Plan—Base Plan: Penn Treaty Park to Lehigh Avenue


Elements of the Master Plan

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MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE


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ealm Plan—Extended Plan


PUBLIC REALM–EXTENDED PLAN

81

completed in that time frame. However, these longer-term possibilities are worth identifying in order to allow relevant parties to preserve the conditions that would allow for their eventual realization. These longer-term components are shown on the extended plan on the opposite page and on the following pages. To the north: •

The gantry and the water adjacent to the gantry. Preserve the potential for an enlargement of the existing Pulaski Park and the preservation of the gantry and its setting as an industrial artifact and a visual landmark.

The easternmost portion of the land along the Conrail property between the rail lines and the water. The addition of a right-of-way along this edge will lengthen the multi-use trail and connect the trail into Allegheny Avenue.

The large patch of land at the eastern end of the viaduct. This land has the potential to become one of Philadelphia’s only habitats where wetland and upland are connected. By the very nature of the site’s depth, it is ideally suited for a rich habitat and could even attract the American bald eagle. Its location is further prized for this purpose because it is directly opposite Petty’s Island, a site that will be transformed into a nature preserve.

Land along the southern side of the viaduct. Adding this property to the land at the end of the viaduct will make it feasible to build an even richer and more diverse habitat. This addition will have the added benefits of making a deep inland connection and providing a trail connection across the city to East Falls.

To the south: The long-term addition of the Mifflin Park will extend the multi-use trail, create another neighborhood park at the desired half-mile distance, and add a buffer to the port activity to the south. Adding this park will create the potential for a robust wetland park. Additionally, improvements to Mifflin Street are indicated to further connect the suggested expansions of the park systems to the neighborhoods.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

The base plan, as drawn, is envisioned to extend for the next 25 years. Some components may not be


N

ealm Plan—Extended Plan: Oregon Avenue to South Street


Elements of the Master Plan

83

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE


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ealm Plan—Extended Plan: Berks Park to Allegheny Avenue


Elements of the Master Plan

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MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE


UNDERSERVED ZONES - VOIDS EXISTING PARKS

Neighborhood Parks: Significantly Underserved Areas


Elements of the Master Plan: Public Realm—Base Plan

87

Neighborhoods define Philadelphia. They are each unique and walkable, and those that are very successful usually have a public park or a plaza at their heart. Historically, equitable access to public open space has been compromised by infrastructural interventions, such as the former industrial waterfront, highways, and railways. Therefore, like many industrial places in the city, the waterfront and its immediately adjacent residents are underserved by open space. The image opposite shows an analysis of the existing conditions, with existing parks and/or recreation facilities located at the center of the gray circles. The circles represent a ten-minute walk from these facilities. The significant areas shown in orange are more than a ten-minute walk from existing neighborhood parks and therefore are considered underserved.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Neighborhood Parks


The Basin Washington Park

Penn’s Landing Park Race Street Pier Spring Garden Plaza

Dickinson Park Penn Treaty Park Mifflin Park Berks Park

Cumberland Park

Lehigh Park

WETLANDS NEIGHBORHOOD PARKS PUBLIC REALM PRIMARY CONNECTOR STREETS

ace Plan

Pulaski Park


Elements of the Master Plan: Public Realm—Base Plan

89

neighborhood parks; the result will be a neighborhood park along the waterfront approximately every half-mile. Each park is within a quartermile radius or a five-minute walk of another park. These parks have also been strategically located to be served by streets and sidewalks that connect to the neighborhoods across Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard and under or over I-95. In addition to providing waterfront access to neighborhood users, the parks alert users of the trail to nearby retail and commercial amenities. Parks under I-95 Parks under I-95 are also a component of the public realm plan. These parks will typically offer programs that demand hard surfaces. Programmatic possibilities identified by neighborhood residents during public outreach meetings include skate parks, trail connections, basketball courts, shuffleboard areas, and recreation centers.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

The master plan’s strategy is to fill in the underserved areas with


Park Typologies Plan


Elements of the Master Plan: Public Realm—Base Plan

91

Philadelphia’s industrial history permeates the Delaware River Park and is critical to defining its character. All piers will be retained in a variety of conditions, and the few remaining structures from the industries no longer present along the waterfront, such as an ore-loading structure and gantry cranes, will be preserved. Layered into this industrial history is the river’s unique ecology, social history, and existing urban structure. Because of the varied ways in which river and industry have intersected, the parks will have varied characters. To the south, the parks are characterized by expansive and rich ecological wetlands. Those nearer to the core of the city are civic in nature, catering to crowds of people and providing an array of offerings, while those to the north possess qualities that present strong opportunities for connection to both upland ecologies and water activities.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Park Character


Proposed Edge Conditions


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93

The river is an important foundation of the entire region’s ecology. In

are already significantly degraded, areas can be restored to a more

highly urbanized areas like the Delaware River waterfront in Philadelphia,

naturalized condition and in some cases significant wetlands and upland

the original ecology of the river and its edge have often been significantly

habitat can be created. This strategy of inserting wetlands into specific

degraded by the urban fabric of docks, shipping, and industry. While the

locations, based on existing conditions, serves to protect urban and/or

master plan obviously accepts that urban areas have harder waterfront

industrial areas and to mitigate flooding events as well as future changes

edges than rural areas, it is also true that shifts in port activity and forms

in river conditions.

of industrial use have occurred over the years, leaving us the opportunity to restore a more natural edge in locations where bulkheads and piers

On the master plan, wetlands are shown primarily within the present river.

are no longer needed for river commerce. The image opposite shows

The plan takes into account that their edges must be protected to ensure

recommended edge conditions for the six-mile waterfront.

the successful establishment of wetland plantings. The master plan’s locations for wetland creation were carefully chosen, utilizing preliminary

Urbanized, hard edges do not provide the natural flood protection that

examination of bathymetric information and habitat zones identified by

wetlands do. Nor do they provide protection from the growing threat of

the Philadelphia Water Department and the National Oceanographic and

sea-level rise, while wetlands do. Therefore, in order to optimize the role

Atmospheric Agency.

of the river for a 21st-century Philadelphia, this master plan incorporates the assumption that port and commerce activity will be concentrated at the north and south ends of the waterfront for decades to come and therefore that hard edges will remain, making bulkhead and habitat creation impossible. Likewise, the center of the urban waterfront is now an area of civic and recreational boating activity; this area is also expected to retain a hard edge into the future. However, south of Washington Avenue and north of Spring Garden Street, where some bulkhead edges

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Opportunities for Ecological Enhancement


Water Zones


Elements of the Master Plan: Public Realm—Base Plan

95

The public realm element of the master plan embraces the inherent gifts

Recreationally, locations have been identified where boats can be

of water—the water of the Delaware River and water in general—and

accommodated—both active-power boats and hand-carry boats such as

regards the river water from several perspectives: visual, recreational, and

kayaks and canoes. These areas are shown on the map opposite, and

ecological.

these activities are further described in the Waterfront Activation portion of the Elements of the Master Plan section.

Visually, the park-design guidelines call for maintaining open viewsheds to the river from the city at frequent, key locations. This ensures that Philadelphians will recognize the close proximity of their Delaware River waterfront and helps elevate the waterfront to a place of prominence in their minds.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Water


MULTI-USE TRAIL BUFFERED BIKE LANE EXISTING AND PROPOSED BIKEWAYS

Trails Plan


Elements of the Master Plan: Public Realm—Base Plan

97

Multi-use Trail

Bike Lanes

The primary trail proposed in this master plan is the multi-use trail. It

Improvements to Columbus Boulevard will retain or replace the current

parallels the riverfront and is the six-mile connection between and through

bike trails to the north and south portion of the multi-use trail where it

the neighborhood parks; the trail is wide enough to accommodate walkers

conjoins with Columbus Boulevard. This is envisioned as both a commuter

and joggers as well as to provide a dedicated space for bicyclists. It

route and a route that ties to the East Coast Greenway and other

occupies two primary positions in the landscape. Between Washington

significant bike routes now moving east-west through the city.

Avenue and Spring Garden Street, the trail travels alongside Columbus Boulevard as the boulevard runs immediately next to the water’s edge.

Optional Boardwalk

South of Washington Avenue and north of Spring Garden Street, the trail

The southernmost portion of the park, which is a wetland park, is an

is located directly along the water’s edge. There are a few sections where

ideal location for a river boardwalk. Should funding become available, a

civic activities or pre-existing development preclude a bicycle trail. In

boardwalk would provide users of the Delaware River Park with a unique,

these instances, pedestrian movement is still accommodated along the

immersive experience by extending the trail beyond the river’s edge

waterfront whenever public access is feasible.

into the heart of the wetland park. A boardwalk can also be a useful tool when combined with a sill, helping to shield wetlands from wave action to

Trail heads with parking and amenities, such as water stations and

ensure their establishment and longevity over time.

restrooms, are envisioned in an interim condition at Lehigh Park to the north and Dickinson Park to the south. The extended plan locates the trail

Due to the complexity of constructing the multi-use trail, it will be

heads at an expanded Pulaski Park to the north and Mifflin Park to the

implemented in stages. The Transportation portion of the Elements of the

south.

Master Plan section of this document provides additional details on trail implementation.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Trails


Overall Park Guidelines


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99

Overall Park Guidelines

Civic Parks

The size of the neighborhood parks has been set to conform to National

These robust parks are designed to accommodate large gatherings. They

Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) standards. An optimal size for a

also need to be designed so that people will feel comfortable even when

neighborhood park is between 5 and 10 acres. Aside from the existing

large events are not occurring.

Pulaski Park (1.6 acres) and the Race Street Pier (1 acre), the smallest parks

Upland Parks

are Spring Garden Plaza and Washington Park, which are 4.8 acres and

Some places in the public realm contain upland areas, outside of the flood-

4.7 acres respectively. The largest park is Penn’s Landing, measuring just

plain, which have great opportunity to enhance upland ecologies. These

under 9 acres.

upland parks serve as access points to the waterfront and provide spaces

The spacing of the parks also conforms to the NRPA standards, which recommend parks every quarter to half-mile. Neighborhood parks are the basic unit of the park system, and each serves as the recreational and social focus of a neighborhood. Therefore, the programmatic focus is on

for recreational activity.

Views All primary connector streets that terminate in a park must continue an unobstructed viewshed to the water, as shown on the plans.

providing informal recreational options, both active and reflective, for all ages.

Amenities In addition to specific amenities stated within the guidelines, all parks are

The unique character of each site helps to create a sense of place for its

to have passive amenities such as seating, walls, and steps.

neighborhood. Each park is to be designed with this in mind, beginning with the zone that the park resides in.

Multi-use Trail within a Neighborhood Park The multi-use trail passes through most of the neighborhood parks. The

Wetland Parks

added width and depth of most of these parks gives an opportunity for

The design for these parks is meant to maximize the interface of water

the pedestrian path to be located at a greater distance from the bicycle

and land. They are characterized largely by wetland ecologies and native

trail. Additionally, the bicycle path may run closer to the edge of the

plantings and are most frequently within the floodplain.

sidewalk, alongside the road, to make the pedestrian section of the park vehicle free. Guidelines for individual parks follow.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Park Design Guidelines


eet Pier

Pulaski Park

e from the Penn Treaty Park Master Plan

Penn Treaty Park


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While most of the individual parks that comprise the Delaware River Park have yet to be realized, Penn Treaty Park and Pulaski Park, both owned by Philadelphia Parks and Recreation, are existing parks vital to the overall park plan and to the neighborhoods they serve.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Existing Parks

Penn Treaty Park, located in the Fishtown neighborhood at the end of Columbia Avenue, is a seven-acre passive park that has experienced greatly increased use in the past seven years. Philadelphia Parks and Recreation and the Friends of Penn Treaty Park completed a master plan for the park in 2010 that

recommends significant improvements to the park, including wetlands and rain gardens, a new promenade, a children’s play area, a water feature, a café, a boat dock, a lawn, and a network of paths and trails, with a significant trail along the water’s edge to connect with the planned multi-use trail for the Central Delaware waterfront.

Pulaski Park, located in the Port Richmond neighborhood at the end of Allegheny Avenue, is a small, half-acre park created from a former shipping pier in 1948. Parks and Recreation is in the process of completing improvements to this park, including a new railing, landscaping, and lighting.

DRWC is committed to working with Parks and Recreation to help realize capital improvements at both Penn Treaty Park and Pulaski Park and to partnering with Parks and Recreation, friends groups, and other neighborhood organizations to support existing programming.

In addition to these parks owned and operated by the City of Philadelphia, DRWC has recently completed construction of two new parks on DRWC property. These parks were completed while the master plan was being developed as early action projects to demonstrate the types of waterfront access envisioned in the master plan. Race Street Pier, opened in May 2011, provides high-quality public open space through the transformation and reuse of a former municipal shipping pier.

A second park, Washington Avenue Green, was developed as a quick, temporary improvement to provide access in the southern portion of the waterfront where previously there had been none. Eventually, this park will become a part of a much larger wetlands park planned for the entire waterfront between Washington Avenue and Pier 70.


Dickinson Park


Elements of the Master Plan: Public Realm—Base Plan

Dickinson Park Guidelines

103 Edges

Location Terminus of Tasker, Dickinson, and Reed Streets to

Program Menu Upland Park

Pier 60

Residential with multiple ground-floor entrances

• Buildings: Public, community, trailhead and

Purpose Neighborhood park serving new development and

information center, public restrooms (approx.

upland neighborhoods

18,000 sf)

Character

A soft park defined by two spaces, upland park and

river park

Materials Upland: 90 percent soft, 10 percent hardscape Pier and Wetland: 50 percent soft, 50 percent hardscape This park will function as an interim trailhead in the Additional base plan and can accept some minor regional Considerations

programming as well as neighborhood amenities.

Access Vehicular • Neighborhood: Reed, Dickinson, Tasker, and Morris Streets along new riverfront drive Pedestrian • Neighborhood: Reed, Dickinson, and Tasker Streets • Regional: Multi-use trail Bike • Multi-use trail Parking On-street parking; internal parking lots are discouraged

• Passive Gathering Area: Flexible lawn • Events: Neighborhood gatherings • Water: Potential for upland wetland and stormwater collection • Amenities: Community gardens River Park • Buildings: Wildlife center (5,000 sf) • Structures: Trellis structure on pier, boardwalks with sill, steps down to water’s edge • Active Recreation: Playgrounds (upland and wetland) • Events: Classes, environmental education • Water: Kayaking, fishing, water taxi • Amenities: Wetland observation areas, interpretive signage

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Size Approximately 7.6 acres


Washington Park


Elements of the Master Plan: Public Realm—Base Plan

Washington Park Guidelines Approximately 5.0 acres

Location Terminus of Christian Street and Washington Avenue

Program Menu Upland Park • Active and Passive Recreation: 0.5- to 1.0-acre flexible lawn

Purpose

A neighborhood park serving new development and

upland neighborhoods

Character

An upland park comprised of riparian vegetation and

a pier park reaching out into the river

• Events: Neighborhood gatherings • Drop-off: Event drop-off, designed to function as

Materials Upland: 90 percent soft, 10 percent hardscape Pier: 10 percent soft, 90 percent hardscape Additional

The park will function as a gateway to the southern

Considerations

wetland park as well as a separation point for the

multi-use trail and Columbus Boulevard

Access

Vehicular

• Along the extension of Washington Avenue exiting at Christian Street Pedestrian • Neighborhood: Washington Avenue and Christian

a small plaza • Water: Potential for upland wetland and stormwater collection • Amenities: Public art, access to multi-use trail, playground Pier Park • Buildings: Pier pavilion, cafe, water-taxi ticket stand, public restrooms • Events: Classes, environmental education • Water: Water taxi, boat tie-ups • Amenities: Lookouts, wetland park view, programmable and flexible paved pier

Street • Regional: Multi-use trail Bike • Connected to the multi-use trail and existing bike routes on Washington Avenue and Christian Street On-street parking along new riverfront drive; internal Parking

parking lots are discouraged

Multi-Use Trail • Bike trail along western perimeter of the park • Pedestrian esplanade between the upland and pier

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Size

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Penn’s Landing Basin


Elements of the Master Plan: Public Realm—Base Plan

Penn’s Landing Basin Guidelines Program Menu Esplanade

Location Terminus of Dock, Spruce, and South Streets

• Buildings: Mid-rise with active ground-floor use

Purpose Civic esplanade and programmed basin

• Amenity Zone: A zone where programmatic elements of adjacent buildings can be held within

Character Urban esplanade lined with restaurants and bars

the public realm (example: cafe or restaurant

surrounding a basin with active boating and

seating or similar uses)

recreation

• Passive Recreation: Bench seating

Materials 100 percent hardscape

• Events: Large civic gatherings around basin

Access Vehicular

• Amenities: Public art, lively urban destination,

• No vehicular access along the pedestrian esplanade • Limit vehicular service off of Columbus Boulevard to preserve multi-use trail Pedestrian • Neighborhood: South, Spruce, and Dock Streets • Regional: Water taxi and multi-use trail Bike • Dismount required at pedestrian esplanade • Multi-use trail along Columbus Boulevard Located under Penn’s Landing Park and within Parking commercial structures Edges Seawall to remain. Active ground-floor uses with multiple entrances facing esplanade

nightlife, and high-quality lighting • Lookouts with river and bridge views Active Boating Basin • Structures: New docks and bridges allowing access over water • Active Recreation: Paddle boats, floating docks and pools • Water: Small to mid-size boating with transient slips, water-taxi stop • Events: Water parades, fountain shows, and/or temporary public-art displays

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Size Approximately 5.3 acres

107


Penn’s Landing Park


Elements of the Master Plan: Public Realm—Base Plan

Penn’s Landing Park Guidelines Approximately 10.0 acres

Location Terminus of Chestnut Street and Walnut Street Purpose A signature gateway to the riverfront, a civic park for events and public gatherings Character A contemporary Philadelphia square defined by

Parking Structured parking below park Edges Building walls to have active ground-floor use, spilling out toward the park to provide activity along the north and south edges Program Menu Urban Porch / Plaza • Buildings: Cafe, temporary market stalls, public restrooms

urban and waterfront edges and featuring direct views to the river and the Benjamin Franklin Bridge

• Amenity Zone: A zone where programmatic elements of adjacent buildings can be held within the public realm (example: cafe or restaurant seating or similar uses)

Materials Urban Porch: 50 percent softscape, 50 percent hardscape Waterfront: 80 percent softscape, 20 percent

• Structures: Urban porch, upper lookout, flexible water feature that can act as ice-skating rink

hardscape Esplanade: 100 percent hardscape Vehicular Access

• Events: Large civic gatherings, performances • Amenities: Iconic sculpture, highly programmable and flexible space, high-quality lighting and

• Limited to the upper urban portion of the park, extending Chestnut and Walnut Streets to create

furnishings

a new vehicular loop Pedestrian

Passive Park

• Neighborhood and Regional: Chestnut and Walnut Streets to become pedestrian streets east of vehicular loop extending to the water’s edge and esplanade

• Structures: Tilted or terraced landscape above parking, stage platform • Passive recreation: Lawn for gatherings, terraced levels, and garden rooms

• C ontinuous 50-foot-wide pedestrian esplanade around the waterfront edge

• Events: Multi-purpose venue (gating is prohibited) • Amenities: Lookouts with river and bridge view

Bike • Dismount required at pedestrian esplanade

Esplanade

• Multi-use trail along Columbus Boulevard

• Amenities: High-quality lighting, furnishings, and railing

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Size

109


Spring Garden Plaza


Elements of the Master Plan: Public Realm—Base Plan

Spring Garden Plaza Guidelines

Location Terminus of Spring Garden Street Purpose Civic plaza, urban center Character A true urban plaza with active ground-floor uses encircling the space. A signature constructed wetland connecting people to the life of the river Access Vehicular • Limited vehicular access to parking structures within buildings Pedestrian • Neighborhood and Regional: Spring Garden Street • Multi-use trail • Continuous 50-foot-wide pedestrian esplanade around the waterfront edge. Plaza to be pedestrian only with limited vehicular access Bike • Dismount required at pedestrian esplanade • Multi-use trail along Delaware Avenue Parking Structured parking lot within adjacent structures Edges Textured ground-floor facade with multiple store fronts and restaurant entry points. Restaurants are encouraged to spill out into the plaza

Program Menu Plaza • Amenity Zone: A zone where programmatic elements of adjacent buildings can be held within the public realm (example: cafe or restaurant seating or similar uses) • Active Recreation: None • Events: Medium-sized civic gatherings, outdoor movies, public markets, art shows • Amenities: Fountain, public art, highly programmable and flexible space, high-quality lighting and furnishings, constructed wetland Esplanade • Amenities: High-quality lighting, furnishings, and railing, water-taxi station • Passive recreation zones with structured seating and lawns

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Size Approximately 5.8 acres

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Berks Park


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Size Approximately 7.5 acres Location Terminus of Montgomery Avenue and Berks Street Purpose Cultural center, regional and neighborhood destination Character Four unique piers define Berks Park; they are connected via the multi-use trail. The piers define individual rooms containing cultural, neighborhood, active sports, and recreational amenities adjacent to a major performance venue and cultural center (PECO building) Access Vehicular • Beach Street, Montgomery Avenue, Berks Street, and Delaware Avenue Pedestrian • Neighborhood: Berks Street, Montgomery Avenue, and Palmer Street • Regional: Water taxi and the multi-use trail • Continuous 50-foot-wide pedestrian esplanade within park Bike • Multi-use trail with bike trail separated from pedestrian esplanade at perimeter park

Parking Shared parking with adjacent performance venue

and development sites

Edges Performance venue and development site should have multiple entries along the edge of Berks Park Program Menu • Buildings: Performance venue, PECO building, beach house • Amenities: Urban beach and swimming area, playgrounds, community gardens, water-taxi station, and volleyball • Events: Neighborhood gatherings, picnics, and weddings

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Berks Park Guidelines


Cumberland Park


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Size Approximately 6.1 acres Location Terminus of Cumberland Street Purpose Neighborhood park serving upland neighborhoods with upland ecologies and water amenities Character Cumberland Park is defined by its industrial past, with clear views of a small degraded pier, wetlands, the Ore Pier, and emerging riparian ecology Access Vehicular • Along the extension of Cumberland Street Pedestrian • Neighborhood: Along the extension of Cumberland Street • Regional: Multi-use trail Bike • Multi-use trail and existing bike lanes on Cumberland Street Parking • On-street parking; internal parking lots are discouraged Edges Light industrial uses

Program Menu • Passive and Active Recreation: 0.5- to 1.0-acre flexible lawn, multi-use trail • Events: Neighborhood gatherings, picnics • Amenities: Playground, community garden, Ore Pier outlook, and skate park

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Cumberland Park Guidelines


Lehigh Park


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Size Approximately 6.6 acres Location Terminus of Lehigh Avenue Purpose Northern neighborhood trailhead with amenities to serve upland neighborhoods

Program Menu • Buildings: Trail information center and kayak rental • Structures: Boat launch • Passive and Active Recreation: 0.5- to 1.0-acre

Character Defined by riparian and upland vegetation, Lehigh

flexible lawn, playground, community garden, and

Park couples emerging ecologies with neighborhood

boating

program Access Vehicular • Lehigh Avenue, Beach Street, and Richmond Street Pedestrian • Neighborhood: Lehigh Avenue • Regional: Lehigh Viaduct and the multi-use trail Bike • Multi-use trail Parking Trailhead parking lot with 15 to 20 spaces Edges

Light industrial uses

• Events: Neighborhood gatherings, picnics

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Lehigh Park Guidelines


Illustrative rendering of proposed improvements at Penn’s Landing Basin


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Water itself is an attraction in many cities, as it provides a respite from streets, buildings, and the bustle of city life. Successful urban waterfronts are centers for a variety of recreational and other activity. They draw people to the water and engage them both passively and actively. This plan therefore carefully integrates diverse types of recreation and programming in order to establish the Delaware River waterfront as a center of activity for the city. The master plan sets forth the following goals in order to bring about this waterfront activation:

■■ Utilize public art to create interesting spaces that draw people to the waterfront. Philadelphia already has a strong history of public art, and the plan recognizes its importance in creating a vibrant public realm.

■■ Incorporate the waterfront’s rich and diverse history to reinforce the waterfront’s uniquely Philadelphia character. The history of the waterfront is important and can play a key role in activating the waterfront, whether through the adaptation of historic buildings or the provision of opportunities for people to learn about the waterfront’s historical, archaeological, and cultural resources.

■■ Establish opportunities for people to get on and in the water. People can be on the water in various ways, including via large cruise boats such as the Spirit of Philadelphia, historic boats such as the tall ship Gazela and the tugboat Jupiter, small, privately owned boats, and kayaks and canoes.

■■ Incorporate well-designed places for people to enjoy the waterfront passively. People like to eat, read, sit, contemplate, stroll, socialize, and shop close to the water. Therefore, interesting spaces are designed to accommodate these passive uses in ways that take advantage of the existing historical character of the waterfront.

■■ Enhance existing facilities and create new facilities for active recreation. Many forms of active recreation, such as fishing, jogging, skateboarding, and playing volleyball, as well as playing at or enjoying children’s playgrounds and dog parks, are accommodated in the master plan.

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WATERFRONT ACTIVATION


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1 Proposed Mifflin Park Community Garden Playground Flexible Lawn Rain Gardens 2 Wildlife Education Center Trail Information Center Wetland Tidal Park 3 Proposed Dickinson Park Community Garden Playground Flexible Lawn Rain Gardens 4 Passive Flexible Lawn Food Vendors Marina 5 Water Recreation 6 Restaurants & Bars 7 Basin 8 Great Lawn & Ice Rink (Winter) 9 Bridge Market 10 Pier 9

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Race Street Pier Marina Restaurants Ground floor Retail Spring Garden Plaza Canal St. Walk Artwalk Live/Work Limited Vehicular Access Active Recreation Park Baseball Basketball Skate Park Recreation Center Repurposed Power Plant Mixed-use Center Cultural, Performance, Retail Penn Treaty Park Passive Wetland History New Festival Pier Proposed Berks Park Playground

21 Access to Performance Venue Rec Center Pool/Beach Gatherings 22 Proposed Cumberland Park Playground Community Garden 23 Coal Chute Graffiti Museum 24 Skate Park 25 Kayaking Basin 26 Proposed Lehigh Park Habitat Creation Wildlife Center Trail Information Center Playground Compost Center 27 Pulaski Park Fishing Pier Passive Park Community Garden Compost Center Flex Space for Gathering Picnic Areas

Waterfront Activation Map showing potential locations for different types of use and programming

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Elements of the Master Plan: Waterfront Activation

■■ Create places for users from everywhere—the neighborhood, the city, and beyond. The waterfront includes activities for all users, including residents who live on or near the waterfront and integrate it into their daily lives, city-wide or

■■ Develop a diverse program of events for the waterfront. Fireworks, large and small concerts, multicultural festivals, and performing arts are all critical components of waterfront programming. The public realm of this plan has been carefully designed to accommodate all of these uses. The map on the opposite page highlights a variety of art, recreation, and program types, and the master plan locates these uses in compatible areas. Programmatic recommendations for all of the parks, described more fully in the Public Realm—Base Plan portion of the Elements of the Master Plan section, have a neighborhood orientation with a strong bias toward each park’s role as a neighborhood amenity, except in the cases of the Penn’s Landing Park, Spring Garden Plaza, and Penn Treaty District, which will have expanded civic programs like those shown in the photos below. As the Delaware River is a working river, places for recreational activities such as swimming, kayaking, and small-boat recreation need to be carefully planned, clearly marked, and monitored. Water-recreation opportunities and the amenities to facilitate water use are shown in this section and further described in the Public Realm—Base Plan portion of the Elements of the Master Plan section. Boat launches, water-taxi stands, marinas, and beaches are some examples to be considered. Beyond activities commonly associated with water proximity, such as boating, the master plan also proposes other means of activation and recreation, such as public art, educational opportunities, performance spaces, and more.

Outdoor movie at Bryant Park in midtown Manhattan

Outdoor performance at Bryant Park in midtown Manhattan

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

regional users who visit the waterfront for special occasions, and tourists, who may visit the waterfront once or twice in their lives.

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Cloud Gate by Anish Kapoor, Millennium Park, Chicago

The Gates by Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Central Park, Manhattan


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Public art and programming connect people to the waterfront while also acting as city-wide and regional attractions. Public art is a valuable economic and cultural asset for Philadelphia. It strengthens the city’s status as a world-class destination and as a highly desirable place in which to live, work, and play. Public art and creatively designed places can make a significant contribution to both the vitality and the economy of the waterfront. Enhancing the identity and character of public spaces along the waterfront through public art supports cultural tourism, community pride, and economic-development strategies. Therefore, public art should be installed on the waterfront as an integral part of the landscape, in both permanent and temporary exhibits. Public art along the waterfront may take the form of a singular iconic piece (opposite, top), a collection of pieces along an art walk (see bottom of opposite page), or a landscape feature (see below, left). Additionally, the neighborhood parks and their public art and programming should be designed to be meaningful and unique to their adjacent neighborhoods. One example is the existing coal chute near the proposed Cumberland Park, which can be saved and transformed into a graffiti museum (below, center and right). Public art can also be found not only along the river, but in the water itself (see page 126), using the water as a canvas. The basin at Penn’s Landing provides an opportunity for this type of public art.

Beacon Point by George Trakas, Beacon, NY

Graffiti art

Graffiti art at Venice Beach, Los Angeles

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Public Art


Nandi, c. 1500 (sited at Penn’s Landing)

Five Water Spouts and Lintel, c. 12th–13th century (sited at Penn’s Landing)


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The International Sculpture Garden is a collection of approximately ten ancient and historic pieces of art that were donated to the Fairmount Park Art Association. The pieces were installed at a site next to the Penn’s Landing basin and were dedicated in 1976 as a part of the celebration of the U.S. bicentennial. Most of the collection has been moved to storage after changes to the basin area, including the construction of the Hyatt Hotel and the installation of a large monument to Christopher Columbus. These are some of the pieces in the collection: •

Nandi (artist unknown), c. 1500, from Madras, India

Spheres (artist unknown), c. 300–1525, from Costa Rica

Mangbusucks (artist unknown), c. 1695, from Yangjoo-kin, Kyunggi Province, Korea

Roman Column (artist unknown), c. 326 BCE, from Amman, Jordan

The master plan recognizes the importance of the garden and is working with the Fairmount Park Art Association to find a new, suitable location for the collection in the Penn’s Landing area, where it can meet its potential as an outstanding and unique public landscape.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

International Sculpture Garden


Light Drift by J. Meejin Yoon, along the Schuylkill River waterfront in Philadelphia

The Verdant Walk by North Design Office, Cleveland, OH


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development of privately owned land:

■■ Public art should be an integral part of all public and private waterfront development projects and requires a budget commensurate with building construction and development.

■■ Public art and creative public spaces must be meaningful to adjacent communities and welcoming for families and friends who gather for enjoyment and relaxation.

■■ Public art should be incorporated and budgeted at the earliest possible stages of development. In keeping with the Americans for the Arts best practices for public art, art curators and public-art professionals should be involved in every stage of the planning, from early development through the artist selection process and on to installation.

■■ Artists should be included on design teams and brought in at the earliest design stage in order to enhance the opportunities for planning creative, successful public-art projects.

■■ Some waterfront-development projects may require oversight by the City of Philadelphia Office of Art, Culture, and the Creative Economy and/or may require the Philadelphia Art Commission’s conceptual and final approval.

■■ DRWC will abide by the City of Philadelphia’s policy for incorporation of public art and dedicate a budget of 1 percent of the total project cost for public art. Private development is also encouraged to incorporate 1 percent of the total project cost for public art and to utilize, when applicable, the Floor Area Bonus for Public Art as provided in the zoning code.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

The following guidelines for public art will be followed for all projects on land owned by either the city or DRWC and are strongly encouraged for use during


Programming Events and the performing arts will play equally important roles in activating the waterfront. The waterfront serves users from near and far, and recreation, attractions, and programming should serve all of these users. The proposed program for the public realm of the waterfront is described more fully under the individual park guidelines in the Public Realm—Base Plan portion of this plan. As noted earlier, the neighborhood parks are shown with a strong bias toward neighborhood orientation and neighborhood amenity, with the exception of the wetlands park, Penn’s Landing Park, Spring Garden Plaza, and Penn Treaty District. The wetlands park has the opportunity to offer city-wide and regional environmental education, and the other spaces have expanded civic programs that address a wider audience. Penn’s Landing will remain the city-wide and regional center of the waterfront for large, signature events, such as the fireworks for the Fourth of July and New Year’s Eve. It will also be designed as a place where neighborhood residents can enjoy the waterfront regularly.

2424 Studios in Philadelphia


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129 MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

While portions of the waterfront are currently used for events and festivals, the master plan calls for increased waterfront programming. Currently, DRWC sponsors multicultural events, movie nights, festivals, and free and ticketed concerts at two large venues: the Great Plaza at Penn’s Landing and Festival Pier. Additionally, since the opening in 2010 and 2011 of the waterfront’s newest parks, Washington Avenue Green and Race Street Pier, DRWC has been working with the newly established friends groups of these parks to establish an appropriate and locally based program of events and activities, including yoga and tai chi classes, historical and environmental walks, small-scale concerts, and programming at the Race Street Pier for Old City’s First Friday events. DRWC plans to improve the quality and quantity of existing programming

Bank of America Pavillion, Boston, MA

along the waterfront, as well as to extend it to the new public spaces shown in the master plan and to support existing festivals and concerts at Penn Treaty and Pulaski Parks. Some ideas for these public spaces are shown on the map on page 120 and are also described park by park in the Public Realm–Base Plan portion of this document.

Gallery in MASS MoCA, North Adams, MA


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The waterfront has been central to the physical and economic development of the city since its founding; the waterfront’s history is Philadelphia’s history. The preliminary report of the Philadelphia Zoning Code Commission states that “the preservation and protection of buildings, structures, sites, objects, and districts of historic, architectural, cultural, archeological, educational and aesthetic merit are public necessities and are in the interests of the health, prosperity and welfare of the people of Philadelphia.” The Master Plan for the Central Delaware recognizes, too, that preserving and highlighting the waterfront’s historical and cultural assets strengthens the city’s economy, enhances its attractiveness, improves property values, and fosters civic pride in the architectural, historical, cultural, and educational accomplishments of Philadelphia. Therefore, history plays a key role in activating the waterfront while reinforcing Philadelphia’s unique characteristics. This history is found both above ground, with the many buildings and industrial structures ripe for reuse, and below ground, through archaeological sites and artifacts preserved from previous eras. The stories and history of the waterfront will be told and interpreted in a variety of ways as a part of an activation plan for the waterfront. The Appendix of this document contains an inventory of buildings and structures in the project area, identifying specific resources that are particularly notable; it can be used to help identify buildings and structures that could be reused as the waterfront’s redevelopment progresses. While the master plan does not call for preserving each and every extant building and structure, this inventory will guide adaptive reuse on the waterfront.

Opposite page: The Delaware Generating Station, designed in 1917 by John T. Windram and W. C. L. Elgin

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Historic Preservation and Archaeology


Delaware Avenue in the first half of the 20th century

The Ore Pier today

An example of interpretive signage at Philadelphia’s Water Works

Wood Street steps


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should be preserved and reused, where feasible. Large former warehouses can become unique galleries and performance spaces, as shown on page 128. The Delaware Generating Station, a significant landmark on the river, can become a part of a larger outdoor amphitheater, as shown on page 129) and mixed-use area, while its interior can serve many cultural uses, as shown on page 129. Historic buildings can be reused to house events, galleries, and retail space, while industrial structures can become centerpieces of new parks or recreation areas. Preserving these structures while finding new and exciting uses for them is a development method that keeps the history of the city and the river alive while creating a uniquely Philadelphia waterfront. Buildings are not the only cultural resources that will activate the waterfront for all users. Many buildings and complexes have been demolished above ground, yet hundreds of years of development have left behind archaeological stories in layers below the ground. These important archaeological resources should be interpreted and brought to light for waterfront visitors. New information can be uncovered through development projects, the expansion of I-95, and archaeological digs—information that will expand our understanding of the river’s use by previous generations. Historical and archaeological resources can be interpreted in myriad ways, including on-site preservation or reuse, interpretive signage, and historical programming such as walking tours. Interpretation draws people to the river and provides educational opportunities that complement the city’s other nearby historic attractions. DRWC is dedicated to implementing a comprehensive interpretive-signage program for the waterfront and to working with partner organizations on programming ideas and events.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Extant buildings and industrial structures, such as Piers 38 and 40, the former Delaware Generating Station next to Penn Treaty Park, and the coal tipper,


As parts of this master planning process, a historical-context statement, a historical resources inventory, and an archaeological sensitivity assessment were completed for the project area. These full reports are located in the Appendix. Additionally, DRWC and the consultant team met with knowledgeable individuals and stakeholder groups concerned with historic preservation and archaeology. The following recommendations are made based on a consensus among DRWC, consultants, and stakeholders.

■■ Take advantage of the history of the study area in “branding” new development. The history of the study area is unique and uniquely important. It is what differentiates the study area from other urban waterfronts and waterfront development, and it provides unique opportunities for providing meaningful experiences and for building an identity for the waterfront. The study area’s history makes it uniquely Philadelphian.

■■ Develop a uniform mechanism that will examine the cultural resources of areas slated for development. The first point of agreement among stakeholders was that it is imperative not to lose the rich information and lessons about culture and individuals that lie under the street and river surfaces and thus that a uniform mechanism must look closely at areas slated for development. With such sites as the first American naval yard and a Lenni Lenape village yet to be investigated, development without archaeology threatens the permanent loss of the heritage of all Americans.

■■ Develop an interpretive plan that will enhance the experience of the waterfront for residents and visitors. Because of the depth and richness of the study area’s history and the fast-changing nature of historical interpretation, a full interpretive plan that identifies a strategy for highlighting the historical significance of various sites on the waterfront should be developed. The plan should deploy a variety of interactive strategies that will invite and engage both resident and visitor audiences, build from key themes that relate to the Delaware River and give it a historical identity, and further develop these key themes. Suggested themes include the following:


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The river of beginnings, encounters, and connections: The study area marks crucial encounters between the Lenni Lenape and European settlers. The theme of “beginnings” continues with immigration stations and port activities into the 20th century. It also encompasses such firsts as the first American Naval Yard. The river connects and has connected Philadelphians and their goods to the world through shipping from its port, rail yards, depots, and bridges for several centuries. The important place played by the former Reading Coal Depot in the nation’s history is just one example.

The river of work: Since the time of the port’s establishment and Philadelphia’s first settlement, the Delaware has been the river of work. This is in contrast to the Schuylkill River, which has long been known more as a river of leisure. The ways in which the riverfront manifests the identity of the Delaware are multiple, and they span from the earliest shipbuilding sites through the former heavy industrial zone north of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge and into the neighborhoods that relate to the port and industry.

■■ Develop a preservation/historic character plan for buildings and groups of buildings within the waterfront project area. Using the historical resources inventory prepared for this plan as a starting point, evaluate properties—individual buildings and structures as well as potential districts—for their historical significance, historical character, and eligibility for the National and Philadelphia Registers of Historic Places. Develop a prioritized strategic plan for preservation and economic opportunities. Here are some specific steps that could be taken toward these goals: •

Evaluate potential historic districts that will link neighborhoods on the east of I-95 to areas west of the highway, particularly in Fishtown and Northern Liberties.

Identify buildings that are potential candidates for preservation tax credits and incentives projects.

■■ DRWC will take the lead by applying cultural-resource best practices for projects on DRWC-owned or city-owned land. Just as it will take the lead in other aspects of development, DRWC will incorporate historic-preservation considerations into the earliest possible stage of project development.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE


Ice skating rink at Penn’s Landing

Skate park at Chelsea Piers, New York

South Street Seaport beach in Manhattan

Hudson Beach swingset in Manhattan’s Riverside Park


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137 MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Active Recreation The master plan includes facilities for diverse types of recreation for all ages and types of users, because these are critical to ensuring that the waterfront will function as an amenity for all Philadelphians. Specific locations are proposed for the following types of recreation, as shown in the Waterfront Activation map on page 120 and further described in the sections that follow:

■■ Boating (recommendations are made for marinas and power-boat facilities as well as for kayak and hand-carry boat facilities)

■■ Running, walking, and biking ■■ Angling ■■ Ice skating ■■ Skateboarding ■■ Playing at playgrounds ■■ Exercising dogs at dog parks Several of the proposed parks, such as Penn Treaty, Berks, and Cumberland, offer opportunities for active recreation. Volleyball, playgrounds, and urban beaches are just a few of the many recreational activities proposed. The images on the opposite page and this page show examples of such sites already in existence.

Water taxi beach on Governors Island in New York City


Boating and Kayaking Since the Delaware River is a working river, places for swimming,

spectacular ships as an attraction in an area targeted for heavy pedestrian

kayaking, and small-boat recreation need to be carefully planned, clearly

activity.

marked, and monitored. Water-recreation opportunities and the amenities to facilitate water use are shown here and are further described in the park design guidelines found in the Public Realm–Base Plan portion of this document. Boat launches, water-taxi stands, marinas, and beaches are some examples to be considered.

At present there are two power-boat marinas on the waterfront: the Penn’s Landing marina at the Penn’s Landing basin, owned and operated by DRWC, and the Philadelphia Marine Center, located at Piers 12 to 29 north, owned and operated by the Brandywine Realty Trust. The master plan also shows a future marina site at the Washington Avenue Park, along

There are several large, recreational cruise boats on the water, including

with transient boat slips at the renovated PECO building next to Penn

the Spirit of Philadelphia and the Benjamin Franklin. Because the basin area at Penn’s Landing is envisioned as a place for smaller boating activities, the large boats are shown on the outside of the quay pier and are concentrated north of Penn’s Landing, where they will have adequate facilities for parking and loading. The historic ships operated and maintained by the Philadelphia Ship Preservation Guild are important assets for the waterfront. The ship Gazela, from 1901, is a wooden tall ship built in Portugal, and the tugboat Jupiter is a historic iron tugboat that was built at Philadelphia’s Neafie and Levy shipyard in 1902. In the master plan, these two ships have been located at the end of the quay pier at the Penn’s Landing basin, both to provide visual interest and character to the basin and to highlight these Kayak rental facility


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139 MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Treaty Park and the Berks Park. DRWC completed a marina and powerboating feasibility study concurrently with this plan, and the results of this detailed study are included in the Appendix. Hand-powered boating is planned for specific areas along the waterfront. The Delaware River is an active river for shipping and heavy port activity, and the shipping channel is located close to the Pennsylvania side of the river, in some cases immediately beyond the pierhead line. The presence of the active shipping channel as well as the strong currents in the river and its tidal movement make the Delaware riverfront a challenging place to kayak and canoe. Organized events such as the Delaware River sojourn are led by experienced kayak guides; in general, the main channel of the river is not a place for novice kayakers. Therefore, this plan includes careful planning for kayak and canoe facilities in places that are more protected from the current and the shipping channel. The southern wetlands park planned for Washington Avenue to Pier 78 south is designated for kayaking, and a significant kayak basin is created near the Cumberland and Lehigh Parks by removing a section of a pier. Additionally, the Penn’s Landing basin is designated for continued kayaking. DRWC and the Pennsylvania Environmental Council have operated a summer kayaking program at Penn’s Landing for the past three summers, and this program is expected to continue and expand as plans for increased amenity around the basin are implemented.

Kayaking in New York City


Bridge market

Floating restaurant

Bird watching

Educational opportunities


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The waterfront provides opportunities for a variety of other activities as well, including jogging, biking, fishing, relaxing, and socializing. Fishing is currently allowed and encouraged at Pulaski, Washington Avenue Green, and Penn Treaty Parks. Additional fishing facilities are planned for the pier at Dickinson Park in the southern part of the waterfront. The master plan also provides spaces for people to learn about the river and its ecology. The wetlands areas, particularly the wetlands park proposed for the southern end of the waterfront, will allow people to learn about ecology while interacting with it. Interpretive signage and trails guide people along while allowing them to walk, sit, or birdwatch at the river. The multi-use trail provides a continuous recreation trail for active uses such as walking, biking, and jogging. This amenity links the six miles of waterfront and also connects the waterfront to other trails, providing city and regional trail connections not previously realized. It is equally important for a vibrant waterfront to provide places for more passive uses such as relaxing like strolling, sitting, dining, and shopping. The multi-use trail is designed to allow both active and passive use by connecting users to amenities such as parks, cafes, and shops. The larger sites, including Penn’s Landing and the Spring Garden Plaza, will provide opportunities for dining and shopping. A bridge market (see opposite page, top left) or a mixeduse building with ground-floor retail can offer a variety of goods for locals and tourists. The basin at Penn’s Landing, as well as other locations, can be ideal places for restaurants with outdoor seating (see opposite page, top right), allowing visitors the chance to people-watch and enjoy the river.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Other Recreation


Illustrative rendering of Delaware Avenue at Spring Garden Street, looking south


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The master plan recommends important changes to the transportation system of the project area to support improved and balanced access to the waterfront for pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit riders as well as for automobiles. These changes will encourage mixed-use development that is transitfriendly, walkable, and capable of contributing to the identity envisioned for the Central Delaware waterfront. The transformation of the waterfront’s transportation network will obviously take decades to complete; however, numerous improvements can be made in the short- and mid-term that will significantly improve the function and safety of the corridor for all users. These projects must be designed as a highly coordinated system that can nonetheless be implemented in increments as federal, state, and other funds become available. The current transportation system centers on travel by cars and trucks. I-95 carries local, regional, and national traffic, and Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard is a major local and regional vehicular artery with three traffic lanes in each direction. The combined width of the roadways, together with a lack of accommodation for pedestrians, creates a visually and physically daunting barrier that makes it difficult for pedestrians and cyclists to move easily to and from upland neighborhoods and along the waterfront. Although the central segment of Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard has attractive, landscaped medians, the northern and southern segments have very little landscaping and no center refuge to help people cross many lanes of traffic. Portions of Columbus Boulevard, especially in the southern segment, suffer from traffic congestion during weekend shopping hours and large events at the sports complex. Vehicle speeding is a problem on portions of Delaware Avenue, contributing to the difficulty of crossing. Poor signal timings and poorly sited driveway access points contribute to the congestion. Recent improvements have added a temporary, patchwork bicycle lane for commuters, primarily within the roadbed, but the bicycle lane is discontinuous, has limited width, and is not separated from traffic. This plan proposes a transformation of both the physical form of Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard and the connection points between the adjacent neighborhoods and the waterfront. The master plan is intended to strengthen the ties between waterfront and city by improving access pathways to public spaces, existing and anticipated, in ways that encourage the use of walking, cycling, and upgraded transit. Through a series of incremental improvements, the boulevard will strike a better balance among auto traffic, cyclists, pedestrians, and transit, transforming this important road into an attractive, wellfunctioning boulevard that will enhance the region’s goals for sustainability and help create a friendlier, more accessible waterfront.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

TRANSPORTATION


I-95 also creates accessibility challenges within the project area. Constructed in the 1970s and similar to highways built in many major cities at that time, its location along the riverfront displaced many local residents and businesses and separated others from former neighbors and adjacencies. When it was built, the waterfront was dominated by heavy industrial uses, and the interstate acted as a beneficial barrier between the dense residential neighborhoods to the west and the heavy industry to the east. Over the past 30 years, many of these industrial uses have shifted away from the Central Delaware waterfront, and citizens of Philadelphia are demanding better connections to the river. Limited-access interstate highways serve necessary functions in metropolitan regions, enabling commerce for businesses and industry, but the infrastructure of an interstate is inherently nonurban and greatly detracts from the adjacent urban fabric. The master plan therefore recommends ways to improve the areas in and around the interstate, including the numerous east-west connector streets and underpasses, to replicate and extend the pedestrian-friendly urban environment of nearby communities. I-95 has aged and is in need of major structural repairs, creating a timely opportunity to enhance waterfront connectivity. The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) is undertaking a process to reconstruct and upgrade the roadway and access facilities. PennDOT is currently reconstructing I-95 from Race Street to northeast Philadelphia and is just beginning the early stages of planning for the interstate from Race Street to the Delaware state line. PennDOT’s program to modernize I-95 is scheduled to continue for at least the next 20 years, with an estimated cost of several billion dollars. It is estimated that the reconstruction of I-95 will absorb approximately 30 percent of the five-county region’s surface-highway funding from federal sources and roughly 25 percent of the state’s Interstate Maintenance Fund for the next four years. The reconstruction of I-95 presents a great opportunity to create a new template for how urban interstates are designed and how they function, a template consistent with both local and regional mobility aims.

PennDOT has made a great effort in the past two years to include local stakeholders in decisions about the reconstruction of the interstate. The reconstruction from Race Street north is being built in phases, with several sections already underway. Though many of these sections were already in advanced stages of design when work on this master plan began, DRWC and its consulting team were included as primary stakeholders in planning sessions for the sections that were still in early design. Even as this master plan is being completed, PennDOT has scheduled neighborhood workshops for


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Avenue, Marlborough Street, and Shackamaxon Street. DRWC will be collaborating with PennDOT as well as the Mayor’s Office on Transportation and Utilities on the implementation phases of this northern section, as well as on future phases of this major infrastructure project. The following are the main features of the transportation plan for the Central Delaware waterfront:

■■ Connector Streets Streets that connect the city and waterfront will be green and pedestrian friendly.

■■ Multi-use Trail A continuous, multi-use trail will be implemented for the length of the waterfront and will be located along the water’s edge as much as possible.

■■ Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard Corridor A waterfront boulevard with mass transit will be created with improved sidewalks, medians, crossings, and intersections to accommodate multiple modes of travel.

■■ Parking A parking plan will be created that accommodates vehicular travel in the short term and that in the mid- to long-term can be reduced as other modes of travel and other development models become more prevalent.

■■ Water Transportation A robust water transport system is planned for the waterfront, including ferry and water-taxi service.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

its Phase 2 of the Girard Avenue Interchange project, which addresses the rebuilding of three of the overpasses in the Fishtown neighborhood: Columbia


Columbia Avenue, looking east

Tasker Street, underneath the I-95 overpass

Christian Street, looking east

Shackamaxon Street, looking east


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As stated above, one of the primary challenges to the goal of connecting people to the waterfront is the infrastructure of I-95. Interstates are usually built either on large earthen berms, which become barriers, or on pier structures, which often create unattractive, underutilized spaces at the street level. Residents living adjacent to urban highways have usually borne the majority of the burden associated with these facilities. Transportation professionals are recognizing that such large pieces of infrastructure do indeed create physical and psychological barriers to adjacent communities and are recognizing the need to design this infrastructure differently, making it more capable of accommodating passage below and above high-speed rights-of-way. As many older interstates are reaching the end of their useful lives, they are often being redesigned and reconstructed in ways that mitigate their impacts on surrounding communities. A Civic Vision for the Central Delaware recommended burying the highway in a section through the central portion of the waterfront to mend the connection between the city and the riverfront. However, in the current federal and state funding climate, it is unlikely that burying I-95 would be possible in the near- to mid-term future. Consequently, this plan makes near- and mid-term recommendations on how to best improve the local transportation infrastructure surrounding the interstate as it currently exists. Improvements to east-west connector streets are a primary means of creating more inviting and safe waterfront access. A critical early discovery during the analysis phase of the planning process was that even though I-95 is seen as a monolithic barrier, the structure of the interstate is actually much more porous than is generally perceived. From Oregon to Allegheny Avenues, there are 72 east-west streets in the project area that meet the I-95 right-of-way. Forty-seven of these streets actually pass over or under the interstate, and 34 connect to Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard. The problem is not a lack of connection; it is that the connections are unattractive and uninteresting and that they feel unsafe. Streets have been designed primarily for vehicular uses, with little consideration given to pedestrian, cyclist, or transit-user needs, and the area near the interstate often has vacant lots, decaying buildings, and other breaks in the building frontages along the street. These conditions create functional barriers to accessing the waterfront by any mode other than a car. While this analysis concurs that the interstate is indeed a barrier, it is not an impenetrable one. There are a significant number of ways to improve the connections to the waterfront without the need to bury portions of the interstate.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Connector Streets


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■■ Safe and appealing pedestrian and bicycle facilities that connect the waterfront to the adjacent neighborhoods and that are coordinated with the city’s newly created Pedestrian and Bicycle Plan;

■■ Signalization changes to manage traffic speed; ■■ Improved streetscapes, including greening with landscaping and trees where appropriate; ■■ Wayfinding signage to direct people to and from the waterfront and its amenities and landmarks; ■■ Public art to create an interesting and aesthetically pleasing atmosphere; and ■■ New lighting along the street, especially under the I-95 overpasses, to improve public safety. This lighting can and should have strong artistic elements. In this plan, all of the connector streets linking the city to the project area have been categorized as either primary or secondary connector streets. Primary connector streets directly connect neighborhoods with the waterfront parks proposed every half-mile. Secondary connector streets pass under or over I-95 and are still important waterfront connections but do not end at a waterfront park. The master plan anticipates substantial improvements for both primary and secondary connector streets to provide safe pedestrian and bicycle passage, including street trees and landscaping, street furniture, improved lighting, and improvements to sidewalks as appropriate. Primary connector streets should also offer a high-impact, well-designed sense of welcome as well as an “identifying threshold moment” as they pass under I-95. They will therefore receive more intensive treatments, such as public art, widened sidewalks, and wayfinding signage.

Opposite page: Proposed improvements to Race Street, a primary connector street

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

The planning team recommends aggressive improvements to the connector streets, to include the following elements:


B ro w n St reet Fairmou nt Aven ue

Spring Garden Street

2nd Street

Callowhill Street

Race Street

Market Street

Chestnut Street

Dock Street

Walnut Street

3rd Street

Spruce Street

South Street

Christian Street

Washin gton A venue

Reed Street

Dickinson Street

Tasker Street

Mifflin Street

Snyder Avenue

Oregon Avenue

4th Street

nue Ave wn nto a m Ger

Front Street

I-95 Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard

t ee Str e h u n e g v ue u rd A en Frankfo et oro Av rlb a re i a t b S M on lum ue et ax Co en tre am Av k rS c y e a r e lm Sh Pa om ntg treet Mo S rks Be ue en Av ard Gir

Benjamin Franklin Brid ge

Laurel Street

Swanson Street

5th Street

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PRIMARY CONNECTOR STREETS SECONDARY CONNECTOR STREETS

Street Improvements

ue en Av


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Primary Streets

Secondary Streets

■■ Mifflin Street

■■ Race Street

■■ Oregon Avenue

■■ Fairmount Avenue

■■ Dickinson Street

■■ Spring Garden Street

■■ Snyder Avenue

■■ Brown Street

■■ Washington Avenue

■■ Germantown Avenue

■■ McKean Street

■■ Frankford Avenue

■■ Christian Street

■■ Columbia Avenue

■■ Moore Street

■■ Shackamaxon Street

■■ South Street

■■ Berks Street

■■ Morris Street

■■ Marlborough Street

■■ Walnut Street

■■ Cumberland Street

■■ Tasker Street

■■ Palmer Street

■■ Chestnut Street

■■ Lehigh Avenue

■■ Reed Street

■■ Montgomery Avenue

■■ Market Street

■■ Allegheny Avenue

■■ Queen Street

■■ Huntingdon Street

■■ Spruce Street

■■ Somerset Street

■■ Dock Street

■■ Cambria Street

■■ Callowhill Street

■■ Ann Street

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

There are 16 primary connector streets and 22 secondary connector streets, as listed below:


Site Plan for the Race Street Connector

Underpass lighting in Center City Philadelphia

Underpass lighting in Stockholm, Sweden


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within the first ten years of the master plan. Significant improvements to all secondary connector streets are anticipated within the life of the master plan. The timing of particular improvements will be determined based on the availability of local, state, and federal government funding and will be coordinated with other improvements, such as planned storm-sewer improvements on Washington Avenue and the reconfiguration of intersections as a part of the I-95 reconstruction. DRWC’s role in these connector street projects will vary: DRWC may manage an entire project from conceptual design through construction; another agency, such as PennDOT or the Philadelphia Streets Department, may manage an entire project; or DRWC and other agencies may share responsibility. DRWC’s current Race Street Connector project is a good example of the kind of high-impact upgrades anticipated for primary connector streets. Phase 1 of this project will be completed in fall of 2011, and Phase 2 is scheduled for construction in 2012. The project includes widened sidewalks, extensive landscaping, pedestrian lighting, installation of a bicycle lane, a lighted and continuous screen element wrapping the bridge abutments, and an extensive digital public art installation. Additionally, short-term improvements to connect existing bicycle facilities to the waterfront should be implemented. For example, the existing Spruce and Pine bike lanes end at Front Street, and there is no adequate bicycle connection from there to the waterfront. This connection would be an inexpensive yet high-impact way to connect neighborhoods to the waterfront.

Opposite page: Site plan for Race Street Connector

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

DRWC will work with the Philadelphia Streets Department and PennDOT to propose and create major improvements on all primary connector streets


MULTI-USE TRAIL BUFFERED BIKE LANE EXISTING AND PROPOSED BIKEWAYS

Trail Implementation


Elements of the Master Plan: Transportation

Multi-use Trail

other regional and city-wide trails. Though implementing this trail in its final form along the river’s edge for the entire length of the six-mile project area could take longer than the 25-year time frame of this plan, the central sections will be completed in the short- to mid-term. Interim connections to provide a continuous six-mile trail are also proposed. The trail is divided into the following five sections, each having a different character but all linked together in continuity and quality. The following descriptions are listed from south to north, corresponding with the adjacent diagram: •

Zone 1—Long-term connection from Oregon Avenue to Mifflin Street: In this location, the waterfront is occupied by active port facilities. Therefore, the trail is planned to utilize rights-of-way for Columbus Boulevard, Snyder Avenue, and Swanson Street to connect to Oregon Avenue.

Zone 2—Mifflin Street to Washington Avenue: This section of trail is located along the river’s edge, separate from Delaware Avenue, and is adjacent to a wetlands park. Between Washington Avenue and Pier 70 Boulevard, an interim trail is in place. The long-term vision for this section is a 12-foot multiuse trail and a separate 12-foot pedestrian sidewalk incorporated into a 50-foot, landscaped river’s edge next to the wetlands park.

Zone 3—Washington Avenue to Penn Street: This central section of trail is located in the right-of-way for Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard. The trail is located on the east side of the road as a part of a 38-foot section (which could be reduced to 22 feet). This 38-foot section accommodates a 12foot multi-use trail, a separate 12-foot pedestrian sidewalk, and planted buffers.

Zone 4—Penn Street to Lehigh Avenue: In this section, Delaware Avenue once again is separated from the river’s edge and the trail follows the river’s edge. One small section of this trail, at the SugarHouse Casino, is currently built. There is also an existing sidewalk in Penn Treaty Park at the riverfront. In the long term, this section of trail will travel through a varied landscape of neighborhood parks, attractions such as a civic/cultural center utilizing the PECO Delaware Generating Station and adjacent property as a gathering place, and a new green industrial district at the north end. The cross-section will be similar to the 50-foot section described south of Washington Avenue.

Zone 5—Lehigh Avenue to Allegheny Avenue: In the long term (25-plus years), the trail will be located along the river’s edge and will connect to the North Delaware Greenway at Allegheny Avenue. However, as this area is currently occupied by heavy industrial use, an interim trail alignment is shown inland from the waterfront, along Richmond Street, partially utilizing space under I-95. DRWC will work closely with PennDOT, the Philadelphia Streets Department, and neighborhood organizations to coordinate the design and construction of a high-quality interim trail that will serve the area until the long-term trail along the water’s edge can be installed.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

A critical element of the master plan is a continuous multi-use trail running the length of the project area, connecting at the north and south ends with

155


Street cross-section along Delaware Avenue


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waterfront between Washington Avenue and Penn Street, the trail is located alongside Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard. The southern and northern sections of the trail separate from the boulevard and are located at the river’s edge. The following two guidelines further describe these two conditions.

Multi-use Trail Guideline: Delaware Avenue Location

Between Washington Avenue and Penn Street

Purpose

Provide a safe, continuous bike and pedestrian trail in zones where the multi-use trail cannot follow the river’s edge

Character

Planting and material of high quality to signify the Delaware River Park

Widths

38 feet plus parking in unconstrained zones; parking and building setbacks can be eliminated in zones of constraint

Setbacks

10-foot building setback from trail to new development

Multi-use Trail

12-foot minimum width to accommodate two-way bicycle use and other faster trail users, grade-separated from pedestrian sidewalk;

Planted zone for trees and landscaping to provide buffer from adjacent parking and vehicular drive lanes

Parking

Flexible zone (which can be eliminated in constrained locations)

Planting

Trees, to be limbed up to provide clear bicycle and pedestrian movement

Seating

Benches, located in pairs every 300 feet

Lighting

Should be of a high quality, with both pedestrian and street lighting supporting a consistent aesthetic for the length of Delaware Avenue

and the multi-use trail

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Throughout the five geographical zones listed on the previous page, there are essentially two different conditions for the trail. In the central section of the


Street cross-section along Delaware River


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Location

South wetland park between Washington Avenue and Mifflin Street,

North upland park between Penn Street and Lehigh Avenue

Purpose

Create a continuous, uninterrupted waterfront trail for local and regional access, serving pedestrians and bicyclists alike

Character

Integrate emerging riparian and wetland ecologies with industrial artifacts and new development

Widths

Multi-use trail: 12 feet wide

Sidewalk: 12 feet wide

Planted trail divider: min. 6 feet

Materials

Multi-use trail: asphalt unit pavers with clearly defined lanes

Sidewalk: stone fines

Parking

Along proposed riverfront drive

Planting

South wetland park: native wetland and riparian species typically found along the Delaware River

North upland park: native upland and riparian species

Seating

Multi-use trail parks: Benches, located in pairs every 300 feet

Lighting

Should be of high quality at a pedestrian scale, supporting a consistent aesthetic for the length of the multi-use trail

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Multi-use Trail Guideline: Along River


Illustrative rendering of Delaware Avenue at Spring Garden, looking south


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Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard is the critical thoroughfare for local uses on the waterfront. While it has several problematic sections, the vast majority of the road is overdesigned for current needs. While this plan does not propose a reduction in the traffic capacity of Delaware Avenue, innovative approaches can be used to minimize the physical and psychological presence of the road without compromising its capacity. In approximately the next ten years, the corridor will be drastically changed by the addition of a waterfront light-rail/streetcar system. When rail is implemented within the right-of-way of the waterfront boulevard (either in the center or on the eastern side), the boulevard will be substantially rebuilt to accommodate the following elements: •

A dedicated transit way with stations;

An ideal section of two lanes of vehicular traffic in each direction, with the ability to increase capacity if required at rush hour through removing parking and/or utilizing reversible traffic lanes;

A section of approximately 38 feet in width on the east side of the boulevard that will accommodate a 12-foot multi-use recreational trail, a 10-foot pedestrian sidewalk, and planted buffers between the sidewalk and building edge and between the multi-use trail and the cartway, as shown in the cross-section image on page 154; and

On-street parking where appropriate.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard Corridor


Fairmou nt Aven ue

Spring Garden Street

2nd Street

Callowhill Street

Race Street

Market Street

Chestnut Street

Walnut Street

nue Ave wn o t n ma Ger

Front Street

Laurel Street

Benjamin Franklin Brid ge

Delaware Avenue / Columbus Boulevard

3rd Street

Spruce Street

Swanson Street

4th Street

South Street

Christian Street

Washin gton A venue

Reed Street

Dickinson Street

Tasker Street

Mifflin Street

Snyder Avenue

Oregon Avenue

I-95

5th Street

et tre enue hS v A g rd t u ue Frankfo ree oro Aven St rlb a n a i b M xo t lum ma et ee ka Co tre ac Str h yS S er r e m l Pa om ntg treet Mo S rks Be

ue en Av ard Gir

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New Delaware aveNue TraNsiT exisTiNg subway exisTiNg Trolley exisTiNg bus rouTe

Delaware Avenue Transit Corridor

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High-quality transit service connecting destinations along the waterfront and connecting the waterfront to the city’s core is a critical component of the overall build-out of the master plan. Long term, the master plan recommends implementation of a light-rail/streetcar system that would run the length of Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard and connect to Center City transit hubs and destinations, such as the Convention Center and City Hall. In 2010, the Delaware River Port Authority (DRPA) completed an Alternative Analysis Planning Study to evaluate various transit alternatives to better serve Delaware Avenue. This study recommended a connection back to Center City along Market Street that would utilize the existing scissor ramps between Market and Chestnut Streets to navigate the over 30-foot elevation change between Columbus Boulevard and Market Street. It became clear early in the master planning process that in order to fully realize the potential of the Penn’s Landing site, the scissor ramps would need to be demolished. These ramps greatly contribute to the auto-oriented feel of Penn’s Landing. In addition, the ramp that crosses from 2nd and Market Streets over I-95 to the scissor ramps occupies all of the north side of the 100 block of Market Street, blighting this important block in the city’s oldest historic area and creating a further barrier between the city and the waterfront. While an innovative approach will be needed to create vehicular access between Old City and Penn’s Landing, for the purposes of the master plan this ramp is proposed to be demolished, creating more opportunity for development and open space as a part of the revitalized Penn’s Landing. Consequently, a continuing evaluation of viable options for connection to the city must be accomplished in the next phase of study for the light-rail system, including potential at-grade connections at Dock and Race Streets. The severe elevation change that exists at the end of Market Street does not exist at Dock and Race Streets; therefore, these at-grade connections could potentially be more cost-effective options for making the transition from the waterfront to Center City.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Long-Term Transit Recommendations


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connection along Front Street to Market Street to provide access to the new Penn’s Landing Park and also to energize underutilized portions of Front Street. When the master planning process began, the DRPA was expected to initiate a subsequent study phase for the light-rail system, informing the master plan recommendations for both the light-rail system and Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard. These recommendations can be offered here only as suggestions to be further considered when the light rail proceeds to the next level of study. The next phase of study should also evaluate options besides Market Street for connecting to Center City. DRWC believes that advancing the light-rail project through preliminary engineering and environmental assessment is critical to establishing a regional direction for short- and mid-term investment and development decisions. This project will certainly impact the pace and timing of development decisions along the waterfront and is anticipated to create unique mobility benefits for residents, employees, and visitors of the waterfront. The corridor’s transit system could also be operated by a bus system in lieu of rail service, as is described more completely on the following pages.

Opposite page: Light rail in Portland, Oregon

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

The potential Dock and Race Street connections have not been analyzed in detail. The Dock Street connection is shown on page 162, suggesting a possible


Short- and Mid-Term Transit Recommendations Prior to the implementation of the waterfront light-rail/streetcar project, which is unlikely to initiate service before 2021, opportunities exist to enhance existing transit service on the Market-Frankford Line, as well as to expand, enhance, and rebrand bus transportation services that touch the waterfront. Incremental increases in frequency, connections, and geographic coverage will further boost the appeal. Further actions suggested include these: •

Implement improvements to the Spring Garden stop on the Market-Frankford Line. This stop and the stop at 2nd and Market Streets are the two existing stops on this main subway-subsurface line that provide relatively close access to the Delaware River waterfront. While the 2nd and Market stop is in relatively good repair and has attractive entrances, the Spring Garden stop could use enhancement. The stop is an elevataed platform in between the northbound and southbound lanes of I-95: the entrance to the station is located at grade on Spring Garden Street, underneath the I-95 overpass in a dark and poorly marked location. Enhancing the aesthetics of this station and branding the line-stop as serving the waterfront would greatly enhance waterfront access on this important and highly traveled subway/subsurface line.

•

Rebrand all services that serve the waterfront. Presently the main portion of the project area is served by 12 SEPTA bus routes (5, 7, 17, 21, 25, 29, 1. 33, 42, 43, 48, 64, and 79) and two SEPTA heavy-rail subway stations (2nd Street and Spring Garden on the Market-Frankford Line). All services that touch the waterfront should be branded as serving the waterfront. This branding could range from simple signage to decals to bus wrapping. The point is to create a brand so that users will know that they can access the waterfront through these existing routes. This branding would include bus stop signs and shelters at key stops on the waterfront and throughout the city.

•

Enhance services to improve the passenger experience. For the routes that serve the waterfront, specifically key routes such as the 25 and the 64, implement a variety of enhancements to increase the appeal of transit. These improvements would include real-time bus-arrival information at key stops based on GPS technology already installed on the buses and used by SEPTA today. This real-time information could be pushed to subscribers


Elements of the Master Plan: Transportation

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would know how long they’d have to wait for the next bus to arrive and could plan accordingly. Non-technology-based solutions would include features that SEPTA and the City of Philadelphia are piloting on Route 47, most notably rear boarding at peak periods to reduce dwell time and speed travel.

•

Introduce extensions to SEPTA east-west bus routes that continue these routes north or south along the waterfront to connect with future waterfront development. These extensions would provide one-seat links between important employment and residential nodes, such as University City, Washington Avenue, Graduate Hospital, the Piazza/Northern Liberties, and Center City, and destinations along the waterfront. These extensions would also supplement the service of Route 25, which currently runs along Delaware Avenue, providing more frequent service for those traveling between attractions on the waterfront. In the longer term, service could be extended to the Sports Complex and the Navy Yard for sports and recreational events.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

on their smartphone devices or via text or email, and it could be displayed at key stops on dynamic message signs. With these improvements, users


Short- and Mid-Term Boulevard Improvements As discussed in the transit section on the previous pages, inserting a dedicated transit-way will take years. However, numerous improvements are recommended in the short term to drastically change the character of the boulevard: •

Enhance pedestrian crossings to improve safety;

Re-time signals to move traffic more efficiently;

Reduce the cross-section of the road where appropriate to shorten crossing distances for pedestrians and improve intersection operations;

Incorporate innovative traffic-operations strategies to respond to various time-of-day/day-of-the-week roadway needs;

Install modern transit amenities to increase the speed and convenience of bus operations; and

Develop an access-management plan to ensure that new development along the waterfront does not needlessly degrade the functional roadway capacity of Delaware Avenue.

To address many of these improvements, a comprehensive traffic study for the entire Delaware Avenue corridor is necessary. When work on the master plan began, it was anticipated that the next phase of the DRPA light-rail study would occur simultaneously with the master plan and would include such a study. Since the results of the DRPA study were expected to inform the master plan, the DRWC project did not originally include substantial traffic study. However, because the DRPA light-rail study has been delayed, DRWC has funded a traffic study for the corridor, which is scheduled to be complete in the fall of 2011. The traffic study will collect existing traffic-count data for the entire corridor, evaluate where there are gaps in counts or where counts are too old to be useful, complete counts for these gaps, and make recommendations for three types of improvements: •

Re-time traffic signals along the corridor to move traffic more efficiently and simultaneously to calm high speeds. The consultants will make recommendations for the entire corridor and will work with the Philadelphia Streets Department to implement the retiming of the signals in the center portion of the waterfront.


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Recommend traffic-calming measures and pedestrian improvements, including better pedestrian signal timing, reduction of roadway width to decrease pedestrian crossing time, and physical improvements, such as crosswalk markings and pedestrian crossing signage, to create a safer environment for people crossing on foot.

•

Recommend reductions in the number of vehicular travel lanes or use of shared travel/parking lanes (where the lane is used for parking during offpeak times). By using traffic counts and future development scenarios in the traffic model, the study will determine where the roadway is overbuilt and could accommodate these changes. This analysis will determine how to incorporate the multi-use trail from Washington Avenue to Spring Garden Street, mentioned above and described further below.

Although Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard will maintain its current carrying capacity for vehicles in the short term (up to three lanes in each direction plus parking lanes as the right-of-way allows), it will be designed to accommodate safe movement for pedestrians and cyclists along the eastern edge of the boulevard and for pedestrians moving in an east-west direction across the boulevard. A high-impact improvement to Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard that can be implemented in the short term is the extension of the trail from Washington Avenue to Penn Street. Some sections of Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard do not have the space on the east side of the cartway to accommodate the 38-foot trail and sidewalk section. These areas are shown in red on the following maps. Following completion of the traffic study, alterations to the roadway configuration will be recommended in order to complete the trail. It is recommended that, after the roadway is considered, priority should be given to bicyclists, pedestrians, the planting strip, and the building setback, in that order.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

•


Columbus Boulevard Conflict Zones


Elements of the Master Plan: Transportation

171 MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE


Columbus Boulevard Conflict Zones


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The primary transportation challenge of this master plan is to move the waterfront from an autocentric environment to an urban environment that accommodates a broadened range of options for movement to and within the waterfront area. This transition will take decades. In the interim, a primary goal of this plan is to provide for the necessary increases in automobile traffic and parking requirements while safeguarding the ability to increase travel by other modes. Simply eliminating parking will likely not be a viable option; some parking will always be needed. However, steps can be taken to provide additional on-street parking, to manage and design off-street parking, and to better incorporate parking into the design of developments to minimize the presence of parking facilities. On-Street Parking Innovative on-street parking practices, such as shared lanes with peak-hour travel lanes and off-peak parking lanes, can be used to accommodate new onstreet parking spaces. Pricing curbside parking based on market conditions can manage vacancy rates so that some curbside spaces are always available for short-term users. Time-of-day restrictions on curbside parking can be varied to reflect local uses and maximize the value in specific locations. Dedicated delivery-zone hours can accommodate business needs while increasing parking inventory. Off-Street Parking The existing conditions along the waterfront include many surface parking lots that are required in the short term to serve existing attractions while autos are the primary mode of access. However, in the short term, the lots could consider flexible uses that accommodate recreational spaces, such as basketball courts, when the space is not needed for parking. Long term, the master plan does not recommend surface parking as the highest and best use for valuable waterfront real estate. Surface parking creates no visual interest and no active street wall, both key elements in a walkable urban environment. Over time, existing surface parking lots will find better use as development sites that will contribute to the waterfront’s transformation into a more urban and vibrant place. As development occurs, the waterfront must begin to wean itself from large surface-parking lots.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Parking


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needed to replace the surface lots that now serve waterfront visitors at Penn’s Landing; these include the Lombard Street lot and the Market Street lot. DRWC plans to work closely with the Interstate Land Management Corporation to identify potential sites for the garage(s) and to determine the financing and operation of the parking facilities. The Land Use Policies and Strategies portion of the Implementation section of this document contains specific recommendations on parking requirements associated with specific development types, which reflect the recommendations in Philadelphia’s proposed new zoning code. The parking required for all new development at the priority sites identified herein will be self-contained and wrapped by buildings so that it is largely hidden from view along major frontages and open spaces, including the waterfront edge. The only possible exception to this would be at the proposed Berks Park, where new surface lots could be used for the general public until there is sufficient demand for additional development of those parcels, at which point structured parking can be built to accommodate the demand generated by the new development as well as by park visitors. Careful regulation and control of off-street parking will ensure that parking facilities contribute in a positive way to the character of the waterfront, while at the same time providing adequate parking. The most important elements include the amount of parking and the location and design of parking facilities. In an urban environment, too much parking can be more detrimental than not enough parking, sapping an area of more active uses and actually reducing the number of people that frequent an area. Many zoning codes have minimum parking requirements that are too high, adding unnecessary development cost and limiting an area’s potential. Reducing the minimum amount of parking required through zoning or establishing the maximum amount of parking that may be provided can often be justified. Since different uses call for parking at different times, promoting the use of shared parking facilities can reduce the total amount of parking needed. Finally, the location and design of parking facilities is crucial to ensuring that they do not detract from urban walkability. Most parking should be located on the interior of blocks and screened by liner buildings. Proper access management will reduce the impact that off-street parking has on the capacity of Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard, as well as reducing the intrusion of driveways across the sidewalk.

Opposite: A Home Depot in Chicago fits into an urban context with rooftop parking screened from view

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

The goal is to minimize the presence of parking facilities; however, to accommodate new development, one or more structured parking garages will be


Dave & Busters Basin Washington Mifflin

Ferry Terminal

Pier 9

Spring Garden Sugar House Penn Treaty/ PECO Berks Park

Cumberland

Petty’s Island

NEAR-TERM STOPS LONG-TERM STOPS Near-term Stops EXISTING Long-term Stops Existing Stops

RIVERLINK FERRY STOPS

Water taxi and Ferry stops


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The only existing water transportation is a ferry service that DRPA operates between Penn’s Landing at the end of Walnut Street and the Adventure Aquarium on the Camden waterfront. Ferries operate daily between the Memorial and Labor Day holidays and on weekends in May and September. During the summer season, ferry service runs on the hour. Long term, as activity increases along both sides of the waterfront, ferry service can be dramatically increased. DRWC plans to work closely with DRPA to examine how the ferry system can be expanded over time to strengthen the connections between various locations in New Jersey and on the Central Delaware. These increased ferry connections will allow both states and their respective cities to plan and coordinate bi-state waterfront festivals or to develop new point-to-point services where there is sufficient demand. In addition, DRWC owns three water taxis and plans to begin a seasonal north-south service by the spring of 2012. These vessels can carry 24 passengers and can travel at speeds of up to 12 knots. The master plan has identified several locations for short- and long-term water-taxi stops based on existing or planned attractions. Contemplated initial stops include the Hyatt Hotel/Independence Seaport Museum, the Ferry Pier at Walnut Street, Dave and Buster’s, and SugarHouse Casino. Stops that could be added in the future, depending on demand, include the Navy Yard, Washington Street, the redeveloped Festival Pier site, and Penn Treaty Park. Stops hoped for in the long term include Mifflin Park and Cumberland Park. Petty’s Island, a 292-acre island in the Delaware River between the Benjamin Franklin and Betsy Ross Bridges, is currently in the process of being transferred to New Jersey for use as a nature preserve and an environmental education center. As such, the island will be an ideal stop for the future watertaxi service envisioned for the waterfront. When the island is remediated and becomes accessible to the public, which is not expected prior to 2020, the DRWC will pursue the creation of a water-taxi stop on the island as a part of the water transportation system meant to link destinations along the Central Delaware River waterfront.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Water Transportation


Municipal Pier 11 in a state of disrepair, 1931

Penn’s Landing today

Percent Change in Employment by Sector, 2001–2008

20% 10%

Education and Health Services Leisure, Hospitality and Other Services Professional, Business, and Information Services

0% -10% -20%

Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities Construction Government Employment Finance

-30%

Wholesale and Retail Trade

-40%

Manufacturing


179

The Delaware waterfront once served as Philadelphia’s commercial and industrial hub, with the river’s industrial activity providing an economic engine for the city in the 20th century. However, postwar deindustrialization and shifts in shipping practices made many of the waterfront economic functions obsolete, leaving the legacy we see today, in all but the far north and south ends of the riverfront, of a deteriorated marine infrastructure and a waterfront cut off from the city’s neighborhoods. The challenge and responsibility of this master plan is to identify and shape the waterfront’s role in Philadelphia’s 21st-century economy. How should the waterfront contribute to the future of the city? Philadelphia continues to have an industrial base, but it is greatly reduced in size. A new sector has replaced industrial activity as the principal driver of Philadelphia’s economy: the knowledge economy. While manufacturing employment fell by over 30 percent from 2001 to 2008 and other sectors also saw employment declines, employment in education and health services increased by 15 percent.1 Although industrial employment remains important to Philadelphia, the education and health services sectors now form the backbone of Philadelphia’s relatively stable market, allowing the city to withstand dramatic economic downturns such as that of the last few years. The waterfront can support the knowledge economy by supporting its workers. Education and health-care institutions prize the same locations that their employees prize as places to live and work; the ability of institutions to attract and sustain talent defines their ability to succeed. The plan therefore must bolster and extend the vibrant environment that already attracts residents, workers, and visitors to Philadelphia. This effort begins on the waterfront itself, where a framework comprised of neighborhood-scaled development and a quality public realm can be created that together feel authentically Philadelphia and simultaneously provide waterfront access and views that establish a distinctive sense of place. This framework should drive and promote the same street-level activity that is valued and celebrated in Philadelphia’s established neighborhoods.

1

Philadelphia Economic Index 2001–2008, Economy League of Greater Philadelphia

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ECONOMICS


Upper Landing, St. Paul, MN

Bryant Park, New York City

Louis Kahn Park, Philadelphia

South Street, Philadelphia


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recreational opportunities and by creating continuous connections to the river for the first time. Waterfront development should feel like a natural extension of Philadelphia’s neighborhoods, inviting upland residents to the water’s edge to participate in the waterfront’s amenities. Finally, the waterfront can further contribute to Philadelphia’s economic growth by providing venues for residents throughout the region to come celebrate, play, and recreate. Some of this activity already takes place around scheduled special events. The opportunity remains to bolster these offerings with an appealing public environment and to expand the volume of activity with improved and diverse outdoor spaces and venues, coupled with year-round food and beverage destinations. These goals for the Central Delaware waterfront point to specific programmatic and strategic needs, all building on the opportunities and challenges associated with the site. Key Site Opportunities

Key Site Challenges

Waterfront views and access

Significant infrastructure needs

Proximity to high-value and emerging neighborhoods

Barriers from transportation infrastructure

Direct highway access

Lack of connections to upland neighborhoods

Contiguous parcels, some publicly controlled

Lack of accessible amenities

Weak market citywide

Inventory and low prices that make high-cost development difficult

Competition from other, well-situated neighborhoods

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

This master plan also must support Philadelphia’s existing neighborhoods and the residents and workers there by providing public open space and


Overall Program Planning for complementary uses can help revitalize the waterfront while attracting new residents and visitors to Philadelphia and supporting economicdevelopment goals. •

The future waterfront should be a mix of uses, dominated by housing and with retail and hotel in the core area.

Focusing on low- to mid-rise housing will help extend the fabric of existing neighborhoods toward the waterfront.

Entertainment/food and beverage retail can rebrand the waterfront as a regional destination and allow it to serve as an amenity for the city, while neighborhood retail can offer amenities for planned residential development. Neighborhood retail may initially be a loss leader for new development but will become more profitable as residential development proceeds.

Flex industrial and/or office space can be included in the program to support the city’s employment goals and can be made more feasible with public support.

Development Strategy The waterfront is a largely undeveloped section of the city, and its development requires a thoughtful strategy. It is a new market that needs to be handcrafted through the planning and infrastructure-investment decisions of public authorities. Here are some vital strategic tactics: •

Concentrate initial development on nodes of public land near transit and other assets in order to generate a critical mass of activity in key locations.

Improve upland connections to link waterfront development nodes with existing neighborhood assets.


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Implementing the master plan requires involved parties to make a focused effort to provide necessary infrastructure and amenities at the waterfront, as well as guidelines for private developers. •

Public/private investment is necessary to ready sites for development.

Appropriately scaled residential development can meet market demand while serving as the foundation for new neighborhoods.

Providing amenities on the waterfront will benefit new development, existing Philadelphia neighborhoods, and the entire region.

Land Use and Development Methodology The design team analyzed waterfront market conditions by conducting site visits and interviews and by examining market reports and precedents. The team’s goal was to examine the waterfront both in its own right and in the context of surrounding neighborhoods and Center City Philadelphia. Market Segment Findings Residential As a part of its assessment of the residential market, the design team examined three recent waterfront developments. •

Waterfront Square, a high-rise condominium development on North Penn Street, has attracted foreign investors. Units that are rented out in that development tend to attract lower rents than comparable units in surrounding neighborhoods.

Dockside, a high-rise rental project, has commanded higher rents than rented units at Waterfront Square.

Piers at Penn’s Landing, a low-rise rental development, is a conversion of existing pier buildings on the waterfront.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Implementation Needs


Additional high-rise condominium and rental towers are expected to be economically marginal due to higher construction costs and market conditions. The following table compares current market values and values required to justify construction, based on market research and interviews with developers.

Residential Construction Requirements Condominiums

Rentals

(Sale Price PSF)

(Monthly Rent PSF)

Low-Rise

High-Rise

Low-Rise

High-Rise

$225

$310

$1.80

$2.20

Construction

$185

$300

$1.75

$2.35

Difference

$40

$10

$0.05

($0.15)

Current Value Value Necessary to Support

Sources: HR&A market analysis and interviews with developers

Low-rise and mid-rise developments are less expensive to build than high-rise and therefore are more economically feasible. In order to compete with new development elsewhere in Philadelphia, all waterfront residential product requires the ten-year tax abatement available for development elsewhere in the city. All residential development also requires site preparation and infrastructure investments to make waterfront development feasible, along with amenities to attract buyers/tenants. In order to build on the success of adjacent neighborhoods, extend the appeal of the historic Philadelphia building stock to the waterfront, reflect the economics of new construction in Philadelphia, and generate the critical mass of street-level activity necessary to build the waterfront market, the design team recommends that new residential product remain generally consistent in scale with surrounding neighborhoods: low- to mid-rise, with occasional opportunities for high-rise development.


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Although the waterfront is relatively close to Center City, there has been no new office development on the waterfront in the 25 years since Piers 3 and 5 were converted to office space in 1985. The lack of construction is due in part to low rents at the waterfront. Currently, rents at Piers 3 and 5 are only $15 per square foot, which is less than 60 percent of the citywide average. The following table compares expected rents for new construction on the waterfront and rents required to justify construction. Commercial Construction Requirements Office Rent PSF Current Value

$20

Value Necessary to Support Construction

$40

Difference

($20)

Sources: HR&A market analysis and interviews with developers

Recent office construction in the central business district has required Keystone Opportunity Zone incentives, despite commanding rents twice that anticipated on the waterfront. Barring a significant change in market conditions, substantial waterfront office development is unlikely. As the waterfront develops, limited potential may arise for modest-scale, small floor-plate buildings, which could attract smaller, creative firms and appeal to owners and employees who live near the waterfront. To compete with other locations, waterfront office space would have to be lower priced and newer than comparable spaces in Center City. Given the activity that daytime office workers would bring to the waterfront, the design team recommends creating opportunities for such commercial development, should the market demonstrate interest.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Commercial


Industrial In Philadelphia, the industrial sector remains an important component of the economy, accounting for one in five jobs. Manufacturing has been in long-term decline nationally, regionally, and locally, with Philadelphia manufacturing employment declining by 25 percent from 1998 to 2007 and even more since the start of the recession.2 However, light industrial uses on the waterfront, such as flex-space, which accommodates office distribution, assembly, and light manufacturing, can be made feasible with public investment in order to support employment goals. The design team recommends focusing any industrial development on sites that are both favorable for industrial use due to large contiguous size and multimodal transportation access and unfavorable for alternative uses due to lack of connectivity to adjacent neighborhoods. Retail Retail development at the waterfront can add vitality and energy, drawing visitors and residents to the district and helping to support the waterfront’s role as a regional gathering place. •

To date, retail development has consisted largely of big-box developments south of Tasker Street. Additional big-box retail space is likely unfeasible due to market saturation and constrained traffic conditions.

Destination food and beverage retail can build on existing waterfront assets and jump-start development by providing visitors with a reason to come to the waterfront. Existing destination retail, such as Dave & Buster’s, has been successful. However, more traditional regional shopping destinations, if successful, would draw shoppers away from Center City—an impact antithetical to the broader economic-development goals of waterfront redevelopment.

Neighborhood retail is required as a loss leader to act as a necessary amenity for other waterfront uses. It will become increasingly economically viable as residential development proceeds.

2

DRAFT: Industrial Market and Land Use Strategy, ERA/AECOM, 2010.


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After doubling in size during the 1990s, Philadelphia’s hotel market has shown little growth in recent years. •

Since 2000, Philadelphia’s hotel market has been flat, with occupancy ranging from 60 percent to 75 percent and average daily rates ranging from $130 to $170.3

Recent hotel development has required public support or has involved conversions. Forms of public support have included Urban Development Action Grants from the Department of Housing and Urban Development and Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation financing.

However, the expansion of the city’s Convention Center may soon create additional demand in central Philadelphia. The expansion is expected to support the addition of 2,000 new rooms.

Currently, the Old City/Society Hill submarket (of which the waterfront is a part) caters mainly to leisure visitors and represents 15 percent of Philadelphia’s hotel market. The design team believes that the expansion of the Convention Center, combined with demand stemming from the city’s casinos and other planned waterfront assets, could support additional hotel construction at the waterfront.

3

Smart City. Smart Choice for Hotel Investment, PIDC and Philadelphia CVB, 2010.

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Hotel


Penn’s Landing Spring Garden Washington

The Three Priority Sites


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The following implementation recommendations have been designed with these two separate but parallel goals: 1.

Provide a roadmap for sequencing and timing land disposition and infrastructure improvements, focusing on the plan’s three priority sites, which encompass city and/or DRWC-owned property. The resulting phasing strategy coordinates infrastructure expenditures and private development in order to maximize the portion of costs covered by development revenues.

2. Generate a high-level financial analysis of development revenues and infrastructure costs sufficient to identify and solve any funding gaps, based on realistic absorption and phasing projections. Development Phasing Development phasing recommendations focus on sites that include property controlled by DRWC, which correspond with those areas in need of the greatest amount of infrastructure improvements. DRWC can guide development and infrastructure sequencing and phasing here based on its disposition strategy for publicly owned land. The three priority sites have been carefully chosen to quickly spur private investment in surrounding areas. The sites were selected because they include publicly owned property and are strategically located near existing transportation and transit infrastructure. •

Washington: This site contains a large area of land comprised of both publicly and privately owned parcels between Piers 38 and 40 and Tasker Avenue.

Penn’s Landing: This site contains the DRWC-owned land between Lombard and Market Streets.

Spring Garden: This site is anchored by the Festival Pier and former City Incinerator sites (owned by DRWC), as well as by a large area of privately owned parcels in between Delaware Avenue and I-95, from the Benjamin Franklin Bridge to Frankford Avenue. These privately owned parcels are referred to as the uplands.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Implementation


Residential absorption projections reflect an expected increase in Philadelphia’s population of 100,000 residents over the next 25 years.4 Assuming that 50 percent of new residents will choose new construction and that the average household will contain two residents, Philadelphia can support 1,000 new residential units per year, a substantial portion of which could be located at the waterfront. Absorption projections below describe the assumptions incorporated into the financial analysis; actual absorption will be driven by evolving market conditions and DRWC’s ultimate land-disposition strategy. Development of other privately held parcels may proceed in parallel and are not factored into these estimates. Development phasing is driven primarily by residential market demand, given the dominance of residential use within the development program. It is assumed that retail and hotel uses will be built in tandem with residential development.

Absorption Assumptions Units/Year

4

Spring Garden

100 units

Penn's Landing

75 units

Washington

50 units

Philadelphia 2035 Comprehensive Plan


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At Penn’s Landing, absorption will begin around the basin and continue on parcels closer to open-space improvements between Market Street and Walnut Street. Phasing development in this sequence builds off of major assets already present on the site (the basin) to catalyze development immediately, and it postpones the more expensive infrastructure improvements required on the north side of Penn’s Landing until on-site generators of development revenue are in place.

At Spring Garden, the redevelopment of Festival Pier is assumed to be a necessary catalyst for the redevelopment of adjacent upland parcels. As such, upland parcels are expected to be redeveloped only after all residential units on Festival Pier have been absorbed.

Absorption at Washington is expected to commence once units around the basin at Penn’s Landing and on the majority of Festival Pier have been absorbed.

Once absorption commences at Washington, absorption is projected to occur simultaneously at the three districts until all projected development has been absorbed.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Spring Garden and Penn’s Landing, the two sites with the most direct connection to established neighborhoods, are projected to be developed first.


Spring Garden Festival Pier & Uplands Below-Grade Infrastructure Above-Grade Infrastructure Vertical Development Absorption Penn’s Landing Below-Grade Infrastructure Above-Grade Infrastructure* Vertical Development Absorption Washington Below-Grade Infrastructure Above-Grade Infrastructure Vertical Development Absorption * Deck at Penn’s Landing to be built following completion of other above-grade infrastructure

2049

2047

2045

2043

2041

2039

2037

2035

2033

2031

2029

2027

2025

2023

2021

2019

2017

2015

2013

2011 Planning & Approvals


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The infrastructure necessary to transform the Delaware River waterfront will require substantial investment. In order to reduce upfront public investment, the design team has timed infrastructure expenditures to coincide with associated private development, maximizing the portion of infrastructure costs that can be offset by revenues from new development. For example, if a parcel is projected to be absorbed starting in 2020, the design team has assumed that required infrastructure for that parcel will not be completed until 2020. For the purposes of phasing, planned infrastructure has been divided into below-grade and above-grade expenses. •

Below-grade infrastructure networks for potable water, sewer, stormwater, and natural gas are assumed to be extended to each parcel during the two years prior to commencement of above-grade infrastructure.

•

The design team assumed an additional two years to complete above-grade infrastructure and vertical development before absorption may begin.

Financial Strategy Given the large-scale automobile capacity and deteriorated marine infrastructure along the Delaware River, any attempt to redevelop the waterfront will require a significant investment in new infrastructure. This infrastructure investment will in turn increase land values, make new development possible, and provide the public open-space amenities long desired at the waterfront. The design team estimates that an initial capital infusion of $65 million, coupled with dedication of various on-site revenue sources to offset future infrastructure costs, will trigger the long-term economic growth desired from the overall plan for the waterfront. The following analysis examines the costs of proposed waterfront infrastructure as well as potential revenue streams in order to prioritize expenditures, identify potential funding sources, and project new waterfront revenues over time.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Infrastructure Phasing


Methodology Infrastructure costs and revenues were analyzed in order to determine how much infrastructure could be paid for with revenues from new development. The design team broke out required debt service for infrastructure improvements by source of funding as well as level of priority, and then compared resulting debt-service payments to projected revenues from land sales, parking fees, and incremental property taxes, net of the ten-year tax abatement.5 Infrastructure Costs The consulting team, in consultation with DRWC, has developed a master plan order-of-magnitude cost estimate necessary to fund the public-sector improvements for the entire six-mile master plan as drawn. This total cost is estimated at $770 million, calculated in 2011 dollars, spread out over a 30year period. The estimate was compiled using specific criteria consisting of comparable projects similar in size and scope to the elements contained in the Master Plan for the Central Delaware, with the assistance of a professional cost-estimating firm. Each element was priced for a range of high and low costs. The $770 million is a conservative estimate that represents the total of the high end of the range.6 A key principle of the master plan is to utilize public funding to build infrastructure that creates value in private development sites and therefore encourages and leverages private development. Additionally, public funding should be used to create amenities that contribute to the quality of life for the city as a whole. Public funding is currently scarce, so the following strategy has been carefully formulated to target public funds first towards projects that leverage important private economic development for the city and second towards projects that would complete the public realm, as shown in the plan, but that are not considered necessary for development to occur.

5 Assumed to be issued with City of Philadelphia credit support and a level debt structure at a 5 percent interest rate and a 3-year maturity. To be conservative, revenues and infrastructure costs were calculated in 2011 $, excluding inflation and escalations. 6 The total estimate of $770 million excludes the cost to build the waterfront light rail system, estimated at over $450 million, and also excludes PennDOT’s scheduled modernization of I-95, estimated at over $1 billion.


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The $770 million total cost of infrastructure improvements to the public realm was therefore divided into two categories of costs: 1.

$356 million: Public Funding to Spur Private Development Funds in this category will be used to initiate value creation on the three priority sites, where revenue-generating development should

$356M

$414M

occur in the earlier phases of implementation. The funding will pay for public-realm improvements like parks and trails on these sites, as well as for pre-development items such as streets and utilities. 2. $414 million: Completing the Public Realm Improvements in this category are also fundamental to the longterm future of the waterfront. Completing the public realm system of streets, parks, and trails has an indirect but significant economic

Total: $770M

impact on the city as a whole by creating a waterfront amenity that

Public Funding to Spur Private Development

will make Philadelphia more attractive to new residents, developers,

Completing the Public Realm

some elements in this category could be built in the shorter term, but

and investors. As funding becomes available for specific projects, public funding for other projects may not become available until the long term when a financial reservoir has been established.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Project Expenses


Funding to Spur Private Development—General Governmental ($MM)

$4

$1 Total: $239M

$1

$13

Parks & Plazas Pier Stabilization

3 $2

1

$8

5

Infrastructure New Streets & Bridges Shore Improvements Pedestrian Bridges

$29

Civic Buildings

$3

$39

3

Parking Demolition & Site Prep


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general governmental expenses, as described below: 1.

Programmatic Expenses: These are expenses that can be readily matched with sources of public or private funding, including these:

State funding for sewer infrastructure;

Federal transportation funding to mitigate I-95, make improvements to Delaware Avenue, make connector street and underpass improvements, and build pedestrian bridges and the deck over Interstate 95 at Penn’s Landing;

Utilities to cover the extension of the gas network;

Mitigation funds to cover wetlands restoration;

Private funds to cover a portion of the boutique amphitheater adjacent to the PECO building; and

Donations and grants to cover certain public buildings, fountains, and artwork.

2. General Governmental Expenses: These are other infrastructure costs not associated with specific grant or infrastructure programs for which specific public funding sources would need to be identified. The breakdown of these costs is shown in the pie chart on the opposite page. Potential sources of funding are city and state capital funding and new federal programs that could be attached to specific projects. Programmatic expenses are assumed to be covered by outside sources, and costs in the “Completing the Public Realm” category will be incurred only as additional funds become available. The key question is thus whether the revenue streams from projected development are sufficient to offset debt service for General Governmental costs in the category of “Public Funding to Spur Private Development” (assuming bond issuance to cover those costs).

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

In order to identify sources of revenue that could pay for the identified costs, the project expenses are further divided into programmatic expenses and


Development Revenues Various revenue streams are available to pay for infrastructure improvements as a result of new development at the waterfront. Revenues are divided into three funding types: 1.

Programmatic Revenue Sources: Costs totaling $348 million in the Programmatic Expenses category have been associated with specific federal and state programs through the Federal Highway Administration, Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Environmental Protection Agency, among others, as well as state agencies such as the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Department of Community and Economic Development, and the Department of Transportation. These sources are tied to specific projects, including improvements to I-95 infrastructure, Columbus Boulevard, wetlands creation, and gas infrastructure. This category of funding also includes foundation and private contributions for specific projects.

2. Bonds Backed by Revenues: Costs totaling $174 million are expected to be covered by financed revenue, backed by the following: •

Incremental municipal property taxes (excluding the portion dedicated to schools), which could be applied to a Tax Increment Financing (TIF) structure;

Revenues from the sale of waterfront land owned by the DRWC and the City of Philadelphia; and

Revenues from proposed new parking facilities (securitized).

Because incremental property taxes for all types of development will be limited by the ten-year abatement from property taxes that is currently available to new developments elsewhere in Philadelphia, the property-tax revenue stream will be delayed for a decade following development at each parcel. However, land-sale revenues (which appear before development is completed) and parking revenues (which appear following the completion of the parking deck at Penn’s Landing) are available earlier. 3. City and State Capital Funding: $248 million in capital funding is spread over 30 years, meaning that approximately $8.25 million per year will be needed.


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This level of ongoing investment is consistent with DRWC’s capital program for Fiscal Year 2011, which totaled $9.9 million. DRWC completed the master plan and constructed the Race Street Pier, the Race Street

$174M

Connector, Washington Avenue Green, and Phase 1 of the Delaware River Trail utilizing the following funding sources: • $2.9 million, City of Philadelphia Capital Funding

$348M $248M

• $2.9 million, DRWC Capital Reserves • $1.0 million, PA Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources funding • $3.1 million, foundation funding

Total: $770M Federal and State Grant Programs, Foundation/Private Contributions City and State Capital Funding Bonds Backed by Revenues

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Project Revenue Sources


Comparison of Costs and Revenues The upfront costs required to jump-start development at the waterfront were determined by calculating the amount by which expenses in the General Governmental category under “Public Funding to Spur Private Development” would have to be reduced for waterfront revenues to cover debt service at each site. The following table summarizes the results of this analysis:

Required Upfront Investment

-$65M

Net Revenues after Debt Service 1st 20 Years

2nd 20 Years

$6M

$114M

With an upfront capital infusion of $65 million, net revenues are projected to exceed debt service by $6 million during the first 20 years of absorption and by $114 million during the second 20 years of absorption, as development is phased in and the ten-year tax abatement expires for more and more parcels. Employment Benefits The creation of additional service retail, entertainment/food & beverage retail, and hotel sites at the waterfront will result in a significant number of new, permanent jobs for Philadelphia. Based on the design team’s projections for private development triggered by the redevelopment of the waterfront priority sites, between 2,150 and 2,850 permanent jobs could be created in the following sectors: •

450 to 600 jobs in service retail

1,050 to 1,400 jobs in entertainment/food & beverage retail

650 to 850 hotel jobs


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Development at the waterfront would produce additional revenue streams that were not analyzed in detail. The following additional revenues from waterfront development would flow to the City of Philadelphia and/or the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania: •

Incremental property taxes flowing to the School District of Philadelphia from new waterfront development;

Incremental property taxes flowing to the city and school district from new development and increased property values in neighborhoods adjacent to the waterfront;

Food and beverage taxes;

Hotel taxes; and

Business and wage taxes.

These substantial revenue streams would be available to offset any additional expenditures taken on by the city or Commonwealth for selected general governmental expenditures that would cover the costs for improvements in the category of “Completing the Public Realm.” In addition to fiscal benefits for the city and commonwealth, residents and visitors would enjoy additional benefits as a result of waterfront redevelopment. •

Numerous new parks and trails would be made accessible to the community.

A significant stock of new housing would be built over the next several decades.

Thousands of construction jobs would be created and sustained over a long period by infrastructure improvements and private development.

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Additional Fiscal and Community Benefits


203

The decision to make inclusion and wealth-building key goals of the master planning process was made by DRWC’s board of directors, working in close collaboration with the Office of the Mayor. Inclusion and wealth-building are reflective of the organization’s desire to be an exemplary leader in this field within the Philadelphia region.

The Urban Affairs Coalition (UAC) was given the task of recommending ways to incorporate inclusion and wealth-building opportunities for businesses owned by minorities and women in the master plan’s proposed redevelopment activities.

In order to formulate the most promising wealth-building options for the master plan within the areas of equity investment, procurement and contracting, leasing, permanent hiring, and financial services, the UAC, in consultation with Econsult Corporation and Milligan and Company, conducted more than 25 interviews with business-development advocates, business associations, business owners, the capital community, and elected officials. The research also included a review of policy and legislation created by federal, state, and local governments; programs, business tools, and services available from both the public and private sectors; and case studies for ten projects, including the Marriott-Philadelphia.

What follows is a summary of the case for inclusive participation in wealth-building activities, as well as a description of specific opportunities for inclusive participation within this master plan. For a complete version of the wealth-building report, which includes a review of existing policies and programs and case studies, see the Appendix.

Opposite page: Race Street Pier construction

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

WEALTH-BUILDING STRATEGIES


The Case for Inclusive Participation in Wealth-Building Activities Historically, advocates of inclusive participation in wealth-building activities have observed, supported, and promoted inclusion in contracts, procurement, professional services, and employment opportunities, though these activities do not always build wealth. It is important to advocate for economic opportunity not only as an end, but as a means for minorities and women to build wealth. This can be the outcome when entrepreneurs are able to participate in an inclusive environment and grow their businesses, when workers are able to freely participate in professional endeavors, and when individual investors are able to capture profit from well-placed risk. The local economy is healthier when all members can contribute and benefit throughout the entire economic cycle. Inclusion through economic-opportunity planning will facilitate the full participation of all members in the Delaware River waterfront community through investment, entrepreneurship, and employment. Structural and historical barriers make it necessary to require economic-opportunity planning in contract, procurement, professional services, employment, and investment opportunities. Where well-intentioned policies and programs meet inspired leadership and political will, inclusive participation occurs, and projects are successful. While DRWC is presently the project owner of a small portion of the planning area, its leadership through its economic-opportunity practices, including its adherence to the following general principles of inclusion, will be an influential element in the overall redevelopment of the planning area.


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Public-sector influence can be a combination of “soft” authority—working collaboratively to create an environment in which inclusion is good for everyone—and “hard” authority—using regulatory power and related influence to enforce compliance with established policies and adherence to stated goals, particularly when the public sector is the owner or an investor.

In efforts that require public input, such as zoning, permitting, or public investment, local and state representatives have an obligation to enforce legislation to ensure inclusive participation. Legislation requiring participation and the enforcement of that legislation are important because otherwise many majority firms might not take the time to consider new partnerships with Minority/Women/Disadvantaged Business Enterprises (M/W/DSBEs).

Technical assistance and advocacy need to be comprehensive, following every aspect of the business-development process, and leadership needs to be comprehensive, sustaining focus and momentum.

Coordinated Technical Assistance •

It is important to understand the overlaps and differences between types of economic-development and wealth-building opportunities and to keep track of the progress in each. Contracting opportunities (both one-time and ongoing), retailing opportunities, employment opportunities, and investment opportunities are all opportunities for wealth-building, but they need to be differentiated so that resources and strategies can be correctly deployed to them.

Technical assistance must help M/W/DSBEs to be seamless in their business operations so that there is no point of weakness. M/W/DSBE inclusion is not just about spreading out economic opportunities; it is also about providing M/W/DSBEs with opportunities to compete, deliver, and grow.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

The Role of Public Sector Influence, Legislation, and Advocacy


Technical assistance and advocacy also need to account for the challenging road faced by minorities and women seeking contracting, procurement, and professional-services opportunities. Minorities and women may face additional challenges and may have fewer outlets for receiving both “soft” encouragement and “hard” critique to bounce back from those challenges and continue forward. Technical-assistance providers must ensure that constructive feedback tools are integrated into programs.

Technical assistance should focus on helping M/W/DSBEs grow to the point at which they no longer need to derive their opportunities from their M/W/ DSBE status. Otherwise, wealth creation will be limited, because wealth results when broadly transferable value is created.

Ownership, Equity, and Wealth Creation •

A fundamental premise should be to add value by ensuring a diversity of perspectives, skills, experiences, approaches, and networks. Grow the pie, don’t just redistribute the slices. Evaluate measures based on whether they add value for everyone involved rather than merely trying to redistribute opportunity.

A firm’s ability to profitably deliver value-added services is paramount. Nevertheless, limits on “capacity” cannot be an excuse for avoiding the inclusion of M/W/DSBEs. Capacity is an issue with any emerging business, but appropriately matched opportunities yield growth for all stakeholders. Growing firms to scale and not trapping them within a permanent business underclass increases revenue generation and job creation and allows more positive exit outcomes, whether the owners are selling the venture they have grown or passing it on to the next generation.


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Financing is important. Debt and equity providers must be engaged to plan and promote coordinated investment in M/W/DSBEs. Equity positions held by minorities, women, and disabled persons also create an opportunity to further influence all aspects of a project from the standpoint of M/W/DSBE inclusion and employment opportunities.

The Role of Organized Labor in Employment •

Philadelphia-based building trade unions have been protective of the distribution of employment opportunities, so they are key participants in identifying fair ways to create a more diverse construction workforce. The Mayor’s Advisory Commission on Construction Industry Diversity (MACCID) has made nine recommendations that, if implemented, would promote greater workforce equity.

Marketing, Public Relations, and Reporting •

Publicity matters. It helps to sustain momentum, acknowledges positive behavior, informs, and demonstrates. Past successes can create positive momentum for future efforts. Ultimately, progress happens best when goals are set and performance is measured. Without these standards, there is no shared sense of what is to be accomplished and how projects are doing. Tracking and publicizing those metrics is an important, momentumsustaining aspect of any good economic-inclusion effort.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Access to Capital


Specific Opportunities for DRWC Inclusion and Wealth-Building The redevelopment of the Central Delaware waterfront presents a unique opportunity to advance efforts to increase participation and investment by groups that are traditionally not well represented in developments of this scale. The redevelopment projects of DRWC can stand in the forefront of creating such a culture in the greater Philadelphia region by integrating the following recommendations. During the projected 25-year timeline for the master plan, DRWC can function in four different roles to implement inclusionary and wealth-building activities. ■■

DRWC as an Organization Throughout the life of the project, DRWC may be called upon to directly manage the design and construction of various public improvements, including open-space projects such as the Race Street Pier, streetscape improvement projects such as the Race Street Connector, structural modifications and improvements to its core assets such as the Great Plaza and the marina basin, and various other public-works projects. These projects vary in scope and size. For the early stage anchor projects, illustrative costs are indicated.

DRWC will be guided by its organizational Economic Opportunity Plan (EOP), which is currently in development under a consultative contract to the Urban Affairs Coalition. The EOP will establish an aggressive set of inclusionary goals and practices for DRWC’s development and operations activities, as well as a strong compliance monitoring and reporting system. DRWC will undertake a proactive marketing campaign to alert M/W/DSBEs to upcoming opportunities to do business with DRWC. DRWC will also incorporate into its practices the guidelines and resources set forth in the following programs and documents developed by the City of Philadelphia Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), under the leadership of Mayor Michael Nutter: •

“Recommendations from the Mayor’s Advisory Commission on Construction Industry Diversity,” dated March 2009, which outlines key steps in creating economic opportunity in the construction industry;

“Inclusion Works: Economic Opportunity Strategic Plan,” dated February 2010, which outlines how the City of Philadelphia proposes to create economic opportunity through a specific set of approaches; and

Building Businesses & Putting People to Work, a program that helps businesses network for key opportunities


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construction-management services, civil engineering, and marine engineering. Construction projects that DRWC undertakes will require contractors, including but not limited to firms with expertise in landscaping, electrical, concrete, mechanical, lighting, and general site work. In addition to these construction projects, DRWC will engage professional-services firms in the management of its routine activities, in addition to buying supplies and equipment to maintain its assets, which include parks, trails, and other real estate. ■■

DRWC as a Property Owner DRWC’s most important, large-scale and direct role in wealth-building will derive from the private development of land that DRWC currently owns. Presently, DRWC owns the 10-acre Festival Pier site on the east side of the intersection of Delaware Avenue and Spring Garden Street, as well as the 25-acre parcel at Penn’s Landing. In accordance with the phasing strategy recommended for the development of priority sites identified in the master plan, within the next ten years, DRWC will issue three Requests for Proposals or Requests for Qualifications (RFPs/RFQs) for private developers.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Professional services needed for proposed projects will include architectural and landscape design, environmental engineering and consulting,


Each RFP will set forth the recommended development program for the respective site, as well as a set of wealth-building goals, which will include but not necessarily be limited to the following activities: •

Equity investment by M/W/DSBEs;

Professional services, including those connected to the design and construction of the project, such as legal services, financial consulting, and marketing;

Workforce diversity program, negotiated between the project developer and the building trades, supported by existing and new training programs;

Construction contracts and related supplies and materials;

Entrepreneurship opportunities in retail, entertainment, and dining; and

Ongoing maintenance services for completed projects.

The process of selecting a developer will include a formal consideration of the developer’s willingness to enter into a project-specific EOP that sets forth specific wealth-building goals. That EOP would become a part of the project agreement. These are the three RFPs/RFQs currently being contemplated: Festival Pier Depending on market conditions, DRWC plans to issue a comprehensive RFP for the development of the ten-acre site within the next 18 months to three years. The development program calls for construction, in two or more phases, of approximately 700 units of housing and 55,000 square feet of retail, dining, and entertainment and 55,000 square feet of service retail. Construction could potentially begin within 18 to 24 months of the execution of the project agreement, and construction of the entire project could take six to eight years, again depending on market conditions. The order of magnitude value of the project in 2011 dollars is in the range of $250 to $350 million.


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Depending on market conditions, DRWC plans to issue an RFP for residential and retail development along the Penn’s Landing basin within the next 18 months to three years. This two-phase development program proposes the construction of approximately 370 units of housing with 89,000 square feet of retail, dining, and entertainment. As with the Festival Pier site, construction could begin within 18 to 24 months of the execution of the project agreement, and construction of the first phase would take approximately two years; depending on market conditions, construction of the second phase could begin soon after completion of the first. The order of magnitude value of this project in 2011 dollars is in the range of $150 to $200 million. Penn’s Landing–Market Street Lot The development of the Market Street lot at the northern end of Penn’s Landing will necessitate a significant amount of public investment to complete the decks over I-95 and Columbus Boulevard, construct the new pedestrian bridge at Market Street, and build a new park to replace the Great Plaza. This project will involve extensive consultation with PennDOT and will require the significant lead time associated with the need for various federal, state, and local approvals and permits. For these reasons, the master plan estimates eight to ten years before DRWC would be in a position to issue an RFP for the project. The contemplated development program for this seven-acre parcel is for the construction of a 350-room hotel, approximately 300 units of housing, 50,000 square feet of retail, dining, and entertainment, and 25,000 square feet of service retail. The order of magnitude value of this project is 2011 dollars is $250 to $350 million.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Penn’s Landing Basin


■■

DRWC as a Project Facilitator Approximately 90 percent of the land covered by the master plan is owned privately, and most of the new development projected in the master plan will be on these private parcels. In these cases, DRWC’s ability to influence these private entities to engage in inclusionary and wealth-building practices will be much less direct. At the same time, development on privately owned land might require public improvements such as parks, trails, roads, and utilities. In these instances, DRWC can help the private developer gain access to the appropriate sources of public funding. In return, DRWC can use such incentives to encourage private investors to incorporate inclusionary and wealth-building policies into their development plans.

■■

DRWC as an Inclusion Champion The redevelopment of the Central Delaware River waterfront provides DRWC with the opportunity to play a lead role in orchestrating and implementing a wealth-building strategy that includes businesses owned by minorities and women and that addresses equity-investment opportunities for these communities. The three early-stage anchor projects outlined in the master plan offer opportunities for members of the local business community to be consultants, contractors, commercial tenants, and equity investors. This redevelopment also creates employment for Philadelphians in the construction trades and in the various businesses that will be created to support the waterfront’s redevelopment. The overall economic and social impact of DRWC’s successful implementation of its wealth-building strategy can be profound.


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LAND USE POLICIES AND STRATEGIES

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SUSTAINABILITY

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SUMMARY

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CONCLUSION

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SHORT-TERM PROJECTS


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The ultimate success of this plan will be determined by the speed and quality of its implementation. The last section of this report sets forth an ambitious, phased project list that identifies a steady stream of construction projects for the next five years and beyond. However, establishing a clear and consistent land-use policy is an equally important step in the implementation of a long-term plan and in the creation of a stable environment for investment in and development of the waterfront for decades to come. The creation of the master plan is therefore the first step, and describes intent for development form, massing, height, and basic categories of land use rather than making exact recommendations on new classifications for specific parcels. The city has three specific land use tools that are available to set policies for implementation of this master plan: base zoning districts, waterfront overlay zoning districts, and design guidelines. The master plan intent for these three tools is described in the following pages. In order to implement the plan, the following specific steps will have to be taken by the City of Philadelphia.

• Adoption of the master plan by the Planning Commission • Enactment of the new zoning code by City Council, as proposed and amended by the Zoning Code Commission • Remapping of the zoning for the project area by the Planning Commission in accordance with the master plan and the new zoning code • Drafting by the Planning Commission of a new waterfront overlay ordinance for the project area • Proposal by the Planning Commission of the new base remapping and new waterfront overlay ordinance to City Council • Amendment of the new zoning code by City Council with the waterfront overlay ordinance and adoption of new base zoning mapping • Adoption by Planning Commission of design guidelines for the project area

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In general, base zoning should control use, bulk, street setbacks, open space requirements, parking, and landscaping. Currently, the waterfront is a mix of uses and zoning; in some cases the current zoning matches the existing use, and in some cases the zoning is obsolete and requires updating. The process required to update the antiquated zoning on the waterfront is representative of the laboriousness of processes in the city as a whole. There is a two-step process: first, the new zoning code, which contains a legal definition and description of new base zoning categories, must be passed by City Council; second, the zoning for the city will need to be systematically remapped based on the categories set forth in the new code. DRWC will advocate that the Planning Commission remap the waterfront as soon as possible following adoption of the master plan and the adoption of the new zoning code. It is hoped that this process can be completed by the Planning Commission within 12 months of adoption. The master plan sets forth recommendations for the following controls that should be controlled through base zoning and therefore considered when waterfront zoning remapping is completed:

Use Proposed land uses for the project area are shown on the map on page 216. The master plan shows the existing and thriving port and heavy industrial activities at the north and south ends as remaining. The master plan recommends predominantly residential and mixed-use zoning along the waterfront between Mifflin Street to Lehigh Avenue, with preference for residential use within the mixed-use zones. Areas defined as mixed use would allow for professional offices, hotels, movie theaters, and other moderately scaled commercial uses in addition to residential use. These mixed-use areas are located as follows: •

Between Columbus Boulevard and I-95 south of Washington Avenue, to allow for a transitional zone between the residential uses on the waterfront and the more challenging upland sites near the highway;

•

Around the Penn’s Landing area, to encourage a dense variety of possibilities to support the most prominent destination on the waterfront; and

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Base Zoning Districts


Between Delaware Avenue and I-95 in the Spring Garden area, to support the creation of an active, intricate streetscape along the extended and reconnected Canal, Beach, and Water Streets corridor.

The following additional recommendations are made for the waterfront as a whole: •

Large-format retail, as well as adult entertainment and other incompatible uses currently not permitted in the waterfront overlay, should continue to be excluded.

Active ground-floor uses should be permitted everywhere to encourage vibrant and thriving street life, both day and night. Examples of these active uses are retail sales, commercial services, restaurants, lobbies of hotels and theaters, libraries, museums, and galleries.

Retail establishments should be limited to a maximum of 10,000 square feet per establishment, except for food markets, which may be up to 40,000 square feet to ensure the urban-neighborhood scale of retail development for the future waterfront. In the design guidelines, the ground-floor activation diagrams on pages 228 to 231 define specific streets that should have required amounts of these ground-floor uses to reinforce the neighborhood connections to waterfront amenities.

Light industrial and office/research uses are located north of Columbia Avenue.

Bulk Bulk is defined by zoning districts but is capped by height and coverage rules set in the waterfront overlay and further described in the design guidelines. The intention is for the waterfront to follow a low- to mid-rise pattern (with limited exceptions) to meet the needs of the market as well as to be sensitive to the existing city fabric, which is essential to the character of Philadelphia.


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To create a pedestrian-friendly streetscape along the waterfront, buildings should have a continuous street wall with limited setbacks at the street level. To maintain a sense of relatively low-scale buildings in keeping with the character of Philadelphia and to prevent a cavern effect on narrow streets while also allowing some flexibility where appropriate, taller buildings should have stepbacks. These stepbacks should begin at a height no greater than 60 feet, except on streets that are 120 feet or greater in width; on these wider streets, stepbacks should be allowed up to a maximum height no greater than half the width of the street. Open Space Requirements For lots over 5,000 square feet on the waterfront, the following minimum open-space rules should apply. •

Waterfront sites: 40 percent (including the area designated for setback and trail)

Sites located west of Columbus Boulevard/Delaware Avenue: 30 percent

Sites located east of Columbus Boulevard/Delaware Avenue, but not waterfront sites: 30 percent

Parking and Landscaping General parking and landscaping standards are controlled by base zoning categories in the new zoning code, which addresses parking in a much more progressive way than did the old code. When the new code is passed, these requirements will also apply to the waterfront as it is remapped. A more detailed discussion of intentions for parking on the waterfront can be found in the Transportation portion of the Elements of the Master Plan section of this document. In general, while parking will be required in the short term until more substantial transit options are available on the waterfront, the master plan recommends that over the long term, the waterfront be developed as a dense, urban, walkable place that minimizes the use of automobiles and maximizes the use of transit and other transportation modes.

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Overlay districts are intended to provide additional regulation beyond what is required in base zoning categories. For the waterfront, items that will require additional control and should be included in an overlay are setback from river, minimum height, maximum height, garage wrapping, curb cuts, and industrial loading. Each of these is described further below. Additionally, the waterfront overlay should set forth criteria under which a development would trigger a Civic Design Review process and should make specific reference to the waterfront design guidelines to give property owners and developers more detailed information about intentions for waterfront development. The new zoning code has reserved Section 14-506 as the “Central Delaware Riverfront Overlay District.” DRWC will advocate that the Planning Commission draft a new overlay ordinance for this section of the code after the commission adopts the master plan. Setback from River In order to allow for waterfront activation (see pages 119 to 141), to preserve and create views both to and from the river, to provide a safe condition at the river’s edge, to encourage access to and from the river, to allow for circulation between parcels along the waterfront, and to provide a green buffer for stormwater management and other environmental benefit, a building setback of a minimum of 50 feet from the top of bank is recommended north of Spring Garden Street and south of Washington Avenue. Further, as shown on the illustrative plan and the public realm base plan, an additional building setback of 50 feet is recommended in certain areas where appropriate. A building setback is not recommended between Spring Garden Street and Washington Avenue because the Columbus Boulevard right-of-way is adjacent to the river’s edge in that area; therefore, the approximately 38-foot section for the trail will be contained within the public right-of-way of the road.

Opposite page: Aker Brygge Waterfront, Oslo

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Waterfront Overlay Zoning District


Minimum Height A minimum height of two stories is recommended on street frontages defined by the street wall build-to-locations diagrams on pages 232 to 235. Up to 30 percent of this frontage can be set back no greater than five feet from the build-to line. The intention is to provide a continuous street wall with some articulation, allowing for a pedestrian-friendly environment on important street connections from the neighborhoods to waterfront amenities. Maximum Height A maximum height of eight stories and 90 feet is recommended for the waterfront, with the exception that the City Planning Commission should have discretion to allow towers up to 20 stories (225 feet) in specific, appropriate instances that benefit the city. Under these conditions, additional height could be appropriate: •

A location is directly adjacent to a public park of a minimum size of 3 acres;

A tall building in this location will not block sunlight from a park or block a waterfront-view corridor;

A location would act as a marker for a significant waterfront event or an intersection, such as the end of a key connector street;

Development meets a minimum sustainable-construction criteria, to be defined by the city;

Development makes direct contributions to the capital construction of public infrastructure or open space on the waterfront that are proportional to the amount of additional development that would be possible with a bonus of additional height. A direct guideline for this transaction should be established by the city; and

No other tower should be located within 400 feet of the requested location, except at potential Transit-Oriented Development sites.


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fabric, which is essential to the character of Philadelphia. When the public can benefit directly from additional height, then that height should be considered in select locations. More specific design guidelines for height are proposed on pages 232 to 235.

Parking Structures, Surface Lots, and Loading-Area Screening All parking structures, surface lots, and loading areas should be screened from view with either building use or dense planting to avoid visibility from public streets and open spaces. The intent is to create a walkable, pedestrian-friendly environment. Since certain east-west connector streets are essential for pedestrian connectivity, certain locations should have screened parking, as defined on pages 236 to 239. Curb Cuts East-west connector streets that are essential for pedestrian connectivity should also be locations where curb cuts are not permitted. These are defined on pages 240 to 243. Industrial Loading Industrial loading should be carefully located so that it does not negatively impact areas focused on pedestrian or bicycle access, such as primary connector streets, the waterfront trail/drive, or Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

The intention is that the waterfront should maintain a low- to mid-rise pattern to meet the needs of the market as well as to be sensitive to the existing city


Design Guidelines In contrast to base zoning districts and overlay districts, which dictate standards that must be followed under the new zoning code, design guidelines are advisory in nature. The new zoning code has certain thresholds that trigger a Civic Design Review (CDR), which replaces requirements in the old code and old overlays for a Plan of Development review. When a CDR is required, the design guidelines for that section should be used when the Design Review Committee comments on a proposed development. Additionally, as described in the new zoning code, CDR has a specific requirement for public notice and public meetings. It is anticipated that, along with a new waterfront overlay district, waterfront design guidelines will be developed by the Planning Commission in the months following the adoption of the master plan. Architectural Features See pages 244 to 247 for recommended locations. Architectural features support the intention of the public realm by creating built vertical markers and cues to help people orient themselves and understand important locations on the ground that are not visible from a distance. Architectural features can take many forms and include these: •

Towers (where permitted);

Cupolas;

Other significant changes in height;

Atria;

Dramatic changes in building material, texture, color, or form; and

Canopies or awnings that designate major entries to buildings or courtyards.

Ground-Floor Activation See pages 228 to 231. The intent of these guidelines is described in the Base Zoning Districts portion of this Implementation section, under the heading “Use.”


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See pages 232 to 235. The intent of these guidelines is to create a variety of heights along the waterfront, while acknowledging that certain heights are more appropriate in certain areas than others. The waterfront currently has a maximum height of 90 feet, consistent with the overlay district. Certain areas, such as the upland areas, have lower height limits so that new development will be appropriately scaled to existing neighborhoods while allowing height and density to step closer to the waterfront. Therefore, the maps in this section show locations for 35-foot (three-story), 60-foot (five-story), and 90-foot (eight-story) maximum heights. Specific locations for buildings up to 90 feet tall include areas west of Columbus Boulevard/Delaware Avenue along Snyder and Washington Avenues and Spring Garden Street, as well as along Columbus Boulevard/Delaware Avenue, as these are wider streets and important waterfront connections. Areas that will have height limits of less than 90 feet include the areas between Columbus Boulevard/Delaware Avenue and I-95 in the Spring Garden district, where narrower streets and a historic building fabric warrant smaller-scale buildings consistent with the character of the surroundings. Parking Structure, Surface Lots, and Loading-Area Screening See pages 236 to 239. The intent of these guidelines is described under “Parking Structure, Surface Lots, and Loading-Area Screening” below the Waterfront Overlay Zoning District heading, on page 225. Street Line Build-to Locations See pages 248 to 251. The intent of these guidelines is described in the Waterfront Overlay Zoning District portion under “Minimum Height,” on page 224. Connector Streets See pages 240 to 243. The intent of these guidelines is to reinforce the connection from neighborhoods to waterfront amenities by recommending frontages that have the following three characteristics: minimum transparency requirements, so that activities within the building will help activate the streetscape as well as provide “eyes on the street”; a minimum sidewalk width of 15 feet on either side of the street; and no curb cuts.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

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Implementation: Land Use Policies and Strategies

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MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Architectural Features

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Architectural Features: Piers 38 and 40 to Market Street 300'

600'

Delaware River Waterfront Corporation

Central Delaware Master Plan Philadelphia, PA Street and Block - Penn's Landing

Cooper, Robertson & Partners OLIN KieranTimberlake HR&A Parsons Brinckerhoff KS Engineers KBE CH Planning Kelly/Maiello, Inc. May 5, 2011


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ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES

Architectural Features

0

300'

600'

Architectural Features: Market Street to Penn Treaty Park Delaware River Waterfront Corporation

Central Delaware Master Plan Philadelphia, PA Street and Block - Spring Garden

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MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Architectural Features

Architectural Features: Penn Treaty Park to Lehigh Avenue

0

300'

600'

Delaware River Waterfront Corporation

Central Delaware Master Plan Philadelphia, PA Street and Block - Penn Treaty/Far North

Cooper, Robertson & Partners OLIN KieranTimberlake HR&A Parsons Brinckerhoff KS Engineers KBE CH Planning Kelly/Maiello, Inc. May 5, 2011


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Columbus Boulevard

STREET LINE BUILD-TO LOCATIONS Street Wall Built to Locations

0

Street Line Build-to Locations: Oregon Avenue to Piers 38 and 40 300'

600'

Delaware River Waterfront Corporation

Central Delaware Master Plan Philadelphia, PA Street and Block - Far South/Washington

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STREET LINE BUILD-TO LOCATIONS Street Wall Built to Locations

0

Street Line Build-to Locations: Piers 38 and 40 to Market Street 300'

600'

Delaware River Waterfront Corporation

Central Delaware Master Plan Philadelphia, PA Street and Block - Penn's Landing

Cooper, Robertson & Partners OLIN KieranTimberlake HR&A Parsons Brinckerhoff KS Engineers KBE CH Planning Kelly/Maiello, Inc. May 5, 2011


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STREET LINE BUILD-TO LOCATIONS

Street Wall Built to Locations

0

300'

600'

Street Line Build-to Locations: Market Street to Penn Treaty Park

Delaware River Waterfront Corporation

Central Delaware Master Plan Philadelphia, PA Street and Block - Spring Garden

Cooper, Robertson & Partners OLIN KieranTimberlake HR&A Parsons Brinckerhoff KS Engineers KBE CH Planning Kelly/Maiello, Inc. May 5, 2011


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MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

STREET LINE BUILD-TO LOCATIONS Street Wall Built to Locations

Street Line Build-to Locations: Penn Treaty Park to Lehigh Avenue

0

300'

600'

Delaware River Waterfront Corporation

Central Delaware Master Plan Philadelphia, PA Street and Block - Penn Treaty/Far North

Cooper, Robertson & Partners OLIN KieranTimberlake HR&A Parsons Brinckerhoff KS Engineers KBE CH Planning Kelly/Maiello, Inc. May 5, 2011


Illustrative rendering of development at Festival Pier site


Implementation

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Over 300 years ago, in establishing a new colony, William Penn sought to define Philadelphia as the “Greene Countrie Towne” within Pennsylvania, a community based in a verdant land of rivers, streams, marshes, hillocks, and valleys. In those preindustrial days, cohabitation with plants, animals, clean air, clean water, and abundant resources were a given. As the region developed and progressed, and during the Civil War and World Wars I and II, Philadelphia turned from an intellectual capital to a region of industry and production. Abundant water resources, vibrant port facilities, transportation access, and labor conspired to make Philadelphia a force of industrial production. From ships to clothing, Philadelphia provided products that helped the United States win two wars and became the muscle behind the brains and the money (Washington and New York). As the last half-century has unfolded, Philadelphia has returned to its roots—in a way. Traditional “smokestack” industry has moved on, leaving behind brownfields instead of greenfields, abandoned docks and factories instead of unfettered watersheds. Much industrial production has been replaced by the industries of a service economy. Left behind is a great opportunity, an opportunity laid out in detail within this master plan. This master plan can become a means of defining the whole region, just as William Penn attempted to do three centuries ago. Instead of unused and vibrant land, we have used land; with a redefinition of that land’s purposes and resources, the Philadelphia region can again lead a nation. The Master Plan for the Central Delaware is pragmatically visionary. The policy statements are aspirational. With the collective intelligence and collaborative effort of this master-planning team, a sustainability strategy has been created for this six-mile district, from the Delaware River waterfront to I-95. This strategy defines this project as truly environmentally ethical. A policy is recommended here that becomes more robust as the master plan and its time frame extends. Initially, the policy might be seen as an “overlay” on the code. Eventually the master plan recommends that it become an amendment to the Philadelphia zoning code and to the building codes for this district. The highlights of this recommended policy for projects in the Delaware River master plan district include actions that address air quality, water quality and management, new development, district and regional history, energy, regional transportation, accessibility, and open space and recreation.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

SUSTAINABILITY


WATER

ENERGY

DESIGN

0 to 5 years (now through 2016)

5 to 15 years (2017 through 2025)

All projects in the Delaware River Master Plan

All projects in the Delaware River Master Plan

district meet an internationally accepted

district meet an internationally accepted

sustainability standard to a mid-level achievement

sustainability standard to a highest-level

(e.g., LEED Gold).

achievement (e.g., LEED Platinum).

15 years and beyond (after 2025)

All projects in the Delaware River master plan district collectively consume grid energy or nonrenewable energy produced at 2010 levels.

Increased use of renewable energy sources to

Increased use of renewable energy sources to

maintain 2010 levels of nonrenewable use.

maintain 2010 levels of nonrenewable use.

All projects in the Delaware River master

All projects in the Delaware River master plan

plan district meet City of Philadelphia Water

district contribute to a 75 percent reduction in

Department Best Management

runoff from all Directly Connected Impervious

Practices for use and runoff.

areas.


Implementation: Sustainability

The opposite page outlines a strategy for design, energy, and water policies that would become more stringent as time progresses. The theory is that over time, as technology advances and sustainable measures become less costly, more robust policies can be enacted to attain higher, more sustainable results. some of which should be considered as projects are implemented. Water •

Improve runoff from impervious surfaces to meet PWD guidelines

Restore portions of the Delaware River watershed through new

Improve open space at neighborhood thresholds below I-95

Create new development

Incorporate sustainable objectives to achieve high-performance,

wetland additions strategically placed along the six-mile length Air

innovative development •

Provide open spaces every half-mile that connect to neighborhoods

Implement sustainable landscape designs

development teams, designers, and property owners •

Encourage opportunities locally and regionally for the use of

Existing Buildings and Local History

renewable energy

Add a new streetcar serving neighborhoods, parks, and Center City,

development strategies •

Create an improved, continuous bike path linked to neighborhoods and Center City

Improve pedestrian walkways and linkages north to south and east to

Open Space and Recreation •

Increase parking opportunities for recreation areas and new

Improve porosity to and from neighborhoods with street and sidewalk improvements

Improve city and neighborhood accessibility to waterfront activities and amenities

Incorporate recreation programs appropriate for and related to each neighborhood

development Accessibility

Add new recreation areas every half-mile that are linked to neighborhoods, including a new Penn’s Landing Park

west from the waterfront into neighborhoods •

Strategically incorporate post-industrial resources as a part of the development or open space plan

intermodally reducing the need to drive to the waterfront •

Respect current viewsheds to and from neighborhoods and incorporate existing buildings, landmarks, and local history within

Incorporate achievable energy standards for new development

Transportation •

Meet new zoning guidelines for developments serving the neighborhoods and thresholds connecting to waterfront

Energy •

Encourage highest level of sustainable-design results from

Incorporate conversions of brownfields to open space and of postindustrial spaces to program spaces

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Additionally, the following recommendations reflect significant sustainability goals, some of which were incorporated directly into the master plan, and

255


SUMMARY The overall goal of this plan is to reconnect Philadelphia to its Delaware River waterfront. Past generations of Philadelphians had strong connections to the waterfront, which was then a thriving center of transportation, commerce, and industry in addition to offering pockets of recreational activity. In the more recent past, the number of industrial sites using the river for commerce shrank, and in the second half of the 20th century, waterfront industry drastically declined in the region. The result is a challenged waterfront landscape where industry has receded as if it were a glacier, leaving behind large tracts of vacant or underutilized land with no public waterfront access. In order to reestablish a strong waterfront connection, there must be attractions and/or public amenities that people want to visit. In addition, there must be direct, safe, and attractive physical connections between the adjacent neighborhoods and the waterfront.

The master plan utilizes the eight principles listed in the Overview section to reestablish connections by doing the following things:

■■ Making high-impact physical improvements to the rights-of-way of existing east-west connector streets; ■■ Adding or restoring streets to the city plan to extend rights-of-way to the waterfront; ■■ Acquiring additional easements for pedestrian and bicycle access and to preserve view corridors; ■■ Creating a series of parks and a continuous trail along the waterfront; and ■■ Utilizing the existing assets of water and cultural resources as the basis for public art and programming.


Implementation: Summary

257

project early in the planning process, and the results show that 90 percent of the acreage within the project study area is privately owned. Only 10 percent of the land is owned by DRWC or other public or quasi-public agencies. Therefore, the development strategy for realizing the highest and best uses of all of the land—both private and public—is to increase the value and therefore the development potential of all property through a coordinated, strategic, and phased series of public improvements that are fully described throughout this plan. Another important strategy is to work with the City Planning Commission and other regulatory agencies to create a zoning and regulatory approval process for privately owned property that is clear, transparent, and predictable for private developers. The existing zoning on the waterfront is outdated and acts as a barrier to economic development rather than encouraging new development. Establishing design guidelines that promote high-quality development will insure that new development is consistent and will protect the interests of adjacent property owners. DRWC is committed to an open and transparent public process for development sites owned by DRWC or the City of Philadelphia. Public input and involvement in these projects is critical to ensure that development projects on public land are in keeping with best practices and the public good.

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

These types of projects were chosen because they can be carefully planned to capitalize on publicly owned land. Property ownership was mapped for the


259

The Master Plan for the Central Delaware was developed based on the key principle that utilizing targeted public investments in public infrastructure like streets, parks, and trails will create value in degraded, vacant waterfront land and thus will catalyze private development. Therefore, the economics consultant was a key member of the core team and provided critical input in design decisions. The resulting plan is aspirational yet achievable, as outlined in the Economics portion of the Elements of the Master Plan section. It provides a detailed roadmap for transforming the Central Delaware waterfront over the next 25 years. All elements of this plan were designed with the knowledge that implementation would begin immediately following the completion of the plan. In fact, DRWC began implementation in 2009 along with several critical project partners, including the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, the Central Delaware Advocacy Group, PennPraxis, and the Center City District. With these groups and others, DRWC designed and built four early-action projects while the plan was being developed: the southern section of the Delaware River Trail, Phase 1 of Washington Avenue Green, the Race Street Pier, and the Race Street Connector. The public reception of these new waterfront amenities has been overwhelmingly positive, and the spaces have been heavily used, demonstrating that relatively small investments in public infrastructure such as parks, trails, and improved streetscapes provide high-impact results and immediate improvements to quality of life for residents. Therefore, an incremental approach to implementation has been developed that allows DRWC to complete projects on a relatively scheduled and planned timeline, while also allowing investments to occur as unplanned funding and development opportunities arise. Additionally, and importantly, the master plan sets forth standards for the waterfront that provide certainty for both the public and the development community: certainty that a high-quality waterfront will be accessible to all, and certainty about the type and form of development that is appropriate. The following pages set forth a short-term plan for the DRWC, the City of Philadelphia, and partner organizations.

Opposite page: Race Street Pier

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

CONCLUSION


Overall Illustrative Plan


Implementation

261

Projects to Be Completed in the Next Five Years by DRWC and Other Partners The 18 months of comprehensive work on the master plan, as well as stakeholder input and lessons learned from the early-action projects, have led to a list of projects proposed for completion in approximately the next five years. The projects include both policy implementation and physical improvements.

Policy These policies could be implemented within 12 to 18 months after plan adoption. •

Adoption of the master plan by the Planning Commission

Enactment of the new zoning code by City Council, as proposed and amended by the Zoning Code Commission

Remapping of the zoning for the project area by the Planning Commission in accordance with the master plan and the new zoning code

Drafting by the Planning Commission of a new waterfront overlay ordinance for the project area

Proposal by the Planning Commission of the new base remapping and new waterfront overlay ordinance to City Council

Amendment of the new zoning code by City Council with the waterfront overlay ordinance and adoption of new base zoning mapping

Adoption by Planning Commission of design guidelines for the project area

Economic Opportunity Plan adopted by DRWC board

Public art and historic preservation policies developed

Design guidelines for waterfront trail and Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard completed

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

SHORT-TERM PROJECTS


Public Realm Improvements


Implementation

Implementation: Short-Term Projects

263

Washington Avenue Green Phase 2 completed Interim multi-use trail installed from Washington Avenue to Penn Street Two additional waterfront trail sections completed (locations to be determined) Conceptual design and cost estimates for South Street pedestrian bridge and new Penn’s Landing park and decks over I-95/ Columbus Boulevard completed

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Public Realm Improvements


Transportation Improvements


Implementation

Implementation: Short-Term Projects

265

Race Street Connector Phase 2 completed Two additional primary connector streets designed, funded, and constructed (locations to be determined) Delaware Avenue/Columbus Boulevard traffic study completed Short-term traffic improvements implemented for Delaware Avenue, including signal retiming and pedestrian-safety improvements Water-taxi service in operation

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Transportation Improvements


Development Sites


Implementation

Implementation: Short-Term Projects

267

Archeological study of West Shipyard completed Site chosen for International Sculpture Garden and fundraising effort underway by DRWC and other partners Marina basin dredged and upgraded Redevelopment of Pier 9 completed Spring Garden Festival Pier/Incinerator Site environmentally remediated, permitted, and entitled; Request for Proposals or Request for Qualifications process completed and private developer selected Predevelopment work for Penn’s Landing basin completed

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Development Sites


Projects to Be Completed by Others


Implementation

Implementation: Short-Term Projects

269

Preliminary engineering and environmental assessment for light rail completed Improvements completed to Penn Treaty and Pulaski Parks by Philadelphia Parks and Recreation and other partners Redevelopment of Race Street pumping station by Philadelphia Live Arts/Fringe Festival

MASTER PLAN FOR THE CENTRAL DELAWARE

Projects to Be Completed by Others


Special thanks are extended to the following individuals: Glen Abrams, Philadelphia Water Department

Charles Davies, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation

Marsha Bacal, Society Hill Towers Homeowners’ Association

Frank DiCicco, City Council District 1

Penny Balkin Bach, Fairmount Park Art Association

Lorraine Dispaldo, Office of State Representative William Keller

Randal Baron, Philadelphia Historical Commission

Alex Doty, Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia

Ron Bednar, Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic

Angela Dowd-Burton, Philadelphia Office of Economic Opportunity

Development

Ann Duvall, Delaware River Port Authority

Ebony Bell, Minority Supplier Diversity Council

David Elliott, Pennsylvania Horticultural Society

Lou Belmonte, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation

Lawrence M. Farnese, Jr., State Senator, Senate District 1

Margot Berg, Philadelphia Office of Arts, Culture, and the Creative Economy

John Farnham, Philadelphia Historical Commission

Ryan Berley, Old City Civic Association

Varsovia Fernandez, Greater Philadelphia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce

John Brady, Independence Seaport Museum

Mark Focht, Philadelphia Department of Parks and Recreation

Robert Brady, United States Representative, District 1

Liz Gabor, Philadelphia Inustrial Development Corporation

Neil Brecher, Fishtown Neighbors Association

Katherine Gajewski, Mayor’s Office of Sustainability

Steven Buckley, Mayor’s Office of Transportation and Utilities

John Gallery, Preservation Alliance of Greater Philadelphia

Duane Bumb, Philadelphia Department of Commerce

William Garwood, Delaware River Yachtmen’s League

Charles Carmalt, Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordinator, Mayor’s Office of

Darin Gatti, Philadelphia Department of Streets

Transportation and Utilities Della Clark, The Enterprise Center and Pennsylvania Minority Business Enterprise Center

Rene Goodwin, Pennsport Civic Association Geoff Gordon, LiveNation John Grady, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation

Sarah Clark-Stuart, Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia

Laura Griffith, Public Art Forum

Byron Comati, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority

Bob Gross, Philadelphia Regional Port Authority

John Connors, Penn Treaty Museum

Prema Gupta, Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation

Lauren Cook, Philadelphia Archaeological Forum

David Hammond, South Street Headhouse Business District

Graham Copeland, Old City District

Francis Haney, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation

Hope Corse, Independence Seaport Museum

Micah Hansen, Fishtown Neighbors Association

Patricia Coulter, Urban League of Philadelphia

Karen Higgins, National Association of Women Business Owners

Joanne Dahme, Philadelphia Water Department

Marian Hull, URS Corporation


Mary Isaacson, Office of State Representative Michael O’Brien

John Mondlak, Philadelphia Law Department

Gary Jastrzab, Philadelphia City Planning Commission

Douglas Moony, Philadelphia Archaeological Forum

Ernie Jones, Philadelphia Workforce Development Corporation

Karin Morris, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Authority

Paul Jusino, Delaware River Yachtmen’s League

Jerrold Moss, Society Hill Towers Homeowners’ Association

Margaret Kalalian, Neighbors Allied for the Best Riverfront

Marsha Moss, Public Art Forum

Janet Kalter, Old City Civic Association

Glen Muschio, Philadelphia Archaeological Forum

Lorna Katz, Society Hill Civic Association

Jim Moylan, Whitman Council

William Keller, State Representative, District 184

Kathleen Murray, Office of Councilwoman Anna C. Verna

Rob Kettel, Old City Civic Association

Howard Neukrug, Philadelphia Water Department

Danielle DiLeo Kim, Philadelphia City Planning Commission

Tania Nikolic, Philadelphia Redevelopment Authority

Jeff Knowles, Pennsylvania Environmental Council

Michael O’Brien, State Representative, District 175

Laura Lanza, Port Richmond on Patrol & Civic Association

Stephanie Odell, Office of State Senator Lawrence M. Farnese, Jr.

John Lawson, Society Hill Civic Association

Nancy O’Donnell, Pennsylvania Horticultural Society

Richard Lazar, Whitman Council

Tom Otto, Pennsport Civic Association

Jed Levin, Philadelphia Archaeological Forum

David Perri, Philadelphia Department of Streets

Chris Linn, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Authority

Honey Pertnoy, Court at Old Swedes Homeowners’ Association

Rosanne Loesch, Society Hill Civic Association

Tom Potts, New Kensington Development Corporation

Eric Lorgus, Philadelphia Ship Preservation Guild

Tim Pulte, Delaware River Port Authority

Ed Captain Lucky, Ben Franklin Yacht

Sulaiman Rahman, African-American Chamber of Commerce of PA, NJ, and

Anthony Mannino, Office of State Senator Lawrence M. Farnese, Jr.

DE

John Matheussen, Delaware River Port Authority

Douglas Robbins, URS Corporation

Dianne Mayer, Neighbors Allied for the Best Riverfront

Roseann B. Rosenthal, Benjamin Franklin Technical Center

Susan McAninly, Friends of Washington Avenue Green

Matt Ruben, Northern Liberties Neighborhood Association

Shawn McCaney, William Penn Foundation

Jeff Rush, Queen Village Neighbors Association

Jamie McLane, Philadelphia Regional Port Authority

Keith Russell, Audubon Pennsylvania

Sara Merriman, Philadelphia Department of Commerce

Sandy Salzman, New Kensington Community Development Corporation

John Milligan, Greater Philadelphia Minority Business Strategic Alliance

David Schaaf, Philadelphia City Planning Commission


Craig Schelter, Development Workshop

The master plan could not have been completed without the

Joe Schiavo, Old City Civic Association

help of the following people, whose work behind the scenes

Henry Schwartz, Philadelphia Law Department

was instrumental in a successful public engagement process

John Scorsone, River’s Edge Community Association

and in the creation of this document.

Narasimha Shenoy, Asian-American Chamber of Commerce in Greater Philadelphia Barry Seymour, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Authority Laura Spina, Philadelphia City Planning Commission Mark Squilla, Whitman Council Harris Steinberg, PennPraxis Patrick Starr, Pennsylvania Environmental Council Gary Steuer, Philadelphia Office of Arts, Culture, and the Creative Economy Mary Stumpf, Neighbors Allied for the Best Riverfront Geri Swift, Women’s Business Development Center John Taylor, State Representative, District 193 Anna C. Verna, City Council District 2 Carolyn Wallis, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources

Amanda Benner, Pennsylvania Horticultural Society Janet Benton, The Word Studio Connie Chang, Delaware River Waterfront Corporation Alice Edgerton, Pennsylvania Horticultural Society Mike Greenle Laurie Heinerichs, Delaware River Waterfront Corporation Bridget Keegan, PennPraxis Joan Reilly, Pennsylvania Horticultural Society Anthony Riederer, Delaware River Waterfront Corporation Karen Thompson, Delaware River Waterfront Corporation Shelvia Williams, Delaware River Waterfront Corporation Lizzie Woods, Delaware River Waterfront Corporation

Nick Walsh, Philadelphia Regional Port Authority Steven Weixler, Central Delaware Advocacy Group Richard Wolk, Queen Village Neighbors Association Bob Wombwell, Pier 3 Condominium Association MaryAnn Womelsdorf, Office of Councilman Frank DiCicco Rob Wonderling, Greater Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce

Additional thanks to the numerous members of the general public who attended our focus groups, civic cluster meetings, public forums, and other public meetings.


Photography Credits Images in the report not listed below were taken by members of the consulting team. 138

Photo courtesy of firstcampingtrip.com

140

Top Right: Photo courtesy of Zoetnet via Flickr

Bottom Left: Photo courtesy of Binarycoco via Flickr

Bottom Right: Photo courtesy of The Watershed Company,

95

Middle: Photo courtesy of scottspitzer via Flickr

100

Top Right: Photo courtesy of jbeau via Flickr

121

Left: Photo courtesy of Noel Y.C. via Flickr

Right: Photo courtesy of Bryant Park Blog

http://blog.bryantpark.org/ © 2011 Bryant Park Corporation

122

Bottom: Photo courtesy of vdberg via Flickr

148

Photo courtesy of James Corner Field Operations

123

Left: Photo courtesy of Dia Art Foundation,

152

Top: Photo courtesy of James Corner Field Operations

Bottom Left: Photo courtesy of Center City District

174

Photo courtesy of Payton Chung via Flickr

178

Top Left: Photo courtesy of Philadelphia City Archives,

http://www.diacenter.org/sites/main/beaconpoint

Middle: Photo courtesy of Karin Bacon

Right: Photo courtesy of Venice Art Walls,

http://veniceartwalls.com/ 124

Photos courtesy of Fairmount Park Art Association

126

Top: “Light Drift”, Howeler + Yoon Architecture, Philadelphia

Mural Arts, Photo courtesy of Joel Avery from CREATiVNES

Bottom: “The Verdant Walk”, North Design Office, Photo courtesy

of Cleveland Public Art

128

Photo courtesy of A. Scott Rosenthal via Flickr

129

Top: Photo courtesy of Paul Keleher via Flickr

Bottom: Photo courtesy of james1977 via Flickr

132

Top Left: Photo courtesy of PhillyHistory.org

Bottom Left: Photo courtesy of Philadelphia Parks & Recreation

136

Top Left: Photo courtesy of Prashanth Guniganti via Flickr

Top Right: Photo courtesy of Nick Damiano via Flickr

Bottom Left: Photo courtesy of Noel Y.C. via Flickr

watershedco.com

phillyhistory.org

Top Right: Photo courtesy of Wolle8Ball via Wikimedia Commons,

under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license

180

Top Right: Photo courtesy of Beyond My Ken via Wikimedia

Commons under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic licenses

Bottom Left: Photo courtesy of Sbacle via Wikimedia Common

Bottom Right: Photo courtesy of Gorgeousp via Wikimedia

Commons under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation

License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free

Software Foundation

218

Top Right: Photo courtesy of marketingdirectorsinc.wordpress.

com 222

Photo courtesy of oftheangelsdesigns.wordpress.com


Consulting Team Cooper, Robertson & Partners, Team Leader and Urban Designer OLIN, Landscape Architect KieranTimberlake, Architecture and Sustainability HR&A, Economics Parsons Brinckerhoff, Transportation Hurley Franks & Associates, Outreach Urban Affairs Coalition, Wealth-Building Toni L. Griffin, Waterfront Policy Advisor KBE, Activation Programming KS Engineers, Civil Engineer CH Planning, Planning BlankRome, Land Use Counsel Kelly/Maiello, Supporting Architect Emily Cooperman, Ph.D., Historic Resources Katherine Woodhouse-Beyer, Ph.D., Archeological Resources Davis Langdon, Cost Estimator Brooklyn Digital Foundry, Renderer


2011

Profile for Karen Thompson

Master Plan for the Central Delaware  

This is the final version of the Master Plan for the Central Delaware

Master Plan for the Central Delaware  

This is the final version of the Master Plan for the Central Delaware

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