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ПРОВЕДЕННЯ АДВОКАЦІЙНИХ МЕДІА-КАМПАНІЙ: СТРАТЕГІЯ АКТИВНИХ ДІЙ CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION


CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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AUTHORS: Anastasia Bezverkha, consultant to the Health Media Initiative of the Public Health Program of the Open Society Institute. Ms. Bezverkha is based in Kyiv, Ukraine.

Wyndimarie Anderson, Women’s Health and Harm Reduction Consultant to the Open Society Institute. Ms. Anderson is based in Washington DC, USA.

Editor: Acacia Shields, consultant to the Open Society Institute. Ms Shields is based in New York City, USA.

Сopyright © 2010 by the Open Society Foundations. All rights reserved Design concept and text layout by Sergio Azenberg, 2010


CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

ADVOCACY: ACTION FOR CHANGE

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APPROACHES TO ADVOCACY

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MEDIA ADVOCACY

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BUILDING A MEDIA CAMPAIGN

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ONLINE MEDIA ADVOCACY

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors of this manual would like to express their gratitude to the following people who contributed in various ways to this report: Pavlo Skala, drug policy expert, International HIV/AIDS Alliance of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine. Tamara Tretska, substitution maintenance treatment policy expert, Ukrainian Institute on Public Health Policy, Kyiv, Ukraine. Oksana Maslova, journalist, trainer on public relations, Odessa, Ukraine. Dmytro Potekhin, political analyst, head of the European Strategy Group, Kyiv, Ukraine. Maksym Demchenko and Serhiy Zhuk, «Light of Hope» Charitable Association, Poltava, Ukraine. Olga Belyaeva, Head of the Board of the Association of Substitution Therapy Advocates of Ukraine and Director of «Virtus» Charitable Fund, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine. Victoria Tymoshevska and Olena Kucheruk, Public Health Program of the International Renaissance Foundation, Kyiv, Ukraine Maria Golovanevskaya, International Harm Reduction Development Program, Open Society Institute, New York City, USA. Louise Swan, former Senior program officer, Health Media Initiative, Public Health Program, Open Society Institute, New York City, USA


CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

ADVOCACY: ACTION FOR CHANGE

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APPROACHES TO ADVOCACY

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MEDIA ADVOCACY

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BUILDING A MEDIA CAMPAIGN

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ONLINE MEDIA ADVOCACY

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TABLE OF СONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INTRODUCTION ADVOCACY: ACTION FOR CHANGE WHAT IS ADVOCACY? EXAMPLES OF ADVOCACY ACTIVITIES WHY DO WE NEED TO CONDUCT ADVOCACY CAMPAIGNS? HOW TO DESIGN AN EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY STRATEGY Defining the problem: which practice or policy needs to be changed? Selecting a key issue Who can make the change we seek? Craft a persuasive message Analysis of existing experience APPROACHES TO ADVOCACY EXTERNAL VERSUS INTERNAL ADVOCACY WHICH STRATEGY TO CHOOSE? WHAT IS PEOPLE-CENTERED ADVOCACY? WHEN AND HOW TO BUILD A COALITION Why create a coalition? What are the benefits of a coalition? How to identify coalition partners? How to embrace various groups to build trust, equal representation, and influence Choosing the right time to launch or expand a coalition Basic rules that make coalitions effective BUILDING A COALITION: IS IT WORTH PARTICIPATING? Possible weaknesses of coalitions Alternatives to working in coalition MEDIA ADVOCACY WHY CONDUCT MEDIA ADVOCACY? WHAT ARE KEY TASKS OF MEDIA ACTIVISTS? SYNCHRONIZING ADVOCACY AND MEDIA STRATEGIES Key questions ACCESSING DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEDIA Which types of media are there? How do we use the media? BUILDING SUSTAINABLE RELATIONS WITH JOURNALISTS «ROUTINE» MEDIA ADVOCACY VERSUS MEDIA CAMPAIGNING

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION BUILDING A MEDIA CAMPAIGN WHICH COMES FIRST, THE ROUTINE OR THE CAMPAIGN? WHAT KINDS OF MEDIA CAMPAIGNS ARE THERE? PLANNING A CAMPAIGN ESSENTIALS OF STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR A CAMPAIGN The Who, the What, and the How Step 1: Defining a challenge for the media campaign Step 2: Targeting our audience Step 3. Messages in media campaigns – how do we say it? Step 4: Identifying the right speakers Step 5: Selecting media outlets Step 6: Setting a timeline for the media campaign Step 7: Evaluating campaign results USING VISUALS IN A CAMPAIGN Logos Posters and banners Photographs and video ONLINE MEDIA ADVOCACY MEDIA CAMPAIGNS AND THE INTERNET WHICH OPPORTUNITIES OFFERED BY THE WEB CAN BE USED FOR ADVOCACY BY MEDIA ACTIVISTS? Email Websites Forums and comments following articles in web publications Blogs or online journals Citizen journalism websites Online petitions Social networks Online video Cell phones CONCLUSION APPENDIX 1 CHALLENGES OF UKRAINIAN DRUG POLICY: SUBSTITUTION THERAPY AND DRUG USER REGISTRATION APPENDIX 2 CAMPAIGN DEVELOPMENT TOOL – POWER MAPPING APPENDIX 3 EXERCISE - IDENTIFYING AUDIENCES APPENDIX 4 REFERENCES AND USEFUL LINKS

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INTRODUCTION

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he idea for this manual came from a workshop on media advocacy held in Kyiv in November 2008. The manual is an initiative and joint effort of participants of the workshop and activists from various regions from Ukraine who work in the sphere of harm reduction from injection drug use.

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n this manual the term harm reduction should be understood to mean programs such as needle exchange, social services for people who use drugs, drug use prevention, and substitution therapy. We also mean the philosophy of harm reduction, which is grounded in respect for a person’s choice of lifestyle and respect for the rights and dignity of all people. Instead of prohibition and punishment, harm reduction offers understanding, and social and medical help. Drug users’ lives are improved by providing information about safer practices to reduce the harm related to drug use, as well as supportive peer-to-peer help and medical assistance. The harm reduction model has proved to be a successful method to prevent HIV/AIDS, especially in those countries where the HIV/AIDS epidemic is driven by injecting drug use, such as Ukraine.

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his manual is aimed at helping activists, particularly those who work in the sphere of harm reduction, to broaden their knowledge of strategic advocacy building, strengthen their practical skills of engagement with the media, and particularly to improve their ability to plan and carry out media advocacy campaigns.

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t is important to mention that an advocacy campaign involves the use of many different tools or approaches to reach a goal. A media campaign is one of those tools. A media campaign does not usually exist on its own, but is one piece of a broader advocacy plan. A media campaign is used to engage the media in order to advance the larger vision and strategy of an advocacy campaign.

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n effective advocacy campaign takes planning and team work. All of the components of the campaign must be part of the planning from the beginning. The media strategy should not be an afterthought or something we simply use to get press; it is an integral instrument for developing a common goal and often is a token of our success.

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his manual consists of five substantive chapters, each of which covers a certain sphere of knowledge that we, as activists, need to develop in order to define the problem we want to tackle, build strong partnerships, make a strategic plan, and work with journalists effectively to achieve our goals.

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here are a number of relevant stories and examples from real life illustrating the material in this manual. Every person who wrote a story featured here speaks about his or her personal experience communicating with the media. Some of these exchanges were successful, others were learning experiences, but each one of these


CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

cases is equally important. Each public action, press-tour or blog post raises public awareness about campaigns fighting the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Each communication with the media teaches both journalists and NGO activists how to improve cooperation and the exchange of objective information. These are valuable lessons as we pursue our efforts to advocate for protection of the rights of those cast out and stigmatized for their behavior.

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he co-authors of this manual hope the information on strategic planning of media advocacy campaigns will help many grassroots groups to gain the confidence they need to be active in voicing their problems and advocating for the best solutions. The appendices to this manual contain information on two key issues related to public health in Ukraine – substitution therapy and registration of people who use drugs. The co-authors of this manual believe the basic facts and figures in the appendices will serve as useful reference for activists when analyzing specific problems and selecting the right tools for media advocacy.

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hen we are deciding on media goals and messages for a campaign, journalists are considered an important bridge that allow us to be able to reach our target groups. However, it is important to keep in mind that we do not work FOR the media - we target our audiences through media.

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sing media is one of the ways we can make our campaigns more people-centered and ensure that the media includes the voices of those people who are calling for change!

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he authors of this manual also believe this document itself is a powerful advocacy tool and will serve as the source of information on many issues of Ukrainian drug policy for both national and international practitioners from political, public and media spheres.

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his manual is for activists who believe that even a little change can make a great difference.

Good luck!


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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

ADVOCACY: ACTION FOR CHANGE

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APPROACHES TO ADVOCACY

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MEDIA ADVOCACY

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BUILDING A MEDIA CAMPAIGN

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ONLINE MEDIA ADVOCACY

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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WHAT IS ADVOCACY? Advocacy is action taken to achieve a specific goal. When we conduct advocacy efforts, we engage in a process that aims to attract supporters and put pressure on decision-makers and institutions in order to change official policies and practices. The focal point of advocacy for social change is to ensure the basic rights and freedoms of vulnerable social groups. Advocacy has been described as «the foundation of civic activism, a process, through which ordinary people learn to participate in decision-making at all levels.»1 The advocacy process is also an empowering process. Organizations have found that «Identifying priorities, crafting a strategy, stepping forward, taking action, and achieving results are critical steps to finding one’s voice, making oneself heard, and shaping one’s future.»2 Sometimes it can be hard to see past the obstacles to change. Social justice advocates, with good cause, rarely believe that we have a dominant hand in power relationships. Nearly every issue is affected by unequal power relationships between activists and decision-makers. It is important to remember, however, that as social activists we also have our own sources of strength from which we draw tremendous power, including:

Strategic action that engages public problem-solving processes, defines and frames issues, fixes responsibility, and creates alternative solutions.

Innovation, invention, and creativity.

Vision, commitment, and intensity.

And, above all, the people in our movement – their knowledge, experiences, and stories.

EXAMPLES OF ADVOCACY ACTIVITIES •

Analyzing and influencing legislation or policies. For example, by conducting analysis of legislation that regulates substitution therapy programs in order to learn if there is room to expand the program nationwide without requiring a change of basic normative Acts.

Preparing briefing notes or position statements. For example, the International HIV/ AIDS Alliance in Ukraine and a number of other NGOs comes up with public statements as a response to police interference in the medical processes at substitution therapy sites in some regions of Ukraine.3

Working from within the system – putting pressure on key decision-makers, state officials, law enforcement and medical practitioners.

1 From the Institute of Sustainable Communities http://www.iscvt.org/what_we_do/advocacy_and_leadership_center/ 2 same source 3 http://www.zapitay.in.ua/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=399:2010-06-17-10-4030&catid=37&Itemid=13, English version can be found at http://www.aidsalliance.org/NewsDetails.aspx?Id=589

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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Conducting information campaigns on the Internet or TV, via the printed press, posters, billboards, etc. An example of this is the «Return ticket» billboard campaign about substitution therapy held in 2008 in Kyiv and other cities of Ukraine.

Writing and delivering a presentation. For example, making a presentation about problems in a certain region during a national conference on HIV/AIDS-related issues.

Persuading an audience through drama or other artistic performances, street actions, and protest actions. An example of this is the March of Freedom for drug policy reform and decriminalization of drug use held annually since 2005.

Carrying out media interviews and publishing personal stories or case studies of successful actions. For instance, this could take the form of writing a personal blog about one’s experience as a substitution therapy patient on the international portal Rising Voices.

Organizing a press conference, press tour, or roundtable discussion.

And much more…

WHY DO WE NEED TO CONDUCT ADVOCACY CAMPAIGNS?

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Why isn’t it enough to provide direct services to people who use drugs? This question often comes up among activists and volunteers of successful harm reduction NGOs. When working with complex social and medical issues such as drug use and addiction, it is important for us to move beyond direct service. Many rights of drug users are denied not only because of the stigma and prejudice that lies in people’s minds, but also because of the discrimination embedded in social and health care policy. If we are going to change common approaches to providing health care, housing, and jobs – if we are ever going to ensure the human rights of drug users – we have to use advocacy campaigns that aim to make change at the policy and systemic levels. The process of bringing about fundamental, systemic change through advocacy is slow and demands great commitment and vision on the part of those working to bring about change. Systems and people change very slowly, but they DO change if there is consistent pressure on them, urging them to move in a certain direction. If we can develop advocacy campaigns that are effective, consistent and focused, we stand a better chance of being able to ensure the human rights of all drug users. But in order to launch a successful advocacy campaign, we need to learn a solid set of skills and tools that will help us to analyze, plan and realize a specific advocacy strategy.

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

PERSONAL STORY

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Oleksiy Zagrebelniy Club «Chance,» Sumy

SERIOUS DISCUSSION ON A FOOL’S DAY Club «Chance» is the only grassroots organization in Sumy region that was created by drug users. We have relatively limited experience with collaboration with the media, however, the first publication about us appeared in the local newspaper at the moment when the organization was at the stage of official registration. This was our first attempt to establish ourselves. Even then there was doubt about the need and importance of our work, despite the success in our core activities at the community level. We had achieved some «broad popularity in narrow circles» by carrying our ideas to the public, yet we needed to inform more people about the achieved results and disclose problems that existed. Sometimes there were articles about us in the local press, and interviews on the regional radio and TV channels. However it usually happened on the eve of some «international memory» or «solidarity days,» or «days of fighting someone or something.» No wonder the materials about our organization were getting lost and not causing any public feedback, therefore not producing expected results.

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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The most successful example of media we had was the message we put out “Not all humans are drug users, but all drug users are humans!” We sent out the press announcement on April 1. It became a joke among some of the journalists, as they thought this was clearly the result of people using drugs! Some of them thought it was an April Fool’s Day joke. However, it was no joke. The press conference took place at the regional press club and people started talking about pretty serious things. The headlines that followed were full of questions: it turned out that the drug users were ready to address their issues themselves. News programs of the regional TVchannels aired stories covering the press conference. The Regional State Radio Station developed a special 40-minute radio program which included a report from the press-conference and several interviews with members of the organization and clients of the substitution therapy program. So, ironically, April 1 became the date when we finally got noticed and heard. This was a moment when «a group of junkies» turned into an organization that does a lot to address important health and social issues that exist in our country. Now we are known as an organization that has its own vision of the problem of drug abuse. We know that vision may not coincide with the prevailing stereotypes. However, this vision is considered and even getting respected now. And this, in my opinion, is already a big success!

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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HOW TO DESIGN AN EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY STRATEGY There are many useful skills and tools we can use to approach decision-makers and other important groups. But at the core of these activities lies profound analysis of the situation that needs to be changed, the problem that has to be tackled, and a vision of what the solution may be.

DEFINING THE PROBLEM: WHICH PRACTICE OR POLICY NEEDS TO BE CHANGED? As we begin our advocacy campaigns it is important we have a clear strategy and that we are sure about what exactly we would like to change and why. The best place to start is to understand the problem from the inside and to know what the solution may look like. To ease the process of situation analysis, it is useful to break a big problem down into smaller parts or clusters and look for the reasons behind these smaller elements of the problem, and their solutions. It is also important to sort out which are the most realistic and feasible solutions. Sometimes the most realistic change we can expect to achieve can seem small and unimportant, but even small changes can lead to bigger ones in the near future. We can start by asking questions: What is the current situation? What exactly do we think is wrong and why? Which groups are affected by the problem? What are some possible solutions to the problem? Which of these are more realistic for us to achieve than others? What is the positive change or goal we are striving toward?

EXAMPLES OF POSSIBLE GOALS FOR ADVOCACY CAMPAIGNS Problem: People who use drugs and former drug users are facing serious problems when trying to apply for a job or obtain a drivers’ license, etc. Advocacy goal 1: Abolish the current registry system and replace it with anonymous reporting. This would ensure that statistical data was gathered for evaluation and planning purposes, while eliminating barriers for people who use drugs, ensuring their civil rights, and providing possibilities for their appropriate medical treatment and social support, instead of punishment and criminal prosecution. Advocacy goal 2: Introduce more flexibility in employment practices while taking into consideration the specific psychoactive substance used. Flexible employment practices would ensure that information about a person’s previous experience of referral for narcological aid would be excluded as an issue of consideration in the hiring process. Advocacy goal 3: Clarification of the procedure of removal of a person from the drug user registry and guarantees of confidentiality of patients’ personal information. Scaling up a range of narcological services (integrative care, harm reduction, substitution therapy, etc) will help remove barriers to access to social services and health care for drug users who currently have no chance to obtain aid. 20


CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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As this example shows, identifying a single problem can lead us to a number of different advocacy goals. The choice of a specific advocacy goal depends on our particular interests and the resources we have at hand. Usually there are number of possible ways to tackle a problem. It is up to our team of activists to analyze the situation and to find the most relevant and achievable goal and to build a campaign around it.

SELECTING A KEY ISSUE To have an effective advocacy campaign we must define the problem and the solution clearly... and simply. We can often list many problems related to drug user rights and harm reduction that we would like to work to solve. To engage in effective advocacy, we need to select the one core problem that is going to be the focus of our advocacy campaign and, if possible, articulate the change we seek that would put an end to this problem. By defining the problem and its cause we can assess the situation and clearly target those who have the ability to remedy the situation and bring about the desired change. For example, the reason for a problem could be personal unwillingness of an official or doctor to take a certain action, or it may be that it is not stated in the existing regulations what action (s)he should perform and in which way. If the main reason for a problem is personal unwillingness to take action at the local level, it is necessary to consider the reasons behind this position. The reasons could be:

Lack of knowledge by an official/doctor that leads to misunderstanding or minimizing the problem.

Lack of knowledge about the professional/legal area related to the problem.

Personal benefits from the existing situation (including corruption).

Alternatively, when the reason for the problem is harmful regulations or legislation, then it is necessary to analyze the problematic clauses in this legislation and propose alternative language. This will often mean involving external experts to develop new draft legislation and to ensure its promotion within the bureaucracy. After analyzing each situation, we can identify the underlying problem and focus on the primary actions needed to bring about change.

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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EXAMPLES OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO SUBSTITUTION MAINTENANCE THERAPY THAT COULD BE KEY ISSUES FOR ADVOCACY Failed government coordination Absence of coordination between governmental and non-governmental organizations and lack of an independent agency to implement standards, monitoring and quality control. Access issues Lack of access to the SMT program’s social services, limited number of slots in the program, remote physical location of clinic sites, lack of access to substitution therapy for patients in hospitals, TB clinics, birthing clinics, prisons, and centers of detention. Lack of engagement of substitution therapy clients in decision-making processes regarding public health policy Accountability and transparency Limited scrutiny of SMT programs and lack of clear rules for the admission of people who use drugs into the program. Prejudicial behavior of medical professionals Stigmatizing attitudes of medical staff towards people who use drugs based on misinformation and prejudice toward drug users. These attitudes are often shared by the general population. Abuse of power and human rights violations Corruption and bribery by officials involved in program implementation, facts of dealing in illegal substitution medicines and setting up payments for clients. Lack of training and education Low professional level of doctors at many substitution maintenance therapy sites. A shortage of medical staff and social workers.

WHO CAN MAKE THE CHANGE WE SEEK? To define who the decision-makers or actors are that can make the change we seek, we can map out a list of people and institutions that potentially have an effect on the issue we have identified for our advocacy campaign. As a rule, decision-makers are politicians, officials, chiefs of departments, including the Minister of Health and the Minister of Interior, heads of the profile committees of the Ukrainian Parliament (The Verkhovna Rada), executives of the oblast (province) health departments, doctors-in-chief of hospitals and narcological departments, etc.

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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It can be useful to assess the following: The role of decision-makers — Does realization of our goals depend on agreement by a certain group of decision-makers? The degree of cooperation or resistance — Will the decision-makers consult with us? Will they be willing to meet with us and hear what we have to say? Behavior of decision-makers — Are the members of this group able to impede or to support implementation of our goals? Can they stop us from starting our work, continuing our work, etc? Interaction between decision-makers and public opinion — Will the views of these decisionmakers affect public opinion? Can they affect the level of support we get from other allies and the public? Attitudes and beliefs of decision-makers — What motivates these decision makers? What are their values and how can we tap into these to persuade them to support our goals?

CRAFT A PERSUASIVE MESSAGE As we begin to think about what our advocacy campaign will say and craft our message, we should remember that documents and decisions are given, considered, approved or rejected by people, not by institutions. Every individual within an institution we approach should be considered not as an opponent, but as a potential ally. We must find persuasive arguments and remember that, «Yesterday’s enemy may be tomorrow’s friend.»

ANALYSIS OF EXISTING EXPERIENCE Once we’ve identified the problem we seek to solve, it can be useful to take a moment to learn from others’ experience. We can analyze the experiences of other campaigns, successful and unsuccessful, with an eye to what worked and what may be applicable to our situation. When we look at other advocacy campaigns, we need to take into consideration the context in which they are carried out. When considering the experiences of campaigners from other countries, for instance, it is important to note the differences in mentalities, laws, religion and regional history. What works in one region may or may not work in another region based on these differences. Yet, there is always something that can be learned from a successful advocacy campaign. (For additional guidance on how to analyze the problem and efficiently use a power mapping tool, see Appendix 2).

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

ADVOCACY: ACTION FOR CHANGE

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APPROACHES TO ADVOCACY

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MEDIA ADVOCACY

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BUILDING A MEDIA CAMPAIGN

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ONLINE MEDIA ADVOCACY

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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While working toward social change, we choose between various approaches to advocacy. Sometimes we may decide to work with policymakers behind the scenes – choosing meetings and presentations as our primary advocacy tools. In other cases we may want to take direct action (like organizing demonstrations in front of major institutions, carrying out protests and spreading stickers and leaflets in certain areas). We may also decide to influence our target audience through the media, by involving notable speakers who are well known and respected by the audience we want to persuade. Regardless of the advocacy approach we choose, all short-term advocacy strategies or campaigns must be synchronized with our organization’s long-term advocacy goals. It is also important that advocacy approaches and short-term tasks reflect accurately our available resources (time, human, financial, other).

EXTERNAL VERSUS INTERNAL ADVOCACY Ben Bradzel, a news media expert from the United States, defines two types of advocacy: internal and external.4 Internal advocacy – Achieving changes in current legislation and practices from within the system by involving professional lobbyists, loyal decision-makers and officials, and sometimes business people. At the heart of such a strategy is the goal of empowering a limited number of public figures who are closely tied to decision-making processes, or individuals who have access to key resources. Such activity, as a rule, does not require mass mobilization, but can be undertaken by a small group of people or even one person. Often the best internal advocates are representatives of the group whose rights are being violated, who feel estranged from important processes. External advocacy – Strengthening common initiatives, empowering the grassroots, including people directly affected by the problem who are suffering violation of their rights. Unlike internal advocacy, external advocacy typically means mobilization of a great number of individuals and the creation of public pressure groups. The motivation for change is generated not within the system or institutions of power, but by the affected community. With this strategy, systemic change is achieved through public actions and campaigns. External advocacy approaches value the participation of each and every person. Small, individual actions contribute to the push for a common goal. Actions that are part of an external advocacy campaign include: writing letters to politicians; printing out and disseminating leaflets; signing a petition; taking part in a street action; buying a T-shirt to support a campaign; or donating money. Even the smallest contributions add to the empowerment of the campaign’s participants and the momentum of the campaign.

4 http://fairsay.com/tools/campaigning-insights/video/key-ecampaigning-stumbling-blocks/?searchterm=None

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WHICH STRATEGY TO CHOOSE?

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Which of the two strategies to use--external or internal advocacy--is a key question for organizers. Larger campaigns often employ both strategies in their efforts. Influential leaders and actions aimed at involving the public can both serve an advocacy campaign’s goals if they are used strategically. We can make the mistake of assuming that relying exclusively on the efforts of professional lobbyists and loyal decision-makers will always be more efficient than taking the time to hold public actions, mobilize fellow activists from the affected groups, and set up ties with the media. But, as practice and evaluation has shown, gathering the public support of a larger target group can sometimes be more successful than the efforts of a small number of public officials. As harm reduction activists in Ukraine, we need to take into account the political climate in which we are working and organizing. It is worth noting that decision-makers are being reappointed often and can lose their influence quickly in the unstable reality of the Ukrainian political system. Both internal and external advocacy approaches are available to activists in Ukraine and can have profound and impressive results. Both are worth trying. However, there is at least some evidence that external advocacy with a strategic approach, or people-oriented advocacy, is particularly effective in the Ukrainian context.

WHAT IS PEOPLE-CENTERED ADVOCACY?

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Regardless of the specific advocacy approach we choose, it is essential that, as social justice advocates, we make the effort to stay connected with, and accountable to, the people we represent and serve. A people-centered campaign produces not only the necessary changes, but «produces» newly motivated activists who will continue our work to promote change. To make sure that our organizations maintain significant relationships with our members, supporters, and those in affected groups, we need to continuously ask ourselves these three questions:

Are we giving voice to people whose voices are not fully heard?

Are we motivating people to become actively involved in the advocacy process?

Are we taking the time to learn from the experiences of our members, those in affected groups?

People-centered advocacy not only helps amplify the voices that are seldom heard, but also begins to transform existing power dynamics that determine who can be an «advocate» in the first place.5

5 From David Cohen, Advocacy for Social Justice: A Global Action and Reflection Guide, Kumarian Press, 2001. http://www.iscvt.org/who_we_are/publications/

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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WHEN AND HOW TO BUILD A COALITION Working in coalition with others toward a common goal can be an effective advocacy approach. Coalition members can be useful in bringing other groups to the cause, and our partnership in the coalition serves as a way to let people know we are connected to their community. When working with the media as a coalition, it is important that the coalition have its own media strategy so that every member or group can understand what is expected.

WHY CREATE A COALITION? Coalitions exist for collective action. Members of a coalition invest resources, share decisionmaking obligations, and coordinate their strategies, messages, and action plans to reach a specific goal. In addition to a common interest, coalition members must share a high level of trust. Skilled leadership is needed to guide members through their differences so the coalition can function.

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF A COALITION? •

Strength in numbers — When activists work together, we can create pressure on decision-makers and legitimacy for our issue, and we can demonstrate that the problem we aim to tackle touches a large number of people, who have united into a movement.

Strength in diversity — A coalition is often stronger when it draws together coalition members who are not usually seen as partners. A wide variety of perspectives and constituents creates a broader, more holistic picture of the issue, provides a variety of visions and stories that can be communicated to the media, and increases the credibility of the advocacy effort.

Shared workload and resources — A coalition can provide the diversity of talent, work styles, and resources needed to carry out a multi-faceted action plan, and to reduce the burden on any one organization.

Cohesion and solidarity — Shared values, goals, and experiences help activists from different regions and organizations overcome isolation, build confidence, and renew faith that change is possible.6

HOW TO IDENTIFY COALITION PARTNERS? When looking for partners for our campaigns, we can involve various organizations, informal groups and/or individuals. Before doing so, we have to carefully analyze how the interests and goals of these groups can strengthen our own campaign goals, which resources our prospective partners have, and how their participation can help us to reach our objectives.

6 http://tools.iscvt.org/advocacy/empower_the_coalition/start

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INVITING PEOPLE AND GROUPS WHO ARE DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY THE PROBLEM Advocacy campaigns can be incredibly effective when they are carried out by people and organizations that are directly affected by the problem, or by groups that represent the interests of marginalized populations. It our case, this means involving people who use drugs, substitution therapy clients, and their parents in advocacy efforts. Involving people from the affected community in the advocacy process can help our campaigns, because:

They are experts in the field and can provide the most relevant information to the target audience, including through the media.

They can share their own life experience and make a sincere connection with the audience.

They have high motivation and are ready to take action to make necessary changes.

They can become the «faces and voices» of the problem and its solution, which can be the key to creating compelling media stories.

They can become good spokespeople for the target groups.

They are opinion leaders and can mobilize other members of drug user communities to lend more active support.

FOSTERING DIVERSITY IN THE COALITION Consider diversity of partners in terms of organizational resources. Partners may bring a variety of strengths to the cause, including:

Legitimacy and credibility in the eyes of key decision-makers and our constituents.

People power: Talented coalition members; grassroots base and other volunteers; paid staff dedicated exclusively to the coalition’s work.

Knowledge: Experience and perspective on the issue; information and data.

Expertise: Community organizing and mobilizing; access to pressure groups; communications (developing messages, working with the media, graphic design); research and analysis; facilitation.

Relationships: Grassroots base and constituency; decision-makers; journalists; donors.

Money

Facilities: Meeting space, office space, computers, Internet access, etc.7

7 http://tools.iscvt.org/advocacy/empower_the_coalition/diversity

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HOW TO EMBRACE VARIOUS GROUPS TO BUILD TRUST, EQUAL REPRESENTATION, AND INFLUENCE When working in coalition, we need to find ways to involve everyone and give people multiple opportunities to participate. We can use different kinds of meetings and committees, telephone conversations or communications via e-mail to include everyone in as active a role, or as informed a position, as they want. We also should allow for different types and levels of commitment, and structure in ways to balance the different kinds of contributions made by diverse participants.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT TIME TO LAUNCH OR EXPAND A COALITION If we decide we need a coalition with several NGOs or issue-oriented campaigns, timing is very important. If we start building a coalition too early, the reason for working together might not be clear to the people we talk to. If we reach out to others too late, our actions may be perceived as competitive, as they may target the same audiences as our potential partners and require the attention of the same decision-makers. It is helpful if the majority of the potential coalition members support the core idea of the campaign, the coalition has added value beyond the value of any one member, and there is the potential for expanding the coalition soon after it is announced. A positive attitude among the target audiences of our potential partners and their readiness to act can also make coalition building easier.

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BASIC RULES THAT MAKE COALITIONS EFFECTIVE 1.

State clearly what we have in common, and what we don’t. The goals and objectives of the coalition must be clearly stated, so that organizations that join will fully comprehend the nature of their commitment. At the same time, coalition members must openly acknowledge their potentially differing self-interests. By recognizing these differences, coalition leaders can promote trust and respect among the members, while stressing common values and vision.

2.

Let the membership and the issue suggest the coalition’s structure and style. Coalitions can be formal or informal, tightly organized or loose and decentralized. The type of coalition chosen will depend on the kind of issue as well as the styles of the people and organizations involved. Coalitions evolve naturally, and should not be forced to fit into any one style.

3.

Reach out for a membership that is diverse – but certain. Coalitions should reach out for broad membership, but not include those who are uncertain or uncommitted to the coalition’s goals or strategies. The most effective coalitions are composed of a solid core of fully committed organizations that can draw together shifting groups of allies for discrete projects or campaigns. Overreaching for members can result in paralysis and suspicion. There’s nothing worse than a strategy planning session where coalition members are eyeing each other suspiciously, instead of openly sharing ideas and plans.

4.

Choose interim objectives very strategically. Interim objectives should be significant enough for people to want to be involved, but manageable enough so that there is a reasonable expectation of results. They should have the potential to involve a broad coalition and be of sufficient interest to gain public and media attention. Interim objectives should be chosen so they build relationships and lead toward work on other, more encompassing objectives.

5.

Stay open to partnerships outside the formal coalition structure. A coalition must be able to work with a great diversity of advocacy groups, but all groups need not belong as formal members. Organizations whose goals are more radical, or whose tactics are more extreme, are often more comfortable and effective working outside the formal coalition structure and informally coordinating their activities.8

8 http://tools.iscvt.org/_media/advocacy/wiki/building_a_coalition.doc

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POSSIBLE WEAKNESSES OF COALITIONS

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Differences among members can paralyze a coalition, preventing it from making progress toward its goal and discouraging members from working in future coalitions.

Working in a coalition may take time and energy away from working closely with constituents and members.

Shared decision-making power may mean members surrender control over the agenda, tactics, resource allocation, and other strategic decisions.

An organization’s identity may be masked by the coalition’s identity, making it difficult to act autonomously.

The coalition may become too large or «bureaucratic» to function.

Rather than cooperating with each other, members may end up competing with coalition partners for resources, funding, and public recognition.


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ALTERNATIVES TO WORKING IN COALITION If we find ourselves wary of working in a coalition and don’t have a compelling reason to do so, then it probably isn’t worth the investment of time, energy, and other resources at this time. However, we do have alternatives. We can:

Continue building and maintaining new relationships, at both the individual and organizational level.

Continue sharing information through networks.

Start working on the issue on our own and keep others informed about our work.

Collaborate with each other in less intense ways. For example, by working together on a single event or short-term campaign.

Develop parallel organizations that work separately toward the same goals. This may be an effective way to bridge large differences between organizations, such as the power differential between smaller and larger organizations

Such alternatives can help organizations develop trusting and respectful relationships, and the potential for future action together.

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

ADVOCACY: ACTION FOR CHANGE

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APPROACHES TO ADVOCACY

02

MEDIA ADVOCACY

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BUILDING A MEDIA CAMPAIGN

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ONLINE MEDIA ADVOCACY

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

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WHY CONDUCT MEDIA ADVOCACY? Media advocacy utilizes the media to convey information to large numbers of people, while focusing on influencing specific target groups. Using the media as part of an advocacy campaign is strategic because it can help us to reach our advocacy goals. Specifically, media can:

Inform an audience about current news, a problem, a situation, or an event.

Educate people about an issue.

Persuade and mobilize people to take action.

Popularize an organization or a solution.

Those who seek to use the media to achieve advocacy goals must have good knowledge of how the media industry works. As media advocates, we must know how to maintain good relationships with journalists, be ready to supply relevant information and comment on news stories, and be prepared to work with experts who can provide interviews.

Methadone Man9 speaks to the media at the AIDS and Human Rights March during the International AIDS Conference in Vienna, July, 2010.

9 http://www.methadoneman.org/index.html

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WHAT ARE KEY TASKS OF MEDIA ACTIVISTS?

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Many people think of media advocacy only in terms of high-profile media campaigns, but strategic engagement with the media can take many forms, such as:

Monitoring media for coverage of relevant topics to find out who is writing about our issue and how it is being framed or discussed in various media outlets, and keeping a file for our records. Media monitoring services are often contracted to specialist agencies, but we can do this work ourselves with the help of search engines on the Internet.

Maintaining contact with journalists, including through the creation, maintenance and expansion of our contact list of journalists with whom we are working.

Identifying and distributing relevant materials (news, articles, research reports, photos, stories) among journalists, keeping them informed about and interested in the work we are doing.

Responding to journalists’ inquiries and requests for information in a timely manner.

Supplying access to experts who can assist journalists. Experts should be interviewed and briefed about the organization’s or campaign’s positions before being referred to the media.

Preparing press releases, appeals, public statements, reports and background papers and other media materials.

Arranging press conferences, press-tours, briefings and unofficial meetings with journalists, and staging events to which journalists are invited.

Keeping a media diary, including identification of special dates and related events.

Responding to misleading/biased/offensive media coverage, when necessary.

Searching for experts and speakers on particular health issues.

Seeking to identify new angles on existing stories and new spokespeople and organizations to publicly support our policy recommendations—a wide variety of professionals and organizations may be recruited to support a media campaign.10

Training and briefing community spokespeople who will keep the communities that are involved up to date on the media work. These people will also represent the community in media events and eventually serve as trainers themselves.

10 This list is based on materials authored by David Simpson, see: http://www.answers.com/topic/media-advocacy.

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PERSONAL STORY

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Oksana Maslova

«Way Home» Foundation, Odessa

HOW TO ADD POSITIVE FEATURES TO AN «UNPOPULAR» ISSUE We all are well aware of the public’s negative attitude towards harm reduction programs, in particular, syringe and needle exchange programs. In most cases, the media tries to avoid this topic because «everything has been said» about it and journalists simply don’t see «the news» in it. The challenge is to get across the information that needle exchange programs can play an important part in reducing the risk of infection from HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C. In May, the Foundation «Way Home» announced the launch of a four-day event entitled «Let’s clean our city of syringes!» The needle exchanges, based on well-known conditions, had been set up on outreach routes and at the specialized syringe exchange center a couple of years ago in our city. It’s pretty clear that exchange programs work all the time, but this four-day event «Lets clean our city of syringes!» which allowed the media to witness the work of a harm reduction program in Odessa, provided journalists with fresh bait - and the fish bit! First of all the event was very interesting to the citizens of the city, who are concerned about their safety (safety is a subject for concern at all times). Second, something could be obtained for free. And third, in Odessa at the

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beginning of the summer there are usually few other events competing for media attention so it was more likely that journalists would take notice of our event. During the first days of the event the leading newspapers and information agencies of the city published almost «word for word» the press release written by the «Way Home» Foundation. This gave information on the conditions and locations for the needle exchanges, the description of the program’s objectives, the number of people covered by the program who use injection drugs and the number of officially registered injection drug users in Ukraine. Editorial offices started calling and journalists asked us to give them more information and even asked for an exclusive story in order avoid reprinting from other sources. We specifically did not work with TV reporters in order to assure the confidentiality of clients of the needle exchange programs who were willing to tell their stories to journalists. After the four-day event was over, the information department of the «Way Home» Foundation published data on how many used syringes were exchanged for new ones. This information was placed on the front pages of newspapers and in the news. For us, it was also a great opportunity once again to mention the Foundation, publicize contacts for assistance, and show the scope and results of the charitable work. Information about the importance of the needle and syringe exchange became more available to many people. They learned about the program’s benefits, while many people who use drugs who were not covered by the program contacted our organization and got a chance to receive the needle and syringe exchange support they needed. After the event, we sensed that the city community’s attitude towards the program had changed. Later on I was contacted by correspondents of several national TV channels with the offer to «shoot a story.» Then – a program. But that is another story.

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SYNCHRONIZING ADVOCACY AND MEDIA STRATEGIES All media communications should strategically add to achieving the goal(s) of the broader advocacy campaign.

ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN STRATEGY

MEDIA CAMPAIGN STRATEGY

At every stage, we need to ensure that our engagement with the media serves our advocacy goals. This means that when we are planning a media campaign, the strategy of the media campaign should be an integral part of our broader advocacy campaign and should be carefully considered at every step of the way. When pulling together the broader advocacy plan, media campaigns should be subject to their own discussion and planning, within the context of the advocacy plan.

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KEY QUESTIONS Here is a list of nine questions that can be helpful in guiding us and keeping us focused as we develop media relations: 1.

What do we want? (Goals) What is it we want our audience to do once they’ve heard our message?

2.

Who can give it to us? (Target Audiences) hich segment of the public is in the most suitable position to hear and act effectively upon our message? (NOTE: The «general public» is not a target audience.)

3.

What does our audience need to hear? (Messages) How can we best phrase our goals in order to have a powerful effect on our audience and move it to action?

4.

Who does our audience need to hear it from? (Speakers) Who is this particular target audience most likely to listen to?

5.

How do we get them to hear it? (Channels of Information Delivery) What is the best medium to reach them (e.g., print, radio, television, email)?

6.

What do we have? (Resources; Strengths) What resources do we already have at our disposal – good messages, graphic artists, websavvy specialists, motivating speakers – that can help us achieve our communications objectives?

7.

What do we need to develop? (Challenges; Gaps)

8.

Who do we need to bring in? What skills do we need that we don’t have? What organizational culture issues might hamper our efforts? How do we start? (First Steps) What are some things we can do right away to get the effort moving forward? Then what will we do after that?

9.

How will we know it’s working, or not working? (Evaluation)11 What mechanisms will we put into place to measure the impact of our message and our approach?

Answers to these questions are the basic steps for developing a successful media strategy.

11 http://tools.iscvt.org/advocacy/speak_to_inspire/start

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ACCESSING DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEDIA All forms of media can be relevant and useful when they are used wisely. Deciding which media to use will depend on the audience we are trying to reach and on the resources that we have available to us. It is important to establish and maintain relationships with journalists in as many types of media as we can, so that we will be able to access them as we need them. Media contact lists should reflect the diversity of the many types of media available and popular in our region and relevant to our issue and target group.

WHICH TYPES OF MEDIA ARE THERE? •

Print media – newspapers and magazines

Radio

Television

Internet, blogs, group and personal internet «dairies»

Social networking sites

Online magazines and newspapers

Cell phone/text messaging

Films, video, online video and much more.

HOW DO WE USE THE MEDIA? •

As a means of bringing our message to the public.

As an additional instrument to support our other public activities, to inform our audience and partners about our achievements.

In our campaign we may focus mostly on events organized especially for journalists (such as press conferences, press tours, organizing TV stories and newspaper reports) or we may organize actions targeted directly at influencing public opinion (street actions, activities for children in kindergartens or schools) and then inform the media about our actions. The combination of both types of engagement with the media proves to be the most effective way to get as much publicity as possible.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE VARIOUS MEDIA The following chart12 compares the characteristics of various media formats. Many of them are widely used, some are used only rarely. It’s worth noting that the question of advantage or disadvantage is a highly subjective one, and that when we are planning to reach out to the media we need to analyze whether a specific medium will be useful to us, depending on factors such as time, money, creative ideas developed, and even the time of year. However, the general rule is – the more types of media we access and engage in our media campaign, the more people we can attract and the bigger audience we can cover. 12 Making a difference, p. 24-25.

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Medium

Advantages

Disadvantages

Print media (posters, calendars)

Visual Popular Longevity

Audience is limited by the place of display Can be used to communicate only short and clear messages

Print media (leaflets, brochures)

Control a message Can communicate a more complicated story

Do not last long Require quite an effort to produce

The Mass Media (newspaper, magazines)

Reach a large audience Powerful Permanent Can explain issues in depth

Hard to transmit your message and story in the correct form Require quite an effort to communicate with journalists and editors to get your story published

The mass media (radio and TV)

Reach a large audience Dramatic and emotive Accessible (especially at grassroots level) Can be participatory and elicit immediate response (i.e., call-in programs)

Require production skills Message may be transient May not be sure of audience number Can send mixed messages; i.e., station may promote a different message Paid-for spots are expensive. Require quite an effort to communicate with journalists and editors to get your story covered

Folk media (theatre, dances and songs, eyewitness testimonials, role plays, story telling)

Entertaining Emotive Participatory Transmission across languages Potential to reach across classes Repetition in lyrics/ movements can concretize messages engaging/powerful Bring a human face to the issue Can be used in many arenas including mock tribunals, video and radio documentaries, theatrical productions

Need skills Time-bound Limited audience Effort intensive Can expose a story character to risk

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Medium

Advantages

Disadvantages

Folk media (printed messages on T-shirts, caps etc)

Allow an individual to show support for the cause Long lasting

Limited reach Limited space

Visual electronic media (internet)

Global Efficient Interactive Outreach Cost effective

Could be expensive Limited by language Often no ethical norms secured Limited by the audience’s access to computers and the internet

Visual Electronic media Video, film and slide shows

Participatory Entertaining Convey reality

Need skills Need equipment Expensive

BUILDING SUSTAINABLE RELATIONS WITH JOURNALISTS Once we stop treating journalists only as instruments for writing good articles about us, we can reach major success in building sustainable long-term relationships with the media and successfully fulfilling our advocacy goals. When engaging in media advocacy, things will run smoothly when there is cooperation with the media and we understand what they need, how they do their job, and what exactly we want to tell them. To make things easier for our media work, here are a few suggestions:

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We should be able to provide journalists with any necessary information in a timely manner. The world of media works on deadlines. Normally journalists have a very limited amount of time to work on each news piece or story they produce. If we want to be heard, we need to make sure we respond quickly—and that we say what we want in a way that is brief and clear.

Different types of media outlets use different formats for presenting information – some write broad analytical articles, relying heavily on expertise, some follow the «infotainment» format, combining information with entertainment, while news programs have two or three minutes for each news story, and magazines use an interview format to present a person and a problem. Knowing the preferred format and style of different media operations will help us to find a suitable way to «package» information for each outlet we approach.

Our personal stories should illustrate a specific problem and, often, its solution. The media use personalization of a problem to reach their audience, provoke an emotional response, and define possible solutions. When presenting our issues, we should use a variety of speakers. Experts are great for times when we want someone to explain the broader, general context of an issue or the reasons for and consequences of a problem, but average people make the best characters for news stories, because they can present their own experiences and thoughts, which legitimize the call for policy change.


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We should have available contact information of experts who can give their professional opinion about a situation. These experts should be briefed AHEAD of time and consulted about their willingness to talk to the press.

When planning a media event or a public action, we should always inform the media well in advance. The best way to do it is to send an email (if you have a valid email address and, ideally, know the recipient personally) and give a call to the office. As a rule, all information about forthcoming events is gathered by the editors who then decide which events are worth attending and covering. If a group has an information manager, it is his or her responsibility to reach out to editors with the right arguments to persuade them to pay attention to the group’s event.

We should always think about a good reason behind each contact we have with the media, and be sure we are imparting new or useful information during each contact. Journalists will become interested in attending our events or coming to us for information and stories if we develop a well-formulated message that touches upon the core problem we wish to tackle.

It is essential that we always keep to our message. The key point we want to make in front of the journalists has to be clearly stated in the most direct manner possible. In addition, this key point should be repeated in the printed materials that we prepare for any media event (such as a press-release or an information sheet, or a report). The leaders of our organizations, as well as experts who have agreed to talk about our issue, have to keep to the core message while giving personal interviews during or after an event.

The golden rule is that one event should have only one message. We should not try to speak about everything during a press conference, but should choose the one statement that is most important and make it the topic of the media event. This will make the work of the journalists much easier—and that is always appreciated by journalists.

We can use informal meetings with journalists to build friendly relations and exchange information. We can’t expect journalists to write something about us each time we contact them. It is useful, however, to be ready to provide information that journalists can use for background or for a future story on the topic. But we have to remember that even during informal meetings with journalists we are on the record, so we must make sure that even in these settings we stay on message and control the flow of information. If there is something we are not comfortable talking about, we need to say so.

We need to try not to feel upset when we see the media quoting our opponents’ opinion in articles about our topic. It is normal practice for the objective and unbiased media to present various opinions on one problem and to provide room for discussion. Moreover, those in the media like to create a sense of drama and conflict by pointing out opposing positions or points of view. Our major task is not to focus our energy on accusing our opponent of telling lies, but to present our own arguments as clearly and convincingly as possible.

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PERSONAL STORY

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Serhiy Zhuk

Charitable Association «Light of Hope», Poltava

SUBSTITUTION THERAPY IS NOT A «LEGAL DRUG,» BUT A REAL HELP This was the slogan of our media campaign. Our primary targets were policemen and medical doctors, though we considered all the citizens of Poltava when building our media strategy. We even thought about the grandmothers sitting in their houses, because we know they are the most devoted local press readers and TV viewers. At the beginning of our work with journalists we decided that we would engage all the media in our city in a dialogue on substitution therapy. The goal was clear: to have journalists publish unbiased materials that would cover all the advantages of substitution therapy. We were also conscious of the need to have stories that would be interesting to police officers, medical doctors and housewives. We decided to go on the TV program presented by Oksana Shynkarenko called «Frankly about...» that airs in the format of a talk-show on the local TV-channel «Ltava.» Frequently she is not able to make «a show» out of stories she is presented with because all the guests are in favor of something and no one is against it. In our case it was a real talk-show. There were plenty of emotions from different sides of the

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aisle (it looked almost like the Parliament of Ukraine, though we still need to learn from our members of parliament how to organize real shows). Because the police boss who was assigned to take part in the show didn’t have any time to prepare in advance and came to the show, as they say, «off the boat and into the party,» everything looked interesting and natural. In my opinion, we were able to voice all the necessary pros, as by the end of the show the police officer gave up and said: «Well, if it’s so, then I am in favor.» However, most importantly, we were able to raise awareness of the fact that substitution therapy is a tool for protecting not only individual «drug addicts,» but also the entire community. After filming the show, Oksana Shynkarenko and our group realized how useful we were to each other as we were the ones who added energy and emotion to her show, thanks to the «provocative» subject and «extraordinary» personalities who are clients of our organization. Now we are frequent guests of her show; sometimes we even develop the script as a team. The TV show airs at least twice a week and we are likely to be recognized in the streets soon, as we are already recognized at the offices of state officials! Our information campaign was also promoted via radio and local print media for about six months. As a result, we have seen an increase in the demand for substitution therapy services among drug users and waiting periods to get enrolled into the treatment program. Another one of our inventions should be mentioned here as well. In the spring of 2008, TV channel «Inter» aired a TV spot called «Week of Holland.» These were short 3 to 5-minute stories shown every day after the news. We thought it might be a good idea to try here. We approached the TV Channel «City» about airing a «Week of Light of Hope NGO» on the channel and they agreed. This show airs after the evening news and is viewed by many people in Poltava, so it worked out as a great way to carry our message. People! Do whatever you can to make friends with journalists. You don’t need any money. This has been our fundamental belief from the start. Persuade them with your enthusiasm, get them excited, make them «fall in love» with your organization, but never push your relationship to the «buy-sell» level. There is such a temptation at any time, as there is a quite common perception that local journalists «are so cheap.» This is easy, of course, but won’t last long, and the audience will always feel that the publication was «ordered,» i.e. it was prepaid. Finally, I have to say that nothing is impossible. All obstacles are in our heads. Try, experiment, be active and even a bit aggressive and, most importantly, make friends with journalists -- they are also humans (ha!). Because if they don’t write or talk about you – you simply don’t exist in the world of media.

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«ROUTINE» MEDIA ADVOCACY VERSUS MEDIA CAMPAIGNING Before the next chapter, in which we discuss how to build a media campaign, it is important to make clear the distinction between a media campaign and routine media activity. Very often media activists misuse the word «campaign.» An organization involved in ongoing media advocacy to achieve its goals may have a lot of different kinds of engagement with journalists on a range of issues related to its work. In such a situation, a series of media events conducted by an NGO may not necessarily relate to just one certain project, but could include a press conference to announce the launch of a new project, then a guest appearance on a radio program to talk about the issue of social rehabilitation services available for women with drug dependency. The next day the organization could be asked by a journalist to comment on some cases of human right violations. All of this disparate activity is routine engagement with the media and does not qualify as a media «campaign.» Planning the routine media activities of an organization for the coming year is always a more flexible process than planning a media campaign – there is room for «emergency» media activities that pop up during the course of other work, such as the need to respond to new initiatives, events, or comments of our opponents, decision-makers, or law enforcement officials, or the need to call for immediate media attention to a burning problem, or to just realize we’ve got bright, new ideas or new resources we can use to get good media coverage of our activities.

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Routine media activity may not be as exciting as a campaign, but it can build a solid basis for our good relations with the media. Such activities, which a good information manager or other responsible staff person should carry out, include:

Developing and maintaining a database of journalist contacts and email addresses.

Maintaining personal contacts with key journalists and editors, and holding unofficial meetings with these members of the media.

Developing and maintaining a database of experts who can provide comments on relevant issues.

Continually informing leaders and our organization’s members about partners’ and colleagues’ new initiatives, news related to our group’s work, and relevant public statements by opinion leaders and politicians.

Informing media regularly (but not so often as to be treated like a spammer) about our recent activities – by sending out press releases, newsletters, press-statements, etc.

Updating our organization’s website, posting news and videos online, moderating forums, posting comments on blogs on relevant topics.

Monitoring the media regularly and making analytical reviews of the positions being expressed regarding our issues and how we want to spin this.

Documenting our success stories and achievements in the form of case studies for future use in advocacy and media advocacy materials.

And much more.... The general rule is: the better we are at carrying out everyday media activities, the easier it will be for us to mobilize our resources and efforts to undertake a specific media campaign.

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

ADVOCACY: ACTION FOR CHANGE

01

APPROACHES TO ADVOCACY

02

MEDIA ADVOCACY

03

BUILDING A MEDIA CAMPAIGN

04

ONLINE MEDIA ADVOCACY

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What does a true media campaign look like? The following are elements of a genuine media campaign.

?

A media campaign has a very clear and specific goal and all the events planned within its framework serve to fulfill this goal.

A media campaign spans a certain set period of time (like an electoral campaign, it has firm start and end dates).

A campaign normally has one visible message and a logo\visual symbol that reflects the message.

Very often a coalition of various organizations comes together for joint work on a particular campaign.

A media campaign has its own media strategy. Sometimes the media strategy developed for a specific campaign may not be completely in tune with an NGO’s general media strategy; but a campaign’s strategy should always have a connection to the organization’s overall advocacy goals.

Very often media campaigns involve intense time and energy commitments and the events planned within the framework of the media campaign are much more vivid and intense than everyday media activities.

WHICH COMES FIRST, THE ROUTINE OR THE CAMPAIGN? There is a general notion that only well-developed NGOs with extensive experience in media relations can carry out a successful media campaign. Normally this is true, but in a number of cases even small and inexperienced organizations have been able to carry out beneficial media campaigns. As we said before, often coalitions of various groups are formed to carry out a campaign. In such a situation, sharing strategic planning and implementation of the media events with other partners is a great chance for each of the allies to strengthen their skills and get valuable feedback from colleagues as they go. Being more specific and time-bound, a media campaign can be a great opportunity for a young group new to media advocacy to shape and sharpen its analytical and management skills, and test its motivation to act for change. Even a small-scale media campaign can be a big success; it can be an excellent team-building exercise and often provides inspiration for further learning.

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WHAT KINDS OF MEDIA CAMPAIGNS ARE THERE?

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Once we decide to launch a media campaign, we need to decide which kind. Advocacy media campaign – The most common type of campaign is a media campaign that is organized around a particular advocacy goal and that makes use of access to traditional media outlets to address a target group. This type of a campaign is usually event-driven: activities within the framework of such a campaign could include street actions, press conferences, meetings, roundtables, and press tours. Ideally, all events planned as part of this type of campaign are voicing a common message that is picked up by the various media outlets. Ad campaigns – These can include billboard ads on the side of the highway, advertisements in print media, on television or radio, or even on the Internet. It is important to keep in mind that advertisement campaigns are related to utilization of pre-paid media outlets. These types of campaigns are very clear and concise in their messaging, as exposure time is very limited. It is important to make sure that the message of the campaign is clear and targeted. Journalistic (Op-Ed)13 campaign – Usually driven by an issue or problem, Op-Ed campaigns involve writing letters and articles to newspapers and magazines, holding open discussions between organizations, analysts and opinion leaders with regard to a certain acute social problem on the pages of a well-known newspaper. In such cases, an editor usually publishes the materials that an author contributes, without changes and under the author’s name. An Op-Ed campaign can be a helpful way to familiarize people with a point of view they may not have thought of before and present the variety of possible opinions about a problem. It also allows for people to write using their own voice and perspective. This can be a good way to engage and motivate new volunteers to participate in a campaign. Online campaign – We can use online media for many advocacy campaign purposes. The Internet can be used to disseminate messages about events, ask for support for our activities, post video or banners, join a blog discussion to support our views, or start an online blog responding to current campaign efforts and to keep people updated – these are just a few ideas.

13 English «op(posite) + ed(itor)» – newspaper page opposite to the editor’s column where authors’ opinion articles and letters from readers are usually published

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PLANNING A CAMPAIGN At the planning stage any campaign should have these vital elements:

A clearly stated advocacy goal and a clearly stated goal for the media campaign. These should be clearly distinguishable, but also connected (that is, the media campaign goal should serve the broader advocacy goals of the group).

Activities that seek to further the goals.

An agreement by the team/coalition about the target audience(s) the campaign intends to reach.

A well-articulated set of messages designed for each of the media channels we wish to access.

Clearly identified spokespeople to deliver the message.

A timeline for the campaign.

Adequate resources to implement the campaign.

ESSENTIALS OF STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR A CAMPAIGN Frequently, activists forget to ask fundamental questions when thinking about media campaigns and evaluating resources.

THE WHO, THE WHAT, AND THE HOW Who - The target audiences are the people to whom we address our message. A typical mistake made by a media campaign is selecting a message for a broad audience. Addressing everyone at one time does not work. Media messages affect each audience in a different way. For each audience there should be a defined target message. What – The content of our message should be thought out carefully, and with the specific audience in mind. What does the audience need to hear in order for us to achieve our goal? Frequently, we are in a hurry to inform everyone about how good a program will be for people who use drugs, for example, and we talk about ALL of the benefits at once. However, some audiences who might be critical to influencing policy do not belong to the group of ‘potential patients’ or ‘their relatives.’ The members of these audiences may ask themselves: ‘And what is the benefit to me or my community if drug dependent people receive these services?’ The content of our message must appeal to the specific people we are trying to move.

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How - Selecting the right tools is a place where many campaigns fall short. A big mistake is to rely upon the standard schemes, such as organizing and conducting a press conference or a roundtable discussion on the issue with no specific plan of action or follow up. It is important to find new ways to engage the media when we are working on long-term issues (such as campaigns on drug use issues) that can seem repetitive and like ‘old news.’ Being creative with story ideas, special actions, use of the Internet, and collaborative actions with allies will be the key to gaining access to the media and making use of it as a sharp tool in our campaign and to achieve our goals. While planning a campaign, we must keep in mind that each of our key campaign steps relates back to the overall goals of our campaign.

STEP 1: DEFINING A CHALLENGE FOR THE MEDIA CAMPAIGN Taking the time to define the challenge of the campaign will help us to state our goals more clearly. Our media campaign goal will be narrower and more specific than the broader advocacy goal, as it is only a PART of the larger advocacy effort. An example of a media campaign issue might be the lack of positive, informative press coverage about harm reduction programs for women in Ukraine. How can we address this issue within the context of the broader advocacy campaign? How do we make sure our media goals correspond directly with our advocacy goals? As we pick our goals we also want to keep in mind what success will look like and how we will know when we have reached our goal.

STEP 2: TARGETING OUR AUDIENCE Knowing who our audience is will help us to develop the messages and choose the correct media channels for our media campaign. Audience – these are the people and groups that can make change happen. Sometimes we can target one audience in order to move another audience. For example, we might organize a media campaign that targets the medical staff of substitution therapy clinics, with the aim of getting their support to put pressure on officials from the Ministry of Health. Such a media campaign would not focus directly on influencing people in the Ministry of Health, but on convincing doctors to support the idea that legislative changes are necessary. Our advocacy efforts focus mostly on two types of audiences:

Decision-makers, or those who have the power or authority (formal or informal) to enact the change we seek.

Pressure makers, or those who have the power to influence or pressure decisionmakers or other pressure makers, and to sway public opinion about an issue.

Some people who are normally associated with the first group are: politicians, members of parliament, government officials from the Ministry of Health, representatives of the lawenforcement authorities, local authorities, etc. The second group is much broader, as it is comprised of experts, NGO activists, international institutions, opinion and community leaders, businesspeople, celebrities, journalists, etc. Remember, there is no such thing as the GENERAL PUBLIC in a media campaign. There are exercises that can help us to identify our target audience and determine if we are focusing our energy in the right directions. (See Appendix 3) 55


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Olga Belyaeva

Virtus Charitable Foundation, Dnipropetrovsk

AN AMUSING STORY ABOUT AN UNFORTUNATE TELECAST So, let’s start with a short introduction: the Charitable Foundation ‘Virtus’ has been providing advocacy and direct service for drug users since 2001. We have been able to do many things. We have established a permanent syringe exchange site, carry out social support for substitution therapy programs, provide pecuniary aid for women with small babies; we have a mobile health clinic and are able to provide free medicine. We have 40 permanent staff and we provide assistance to over 700 drug users and their relatives monthly.

Our Foundation’s motto is: FREE CHOICE IS OURS! For a long time now we thought working with journalists was optional and considered it a burden. We would hold press conferences and round table discussions that were not interesting and would lead to no action. Why? Because somebody decided that a press conference should be held twice a year so we could list it in a report. Not because something was happening.

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However, it did seem that we had a story. If we could only find a way to inform the community of Dnipropetrovsk City about how the ‘Virtus’ Foundation solves important issues of the city… Then the following incident happened in February 2008. We gathered at the office to discuss the subject of a news story that was planned to be shot about us by one of the local TV channels. The main thing to remember in such a situation is: good improvisation is a carefully planned situation. Thus, to prepare we developed a whole strategy. First of all, it’s necessary to learn about the telecast format. This can be news (and it’s between half a minute to a minute and a half!), the TV program ‘Competent Opinion’ or even a live TV show. While communicating with a journalist, it’s important to clarify all the details in advance and to find out what kind of details are to be discussed during the program. However, do bear in mind - a host can pull from his sleeve his ace of diamonds – a tricky question. But coming back to our story, that day a local TV channel had to show the activities of one of the syringe exchange programs and showed us doing a rapid HIV antibody test among drug users. We had carefully prepared for the visit of the camera crew. People who were visiting the syringe exchange at the time of the shoot were informed about the filming. This gave them the chance to turn their backs to the camera to keep their confidentiality. It’s necessary to warn people about the possibility of filming or to invite only those who are ready to show their face for the camera. The social worker’s comments were thought over and prepared beforehand. Thoughts should be formulated briefly and clearly, to deliver the main thought within 20 seconds, so it is easier for the journalist to include it in the television news spot. We did everything the way we planned; we provided good comments, journalists shot the moment of how rapid HIV tests were done. Everything went wonderfully! But... Together with a group of outreach workers, we visited the flat of one our harm reduction program clients to shoot the process of diagnostics. The journalist saw drugs being cooked in the kitchen. After the things we planned were shot, she asked to go to the kitchen, where the foundation worker, while staying near the cooking range where the drugs were cooked, talked about the drug formulation and about the harm it could cause. Everyone tried to help - to ‘educate the journalist’. But nobody knew that the film crew had been shooting everything!!! We learned about that three days later… That evening the news was on the air. Everyone was at home, waiting. And there we were! The syringe exchange program, our staff’s comments, the rapid tests – everything was great! The story was really great quality and an objective one! The timing was a minute and a half, and the messages that we prepared went on the air! What a great victory!

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However, three days later there we were again on TV, this time on the local scandalous program. A kitchen, a cooking range, our worker and the voice-over: ‘This is how the foundation helps drug abusers to prepare drugs, and it even brings syringes to their homes.’ We were shocked. We called the journalist – how could this have happened? And do you know what she told us? All the video footage is the TV channel’s property and it is in general use. And everyone who wishes takes it for his or her purpose. Here’s how a success story turned into a fly in the ointment.

THEREFORE, MY FRIENDS, REMEMBER:

Tell journalists only those things YOU would like to tell, show only those things that YOU have decided to show for shooting. Although the real lesson here is that it is not possible to foresee everything. Nevertheless despite everything, we need journalists for our work! They are bridges to people who need our help; bridges to officials who sign documents and, therefore, they are able to influence people’s lives and destinies.

STEP 3. MESSAGES IN MEDIA CAMPAIGNS – HOW DO WE SAY IT? KEEPING IT SIMPLE A message is a brief, straightforward statement based on analysis of what will persuade a particular audience. A good message is:

Simple.

To the point.

Easy to remember.

Repeated frequently.

People need to hear a message again and again to retain it. Simple repetition also builds comfort and familiarity with ideas and issues over time, making the repetition of a well-formulated message an important tool in persuading a target audience. Media messages have to reflect the key problems we are addressing, but can take a variety of forms and use a variety of terms; media messages are usually generated for specific media channels and targeted to a particular audience. A thoughtful and clear message also enables an organization and its partners to speak with a unified voice about specific social issues and, thus, to be heard and understood by more people. A well-formulated message can become a token of a successful campaign. However, it is vital to differentiate between the objectives of the advocacy campaign and the media campaign message; while an advocacy objective may be complex and involve a number of stages or nuances, a media campaign message must be simple and clear. 58


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CORE AND TAILORED MESSAGES A core message is the key message that reflects the general idea of a media campaign. Tailored messages are modifications of the core information that include arguments intended to influence a specific audience or meet the needs of a specific media outlet.14 A media campaign is often developed around a core message, which typically includes:

Our analysis of a problem.

The problem’s cause.

The people we hold responsible for solving the problem.

The proposed solution (if we have one).

The action we ask others to take in support of the solution.

But some messages may appeal more strongly to specific audiences than others. A message developed with a specific audience in mind is called a tailored message. Tailored messages can be developed for various age and social groups, experts, the general public in certain regions, politicians, young people, or other groups. The following format can help us to develop a tailored message for our media campaigns:15 If (the key audience) will do (action the campaign calls for), instead of (activity that is in competition with our work), then (key audience) will get (benefit(s) for the key audience), because (explain the reason). The wording and form of a campaign’s message is defined by:

The specific audience we want to address.

Media outlets we want to access.

Speakers who will voice our message to the public.

Obviously, information written in an official statement of an organization or in a press release will have a different form from a message written on a banner for a street action and will differ dramatically in its length, vocabulary and character from a rap song written to be distributed among teenagers. Despite all the differences in the form it can take, the most important element of a message is its content.

14 http://tools.iscvt.org/advocacy/speak_to_inspire/basicmessages 15 http://tools.iscvt.org/advocacy/speak_to_inspire/basicmessages

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Most crucially, a media campaign message has to address the problem we would like to solve. The well-crafted message:

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Must be clear and understood by the audience we address it to.

Must be short and catchy so people will remember it.

Must provide arguments that support our ideas.

Must persuade people to take action.

Must be emotional, that is, must provoke an emotional response in the people we wish to reach.

HOW TO DEVELOP A SHORT AND CATCHY MESSAGE Keep it simple We need to make sure our message is easy to grasp, jargon free, and short and uncluttered. Put our own frame around the issue

We can use personal stories to capture the attention of journalists and illustrate the need for specific policy changes. These stories are among the strongest and most compelling ‘weapons’ in the arsenals of harm reduction activists.

We can shift audience attention to our perspective by highlighting specific aspects of an issue, such as who is responsible for causing the problem and who offers possible solutions.

We can employ metaphors and visual images.

Know our audience

What our audience already knows about our issue (is there a startling fact that might cause the audience to rethink its position or move to action?).

Values and beliefs (what values are most important to our audience?).

Feelings (trigger compassion, outrage, or disgust).

Needs and priorities (what does our audience care deeply about or fear?).

Invite the audience to «fill in the blank» and reach our conclusion on its own

When we hold back from including every detail, we implicitly invite the audience to use its own thought processes and thus to take ownership of the message. Phrases such as «What are you ready to do to change\get\achieve X or Y?» or «We are ready to stand against inequality. Are you?» set the initial dialogue with the audience we want to reach and encourage people to respond to our challenge.

Present a solution

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People are more responsive if we focus on solutions instead of focusing on the problem’s cause.


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STEP 4: IDENTIFYING THE RIGHT SPEAKERS Speakers are people who voice our messages. They can be formal or informal. Speakers have to relate to the concept of our campaign, speak to the target audience, and express messages in appropriate ways in order to be heard and understood. For each media event organized for the campaign, there are a variety of possible speakers: we can invite experts when planning a roundtable or public discussion; we can turn to people who use drugs or their parents when participating in a talk-show on TV or an interview for a newspaper; and a rock star would be a good choice for an outdoor concert or street performance. The more diverse set of speakers we have involved with the media campaign, the more target groups we can reach. Very often people believe and understand speakers who resemble themselves and who face similar problems. Such people can find common ground and common words to connect to the key audience more easily. So when we plan a campaign targeted at influencing policemen, we need to try to find a law-enforcement officer or other similar representative to be one of the key speakers, or, if we want to reach government officials, we should provide comments from experts and people who will bring an analytical approach to the problem.

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STEP 5: SELECTING MEDIA OUTLETS When planning a media campaign, it can be helpful for us to make a thorough survey of our local media landscape, as well as of other information sources (Internet, billboards, leaflets, stickers, posters, calendars, etc.) that our target audience turns to for information. This will give us a good idea of which type of media will work better to help us achieve our goals. When deciding which outlets to access in our media campaign, there are several factors we need to consider. Not all media outlets are equal when it comes to their ability to carry a message to an audience, or in terms of how far-reaching the message will be. If we have done the work to plan out the message and mapped out the media campaign, we should be able to answer the following questions to determine which media outlets will best serve our media campaign.16

Audience – Who is the target audience? What kind of media does it use? Is our campaign local, regional or national? Knowing who our campaign is talking to is critical. Different kinds of media will work better for different audiences. Usually it is necessary to investigate which audience specific media outlets reach. For example, the newspaper Weekly Mirror (Dzerkalo Tyzhnia) is read mostly by a highly educated audience, politicians, intellectuals, analysts, doctors, teachers, etc. Though its circulation is less than that of other newspapers, an article published in this paper will have a greater effect and will be more prestigious than an article in another newspaper.

Time frame – What is the time frame of the media advocacy campaign? How long will we be engaged in messaging? Do we have a time line for expected results? Knowing our time frame is important, as it will influence the other factors when deciding which media outlet we will access. Planning ahead is always the best way to ensure that our campaign has the most options for media outlets. If we wait until the last minute, some of the options will not be available.

Resources – What resources do we have to put towards accessing the media outlets? Are we able/willing to do additional fundraising if necessary? Will a cheaper alternative work just as well? Working with some media outlets (like TV, radio, online video) will take more effort, time and expertise than others. It is wise to take stock of the resources that we have available to us (and be realistic) so we can understand what we need to obtain in order to get access to the media outlet we want, or so we can eliminate certain options that are not within our available resources.

16 Media Institute of Southern Africa, Training Workbook http://www.misa.org/researchandpubliction/MISA/english/wor/CourseBk.pdf

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STEP 6: SETTING A TIMELINE FOR THE MEDIA CAMPAIGN Once we have completed the first five steps to establish a campaign strategy, it is important to formulate a timeframe for our media campaign. Is this a six-month campaign, a year-long campaign? We need to keep in mind that a media campaign, unlike routine media advocacy, spans only a limited period of time. A media plan or schedule is made up of a series of media events and actions that take place within the campaign timeframe. (To get a sense of key dates and the ideal timeframe, we will often refer back to our organization’s broader advocacy plan and look for the list of activities and events that involve media coverage.) Each event in our media campaign has to be carefully planned well in advance and the team of people responsible for carrying out the event has to be selected. Very often clear planning and sharing responsibilities can save us a lot in terms of human as well as financial resources. As civic activists we often have limited resources and therefore have to take a very strategic approach to utilization of our potential. Thoughtful and thorough planning is often the key to efficient use of scarce resources. Investing our time in planning will help us to:

Evaluate our current situation, our sources of power, strengths and potential, and possible starting points for action toward change.

Choose achievable tasks to start out with.

Decide what a successful outcome would look like, so we will have a way to evaluate our plan after an event is complete and build for the next one.

Develop an action plan that contains a description of the ways we will use our resources and that helps us to understand where we need to strengthen our potential and which tools we will use.

One of the possible ways to formulate a campaign plan is as a general calendar plan: Date

Event’s name

Event’s content

Resources (what do we need to have/do to hold an event)

Responsible people, possible partners

Outcome (Success)

Budget

Planning can help us to keep track of the resources we need, control the workload of each activist involved, and evaluate the anticipated outcomes of each event and its impact on our target group.

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STEP 7: EVALUATING CAMPAIGN RESULTS While evaluating a media advocacy campaign can be time consuming, the results of a wellexecuted evaluation are extremely useful. Results showing that a media campaign has been effective in achieving its goals or objectives can motivate coalition members’ partners and inform future media efforts. At times, it is difficult to attribute changes in policies or programs directly to a media campaign. Policy changes may take place due to a general change in attitudes, because of another campaign or advocacy effort, or for another reason. Evaluation results also can be used to identify the most and least effective components of the campaign. We must be flexible and rethink strategies when evaluation data indicates lack of progress. Evaluation is not just an end game process… Evaluation of campaign effectiveness is one of the most important parts of running a well thought out media campaign. Evaluation and assessment allows us to be more strategic. Consistently assessing our campaign as we go along, as well as making timely corrections of any mistakes, will help us reach our media advocacy goals. We can use the principles below as a guide when we are working to reveal a campaign’s weaknesses and solve them. Process evaluation – Examines whether media activities are reaching the intended audience, are occurring as planned, and are adequately funded. This is the least expensive and most simple type of evaluation. This evaluation should be done throughout the campaign to ensure that the objectives are still on target.

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QUESTIONS FOR PROCESS EVALUATION: •

How many opinion leaders received information from the media you intended to work with?

How many pieces of media materials were distributed to the public?

How many press conferences, press-tours have been held with the media?

How many favorable articles or programs on the issue of your campaign appeared in the media?

How many members does the organization or its network have?

Outcome evaluation – Measures the immediate impact. Results from this type of evaluation will indicate progress toward meeting the objective.

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QUESTIONS FOR OUTCOME EVALUATION: •

How has awareness of drug user rights issues among opinion leaders/important decisionmakers in the media and/or target group increased?

Has there been a positive change in the attitude of opinion leaders regarding the issue and an increase in their public support of the goal?

How many opinion leaders have changed their attitude towards «support» and «ready to act»?


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Did the target agency’s policies change as a result of the activities?

Was there a measured increase in the public’s support of these policies?

DEVELOPING INDICATORS Indicators are explicit measures used to determine performance. Areas to assess would include: Expanded public and private dialogue and debate (awareness) What increase has there been in:

Coverage and discussion in the news media, personal blogs, forums, etc?

Problem solving dialogue?

Focus and discussion in the entertainment media, TV shows, comments of celebrities, etc?

Debate and dialogue in the political process, comments of politicians, state officials, etc?

Increased accuracy of the information that people share in the dialogue/debate (tracking progress towards increasing knowledge)

Are people becoming more informed about the issue?

Are stereotypes being dispelled?

Do journalists use more correct and unbiased terms to describe the issues related to drug dependency and drug use?

Are people discussing different perspectives on the issue?

Shifting attitudes

Are there signs of increased sensitivity on the issue?

Are people more accepting of different perspectives on the issue?

Is there reflection on existing social norms and cultural values (that currently might stand in the way of behavioral change)?

Change in behavior

Are people taking action as a result of being informed and influenced?

What are their actions, and what outcomes are emerging?

Are people getting involved in campaigns, becoming advocates themselves?

How sustained has this behavioral change been to date, and what signs are there of change being sustained in the future?17

17 From Making a Difference Strategic Communications to end Violence Against Women, Jenny Drezin and Megan Lloyd-Laney, editors, UNIFEM 2003

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Maria Lebedeva

Journalist, civic activist, Kyiv

SEEING IS BELIEVING It is difficult to make a journalist write about a certain issue, even if it is very real and important. And encouraging someone to write a piece is often considered to be pressure or manipulating the audience’s opinion. But when you become the witness of an event and hear the eyewitnesses’ words for yourself – it is quite another story. My name is Maria Lebedeva and I am a journalist. However, I cannot pretend I do not have my values and beliefs. As an activist and co-organizer I also actively participate in a number of civic initiatives, organize actions and media events. I was personally a co-organizer of the action ‘Velonayizd’ (‘Cycle-collision’) aimed to protect cyclists’ rights, and a participant of numerous actions against illegal construction in the city’s historic center. I am the author of many publications on these subjects and I work to expose human rights violations. In my work it has come to my attention that the public, including many of my journalist colleagues, are unaware of many important issues. One of these major issues is substitution therapy for injection drug users and harm reduction practices that could be used to control the spread of HIV/AIDS in Ukraine. In 2006, I was invited to the first press tour of substitution therapy sites in Ukraine. The purpose of this media event was to provide journalists with an opportunity to

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visit substitution therapy sites in different cities. Journalists went to Dnipropetrovsk, Kherson, and Mykolayiv and, upon their return to Kyiv, they obtained information to prepare press materials and shot TV spots. As it turned out, few journalists knew about the existence of the sites where substitution therapy programs were implemented. Information on substitution therapy on the Internet is misleading and even dishonest. This deceitful information was being used to hide the truth. The only way to hear unbiased thoughts was to visit the substitution therapy sites in person. When I began to get deeper into the details of the issue, I came to find out that the introduction of substitution therapy in Ukraine was a very complicated and serious subject. Because of the press tours, public discussion among experts who normally had negative attitudes towards the introduction of substitution therapy not only increased but also began to vary. When a civic organization prepares for a press tour, the main goal is to provide materials that journalists will find informative, useful and accurate. It is also important to respond to requests for information quickly, as most journalists are working on tight deadlines. The journalist must also consider the opinions of the experts. The comments of a Ministry of Health official or narcologist are often out of context of the whole story, possibly skewing the reality of the situation. The main concerns for journalists are access to primary sources, the largest number of different points of view, and time management. As a result we get quality and, ideally, objective publications. In 2008, I was an organizer for one of the press tours to the substitution therapy sites in Kyiv. The media event for journalists was on December 1st – the World Day to Fight HIV/AIDS. It also happened that the government approval of substitution therapy in Ukraine was launched in conjunction with the World Day to Fight HIV/AIDS. Because of our strategic planning around the press tour, journalists were able to talk with experts, substitution therapy medical staff and site clients. We made sure everyone was available and ready for comment. During the visits they watched the process of the medicine delivery where they could learn and ask questions first hand. This experience was especially useful to analyze and to compare with the material written by others BEFORE the press tour. TV spots and new printed materials were issued after the tours to correct any misinformation. As a result, people learned the correct information about drug users’ issues and ways in which policies could be changed to help them. It is well worth saying that because of these efforts most of my colleagues are changing their opinion about the introduction of substitution therapy in Ukraine.

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USING VISUALS IN A CAMPAIGN Each media campaign has its own face and voice – personified by speakers in campaign video materials or represented in photos, drawings, symbols, logos, and more. Visuals can create a striking message and elicit strong emotions from an audience. Each type of visual media serves its own specific goal. We should pay attention to using the proper type of visuals for the proper purpose when planning a particular action or campaign. The following are key types of visuals widely used for advocacy and media activities.

LOGOS A logo or a logotype is a small picture or drawing that represents the mission of an organization or a campaign’s key message in a symbolic way. Logos are important for building recognition of a particular organization, campaign or movement. A good logo can become a brand that represents a certain set of values or a mission pursued by a specific community and will be recognized by journalists and members of the public. Logos are typically placed on all official documents – statements, petitions, press releases, leaflets, on the home page of a website, on T-shirts, etc. The Association of Substitution Therapy Advocates of Ukraine (ASTAU) has a logo showing hands waving and the sun rising above. The hands represent the feeling of community that holds people together and the rising sun represents both a pill and the advent of a new life for substitution therapy patients.

POSTERS AND BANNERS These can take a range of forms, from a glossy billboard advertisement erected near a highway, to a hand-made banner for a street action. In all cases, banners and posters serve the same goal: to bring a message or slogan to a target audience. Posters often contain one or several big, bright photos or images and a slogan or short piece of text, as well as the campaign organizers’ contact information or other details. Posters are sometimes posted on walls or fences in public spaces outdoors or inside buildings – places where the target audience will easily spot them and read them. A 2010 campaign to help decrease medical workers’ stigmatization of and discrimination against women who use drugs, and to improve the quality of services provided to women drug users, targeted doctors at maternity hospitals and in gynecological departments as the primary audience. The group Health Right Ukraine, working in cooperation with a leading advertising agency, developed a series of posters to support the expansion of substitution maintenance treatment and promote easier access to the program for women who use drugs. Posters were distributed throughout Ukraine and placed in social service offices and organizations that carry out harm reduction programs for people who use drugs.

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Banners with slogans such as «Not all people are drug users, but all drug users – are people!» and «Substitution Treatment – a way from drug dependency treatment to a normal life» have been used during street actions outside the Ministry of Health in Kyiv in 2010 by activists from the Drop In Center and substitution therapy patients to demand better quality medical services and expansion of the program.

PHOTOGRAPHS AND VIDEO Photographic images and video testimonials or other video footage are often among the most powerful instruments we can use in our advocacy campaigns. Photos and video can illustrate the issue we want to present in an immediate and visceral way that brings a problem ‘to life’ and provokes a profound emotional response in the audience. Video and photos can often communicate a story more succinctly than a written report can. Video can also be the medium through which key stakeholders express their opinions about a specific problem and present arguments for or against certain measures. Links to examples of advocacy videos can be found in Appendix 4.

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PERSONAL STORY

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Pavlo Kutsev

Charitable Foundation ‘Drop-in-Centre,’ editor-in-chief of the ‘Motylek’ newspaper, Kyiv

Every year, on December 1, it is World AIDS Day. NGOs and international organizations conduct numerous activities to demonstrate our society’s attitude and commitment to the issues of AIDS and HIV positive people, more than half of whom in Ukraine are injecting drug users. December 1, 2008 became a special day for our small community of drug users who established the ‘Drop-in-Centre’ Foundation. We launched an information campaign called, ‘The right to support’ to educate Ukrainians about substitution maintenance therapy in Ukraine. It was a year-long campaign with educational materials, media events and lectures. We took time writing the strategy and the concept of the media events, as we wanted to move away from the standard ways of informing and do something unusual. The idea to develop our own social advertising to support substitution maintenance therapy was born after a notorious billboard campaign that showed a child asking, «Mother, why am I a freak?» The only positive outcome of this poor social advertising was a growing understanding that the drug user community was going to have to take action. We decided we had to do the thing that had not been done before – openly declare our right to treatment, to a better life, to return to society, to have a job, and to have a family. In response there were 300 billboards in the oblast centers of Ukraine and in Kyiv that read ‘Return ticket’ as well as an issue for discussion – the question raised on the billboards was ‘Are drug addicts able to return to normal life?’

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In addition, websites were launched to create places where everyone could find out about what substitution therapy is and ask any questions on the matter. However, we understood that it was not enough to create a quality advertising product. It was also necessary to ensure wide promotion of our message through good media coverage. Therefore, to create the project’s information base, we developed and launched an information website ‘ZaPyTaj!’ (ASK!) (www.zpt.in.ua) that contained information about substitution therapy in Ukraine and around the world. In order for the website on substitution maintenance therapy to be considered a serious information source and to present all the existing attitudes and research about this kind of treatment, we invited leading national experts to participate in the website section ‘Question – Answer.’ I am sure that with time the website ‘ZaPyTaj!’ can be developed into a popular Internet resource on substitution maintenance therapy. This website can become useful not only for experts, doctors and clients of these programs, but for journalists writing about these issues and for anyone who may be interested in learning more. Of course, there were some challenges with the project. Not all the publications were as approving as we would like them to be, and the publicity was not as wide as we planned it to be. But nevertheless, we are already proud of ourselves! We are proud of the fact that we made the first step forward. We launched an open and honest discussion of one of the most acute issues for Ukraine within the context of fighting the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, drug addiction – we the very people living with this problem. There is no doubt that this is a victory for us! The project demonstrated not only our opportunities and readiness to participate in advocacy initiatives, but also how united we are. We are all who call ourselves WE. While communicating with journalists, debating with opponents at forums, we did not think only of ourselves, but of our entire community – all of the people who are fighting the HIV epidemic today and trying to reduce the harm related to injecting drug use. That is to say that we are on the same side of the ‘building yard’ where the foundation is being laid for the Ukrainian state drug policy.

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ADVOCACY: ACTION FOR CHANGE

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APPROACHES TO ADVOCACY

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MEDIA ADVOCACY

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BUILDING A MEDIA CAMPAIGN

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ONLINE MEDIA ADVOCACY

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Modern technology is an invaluable tool that we can use during the course of our everyday engagement with the media and as part of media campaigns. Taking the time to think about how we will use technology to support our campaign or other advocacy activity will save us time and narrow down the many options. With the use of the Internet, we can:

Run organizational activities, strengthen contacts with partners, and build up networks of supporters.

Send out information to journalists, hold public discussions, comment on events, and give eyewitness accounts of events.

Share documents, disseminate photo, video and audio materials.

Mobilize other Internet users for action.

Raise funds or outsource tasks among supporters on the Internet.

With all the possibilities technology brings to us as media activists, it is important for us to be aware of the fact that just having a website or publishing news items on a blog is not enough to build effective media advocacy. We need to have day-to-day engagement with journalists to ensure they make use of the information we post online, we have to attract people to read and comment on our blogs or follow us on Twitter and forward our emails to their friends and colleagues. Given the relatively low level of internet penetration in Ukraine18, very often online media channels are best used as an additional instrument for reaching our audience, rather than as a substitute for communicating a message through ‘traditional’ media outlets.

MEDIA CAMPAIGNS AND THE INTERNET Using the Internet can increase our media campaign’s ability to:

Respond to challenges in a timely manner.

Reach a wide audience with a message.

Start a discussion that will involve new participants in the media campaign.

Organize rallies, collect signatures to a petition, or ask people to distribute important information.

Through personal email contacts, blogs, online video and social networks we can create a community of supporters. Once we have started this process, we can reinforce a sense of community by enabling others to feel their importance through sharing information and ideas, conducting online contests and surveys, and finding other ways to allow online supporters to become involved in our campaign. It is also great if we can engage journalists and have them among our informal online supporters! 18 http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Інтернет_в_Україні

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WHICH OPPORTUNITIES OFFERED BY THE WEB CAN BE USED FOR ADVOCACY BY MEDIA ACTIVISTS?

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EMAIL Personal email – This is the easiest and quickest means of communication. Through personal correspondence we can foster relationships with journalists and share information with colleagues and partners. By sending out a group email announcement we can invite people to a public event or discuss a draft statement by our organization, etc. In short, any modern-day communication is practically impossible without email. If we write people email, they will write us back. However, we need to remember not to be obtrusive, or they’ll block our emails as spam. :-) Group emailing – Big email servers such as Gmail and Yahoo! will facilitate our group mailings by setting up a separate group of recipients under one email address that will send out messages to everyone who signs up to the listserv. For instance, a well-known Ukrainian listserv ukrrights@googlegroups.com includes a large number of human rights organizations and individual activists from all regions. Distributing information through this and other similar groups is quite effective. Email tips:

Be focused and clear. It should be immediately clear what we are trying to communicate, what we are trying to do, and what we are asking the users to do. Emotional appeal may be less effective than a clear, upfront statement of facts. We should demonstrate that we are doing something concrete that can have an impact. If possible, we should include some good news.

Do not send large images and attachments. If our message depends on pretty graphics to make our argument, we should reconsider. Often uploading visuals and graphics online and then sending a link by email is a good option. Also, if sending out HTML formatted email, we should make sure to include a text option as well.

Make it easy to subscribe and unsubscribe. «Trapping» users on an email list without escape is a good way to alienate supporters.

Be upfront about frequency and privacy. Let the users know what they are getting when subscribing to the email list. It’s a good idea to feature an explicit link to our privacy policy.

If there is a large list of supporters, segment the list. We can create different messages for different audiences. It is also worth segmenting the list to test out different types of messages, measure response, and gauge which is more effective.

If at all possible or relevant, include an action component with everything. We should try not to send out information about a horrible human rights situation without offering the user an opportunity to do something.

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05 •

Follow up. Most NGOs are particularly bad at this, and often send out action alert after action alert with little indication of the results of those actions.

If we are collecting email addresses at an offline event, we should be sure to add them to our listserv soon after the event. One options is to send our participants a message thanking them for turning out and letting them know about upcoming activities.

Be open and accessible, follow up on questions and concerns from users.

Don’t Spam! Only send email to people who have agreed to receive it.19

IS YOUR ACTION ALERT READY TO CIRCULATE IN CYBERSPACE? A NetAction Checklist20

Will readers know who sent the action alert? Clearly identify your organization as the source of the action alert.

Will readers know how to contact your organization? Include complete contact information: email address, postal address, website address, phone number and fax number. Whenever possible, include the name, title, and phone number of the person to contact with questions.

Will readers know if the action alert is timely? Always include the date that your action alert is distributed and the date by which action is requested. (And don’t forget to include the year!)

Will readers be compelled to read the action alert? Communicate a sense of urgency with a provocative or compelling subject line, so readers will open the alert and take action. Never leave the subject line blank.

Will readers understand why action is important? Include clear, concise background information, pointers to Web sites with more information and the key points to communicate.

Will readers know what action to take? Be specific about what you want the reader to do. Include the postal address, fax number or phone number if you are asking readers to write letters, send faxes or make phone calls.

Are you building your base of support? Always include information on how readers can join your organization, volunteer to help, subscribe to (or unsubscribe from) the action alert list.

19 http://backspace.com/action/on_email.php 20 http://www.netaction.org/training/alerts.html

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WEBSITES The most common way to publicize an organization and its activities is through a website. Our group’s website is our calling card on the Internet, a means for others to learn more about our vision and a way for them to get in touch with us. Websites vary in their goals and their layouts. They can contain articles, news, photos, videos, forums and Q&A forms, or any other element that allows visitors to obtain information they need and gain a positive impression about our organization. If we are going to have a website, it is important we take the time to think it through and have it designed. The website does not have to be complicated, but it does need to make sense, be thorough, and be consistent with our broader advocacy goals! A bad website is bad media!!!

FORUMS AND COMMENTS FOLLOWING ARTICLES I N WEB PUBLICATIONS Internet forums provide a great opportunity to debate burning issues and a way get to know the whole spectrum of opinions about an issue. Most online publications that feature articles on social and political topics (Dzerkalo Tyzhnya,21 Glavred,22 Ukrainska Pravda,23 Korrespondent,24 and others) have a special option allowing people to comment on their materials, so that readers have an opportunity to express their viewpoints. If readers comment on articles relevant to our work, we have the opportunity to receive immediate feedback from that audience, evaluate it, and make appropriate changes to the concept of our campaign or its key messages.

BLOGS OR ONLINE JOURNALS Blogs are a relatively new format for the Ukrainian Internet community, but they have nevertheless become quite popular already. The most popular blog hosting service in Ukraine is LiveJournal25, aka LJ. Blogs offer us an opportunity to start a personal webpage as well as read and comment on the blogs of other users. Through blogs we can post information, photos and videos. Each of us can run a blog as our personal journal, thus offering the audience our personal perspective on the issue that we are trying to resolve. For instance, the blog run by Pavel Kutsev26 from Drop In Center, Kyiv, offers personal stories and everyday experiences of substitution therapy program clients.27 Such stories voiced online by immediate participants of the program are of special interest to journalists. Blogs can also be run by a group of people – so-called Internet communities – and can be organized around certain themes. Sharing information through relevant thematic communities can help us to communicate our message to our target audience, depending on who that is. Lately, well-known politicians and journalists have started running their own blogs – the most famous ones are hosted on the websites of Ukrainska Pravda28 and Telekritika.29 We can encourage our fellow NGO activists, activists among people who use drugs, and rehab program clients to write blogs. This is a means of establishing direct communication, a way to find like-minded people in other cities or countries, a chance to share our stories, and an opportunity to express ourselves to many different kinds of people. 21 Weekly Mirror, http://www.dt.ua 22 Editor-in-Chief, http://www.glavred.info 23 Ukrainian Truth, http://www.pravda.com.ua 24 http://www.korespondent.net 25 http://www.livejournal.com 26 http://www.depo3p.livejournal.com 27 Enlish version of Kutsev’s blog can be found at Rising Voices blog http://rising.globalvoicesonline.org/projects/dropin-center/ 28 http://blogs.pravda.com.ua 29 http://blogs.telekritika.ua

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CITIZEN JOURNALISM WEBSITES These websites are interested in publishing articles about social issues and news items that are different from those featured on regular information websites. Examples include: Narodna Pravda30; Infocorn31; and Highway.32 The distinctive feature of these websites is that anyone can become an author of a story on this portal by uploading his or her own text directly to the website.

ONLINE PETITIONS The website Petitions Online33 is the most popular website where activists post their statements, petitions and open letters to the President, the Government, and officials. Visitors of the website can support such petitions by personally signing them. Collecting signatures and finding people in other cities who support our ideas is much easier to do via the Internet.

SOCIAL NETWORKS In Ukraine the most popular social networks are Facebook,34 its Russian-language equivalent V kontakte,35 a network of ex-classmates and college/university mates Odnoklasniki,36 the professional network LinkedIn,37 and the social network Hi5.38 Social networks can be useful for creating various groups, searching and establishing contacts with different people, disseminating messages, and sharing photos and videos.

30 People’s Truth, http://www.narodna.pravda.com.ua 31 http://infocorn.org.ua 32 http://h.ua 33 http://www.petition.org.ua 34 http://www.facebook.com 35 http://vkontakte.ru 36 http://www.odnoklasniki.ru 37 http://www.linkedin.com 38 http://hi5.com

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ONLINE VIDEO The YouTube website39 is meant for uploading videos on the Internet. Video stories are a powerful tool that can be useful in changing our audience’s beliefs or motivations and to convey the emotional aspect of drug users’ personal stories. Links to videos hosted by YouTube can be sent to journalists, colleagues, and activists and posted on blogs and websites. For instance, the Hungarian Civil Liberties Union, an organization that does a lot of work in the drug policy field, actively utilizes online video for advocacy purposes.40

CELL PHONES In addition to voice calling, cell phones are becoming a platform for other kinds of information services like text messaging, email, and basic web browsing. These are all of potential use to us. Cell phones also have special relevance to people who don’t have everyday access to computers and Internet. Text messaging (sms) was widely used during the Orange Revolution in 2004 in Ukraine. Mobile phones were used to disseminate hundreds of messages about the time and place of upcoming rallies, to coordinate street actions and student protests.

39 http://www.youtube.com 40 http://blog.soros.org/2010/05/the-power-of-video-advocacy-an-interview-with-the-hungarian-civil-liberties-union/

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PERSONAL STORY

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Taras Ratushny

«Objective reality» Civic Initiative, journalist, Kyiv

ADVOCACY ONLINE – AN EASY, FAST AND EFFICIENT WAY TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE The Internet is a powerful resource for advancing advocacy goals. Its impact in Ukraine has been growing every year, covering all the social groups of Ukrainian society. At present, the Internet conferences of politicians have become more common than ordinary ones; famous people have their personal websites and blogs to become closer to their supporters; and the most real discussions of social problems are being held on forums and blogs. And based on my experience as a journalist, I can say that journalists are regular Internet users and obtain a significant part of their information for writing their material from online sources. The «Objective reality» Civic Initiative, which I represent, directs its activities at informing the public about Ukrainian drug policy issues. Our goal is to influence the government decision-making process, which will assist in changing policies related to discrimination against drug users, overcoming drug-related corruption, and other important issues of the national drug policy.

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While planning media events to get public attention, it is worth remembering a simple but effective way of putting public pressure on officials – collecting signatures for an open letter or a petition. In previous times, significant resources were needed to implement such a campaign – to search for volunteers, to carry out a door-to-door campaign, to look for supporters who would agree to sign your petition. The Internet makes this much easier today. In December 2006 the «Objective reality» Civic Initiative disseminated an open letter addressed to the Minister of Interior from a range of non-governmental and international organizations. The petition demands were focused on law enforcement reform, especially with regard to drug users. The letter was posted on the website for online petitions (www.petition.org.ua) – a popular resource among civic organizations. During one month, 163 people signed the open letter joining in the demand for a change of the Ministry’s punitive practices. Most of the signees were representatives of social services, HIV service organizations from different regions of Ukraine, journalists, relatives of drug users and people who are aware of the scope of the problem. As a result of posting the open letter via the profile forums and blogs, there was outcry from the petition that made the press-service of the Ministry of Interior provide an official response to the open letter. One of the positive sides of such small-scale information campaigns is that they usually do not require many financial resources or much time. When a letter not only covers issues concerning drug users, but also a wide range of intersecting issues (such as issues of corruption, discrimination of marginalized groups, violation of imprisoned persons’ rights, etc.), it allows for human rights advocates and different civic organizations to be involved. In addition, making clear claims to the ministry or the department you refer to and obtaining an answer provides an opportunity for continued communication – to invite its department head to your roundtable discussion, to write the next letter, or to organize a personal meeting. Therefore, it opens up a lot of new ways to implement your advocacy initiatives. At present, the Internet has a range of resources for building social networks, communicating and initiating discussions of important social problems. Often those issues being discussed today, for instance, by the Live Journal (www.livejournal.com) users, virtual journals – blogs, will become the subject for a talk show or for the evening news tomorrow. It is worth pursuing such an opportunity to provide new knowledge to people and to achieve changes in their attitude toward the problems of people with drug dependency.

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Activist marching at the streets of Kyiv demanding decriminalization of personal use of drugs and reforms of the state drug policy during Freedom March, May 2007

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CONCLUSION And some final thoughts.... Sometimes simple things like having a good press list or establishing ongoing professional relationships with key reporters are the most significant measures of success, especially for location-specific or small-budget efforts. However, we cannot stop trying if, in a first campaign, we have failed even to get acquainted with a couple of journalists. We should never forget about the basics: to be strategic; to make personal contacts; to have clear goals and follow them at all times; to stick to our message; to try a variety of approaches; to never hesitate to use our creativity; and always be positive! Remember, media campaigns are not rocket science. Of course, sometimes ÂŤit is harder to break down a prejudice than an atom.Âť However, chances are Albert Einstein once said this only because he did not have this manual. Good Luck!

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APPENDIX 1 CHALLENGES OF UKRAINIAN DRUG POLICY: SUBSTITUTION THERAPY AND DRUG USER REGISTRATION PART 1. SUBSTITUTION THERAPY IN UKRAINE WHAT IS SUBSTITUTION THERAPY? Opioid substitution therapy (OST), or substitution maintenance therapy (SMT), is a form of treatment for chronic opioid addiction that is used to prevent HIV infection, hepatitis B and C amongst people who have used drugs. The method consists of prescribing treatment with longacting opioid agonists (methadone or buprenorphine) that is taken in a non-injecting way. Today, harm reduction programs have been launched in 84 countries worldwide. Opioid substitution therapy programs successfully work to treat drug addiction in 65 countries,41 including 26 countries of the European Union, Norway, Canada, the USA, Australia, Iran, China, Thailand, and others. In Eastern Europe and former-Soviet countries substitution treatment programs are working in Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova, Estonia, Latvia, and Kyrgyzstan. Today, methadone and buprenorphine substitution therapy is accessed worldwide by almost a million people who have drug dependency.42

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WHAT MAKES SMT TREATMENT OF DRUG DEPENDENCY SO EFFECTIVE? Substitution maintenance therapy:

Allows people who use drugs to reduce the use of illegal drugs and minimize the risk of overdose.

Helps to minimize the risk of blood-borne infections, such as HIV and hepatitis B and C, among people who are participating in substitution maintenance treatment.

Improves the physical and psychological state of people who use drugs, and can assist in improving their family relationships, and their re-entry into the workforce.

Improves access to other medical and social services.

Improves adherence to ARV and TB treatment and facilitates treatment of other diseases.

Decreases the incidence of crime among people receiving substitution therapy.

Reduces budget costs for criminal law proceedings, and the cost of imprisoning people who use illegal drugs.

41 Harm Reduction Policy and Practice Worldwide, by Catherine Cook, IHRA, March 2009 42 Substitution Maintenance Therapy in Ukraine: Can the Community Respond Effectively to the Challenges of HIV/AIDS?». Policy brief. Page 2. http://www.aidsalliance.org.ua/cgi-bin/index.cgi?url=/en/library/our/pbzt/index.htm

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APPENDIX 1 Due to the above facts, substitution maintenance therapy can be considered one of the most effective treatments of drug dependency, and one that has comprehensive and lasting medical and social impact on the prevention of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ukraine.

A SHORT HISTORY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SUBSTITUTION MAINTENANCE THERAPY IN UKRAINE •

On November 30, 2001, the Governmental Commission on HIV/AIDS prevention issued a decree aimed at promoting government drug dependency treatment programs with non-injection substitute medicines.

The National Program for HIV/AIDS Prevention for 2001–2003 was approved under Order No. 790, dated July 11, 2001, issued by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. The following was specifically stated in item 36 of that Order: «To implement substitution therapy programs to reduce the risk of HIV infection and other pathological infections among injecting drug users»

In 2004 the All-Ukrainian Narcological Association developed methodological guidelines for ‘Using methadone substitution therapy in the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with opioid dependency syndrome.’ These guidelines were approved by the Ukrainian Centre for Scientific Medical Information and agreed upon by the Department for Medical Care Organization of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine on February 17, 2004.

On March 4, 2004, Decree No. 264 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine adopted the National Program of Prevention, Care and Treatment of HIV-Infected People and Those Who Have AIDS for 2004-2008,» which included implementation of a substitution therapy program as part of an effort to increase access to antiretroviral treatment for people who use drugs (article 12).

Currently, substitution maintenance programs in Ukraine are realized according to the law «On adoption of the National Program of Prevention, Care and Treatment of HIVinfected People and Those Who Have AIDS for 2009 – 2013» and respective decrees of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.

Article 4 of the new version of the law «On narcotics, psychotropic substances and precursors,’ dated January 1, 2008, stated that drug policy efforts are targeted at the reduction of harm from illegal drug use. Thus, as one of the principles of harm reduction, substitution therapy has become listed among the key drug policy priorities of the state.

On July 25, 2008 the Ministry of Health approved Decree No. 407, which stated that 5,293 patients with chronic opioid addiction would be involved in SMT programs in 2008. This decree was supposed to increase the number of methadone SMT programs by establishing 111 treatment-prevention facilities in 26 regions of Ukraine.

Currently, distribution of methadone («Methadol» and «Methadikt» medicines) is regulated by Ministry of Health Decree No. 823, dated November 11, 2009. In July 2010 a new decree, No. 1054, came into force. This new decree was designed to ensure continuity of substitution treatment for patients in the event they undergo planned or emergency hospitalization.

Distribution of buprenorphine («Ednok» medicine) is currently regulated by Ministry of Health Decree No. 691, dated November 3, 2008.43

43 Please see the following link for more details http://www.uiphp.org.ua/ua/resource/zakonodavcha-baza-ztp

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APPENDIX 1 ?

HOW WAS SUBSTITUTION MAINTENANCE THERAPY LAUNCHED IN UKRAINE? The first pilot programs for substitution maintenance therapy in Ukraine were launched in 2004 at narcological facilities in Kherson and Kyiv and were supported by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Buprenorphine was selected as the substitution medicine. At an early stage in the project, guidelines on buprenorphine administration were published and medical staff was trained in the prescription criteria for substitution therapy and how to follow up with patients. Psychosocial support to patients was provided by non-governmental organizations. Pilot programs in substitution maintenance therapy in Ukraine were evaluated within the framework of the World Health Organization (WHO) study ‘Substitution therapy of drug addiction and HIV/ AIDS.’ According to the ‘The International HIV/AIDS Alliance in Ukraine,’ the outcomes of the pilot projects for substitution treatment for the first six months of observation evidenced the following:44 1.

The retention rate – 70% of 76 program participants.

2.

Fourfold decrease in the injection use of illegal opiates.

3.

Reduced criminal behavior.

Taking into consideration the positive outcomes of the pilot projects, on April 13, 2005, Order No. 161 was issued by the Ministry of Health on implementation of buprenorphine substitution maintenance therapy at six state narcological facilities in different regions of Ukraine. In April 2008 the first batch of methadone was delivered to Ukraine, allowing 38 medical facilities to start implementing methadone-based treatment for 2,220 patients. Soon methadone substitution programs were expanded to all regions of Ukraine.

SITUATION IN FIGURES As of August 15, 2010, there are 5,597 substitution maintenance therapy patients in Ukraine, in 27 administrative regions. Among them, 847 receive buprenorphine and 4,750 receive methadone.45

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WHAT COMES NEXT? According to the project proposal signed by Ukraine, the Global Fund, and other donors, the plan is to scale up substitution maintenance therapy programs for 9,800 clients by September 2010. Out of the 9,800 clients, treatment should be available for 1,975 people living with HIV/AIDS and for 7,075 people who use drugs, to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. On September 30, 2008, the new National Program to Counteract HIV/AIDS for 2009-2013 was adopted by the Parliament (the Verkhovna Rada) of Ukraine. This program envisages Substitution Maintenance Therapy (SMT) for 20,000 people who use drugs by 2012, and the treatment of 10,000 clients is going to be paid by the Ukrainian state budget.46

44 Substitution Maintenance Therapy in Ukraine: Can the Community Respond Effectively to the Challenges of HIV/AIDS? Policy brief. Page 4. http://www.aidsalliance.org.ua/cgi-bin/index.cgi?url=/en/library/our/pbzt/index.htm 45 Data by the Ukrainian Institute on public health policy http://www.uiphp.org.ua/ua/resource/zvedeni-danni 46 http://gska2.rada.gov.ua/pls/radac_gs09/g_zak_list_n?word=2695

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APPENDIX 1 ADVOCACY INITIATIVES In 2009, a new advocacy initiative aimed at the introduction of substitution maintenance therapy in penitentiary settings was launched in Ukraine with the participation of all major stakeholders. In January 2010, a round-table meeting was held at the Ministry of Health, gathering together key experts, state officials and representatives of international organizations to discuss the terms of introduction of methadone substitution therapy programs in prisons. In October 2009, the National Association of Substitution Therapy Patients was registered by a group of activists from 16 regions of Ukraine. One of the main goals of the Association is to convince the Ukraine government to broaden the program of substitution maintenance therapy nationwide. This will improve treatment; adjusting the type of drugs and doses according to the personal needs of patients, making it possible for patients to get substitution medicines by prescription, and leading the way to integration of substitution maintenance therapy into state medical institutions, such as TB clinics, maternity hospitals, and general hospitals.

INTRODUCTION OF SMT IN UKRAINE: CHALLENGES AND BARRIERS The drug treatment system of Ukraine still has features characteristic of the old Soviet system. Approximately 95% of treatment consists of outpatient and in-patient detoxification and the other 5% is made up of a mix of social and spiritual rehabilitation, substitution maintenance therapy and other programs. From these numbers we can see that there is not enough treatment giving patients access to the kind of programs they need. The current system has a one-size-fits-all attitude toward treating people who are struggling with drug addiction. In Ukraine, the introduction of substitution maintenance therapy programs was delayed, until recently, by law enforcement and politicians. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has given Ukraine humanitarian aid in the form of antiretroviral medicines on the condition that substitution therapy programs are introduced for people with opioid addiction. The Global Fund reasons that without the implementation of substitution maintenance therapy there is no certainty that a person who uses drugs will continuously take antiretroviral medicines. Substitution maintenance therapy depends, in many respects, on the overall philosophy of a community; whether drug abuse is considered to be a disease (in which case the treatment method for people who use drugs is framed by the medical system) or seen as criminal behavior (when the issue is dealt with by law enforcement). Despite the number of government decrees adopted to increase substitution therapy programs, progress is still slow. In a number of regions implementation and expansion of substitution maintenance therapy is being hampered by local medical staff and local government and lawenforcement officials, who often reflect the same prejudice toward people who use drugs as that prevalent in the general population. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that in comparison with other countries in the region, such as Russia, where substitution therapy is prohibited by the state, Ukraine has managed to achieve significant success. It has done this by adopting all the necessary normative bases for substitution maintenance therapy programs and by scaling up the number of program sites in all 26 districts, as well as by constantly increasing the number of patients.

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APPENDIX 1 Some reasons for the delay of substitution maintenance therapy in Ukraine include:

Limited funds available for the introduction of substitution treatment.

Lack of trained professionals (doctors, social workers), social services, and support for program participants.

Lack of awareness, recognition and understanding of substitution maintenance therapy and harm reduction principles by many professionals – narcologists and officials fear that substitution therapy will encourage drug use.

Action by a number of high-ranking state officials in some of the regions of Ukraine to impede the launch or expansion of the program.

According to public health experts and substitution maintenance therapy clients, there are many problems faced by people who use drugs and substitution maintenance therapy clients at the local level, including:

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1.

Prohibitions on substitution maintenance therapy clients taking the medicine home. (This limits the client’s ability to travel far from his or her SMT site.)

2.

A paucity of treatment slots available, due to the absence of incentives for opening new substitution treatment sites.

3.

Permanent pressure on substitution therapy sites, patients and doctors, often including violation of patients’ rights and bribery by officers of the Illicit Drug Control Department.

4.

Stigmatization of people who use drugs by some medical providers. (Stigmatization, prejudice, and lack of training on the part of medical workers lead to frequent violations of patients’ rights.)

5.

The absence of access to substitution treatment medicines in police detention sites and while in prison, as well in many TB hospitals and maternity hospitals.

6.

A lack of doctors with the relevant qualifications and training to provide SMT services, leading to a shortage of medical staff at substitution maintenance therapy sites.


CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

APPENDIX 1 WHAT CAN BE DONE TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF SUBSTITUTION THERAPY SERVICES, RAISE THEIR EFFICIENCY LEVEL, AND PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF PATIENTS?

Research and Monitoring:

Analyze the experiences of people in other countries who have implemented substitution treatment and search for the most effective model for Ukraine.

Define the obstacles that hamper diversification of the SMT program and the integration of services, and propose new approaches to providing complex health care services to «triple diagnosis» patients (those with drug dependency, TB and HIV).

Launch civic watchdog initiatives to monitor the quality of service provided, secure patients’ rights, and uncover facts of corruption among law-enforcement and medical staff.

Social Networking:

Support the development of local grassroots initiatives by people who use drugs and their families.

Involve patients receiving substitution maintenance treatment and people who use drugs in decision-making processes regarding the development and expansion of harm reduction programs.

Create favorable conditions for strengthening professional ties among substitution maintenance therapy medical staff and fostering improved exchange of information and success stories.

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Information and Education:

Establish information resources about substitution maintenance therapy for various groups.

Educate medical and social services staff engaged in administering substitution maintenance therapy programs.

Strengthen the ability of substitution maintenance therapy clients and people who use drugs to effectively make use of advocacy instruments.

Launch media campaigns to create positive images of substitution therapy programs among target groups within the general public.

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APPENDIX 1 PART 2. DRUG USER REGISTRATION

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WHAT IS DRUG USER REGISTRATION? According to the Ministry of Health, the term «narcological registration» means the register of people who use drugs and who are sent to medical institutions for narcological or other types of aid. Patients diagnosed with any kind of a narcotic disorder are included in this special registration system. The registration system consists of two types of drug user registries: one for chronic drug users (diagnosed as drug dependent) and another for occasional drug users. The minimum amount of time that a patient will be on the narcological register varies by diagnosis. If the patient has been diagnosed with addiction, then he or she must be in constant remission and treatment with positive outcomes, as identified by the treatment program, for 5 ‘clean’ years. For the prophylactic narcological register there is an established term of 1 year of remission and treatment. If there has been a relapse, or if there has been a long period during which the patient has not been in contact with the treatment program, the length of time on the registry is extended.

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WHICH PIECES OF LEGISLATION REGULATE NARCOLOGICAL REGISTRATION? •

A joint decree of the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Interior, the Security Service of Ukraine and the Office of Prosecutor General and Ministry of Justice, dated October 10, 1997, No. 306/680/21/66/5, «On confirmation of instruction on the order of disclosure and registration of individuals who use illegal drugs or psychoactive substances.»

Decree No. 704 and decree No. 402/109, issued by the Ministry of Health of the USSR on May 20, 1988, which adopted «The instruction on the order of clinic registration of patients with chronic alcohol, narcological addiction and prophylactic observation of individuals who use illegal psychoactive substances without traits of addiction.»

The decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, No.1238, dated November 6, 1997, «On mandatory preventive narcological examination and control over the procedure for its conduct.»47

47 A.Tolopylo, L.Vlasenko. Registration of drug users: practice, implications and further perspectives. Study Report, 2008

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APPENDIX 1 STATISTICS ON REGISTERED DRUG USE IN UKRAINE According to data from the Ministry of Health, as of January 1, 2008, there were 5,177 people (4,472 men and 705 women) registered with a new diagnosis of ‘Mental and behavior disorders resulting from narcotics use.’48 The drug user registry of the Ministry of Health breaks down the above figures as follows: Opioid use: 3,197 people (2,662 men and 535 women). Cannabinoids use: 683 people (665 men, 18 women). Hallucinogens use: 8 people (5 men, 3 women). Narcotic and psychoactive substances use: 1, 286 persons (1,138 men and 148 women). As of January 1, 2008, according to data from the Ministry of Interior of Ukraine, there are a total of 173,594 people who use drugs registered in Ukraine.

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS WITH THE REGISTRATION PROCESS IN UKRAINE?

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1. Lack of accurate data on the registration procedures. Figures gathered by the narcological registry do not reflect the real circumstances of the provision of health care services to individuals with addiction, nor do they provide a comprehensive picture about the real number of people who use drugs in Ukraine. 2. The fact that there are two separate institutions that conduct narcological registration leads to violations of privacy. There are two separate drug user registries in Ukraine: one maintained by the Ministry of Health, and another maintained by the Ministry of Interior (law enforcement). In 2007 the Law on Confidentiality of Medical Information made it illegal to disseminate confidential information about the medical condition of patients being treated at narcological facilities. This law should ensure that the practice of sharing confidential information between medical and law enforcement structures is prohibited. However, according to information from people who use drugs, in many regions of Ukraine the confidentiality of patients’ medical records is breached. 3. Narcological facilities are encouraged to register as many patients as possible, since they get funding according to the number of officially registered people, irrespective of the patient’s state of drug dependency.

48 http://www.damonitoring.net.ua/uk/report2008/

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APPENDIX 1 ?

HOW IS A PERSON WHO USES DRUGS REGISTERED? •

When a person is arrested by law enforcement officers on suspicion of use of illegal drugs and tests positive for psychoactive substances in his or her blood, police then include the person in the Ministry of Interior registry of «people engaged in illegal drug activities.»

People who undergo treatment in narcological facilities are often included in the Ministry of Health registry.

Patients with medical histories in psychiatric hospitals are included in the Ministry of Health registry as «drug users.»

NEGATIVE IMPLICATIONS OF REGISTRATION OF PEOPLE WHO USE DRUGS:

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Those registered experience violation of their rights to privacy and confidentiality of their personal and health data.

Registered drug users experience impeded access to medical care because of stigmatization of people who use psychoactive substances.

Potential employers have access to the registries and registered drug users experience limited opportunities to return to regular employment.

Law enforcement officers who have access to the registries often use the information to target people who use drugs in order to demand bribes from them or to initiate criminal prosecution based on the possession of any illegal psychoactive substances.

The presence of a person’s surname on a drug user registry may be used as grounds to refuse that person custody of children or the right to hold a driver’s license.

Public dissemination of information in the registry leads to stigmatization of people who use drugs, and their isolation from the broader community.

Because they are aware of the registry and fear its implications, many people who use drugs refuse treatment and shy away from cooperation with medical facilities or social services.

The procedure to get the names of former drug users removed from the registry remains unregulated and is often linked with corruption.


CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

APPENDIX 1 AS IT STANDS THE NARCOLOGICAL REGISTRATION PROCESS IS: •

A remnant of the Soviet system of control.

Regulated by conflicting legislation. The law on the confidentiality of medical information adopted in 1997 hasn’t reduced or stopped various institutions’ practice of exchanging the confidential personal data of registered individuals.

A form of stigmatization of people who use drugs.

An obstacle to providing medical and social care, and limitation of the job opportunities available to people who use drugs.

HOW CAN ADVOCACY SOLVE THE PROBLEM? The issue of the registration of people who use drugs could be approached and addressed within the context of national and regional human rights advocacy campaigns, as well as through legal advocacy and public education. A human rights framework would highlight the following issues:

Violation of the right to privacy.

Violation of patients’ rights to confidentiality regarding their medical histories.

The effects of stigmatization and criminalization of people who use drugs.

WHAT CAN BE DONE TO PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF PEOPLE WHO USE DRUGS? •

Hold public advocacy campaigns targeted at achieving legislative change.

Conduct public education campaigns and campaigns to raise public awareness about the issue.

Initiate court hearings of cases related to drug user registration issues in order to create successful precedents for further legal action.

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APPENDIX 2 CAMPAIGN DEVELOPMENT TOOL – POWER MAPPING Power mapping is a framework for problem solving through relationship building. This framework is based on the assumption that networks of relationships (between individuals, organizations, institutions, etc.) are critical resources, and that stronger networks yield stronger solutions. This exercise can help us to see more clearly the strengths and challenges that our advocacy effort will face and to help our campaign take shape. How to do power mapping:49 Step 1: Problem location We can map around a problem or a person or institution we think can solve a problem. We will start with the most general power map - mapping a problem. Step 2: Map major institutions Identify key decision-making institutions or associations that are related to the problem. Write these names on a piece of paper in a ring around the problem. Step 3: Map individuals or groups associated with the institutions Put the names of two to three individuals or groups who are associated with each of those institutions in the second ring (moving out concentrically) around the problem. Step 4: Map all other associations with these individuals Think about people who are connected to these key individuals and institutions. The purpose of this is to identify ways to access the individuals or institutions that could help solve the problem, by tapping into existing relationships between people. This information should go in the third ring around the problem. Step 5: Determine relational power lines The next step is to draw lines connecting actors and institutions that relate to each other. Some people will have many connections while others may not have any. In practice, depending on the scale or history of the problem, it may be more or less difficult to identify institutions, people, and relationships that connect. This step helps the group to identify what are called the «nodes of power» within a given network. Step 6: Target priority relationships The next step is to analyze some of the relationships and connections and make some decisions. One way to do this is to circle the few actors that have the most relational power lines drawn to them. We can consider attempting to involve these people through our group’s current relationships. Another thing to consider may be a person or institution in the map that doesn’t necessarily have many different relational lines running to him/her/it, but nonetheless has a few critical ones and seems very influential. Step 7: Make a plan Determine the best approaches to accessing these individuals and institutions through relationships and decide who will be responsible for what by when. 49 http://www.idealist.org/ioc/learn/curriculum/pdf/Power-Mapping.pdf

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APPENDIX 2 POWER MAP EXAMPLE Here is a concrete example of how power mapping works. This is a real-life power map developed by the activists from «Light of Hope» Charity Organization from Poltava, Ukraine, who work in the sphere of harm reduction from injection drug use. The advocacy goal of this group was the extension of substitution therapy program to the small towns of Poltava region. The activists drew a chart showing key institutions (both governmental and non-governmental), groups and individuals involved in the process and pointed out the relations between them. As clearly seen on the scheme, the key figure in the scheme of advocacy is Dr. Matsytskyi, doctor-in-chief of the regional narcological hospital. He is the one who receives all information and appeals from the community of people who use drugs within the region and who is in charge of initiating changes on the lower administrative level of Rayon. Having drawn the power map, activists from «Light of hope» managed to put the pressure of people who use drugs and their relatives on Dr. Matsytskyi by writing letters and making public appeals demanding new OST sites to be opened in the small towns of the region. In addition, the initiative group identified the head of the regional state administration health department, Dr. Matsytskyi’s superior, as the key person who could initiate a meeting of the Poltava region Public Health Coordination Council to provide room for official decisions to be made.

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CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

APPENDIX 3 EXERCISE - IDENTIFYING AUDIENCES Step 1. Identify our audiences50

DECISION-MAKERS: •

Who has the power and authority to make or block change? Who decides whether a problem is addressed or ignored?

What are their duties? For what can they be held accountable? What are their limitations?

PRESSURE MAKERS: •

Who has influence with or connection to the decision-makers?

We need to think about those in civil society, the private sector, and the government. We should consider all levels (local, state, national, regional, and international).

Who influences public opinion on an issue?

Why are they influential? What are their sources of power (formal and informal)?

Are any of them so influential that they are informal decision-makers?

DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES: •

How does an issue become part of the problem-solving agenda?

How is a solution considered, chosen, and implemented? What is the process? How much time can each stage take?

Are there openings for public participation? Do decision-makers consult with civil society when deciding among alternative solutions? If so, at what stages of the process? Through what mechanisms?

Who has access to these mechanisms? Whose voices are sought out? Represented? Listened to? Considered important?

The last set of questions leads us to identify the key stakeholders in our campaign. Having investigated all the formal players, institutions and practices, we can now identify how we can best reach our audience. This is a crucial point for developing a relevant media campaign.

50 http://tools.iscvt.org/advocacy/start

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APPENDIX 3 Step 2. List the audiences We can make a list of audiences that have been identified by asking, «What is at stake?» and «How are changes made?» We then add anyone else whose support we need, or whose opposition we need to neutralize. Step 3. Rank the audiences For each column, we can divide the list we wrote into three groups: •

Formal decision-makers.

Informal decision-makers.

Pressure makers.

As well as into three broad categories: •

Very important.

Somewhat important.

Not important. The audiences we identify as «very important» will be our key audiences and the focus of our campaign.

«Important» may mean that an audience: •

Will be directly affected by the change.

Has the power and opportunity to make or block change.

Is very influential with decision-makers and pressure makers.

Is key in raising public opinion about the problem we want to address. Formal Decisionmakers

Informal Decisionmakers

Pressure Makers

Very important Somewhat important Not important

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APPENDIX 4 REFERENCES AND USEFUL LINKS REFERENCES AND USEFUL LINKS IN ENGLISH:

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1.

Drop In Center blog on Rising Voices. http://rising.globalvoicesonline.org/projects/dropin-center/

2.

Nonprofit good practice guide. http://www.npgoodpractice.org/Resource/ NineQuestionsStrategyPlanning.aspx

3.

Substitution Maintenance Therapy in Ukraine: Can the Community Respond Effectively to the Challenges of HIV/AIDS? Policy brief. http://www.aidsalliance.org.ua/cgi-bin/ index.cgi?url=/en/library/our/pbzt/index.htm

4.

Making a Difference: Strategic Communications to End Violence Against Women. http://www.unifem.org/materials/item_detail.php?ProductID=6

5.

‘Mission Possible’: A Gender and Media Advocacy Training Toolkit. http://www.whomakesthenews.org/tools/mission-possible-a-gender-and-mediaadvocacy-training-toolkit.html

6.

The Community Visioning And Strategic Planning Handbook, National Civic League Press, Colorado, 2000. http://www.ncl.org/publications/online/VSPHandbook.pdf

7.

Media Institute of Southern Africa, Training Workbook. http://www.misa.org/ researchandpubliction/MISA/english/wor/CourseBk.pdf

8.

Friends Media Toolkit. http://www.refugenet.org/new-friends-connect/Media.html

9.

Working with the Media. Nonprofit Toolkit. Colorado Nonprofit Association. http://www.coloradononprofits.org/media%20toolkit.pdf

10.

NetAction. The Virtual Activist 2.0. A Training course. http://www.netaction.org/training/

11.

Human Rights Documentation and Advocacy. A Guide for Organizations of People Who Use Drugs (English), OSI, 2009. http://www.soros.org/initiatives/health/focus/ihrd/articles_publications/publications/ hrdoc_20090218/hrdoc_20090218.pdf

12.

Digital Activism Decoded: The New Mechanics of Change, Mary Joyce, ed. International Debate Education Association, 2010. http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~sjm217/papers/digiact10all.pdf

13.

10 tactics for turning information into action (subtitles available in Ukrainian and Russian). http://www.informationactivism.org/

14.

eCampaigning Resource Pack, eCampaigning Forum, Oxford, UK, 2008. http://fairsay.com/tools/campaigning-insights/eCampaigningResourcePack2008.pdf


CONDUCTING A MEDIA ADVOCACY CAMPAIGN: A MANUAL FOR ACTION

APPENDIX 4 REFERENCES AND USEFUL LINKS IN UKRAINIAN AND RUSSIAN: 1.

Ukrainian information portal on substitution maintenance therapy «Zapytaj!» (ASK!) http://zpt.in.ua/

2.

Ukrainian online community of people who use drugs called Motilek (Butterfly). http://motilek.com.ua/

3.

Official web-site of the Association of Substitution Therapy Advocates of Ukraine http://astau.org.ua/

4.

Personal Blog of Pavel Kutsev, activist in the harm reduction movement, substitution treatment patient. Kyiv, Ukraine. http://depo3p.livejournal.com/

5.

Review of work with injecting drug users in Ukraine within the context of fighting the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Kyiv, 2005.

6.

Analytic Review: Substitution Therapy. The International HIV/AIDS Alliance in Ukraine, Kyiv, 2005.

7.

O. Belyaeva. The Right to Support. Conference Paper. December 2007.

8.

S. Dvoriak, P. Skala, ‘Substitution maintenance therapy in Ukraine: will the community be able to efficiently counteract the HIV/AIDS epidemic?’ Analytic Review. The International HIV/AIDS Alliance in Ukraine, 2008.

9.

Justice to Everyone. The importance of legal aid within the context of medical care provision to drug users in Ukraine. Open Society Institute, 2008.

10.

A.Tolopylo, L.Vlasenko. Registration of drug users: practice, implications and further perspectives. Study Report, 2008

11.

A.L.Afanas’jeva. Modern PR-technologies: goals, methods, tools. Summaries of lectures. Moscow, 2007.

12.

S.Katlip, A.Tzenter, G.Brum. Public Relations: Theory and practice, 8th ed. Мoscow, Saint-Petersburg, Kyiv, 2000.

13.

Detailed information about the Ukrainian state legislation on substitution maitenance therapy, Ukrainian Institute on Public Health Policy. http://www.uiphp.org.ua/ua/resource/zakonodavcha-baza-ztp

14.

Regularly updated statistics on the number of substitution therapy patients in Ukraine, Ukrainian Institute on Public Health Policy. http://www.uiphp.org.ua/ua/resource/ zvedeni-danni

15.

Advocacy: People’s Power and Participation Guide. http://www.advocate-for-children.org/ru/advocacy/media_advocacy/start

16.

Human Rights Documentation and Advocacy: A Guide for Organizations of People Who Use Drugs (Russian). OSI, 2009. http://www.soros.org/initiatives/health/focus/ihrd/articles_publications/publications/ hrdoc_20090218/hrrussian_20090720.pdf

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APPENDIX 4 17.

K. Lezhentsev. Methadone: Basic Issues in Providing Antiretroviral Therapy to Injecting Drug Users. OSI, 2004 http://www.soros.org/initiatives/health/focus/ihrd/articles_publications/articles/ metharv_20040106/Methadone%20--%20in%20Russian.pdf

18.

Nothing about us without us. A Manifesto by people who use illegal drugs, INPUD. Russian and English versions available at: http://www.soros.org/initiatives/health/focus/ ihrd/articles_publications/publications/nothingaboutus_20080603

19.

On the road to activism. Eurasian Harm Reduction Network, Vilnus, 2009 (Russian and English version available). http://www.harm-reduction.org/ru/library/1579-na-puti-k-aktivizmu.html

19.

Conducting advocacy campaigns. Manual. EuroCASO’s Eastern European Partnership Office, 2004 http://astau.org.ua/_Files/DocLib/0039/advocacy_campaigns.pdf

ADVOCACY VIDEOS ON DRUG POLICY AND HARM REDUCTION ISSUES:

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1.

International Drug Policy: Animated Report. OSI, 2009. http://www.soros.org/initiatives/drugpolicy/multimedia/drugreport_20090303

2.

Harm Reduction: Revolutions. Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (HCLU), 2009. http://drogriporter.hu/en/revolutions

3.

Russia and Methadone: Breaking the Ice. HCLU, 2010. http://drogriporter.hu/en/russia_ru

4.

Paving the Way. HCLU, 2010. http://drogriporter.hu/en/harborside

5.

Return Home. Health Right Ukraine, 2009. http://www.healthright.org.ua/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=40&Itemid =42&lang=uk

6.

Methadone in the Crimea. Taras Ratushny, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fbyvnv_IYq4

7.

First day of ST. Taras Ratushny, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kim0O5jc5RE

8.

Waiting list. Taras Ratushny, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGU-x8RGPCk&feature=related

9.

Continuity of ST – continuity of a vicious circle? Pavel and Yana Kutsev, 2010. http://depo3p.livejournal.com/23378.html?mode=reply


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APPENDIX 4

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Media Advocacy Campaign: A Manual for Action