T Y A D O
Dear Readers, In this issue we›ll present how science takes place in the simplest activities we carry out in our kitchens every day. We decided to show how science is implemented in every aspect of our lives. We will be raising your awareness to how Genetically Modified food can have double effect on those dependent on it. Ladies!! Have you ever thought that science can even be a part of you daily used cosmetics? This issue will get you familiar with what eyeliner used to be, how it was used by the ancient Egyptians and what is it now! It will even show you how to make your own nail polish. Also, to those who stand in the kitchen and are fed up with crying because of onions, we have the cause and solution! Get to know why Jell-O is so giggly and why does popcorn POP! There will be interesting articles about things we all wonder about but we never know the answers, accidental discoveries, and science and technology. This magazine will show how science can be involved in every part of our lives. NOW TURN THE PAGE AND ENJOY!!!
Our Mission «Science Today will hopefully demonstrate that science isn’t restricted only to laboratories. We are interacting with science every day without even paying attention to the great role that it plays from the food we eat to our everyday electronics.» The Crew: Basmah Ghoniem Mariam Iskander Salma ElKarabigy Tarek Eleraky
Index 1. Yummy Science 2. GM food 3. Scientifically Gorgeous 4. Bizarre Diseases 5. Accidental Inventions 6. Have you ever wondered 7. Environment Today
-Jell-O gelatin is a tasty jiggly treat that results from a bit of chemistry kitchen magic... Whatâ€şs In Jell-O? jell-O contains gelatin, water, sweetener (usually sugar), artificial colors, and flavoring. The key ingredient is the gelatin, which is a processed form of collagen, a protein found in most animals.
So where does gelatin come from? We all heard that gelatin comes from cow horns and hooves, sometimes it does, but most of the collagen used to make gelatin comes from pig and cow skin and bones. Yuky right !! These animal products are ground up and treated with acids or bases to release the collagen. The mixture is boiled and the top layer of gelatin is skimmed off the surface.
From Gelatin power to Jell-o When gelatin powder is mixed in hot water, the weak bonds that hold the collagen protein chains together soon break. Flavored and colored water fills in the spaces between the polymer chains, becoming trapped as the bonds become more secure. Jell-O is mostly water, but the liquid is trapped in the chains so Jell-O jiggles when you shake it. If you heat the Jell-O, the bonds that hold the protein chains together become liquefied.
Why onions make you cry?
Did you ever start crying in the kitchen, yet nothing’s wrong, and then realize it’s the onions fault? Well here’s why onions make you cry. When you cut an onion, you break cells, releasing their contents. Enzymes that were kept separate now are free to mix with the sulfenic acids to produce propanethiol S-oxide, that’s why you experience the burning and stinging in your eyes because the compound gets attached to the air coming upward toward your eyes. This gas reacts with the water in your tears to form sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid burns, stimulating your eyes to release more tears to wash the irritant away. But I don’t want to cry from onions, what can I do? Away from looking like a scuba diver, wearing masks and breathing tubes, you can keep from crying by refrigerating your onions before cutting it (this slows reactions and changes the chemistry inside the onion) or you can cut your onions under a running tap or in a bowl of water.
Popcorn We all LOVE popcorn, from eating it in a scary movie at the theater all the way to snacking at home. But do we really know how it works? Each kernel has oil, water and starch, all surrounded by a tough outer layer. When the water inside of the kernel is heated, it tries to escape into steam but the cover is too thick. However when the popcorn reaches 180 째C the pressure inside the kernel gets so high and soon enough is sufficient to break the thick coating. This pressure is released so quickly that the proteins and starch inside turns to foam. Soon it cools down and becomes the popcorn we all know and love.
Interesting Facts Why do water pipes sometimes burst in cold weather? Water expands when it raises. If it is trapped in a pipe and cant expand, water may burst the pipe as it raises.
What is color blindness? Some people cannot easily distinguish between red and green. This’ color blindness’ is more common in boys.
How fast is the world’s human population growing? 200 years ago the population was about 1 billion, today it is about 6 billion, and likley to reach 10 billion before 2100. Why do new-born babies only drink milk? The best food for a new -born baby is its mother’s milk, whoch contains the correct nurtiens in a digestable form.
Why does skin wrinkle with age? As we get older, our skin becomes less elastic. We also tend to become thinner, so there’s less fat beneath the skin to pump it out.
Genetically Modified Food Genetically modified food always raises a discussion about how ethical it is. We are never able to decide which one outweighs the other, the harms or the benefits. Are the feats accomplished through the usage of the GM food worth taking the risk and jeopardizing people›s health for it?
everyday life?? Well, one of the major aspects where GM food plays a great role is the improvement of the nutritional content of the crops in certain countries. In the third world poverty-stricken countries, like many of the African countries, people over there depend on one type of crops for nutrition, which is rice.
Let›s not be misled by the greatly helpful benefits of the GM food... Well, to begin with we›ll provide a brief explanation of what GM food are in the first place. This term refers to food made for human and animal consumption. This food is usually made through the usage of the latest molecular biology technologies. Countries tend to make this food in order in increase the presence of more desirable traits in the food: such as better resistance to herbicides or an improved and enhanced nutritional content. The GM food causes many health and environmental issues; however, it does have plenty of benefits that help solve lots of problems we do face nowadays. These benefits vary greatly from agricultural ones to nutrition ones. So how does GM food help us in our
Rice might help them to survive but it lacks many important nutrients such as the vitamin A. This lack of vitamin A causes blindness, which is a very common problem in Africa. That›s why researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Institute for Plant Sciences have created a strain of «golden» rice. This golden rice contains an exceptionally high amount of vitamin A. This type of rice was devised to solve critical and help improve these people›s health using genetic modification. That›s not the only field where genetically modified food is used; it›s also used in disease resistance in plants. Here is what happens, many fungi, bacteria, and viruses cause plant diseases. So plant biologists are working
on creating plants that are resistant to such diseases and have higher potential of survival. Also plants are genetically modified to endure drought and salinity. Because as we all know that the great increase in the world›s population led to utilizing agricultural lands for housing. So as result of the increasing demand for food, crops had to be planted in lands which are not appropriate for agriculture. That›s why plants that have high endurance to lack of water and high salt content in the soil and ground water are made nowadays to help people plant crops in lands which were incompatible with agriculture.
Is it really worth it?? Let›s not be misled by the greatly helpful benefits of the GM food, each story has two sides and this is the other side of the GM food›s. The GM food has unknown effects on the human health. There lots of concerns about introducing new genes to plants and how this might affect the human health negatively. An article has been published in Lancet about how the rats› digestive system reacted to GM potatoes. There was a noticeable difference between the rats which ate GM potatoes and the ones that didn›t. This study rises a question about how ethical is it to use GM food? Is it justifiable to jeopardize people›s health just because we want to help them? The harms of genetically modified food are not exclusive to humans› health only but they also affect the environment in many different ways. There have been economic concerns raised as well.
Is it really worth it?? Can the harmful consequences of the GM food be tolerated and dealt with for the sake of its benefits? We are the ones who should decide what to do about this. But before deciding we need to critically study it and scientifically study it.
Scientifically Gorgeous Nail Polish!! We LOVE it but what do we know about it?? Ladies, who doesn›t love to paint her nails just to look super ravishing? Doesn›t nail polish always have some extra flair to add to the way we look? With their glamorous colors that range from the simply chic transparent going through those extremely hot fluorescent colors and finally getting to the fierce dark ones. But when did nail polish first appeared or who were the first to use it? How does it work? From where does it get its color and its resistance to soap and water? Has anyone of us ever thought of answers to these questions or even thought of the questions in the first place?
Well, we›ll be answering these questions … Nail polish is as old as ancient Egypt, it›s believed that both Queen Cleopatra and Queen Nefertiti used natural ingredients in order to make nail polishes and paint their nails red. In China and the Inca as well it›s believed that they used to decorate their nails. Then in the 1700s and 1800s portraits with shiny finger nail started to appear. During the 20th century, nail polish started to develop gradually. A while after its appearance Revlon opened and in no time movie stars started wearing nail polish. Soon enough it became a sensation in the cosmetics market.
After having a quick overview on the nail it? Because as we now know nail polish is polish›s history, it›s about time to know a product of suspension, so we shake the it actually works. Well, the fundamental bottle to bring back all the settled elements component in nail polish is nitrocellulose, together with the others to their original a long-lasting, film-forming agent derived mode of suspension. That›s why when we from cellulose. The leave a nail polish for a long nitrocellulose creates a time it can no longer be used, film that holds together as a result of the settling of all the other ingredients; so many pigment particles however, nitrocellulose that it›s hard to bring them is inelastic, likely to back together with the rest break and sticks poorly of the combination. Let›s to the nails. So, as a examine another common result other elements like habit we tend to do, keeping resins and plasticizers the nail polish in the refrigare added to guaranerator. Well, we them keep tee the adhesiveness and elasticity of the in a refrigerator in order to slow down the nitrocellulose to the surface of the nail and evaporation of the solvents which keep the its resistance to soap and water. Finally, pigments from coagulating. after mixing all the previous ingredients Let›s always keep in mind that knowing it›s time to add some color. We color the the science and logic behind everything nail polishes using pigments. The coloring reveals a lot about and helps us to achieve process is made in a in a two-roll differen- better usage of everything around us. tial speed mill, in order to make sure that the pigment is pulverized and that all the ingredients are evenly distributed throughout the polish. I bit you are wondering right now about what you gained by knowing all these chemical components and about their nature? Let me answer you, knowing the nature of what nail polish is made of helps us know how to keep it longer, use it properly, and save money. For example do you know why you shake the nail polish bottle before every time you use
ehow.com demonstrates how to make 5. Mix the glitter and eye shadow/pigyour own nail polish, the steps are really ment carefully. simple… 6. Remove the scrap of paper, allowing Things you will need: the powder to enter the bottle. Take the • Clear nail polish funnel out, and replace the cap on the • Colored eye shadow or pigment makeup nail polish. • Nail-polish remover 7. Shake the bottle for two minutes. • Fine glitter dust (optional) • Small funnel • Scrap of paper • Plastic baggie Steps: 1. Open the bottle of clear nail polish, and place the end of the funnel into the bottle. Put a small scrap of paper in the bottom of the funnel to block the hole. 2. Crush the eye shadow by putting it in a sealed plastic baggie and pressing gently on the eye shadow until it is a lump-free, powdery consistency. 3. Pour the crushed eye shadow or makeup pigment into the funnel. 4. Add a small amount of fine glitter to the funnel mixture if you wish. A little glitter goes a long way.
Eyeliner: Then and Now As early as 10,000 BC Ancient Egyptians used cosmetics, specifically talking eyeliners, not only for looking good but also to protect themselves from the Egyptian desertâ€şs scorching heat. It was believed as well that the Ancient Egyptians used the eyeliner as well to protect the one who wears it from the evil eye. However, this is not the only thing about ancient eyeliners, Ancient Egyptiansâ€ş eyeliners contained lead. Lead, nowadays, in known to be poisonous and causes brain damages. But appar-
ently the Ancient Egyptian were not familiar with this fact, instead the used the lead in their eyeliners believing that it protected them from eye diseases. Egyptians used the lead in their cosmetics consciously; as testing and experiments made by analytical chemist Philippe Walter and colleagues at CNRS and the Louvre Museum in Paris found two types of lead salt that donâ€şt exist in the nature. This indicates that the Egyptians made the lead themselves. But the thing that baffled the scientists was that the process of making the lead salt is complicated and delicate, and the salts were not glossy, so what was the lead salts really used for? Well, ancient manu-
scripts gave scientists a lead as they indicated that the lead salts are used in treating eye ailments, discoloration, and scars. So the scientists were motivated to conduct more experiments and studies about the lead salts and their effect concerning immunity. They added lead salts to human skin cells called keratinocytes, which are grown in the lab. The cell treated with lead began pumping out more nitric acid, which is an important component in the human immune response, than did the control cells, the team reported online in Analytical Chemistry. Not all the scientists provided the same explanation, their opinions and interpretations of what happened varied greatly. But they all agreed on the
fact that the lead salts, which we consider harmful and poisonous, enhance our immunity. However, scientists are warning about adding lead to the current eyeliners as they are known to have bad health effects. Modern day people live a lot longer than did the ancient Egyptians, who died in their 30›s. So, the epidemiologist Jennifer Weuve says that «the dangers of prolonged lead exposure outweigh any antimicrobial benefit» «Indeed, the Egyptians› eyeliner strategy would have backfired on them if they had lived long enough,» she notes,» as long-term exposure to lead may increase the risk of developing cataracts.» So, finally we came to know that even if the
lead salts had benefits they still might be the reason behind the early death of ancient Egyptians. However, today›s eyeliners are made in a completely different way, it›s lead free and contains control agents like Vitamin E, Citric Acid, Methylparaben, and Propylparaben , which are elements that are used to maintain pH level, and keep the product free from bacteria and mold. Its most fundamental ingredients are oil and wax; emollients are added as well to facilitate the spreading. However, in order to make liquid eyeliners water and emulsifiers must be added. And of course to have the varieties from black all the way to
gold, hundreds of colorants are added as well. You can even test your own eyeliner for the presence of lead through these simple steps… What you need is your eyeliner pencil and a piece of magnet. Take your eyeliner and hold it near the magnet, and see what will happen. If the magnet doesn’t move or moved a little bit then your eyeliner doesn’t contain lead. If it moves a lot, so your eyeliner has a lot of lead. As you can tell methods, techniques, and even elements used have changed greatly. The Ancient Egyptians might have discovered a great way to protect their eyes but the problem is that it fired back at them in the most unexpected ways.
1. Necrotizing Fasciitis Also known as «the flesh eating bacteria», Necrotizing Fasciitis is such an unusual disease that infects the patient when a certain kind of bacteria inhabits and causes damages on the deep layers of human skin. Don›t be misled by the name «flesh eating» because these bacteria don›t actually eat the flesh but they rather weaken the skin and make it more prone to damage. 2. Hypertrichosis Could you imagine meeting someone covered in hair head to toe?? Well, you probably won›t because this particular disorder has been observed in only 50 cases throughout history. Hypertrichosis, also known as «ware wolf syndrome», is a disorderz which can be present at birth or happens later in life. If you are interested you can read more about Stephan Bibrowski, who was a victim of the disease but
made good use of it. And you complain about your daily shave!!! 3. Elephantiasis Mostly found in Africa, Elephantiasis is a disease caused by parasitic worms and transmitted by mosquitoes. It usually takes place in limbs and the genitals. 4. Progeria So rare that it is found only in once per every 8 million births, Progeria is usually named «the rapid aging disease». Children with this rare genetic condition usually have an average life span of 13 years and rarely reaching early twenties. Noticeably all children suffering from Progeria share common physical features. 5. Trimethylaminuria Trimethylaminuria is a disorder which is also known as the «fish odor syndrome». The patients of this metabolic disorder usually
possess breath, urine, and perspiration with pungent fish odor. From now on, I think women will start to cope with their husband›s bad breath!! 6. Pica Don›t be passive about children eating inedible things such as glue, dirt, paste, clay, laundry detergent, cigarette buds, feces, and toothpaste because they might have Pica. It›s a disorder where children hunger after non-food materials like those. It›s so prominent that about 25% of children possess it. 7. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain Have ever experienced when your pinkie toe jams into the couch and wish you didn›t feel the pain?? Well, be careful what you wish for because there are victims of such a disorder called «Congenital Insensitivity to Pain» and they suffer greatly in their lives and are prone to serious damages in their bodies. This very rare disorder is caused by the presence of abundant levels of endorphins being released to the brain in the same moment.
Still unconvinced with the consequences of the disorder? People with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain find themselves at risk all the time and rushing to the hospital often due to severe bleeding, broken bones and even 3rd degree burns! All these things can even happen while they are sound asleep, and they would never know. We really take for granted our working nervous systems, which are alert 24/7 and protecting us from harm. 8. Cutaneous Porphyria (Vampire Disease) 1 per 100,000 people suffers from Cutaneous Porphyria, also known as the vampire disease. Can you imagine never having childhood memories playing in the sun or beach? Well, sadly victims of this disease do because whenever they would step into the direct sunlight brutal itchy blisters and welts would appear. All due to a deficiency of enzymes in their bodies.
Accidental Inventions Microwave Back in 1945, Lebaron Spencer was attempting to manufacture magnetrons which were used in early radar use. It was extremely vital in their times of war. Yet microwaves were the last thing on his mind, however it managed to pop up in his experimenting. As he was standing next to a functioning magnetron, he noticed that the bar of chocolate in his pants melted very quickly. He soon figured out that it was due to the microwaves being emitted and started experimenting with popcorn, eggs and cheese. The first microwave was the size of a refrigerator and weighed a whopping 750 lbs.
The Pacemaker This life saving machine was discovered by American engineer Wilson Greatbatch by accidently sewing it into a love one’s chest. This average man, now known as the famous inventor, was actually experimenting with a circuit to help record fast heart sounds. However when he reached into a box for a resistor in order to finish the circuit and pulled out a 1-megaohm resistor instead of a 10,000-ohm one. Wilson Greatbatch’s small mistake lead to the saving of hundred thousands of people.
Saccharine To all the dieters out there, believe it or not, the little pink packet that you pour into your everyday morning cup was an accidental invention in the 1879’s! It was discovered by a chemist named Constantin Fahlberg, he came home one day after a long day at work dealing with coal tar and dug into the freshly made bread his wife made for him. He noticed that it was very sweet, and his wife guaranteed him that she didn’t add any sugar. Soon he realized that the sweet taste was coming from his finger because he hadn’t washed his hands before dinner and was carrying the tar with him.
Have you ever
How do astronomers weigh the planets? Many people have wondered how are planet weighed, is it as easy as reading the weight scale? The answer is simple.. No, it›s now the same, but its shares the basic idea. The scale measures how hard the gravity pulls on you, which does not depend only on your weight, but also the Earth›s weight. Therefore, planets are weighted by how hard the planets can pull something. The heavier the planet, the greatest the gravitational pull. Astronomers can now also measure the weight of other planets by observing how hard they pull their moons. The weight of the planet affects the moon›s movement as it orbits around the planet. To weigh the planet, astronomers measure the distance between the moon and the planet, and how long does it take to evolve in its orbit. How far will a helium balloon travel after its released? You might have asked or been asked this question before, but sis to make food and energy and
haven›t found an answer. To start, you have to know what happens to the air outside the balloon as it rises. First, the air turns out to have less pressure, then it becomes colder, and finally it becomes less dense air. In other words, the balloon will burst after getting too big. If a balloon can be made to expand and not burst, it can travel to the outer space. However, the amount of helium decides how far can the balloon rise. A helium balloon can burst easily if it was fully filled up with helium, but it can rise higher if it was half filled because this will cause the balloon to rise slower.
Why do you feel dizzy when you spin? Your ears contain a liquid that tells your brain the position of your body when you›re spinning. Therefore, this liquid spins with you, so when you stop the liquid is still moving and your brain still thinks that you›re moving. You feel your head spinning till the liquid stops moving. Why do leaves change color in fall? Plants in general use photosynthe-
r wondered... so do trees. Trees have a certain pigment that’s called chlorophyll, which makes photosynthesis happen. Trees store up food during summer and spring because there isn›t enough light or water in winter and fall in order to make their food. What happens is that the chlorophyll starts to fade away and as it fades the color green begins to change. The yellow color that appears after then was there all along the leaves, but was dominant by the chlorophyll.
Hence, two different charges pull toward each other, when you take off your hat, electrons from your hat moves to your hair. Your hair now has positive charge that pull away from each other and your hair is pulled toward your hat.
Why doors and windows don’t close easily in winter as they do in summer? Any object on Earth is made up of molecules, which are tiny particles that are in constant motion. Door and windows heat up in summer, Why does your hair stand on end so their molecules keep moving when your take off your hat on a and take more space, which causes cold, dry day? solid to be slightly larger. HeatEverything around you is formed ing up molecules causes objects to of atoms. The atoms contain proexpand. While on the other hand, tons, which are positively charged molecules contract in winter, for that never move and electrons, their motion is slowed down and which are negatively charged that causes objects to shrink a little bit. move around. Atoms are usually ( Don’t take water as an example neutrons because they contain the because it is an exception, for it in same number of protons and elec- its freezing mode ice takes more trons, so they cancel each other. space) Electrons move from one atom to another when two things are rubbed together. The electron that moved to another atom made it negatively charged, while the other atom became positively charged.
Environment house gases. As the temperature is getting warmer, it’s causing other changes around the world, such as melting glaciers and stronger storms. Our world is always These changes are hapchanging. The Earth›s pening because the Earth›s climate is changing, air, water, and land are too, but in ways that you can›t easily see like all linked to the climate. The Earth›s climate has weather and seasons. changed before, and huThe Earth is getting warmer because people mans are the cause, howare adding heat-trapping ever man has never seen gases to the atmosphere, changes to this extreme mainly by burning fossil ever before. fuels, The Earth›s climate is dramatically changing, and we are the main problem.
which are called green
Today A few simple ways to become environmentally friendly and help our planet, without much effort! 1. Plant something in your yard. 2. Replace one regular bulb with a compact fluorescent one. 3. Turn off the computers at night and save 40 watt-hours per day. 4. Skip rinsing dishes before using your dishwasher and save up to 20 gallons of water each load. 5. Recycle glass and reduce air/ water pollution. 6. Hang dry your clothes, and watch them last longer as well. 7. Go vegetarian every now and then.
8. Donâ€™t wash in hot water and watch the electricity bill go down. 9. Take advantage of both sides of the paper. 10. Recycle your newspapers. 11. Take showers more often than baths, they take half the amount of water 12. Brush your teeth without leaving the water on. 13. Buy from your local market. 14. Turn off the lights! 15. Recycle your old mobile phones. 16. Use matches, not lighters 17. Use rechargeable batteries 18. Lastly and most importantly is to SHARE what you have just read!