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÷È∫ÁÔ•D ~wxD √wÁ\•D, >M›mkxD k´ÈVuÆfl E≈©At¬Ô >twÏÔ^ E∫Ô·ÏÔ^ ®[˛≈ ÷Ú º>EB ÷™∫Ôπ[ >VBÔD >V[ ÷È∫ÁÔ. ˛.x. 150 Ôπ_ ∂O´V>A´›Á> gı| ÿÔVıΩÚÕ> ®_ÈV·[ ®[˛≈ >tw´ƒÁ™•D, ÷È∫ÁÔl[ ∏≈ √z]ÔÁ· gı| ÿÔVıΩÚÕ> 30 zÆWÈ >tμ ∂´∑ÔÁ·•D m‚¶ÔVtM ®[˛≈ E∫Ô· ∂´ƒ[ ÿk[Æ ÷È∫ÁÔl[ ÿ√ÚD √z]ÁB >™m Ô‚|©√V‚|¬z^ ÿÔVı|kÕ>V[ ®[˛≈m ˛.∏.500 Ôπ_ ®ø>©√‚¶ \ÔVkDƒD ®[˛≈ E∫Ô·ÿ√·›> ±_. ∂O´V>A´›Á> tÔ ¿ı¶ ÔVÈ\VÔ >tμ, E∫Ô· ∂´∑Ô^ \V§ \V§ gı| kÕm^·™ ®[√Á>•D ÿ√·›> ±_Ô^ cÆ]©√|›m˛[≈™. 2000 kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z º\ÈVÔ ÷È∫ÁÔl[ k¶¬z ˛w¬z √z]Ôπ[ ØÏkzΩÔ·VÔ°D, ∂´∑ÔÁ· WÆs gı| kÕ>kÏÔ·VÔ°D >twÏÔ^ ÷ÚÕ>™Ï ®[√>uz º\ºÈ z§©∏¶©√‚¶ ÷Ȭ˛Bfl ƒV[ÆÔº·V| ÿ>V_oB_ gF°fl ƒV[ÆÔ”D, Ô_ÿk‚ΩlB_, ÂVBsB_ ƒV[ÆÔ”D ∞´V·\VÔ c^·™. gÔ ~wD ®™©√|D ÷È∫ÁÔl[ k¶¬z ˛w¬z© √z] ~w›>twÏÔπ[ ØÏTÔ› >VBÔ\VzD. 16D ±u≈VıΩ_ ÷È∫ÁÔ kÕ> º√VÏ›m¬ˇEBÏÔ^ √È º√VÏÔπ_ ~|√‚| ÷Æ]BVÔ 1619_ >tμ∂´ƒ[ ƒ∫˛o z\V´Á™› º>VuÔΩ›m #¬˛o‚¶VÏÔ^. ∏[ ¶fl∑¬ÔV´ÏÔ^ gı¶™Ï. 1799_ g∫˛ºÈºB ∂´∑ ¶fl∑¬ÔV´ÏÔπ¶D ÷ÚÕm ÷È∫ÁÔÁB ®|›m¬ ÿÔVı¶m. 1619 x>_, g∫˛ºÈBÏ g‚E¬ ÔVÈ›]_ 1833 kÁ´lKD >tμ ∂´∑ >MB´ƒVÔºk ÷ÚÕ>m. 1833_ g∫˛ºÈBÏ >∫Ô^ kƒ]¬ÔVÔ >tμ E∫Ô· ∂´∑ÔÁ· Œ[≈VÔ ÷Á›>VÏÔ^. k´ÈVuƬ ÔVÈD x>_, 2000 gı|Ô”¬z º\ÈVÔ, 1833 kÁ´, >tμ E∫Ô· ∂´∑Ô^ >M ∂´∑Ô·VÔºk ÷ÚÕ>™. ~w›>tμ √z]l_ >tμ º√∑D x¸‹DÔ”D {Ï ∂∫ÔD. k¶¬z ˛w¬z √z]l_ kVøD ~w›>twÏÔ^ ØÏkzΩÔ^. 2000 kÚ¶∫Ô”¬z º\ÈVÔ >M ∂´∑ÔÁ· WÆs gı| kÕ>kÏÔ^. 1833_ >V[ E∫Ô· ∂´ºƒV| ÷Á¬Ô©√‚¶VÏÔ^. g™V_ ÿ>[MÈ∫ÁÔl[ \ÁÈ© ∏´º>ƒ∫Ôπ_ E∫Ô·© √z]Ô”¬z Â|ºk g∫˛ºÈBÏÔπ[ g‚E¬z©∏≈z ÷Õ]BVs_ ÷ÚÕm

ÿÔVı|k´©√‚| zΩºBu≈©√‚¶kÏÔº· \ÁÈBÔ› >twÏÔ^ ®™©√|D ÷Õ]B› >twÏÔ^. E∫Ô·© √z]Ô”¬z Â|ºk ŒÚ EÆ y° º√V[≈ √z]l_ \ÁÈBÔ› >twÏÔ^ kVμ˛≈VÏÔ^. gÔ ÂVD ÷ÚkÁ´•D ∏ˆ›m ∂§Õm ÿÔV^· ºkı|D. ~w›>twÏÔ^ >V[ >M~w›m¬ÔVÔ º√V´V|˛≈VÏÔ^. >VÏ*Ô Z]BVÔ \ÁÈBÔ› >twÏÔ^ ∂>Á™ g>ˆ¬˛≈VÏÔ^. >M ~wD ∏ˆÕm º√V™VKD, \ÁÈBÔ› >twÏÔ^ ÷È∫ÁÔºBV| >V[ kVw ºkıΩB WÏ√Õ> WÁÈl_ ÷Ú¬˛≈VÏÔ^. 1948_ g∫˛ºÈBÏÔ^ ÷È∫ÁÔ¬z ∑>Õ]´›Á> kw∫˛™VÏÔ^. ÷Ú >M ÷™∫ÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı¶ ÷´ı¶Vl´D gı|Ô”¬z º\ÈVÔ, ÷Ú >M ∂´∑Ô·VÔ ÷ÚÕ> ÷È∫ÁÔ¬ÔV™ ∂´EBÈÁ\©A, Ì‚¶V‚E ∂´EBÈÁ\©√VÔ ÷ÚÕ]Ú¬Ô ºkı|D. g™V_ ŒuÁ≈BV‚E ∂´EBÈÁ\©º√ ∂∫z cÚkV¬Ô©√‚¶m. ŒuÁ≈BV‚E ∂´EBÈÁ\©∏_ ÿ\Va, \>D x>ÈV™ ®Õ>¬ ÔV´∫ÔÁ·¬ÔV‚Ω•D >M \VWÈ ∂´∑ÔÁ·ºBV, >M \VÔV ∂Á\©AÔÁ·ºBV cÚkV¬Ô xΩBVm. ∂>™V_ >V[ ÷Õ]B ∂´ƒV_ cÚkV¬Ô©√‚¶ ÷Õ]B ä ÷È∫ÁÔ Œ©√Õ>©√ΩBV™ k¶˛w¬z \VWÈ ∂´∑ ÿƒ_È›>¬Ô>_È ®™ ÷È∫ÁÔ cflƒ ¿]\[≈D yÏ©√π›>m. ÷Õ> ŒuÁ≈BV‚E xÁ≈l_ ÿ√ÚD√V[Á\l™Ï xΩºk ÷Æ]BV™m. EÆ√V[Á\l™›][ ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\ÔÁ· ƒ\›mk cˆÁ\ÔÁ·¬ ̶ ÿ√ÚD√V[Á\ ÿÔVı| ¿¬Ô xΩ•D. ∂>™V_ >V[ ÷Õ> ŒuÁ≈BV‚E xÁ≈ E∫Ô·›Á> ∂´∑ ÿ\VaBVÔ°D, ÿ√·›> \>›Á> E≈©AˆÁ\ ÿ√u≈ \>\VÔ°D \Vu≈ kakz›>m. ∏≈ÿ\Va, \>, ÷™ \¬Ôπ[ cˆÁ\ÔÁ· Œ|¬˛ ∂¶¬˛Bm. ∂ÁkÔÁ·¬ ÔVÈ kˆÁƒBVÔ √VÏ©º√VD. ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ >™m ŒuÁ≈BV‚E ∂´ƒÁ\©√VKD, E∫Ô· ÷™kV>D, ÿ√·›> \>kV>D º√V[≈Ák x>ÈVπ›mk Ô‚EÔ·V_ {‚| k∫˛Ô”¬ÔVÔ ÿ√ˆm√|›>©√‚¶VKD, g´D√D x>_ ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ >[Á™ ŒÚ E∫Ô·ÿ√·›> ∂´ƒVÔ WÁÈ WÆ›]¬ ÿÔV^·ºk xBuE›>m. ∂>[ ÿƒB_√V|Ô^ >tμ, E∫Ô· ∂´∑¬ÔV™>VÔ ÷Ú¬Ôs_ÁÈ. ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ √>sºBu≈ ∂|›> gıΩºÈºB 150 gı|Ô”¬z º\ÈVÔ √È clÏ› ]BVÔ∫ÔÁ· ÿƒFm ÷È∫ÁÔÁB k·©√|›]B ÷Õ]B› >twÏÔπ_ 1.30 È‚ƒD \¬ÔÁ· \‚|D ÷È∫ÁÔ¬ zΩ\¬Ô·VÔ ∞uƬÿÔVı|, 10 ÷È‚ƒ›]uzD ∂]Ô\V™

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÷Õ]B› >twÏÔÁ· ÂV¶u≈kÏÔ·VÔ g¬˛Bm. x[º√ ÿƒV_ÈÿkVıV> mB´∫Ôº·V| kVμÕ> ∂kÏÔ^ ÂV¶u≈kÏÔ·VÔ, ∂Ô]Ô·VÔ, ]¬Ôu≈kÏÔ·VÔ \Vu≈©√‚¶™Ï. ÷kÏÔÁ·© √VmÔV¬Ô ºkıΩB ÷Õ]B ∂´∑D ®m°D ÿƒFBs_ÁÈ. ŒuÁ≈BV‚E xÁ≈ÁB¬ ÿÔVı| >twÏÔÁ· ∂¶¬˛ Œ|¬zD √¶ÈD ÷Às>\VÔ ÿ>V¶∫˛Bm. ~w›]_, ÷È∫ÁÔl[ k¶˛w¬z© √z]l_ E∫Ô·¬ zΩºBu≈∫ÔÁ· ∂\Ï›], JkVl´D ƒm´ Á\_ √´©Á√ E∫Ô·©√z]BV¬zD √Ë x|¬˛s¶©√‚¶m. 1956_ ‘E∫Ô·D \‚|D ’ ®[≈ ÷B¬ÔD º>Ï>K¬ÔVÔ cÚkV¬Ô©√‚| ∂´∑ ÿ\VaÿB[√m E∫Ô·D \‚|º\ ®™ \V§Bm. ÷>™V_ Ô_s, ºkÁÈ kVF©A ®™ ƒÔÈ mÁ≈ÔπKD >twÏÔ”¬ÔV™ kVF©A zÁ≈Õ>m. º>EB ∂∏sÚ›]› ]‚¶∫Ô^ ®[√™ >tμ √z]l_ ÷_ÈVm º√Vl™. >tμ \¬Ô^ ÷ÁkÔÁ· ®]Ï›m© º√V´VΩB º√Vm, ∂kÏÔ^ *m ÷™ÿk§› >V¬z>ÁÈ ∂´ºƒ ]‚¶t‚| ¶›]Bm. 1956_ ¶Õ> ÷™ ÿk§› >V¬z>_Ôπ_ ÿÔVøDA º√V[≈ E∫Ô·© √z]Ôπ_ kVμÕ> >twÏÔπ[ ÿƒV›m¬Ô^ ]‚¶t‚º¶ ÛÁ≈BV¶©√‚¶™. >twÏÔ^ √ÈÏ ÿÔV_È©√‚¶º>V| >tμ ÿ√ıÔ”D √VoB_ k[xÁ≈¬z^·V¬Ô© √‚¶™Ï. ÷È∫ÁÔ ∑>Õ]´D ÿ√u≈mD 1949_ ®¸.º¤.s. ÿƒ_kÂVBÔD ∂kÏÔ·V_ WÆk©√‚¶ ÷È∫ÁÔ >tw´∑¬ Ô‚E (Federal Party), g´D√D x>_ ÿ>V¶ÏflEBV™ ÿ√ÚkVˆBV™ >tμ º>EB \¬ÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı| √È º√V´V‚¶∫ÔÁ· ¶›] kÕ>m. ÷È∫ÁÔl[ ŒuÁ≈BV‚E xÁ≈BV_ ∞u√|D yÁ\ÔÁ· Â[zÏÕ> ∂¬Ô‚E >™m ÿ√BˆºÈºB Ì‚¶V‚E¬ Ô‚E ®[≈ ÿ√BÁ´¬ ÿÔVıΩÚÕ>º>V| g´D√D x>_ ÷È∫ÁÔl_ Ì‚¶V‚E xÁ≈ÁB¬ ÿÔVı| k´ºkı|ÿ\™¬ ºÔVˆkÕ>m. ÷È∫ÁÔl_ Ì‚¶V‚E xÁ≈ÁB¬ ÿÔVı| k´ºkı|ÿ\[≈ yÏ\V›][ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_>V[ >tw´∑¬ Ô‚E 1956D gı| º>Ï>o_ W[≈m. 1956gD gı| ÿ√Vm› º>Ï>o_ ∂m tÔ©ÿ√ˆB ÿku§ÁB© ÿ√u≈m. º>Ï>K¬z© ∏[ Ì‚¶V‚E xÁ≈ÁB ÿƒB_√|›>¬ºÔVˆ ÿ√ˆB º√V´V‚¶∫Ô^ ÿkΩ›>™. ∂>Á™ Ô‚|©√|›> ºkıΩ ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ >tw´∑¬ Ô‚EºBV| c¶[√Ω¬ÁÔ Œ[Á≈ ÿƒFm ÿÔVı¶m. ∂]_ {´·° >[™V‚E ∂]ÔV´∫Ô^ ÷ÚÕ>™. E∫Ô·¬ zΩºBu≈D >|¬Ô©√|ÿ\™ 6

cÆ]Bπ¬Ô©√‚¶m. g™V_ ∂>Á™ ®]Ï›m E∫Ô·© √z]Ôπ_ ∞u√‚¶ º√V´V‚¶∫Ô·V_ ∂À°¶[√Ω¬ÁÔ ´›m ÿƒFB©√‚¶m. 1958_ *ı|D ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈ ÿkΩ›>m. >twÏÔ^ tÔ¬Ô|Á\BV™ √V]©A¬z^·V™VÏÔ^. >twÏÔπ[ ∑BV‚E cˆÁ\Ô”¬ÔVÔ √È º√V´V‚¶∫ÔÁ· ¶›]B∏[ 1961_ >tw´∑¬ Ô‚E ∂≈kalÈV™ º√V´V‚¶∫ÔÁ· tÔ©ÿ√ˆB ∂·s_ ¶›]Bm. >tμ© √z]l_ ∂´∑ WÏkVÔD xøÁ\BVÔ ÿƒBowÕ>m. >tw´∑¬ Ô‚E >M ~w ∑BV‚E cˆÁ\l[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ >tμ º>EB ∂fiƒ_ ºƒÁkÁB¬ ̶ mk¬˛Bm. c¶º™ ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ >twÏÔ^ *m ÷´Vbk ∂¶¬zxÁ≈ÁB ∞sBm. 1961_ *ı|D ÿ√ˆB ∂·sÈV™ ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈ ∞u√‚¶m. ∂Á\]BV™ ∂≈kalÈV™ º√V´V‚¶∫Ô^ √ÈtwÕ>™. ÷´Vbk √È›>VKD, ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈBVKD >tμ \¬ÔÁ· ®π]_ ∂¶¬ÔÈVD ®[√Á> ∂´∑ Ôı|ÿÔVı¶m. 1965_ º>Ï>_ xΩÕ>mD >twÏÔ”¬z EÈ ƒKÁÔÔÁ·© ÿ√≈ g”∫Ô‚EºBV| >tw´∑¬ Ô‚E Ì‚| ºƒÏÕ>m. ∂>™V_ ŒÚ c¶[√Ω¬ÁÔ•D cÚkV™m. g™V_ ®©√°D º√V_ ®]ϬԂEÔπ™V_ º>V[§B ®]Ï©A¬Ô·V_ ∂À°¶[√Ω¬ÁÔ ÁÔs¶©√‚¶m. 1970_ A]B ∂´EB_ BV©A cÚkV¬Ô©√‚| ‘>´©√|›m>_’ ®[√m Az›>©√‚| >twÏÔπ[ Ô_s, ºkÁÈkVF©A x>oB™ º\KD Â∑¬Ô©√‚¶m. 1972_ A]B ƒ‚¶› ]Ú›>∫Ôπ[ √Ω ÿ√·›> \>›]uz E≈©AˆÁ\ kw∫Ô©√‚¶º>V| EÆ√V[Á\ ƒJÔ›]uz ÷mkÁ´ kw∫Ô©√‚ΩÚÕ> ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\Ô^, ƒKÁÔÔ^ x>oB™ √§¬Ô©√‚¶™. ÷ÁkÔπ[ sÁ·kVÔ ÷È∫ÁÔ >tw´∑¬ Ô‚E, >tμ ÔV∫˛´¸ Ô‚E, ÷È∫ÁÔ› ÿ>VaÈV·Ï Ô‚E x>oB™ Œ[Æ ºƒÏÕm >twÏ n¬˛B x[™M cÚkV™m. ÷Õ> ÔVȬԂ¶›]_ >tμ \VkÏ \[≈D ÿ√Ú∫˛·ÏflEÔÁ· ÿ>V¶∫˛Bm. ÷>Á™ ∂¶¬Ô ∂´∑ *ı|D ÔVk_ mÁ≈ JÈ\V™ ∂¶¬zxÁ≈ÁB x|¬˛s‚¶m. 1974_ BVμ√V›]_ ÂÁ¶ÿ√u≈ cÈÔ› >tμ g´VFflE \VÂV‚Ω[*m ÔVk_ mÁ≈ tÚÔ›>™\VÔ >V¬˛ √È clÏÔÁ· √okV∫˛Bº>V| >twÏÔπÁ¶ºB ∂flƒ›Á>•D ¨]ÁB•D Â|¬Ô›Á>•D cÚkV¬˛Bm.

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∂Á\]BV™ ∂≈kalÈV™ º√V´V‚¶∫Ôº·V ¤™ÂVBÔ xÁ≈lÈV™ ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔÔº·V ®Õ> s> √ÈÁ™•D >´s_ÁÈ ®[√Á> cÏÕ> >twÏ n¬˛B x[™Ë >[Á™ >twÏ s|>ÁÈ x[™ËBVÔ \Vu§¬ÿÔVı| 1976_ º\ \V>›]_ k‚|¬ ºÔV‚Á¶ º>EB \VÂV‚Ω_ k´ÈVuÆ x¬˛B›mkD kVFÕ> >t—w› >MB´Áƒ WÆ°D yÏ\V›Á> WÁ≈ºku§Bm. ∂›yÏ\V™›][ x¬˛B kVƒÔ∫Ô^ kÚ\VÆ “ŒÀÿkVÚ º>ƒ›]uzD cˆ›>V™ ∑B WÏB cˆÁ\l[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_, ∑>Õ]´\V™ ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ÁB•Á¶B \>ƒVÏ√u≈ ºƒVƒoƒ >t—w ∂´∑ cÚkV¬Ô©√‚| *^WÏ\VD ÿƒFB©√¶ ºkı|ÿ\™ ÷D\VÂV| yÏ\Vˬ˛≈m ”.

1977D gıΩ[ ÿ√Vm› º>Ï>_ >t—w \¬Ôπ[ >t—w ∂´Áƒ WÆk, ¤™ÂVBÔ xÁ≈lÈV™ gÁÁB kw∫˛, ∂Àk´Áƒ ∂Á\] kaBVÔºkV, ºÂ´Ω ¶kΩ¬ÁÔBVºÈV, º√V´V‚¶›>VºÈV, ÂÁ¶xÁ≈¬z ÿÔVı|k´ ºkı|D ®[≈ Ô¶Á\ÁB √V´V”\[≈© ∏´]W]Ô”¬z kw∫˛ ÷ÚÕ>m. >t—w \¬Ôº·V, º√V´Vπ¬ zø¬Ôº·V, √V´V”\[≈ ∏´]W]Ôº·V ÷Õ> \¬Ô^ gÁ©√Ω ºÂ´Ω ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔπ_ ÷≈∫zkÁ> >|©√>uÔVÔ°D, ∂¶¬˛ Œ|¬zk>uÔVÔ°D ˇμ¬Ôı¶ WÁÈ√V‚Á¶ ®|›m, ∂´∑ >[Á™ º\KD kK©√|›]¬ ÿÔVı¶m. ∂>[√Ω 1978_ A]B ƒ‚¶› ]Ú›>∫Ô^ ÿÔVı| k´©√‚| ¤™V]√]¬z xøÁ\BV™ ƒÏkV]ÔV´ ∂]ÔV´∫Ô^ kw∫Ô©√‚¶™.

˛‚¶›>‚¶ 30 kÚ¶© º√V´V‚¶∫Ô”¬z© ∏[ “>MÂV|>V[ yÏ°” ®[≈ WÁÈÁB >twÏ s|>ÁÈ x[™M ®|›>m ®™ÈVD. ∂|›> kÚ¶›]_ ∂>Vkm 1977 …ÁÈl_ ÿ√Vm› º>Ï>_ kÕ>m. n¬˛B s|>ÁÈ x[™M >™m “>M› >t—w ∂´∑ ” ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔÁB º>Ï>_ ∂§¬ÁÔBVÔ ∏´Ô¶™©√|›] ∂>™Ω©√Á¶l_ º>Ï>o_ W[≈m. ∂Õ> º>Ï>_ ∂§¬ÁÔl_ x¬˛B kVƒÔ∫Ô^, “ ÷Õ>› º>Ï>o_ º>ÏÕÿ>|¬Ô©√|D >tμ º√∑D ∏´]W]Ô^ ÷È∫ÁÔ› º>EB ∂´∑ \[≈ cÆ©∏™ÏÔ·VÔ ÷B∫zD ∂º> ºkÁ·, >t—w› º>EB \[≈\VÔ°D >DÁ\ kˆ›m¬ ÿÔVı|, >t—w ∂´∑¬ÔV™ ∂´EB_ BV©A Œ[Á≈ kÁ´Õm, ∂Õ> BV©Á√ ∂Á\] kaÔ·VºÈV, ºÂ´Ω ¶kΩ¬ÁÔBVºÈV, º√V´V‚¶›>VºÈV ÂÁ¶xÁ≈¬z¬ ÿÔVı| kÕm >t—w›][ ∑>Õ]´›Á> WÆk ºkı|D. ” ®[√>VzD.

¤™V]√], ∂´∑ ∂]√´VÔ°D, x©√Á¶Ô·m >ÁÈk´VÔ°D, ∂Á\flƒÏÔÁ· WBt¬Ô°D, ¿¬Ô°D, √V´V”\[≈›Á> ÔÁȬ԰D ∂]ÔV´xÁ¶Bk´VÔ°D g¬Ô©√‚¶VÏ. ÷>[ JÈD ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ xøÁ\BV™ ŒuÁ≈BV‚EBVÔ \V§ E∫Ô·, ÿ√·›> ÷™ \>kV> ∂´ƒVÔ cÚÿk|›>m. 1979_ √B∫Ô´kV> >Á¶fl ƒ‚¶D ÿÔVı|k´©√‚¶m. >tμ© √z]Ô”¬z ÷´VbkD ∂–©√©√‚¶m. >twÏÔ^ tÔ¬ ÿÔV˘´\V™ xÁ≈l_ ∂¶¬˛ Œ|¬Ô©√‚¶VÏÔ^. ∂Á\]BV™ ∂≈kalÈV™ º√V´V‚¶∫Ô”¬ÔV™ Ô>°Ô^ xøÁ\BVÔ ∂Á¶¬Ô©√‚¶™. ÷Ák º√V´Vπ¬ zø¬Ô^ º\KD kK©ÿ√≈ ÷¶\π›>™.

º>Ï>o_ tÔ© ÿ√ÚD√V[Á\BV™, ∂>Vkm 19 √V´V”\[≈ ÿ>Vz]Ôπ_, 18 ÿ>Vz]Ôπ_ >twÏ s|>ÁÈ x[™Ë ÿku§ ÿ√u≈m. ∑>Õ]´\V™ >tμ ~w ∂´Áƒ WÆ°k>uÔV™ º>Ï>ÈVÔºk ÷›º>Ï>_ ÂÁ¶ÿ√u≈m. ~w› >tμ \¬Ô^ ∑>Õ]´\V™ >t—w ∂´Áƒ WÆk ¤™ÂVBÔ xÁ≈lÈV™ gÁÁB kw∫˛™VÏÔ^. g™V_ º>Ï>_ xΩÕ> ÁÔºBV| *ı|D ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈ ÿkΩ›>m. ÂVÿ¶∫zD √´sB ÷Õ> ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈ tÔ¬ Ô|Á\BV™ √V]©AÔÁ·› >twÏÔ”¬z ∞u√|›]Bm. ÷flÛμWÁÈl_ >tμ \VkÏ \[≈›][ g>´kV_ √È º√V´Vπ¬ zø¬Ô^ cÚkVÔ› mk∫˛™. k[xÁ≈¬z k[xÁ≈>V[ √]_ ®[√m ∂kÏÔ^ kaBV˛Bm. 8

1981_ *ı|D ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈ √´sBm. 96,000 ±_ÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı¶ >twÏÔπ[ ÔÈVflƒV´ √ı√V‚| Á\B\VÔ¬ ÔÚ>©√‚¶ BVμ ±ÈÔD E∫Ô·¬ ÔVk_mÁ≈BV_ yl‚|¬ ÿÔV”›>©√‚¶m. ÷m >twÏÔπ[ \™]_ W´Õ>´ k|Ák ®u√|›]Bm. ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈ ÂV| xøkmD √´sBm. >twÏÔ^ √|ÿÔVÁÈ ÿƒFB©√‚¶™Ï. >twÏ ÿƒV›m¬Ô^ ÛÁ≈BV¶©√‚¶™. >tμ© ÿ√ıÔ^ √VoB_ k[xÁ≈¬z^·V¬Ô©√‚¶™Ï. ÷>[ ∏[sÁ·kVÔ º√V´Vπ¬ zø¬Ôπ[ g•>Õ>V∫˛B k[xÁ≈ ÿkΩ›>m. ÷kÏÔÁ· ∂¶¬zk>VÔ¬ ̧¬ÿÔVı| >tμ© √z] xøkmD ÷´Vbk Œ|¬zxÁ≈ ∂´∫ºÔu≈©√‚¶m. ÷ÁkÔπ[ ÿ>V¶ÏflEBVÔ ÔÆ©A …ÁÈ ®™©√|D tÔ¬ ÿÔV˘´\V™ ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈ 1983 …ÁÈl_ ÿkΩ›>m. >tμ \¬ÔÁ· tÔ©ÿ√ˆB ∂·s_ √V]›> tÔ¬ÿÔV˘´\V™ ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈBVÔ ÷m 9


÷ÚÕ>m. ÷m kÁ´ ¶Õ> √V]©AÔÁ· s¶ √È ±Æ \¶∫z ∂]Ô √V]©A ÷Às™©√|ÿÔVÁÈBV_ ∞u√‚¶m. >tμ \¬Ôπ[ *m √|ÿÔVÁÈÔ”D, ÿÔV^Á·Ô”D, ÛÁ≈BV¶_Ô”D, √VoB_ k[xÁ≈Ô”D tÔ ∂]Ô ∂·s_ ÂÁ¶ÿ√u≈™. ÿƒVÕ> ÂV‚ΩºÈºB √_ÈVl´D \¬Ô^ kVw xΩBV>kÏÔ·V¬Ô©√‚|, ]¬Ôu≈kÏÔ·VÔ >twÔ›m¬z ∂Ô]Ô·VÔ kÕm zsÕ>™Ï. ÷>[ ∏[™º´ º√V´Vπ¬ zø¬Ô^ tÔ©√´Õ> ∂·sÈV™ \¬Ô^ g>´Ák© ÿ√u≈™Ï. 1948 x>_ 1977 kÁ´BV™ 30 kÚ¶∫Ô^ √_ºkÆ ∂Á\]BV™ ∂≈kalÈV™ º√V´V‚¶∫ÔÁ· ¶›]B >tμ \¬Ô^ ºkÆ kal[§ 1977_ >M ÂV¶VÔ ∏ˆÕm ÿƒ_kº> ƒVÈfl E≈Õ>m ®™ ¤™ÂVBÔ kal_ xΩÿk|›>™Ï. ÷>Á™© ÿ√VÆ›m¬ ÿÔV^· xΩBV\_, >tμ \¬ÔπÁ¶ºB ∂flƒ›Á>•D, √B›Á>•D, ˛oÁB•D ∞u√|›] >M ÂV¶VÔ ∏ˆÕm ÿƒ_kÁ> >|¬Ôºk 1977 x>_ 1983 kÁ´ ÂV[z ÿÔV˘´\V™ ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈÔÁ· E∫Ô· ∂´∑D, ÷™kV]Ô”D ¶›]™Ï. ∂kÏÔ^ >∫Ô^ ºÂV¬Ô›]_ ÿku§•D ÿ√u≈™Ï. >t—w ∂´∑ cÚkVÔs_ÁÈ. ÷È∫ÁÔl[ ŒuÁ≈BV‚E xÁ≈ºB ÷Ák ∂Á™›]uzD ÔV´D ®[Æ ÔÚ] ∂>Á™ Ì‚¶V‚E ∂Á\©√VÔ \Vu≈ÈVD. g™V_ 1949 x>ºÈ Ì‚¶V‚E xÁ≈>V[ ºkı|D ®[ÆD >tw´∑¬ Ô‚E ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔ s|›m kÕm^·m. g™V_ ∂m WÁ≈ºku≈©√¶s_ÁÈ. ∞ÿ™M_ ∂>Á™fl ÿƒFB ÂV¶V”\[≈›]_ ÿ√ÚD√V[Á\ ºkı|D. ∏[ ∂Á™›m \¬Ôπ¶xD kV¬ÿÔ|©A ¶›] Œ©A>_ ÿ√≈ ºkı|D. ÷m kÁ´BV™ k´ÈVuÆ WÔμ°ÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı| √VϬzD ÿ√Vøm ÷>uÔV™ ƒV›]B¬ ÌÆÔ^ ∂≈ºk ÷_ÁÈ ®[√m >V[ cıÁ\. >tμ \¬Ô”¬z ƒ\cˆÁ\•D ∑BWÏB cˆÁ\•D kw∫zkÁ> ÷È∫ÁÔl[ E∫Ô· ä ÿ√·›> ∂´∑ Ô™sKD sÚD√s_ÁÈ. 1983 x>_ 2008 kÁ´BV™ ÷Õ> 25 kÚ¶∫Ôπ_ ÷È∫ÁÔl_ ÂÁ¶ÿ√ÆD k[xÁ≈Ô^, º√VÏÔ^, ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈÔ^, ÷[™∏≈ ÿÔV|Á\Ô^, ÿÔV˘´∫Ô^ ®[√™ \M>V∏\V™xD, ¤™ÂVBÔ cÏ°D ÿÔVı¶ ∂Á™kÚ¬zD kÚ›>xD ºk>Á™•D >ÚD sƒB\VÔºk ÷Ú¬zD. ÷]_ BVÏ √¬ÔD WBVBD ®[√m z§›m© º√∑km ÿ√VÚ·u≈m. ÔVÕ]BΩÔ^ ÌÆkm º√V_ k[xÁ≈, k[xÁ≈ÁB› >V[ cÚkV¬zD. ÷ÁkÔÁ· \≈Õm ÷ÁkÔ”¬ÔV™ 10

ÔV´∫Ô^ ®[™? yÏ°Ô^ ®[™? ®[√Á>› >V[ ÂVD √VÏ¬Ô ºkıΩBkÏÔ·VÔ c^º·VD. gÔºk 1983 x>_ ÷[Æ kÁ´BV™ WÔμ°ÔÁ· Œm¬˛s‚|, 1948 x>_ 1983 kÁ´BV™ 35 kÚ¶ ÔVÈÔ‚¶›]_ ¶Õ> WÔμ°ÔÁ· c^kV∫˛¬ ÿÔV^”D ÿ√Vøm>V[ ÂD\V_ ÷[Á≈B WÔμ°Ô”¬ÔV™ ÔV´∫ÔÁ·•D ∂>uÔV™ yÏ°ÔÁ·•D Ôı|´ xΩ•D. ∂Õ> ∂Ω©√Á¶l_>V[ 1948 x>_ 1983 kÁ´BV™ 35 kÚ¶ÔVÈ WÔμ°Ô^ ÷∫z Â|WÁÈl_ W[Æ kw∫Ô©√‚|^·m. g´D√D x>_ ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©∏_ ÿÔVı| k´©√‚¶ ŒÀÿkVÚ ƒ‚¶›]Ú›>xD, ŒÀÿkVÚ ∂´EBÈÁ\©A \Vu≈xD >twÏÔ”¬ÔV™ cˆÁ\ÔÁ·, ƒKÁÔÔÁ· º\KD º\KD √§›m ∂kÏÔÁ· ∂¶¬˛ Œ|¬Ôºk √B[√‚| kÕm^·Á> ÷Õ> 35 kÚ¶ÔVÈ k´ÈVuÆ WÔμ°Ô^ ÔV‚|˛[≈™. g´D√D x>_ >twÏÔ^ ºÔ‚| kÕ> Ì‚¶V‚E xÁ≈ÁB \Æ›m, ∂kÏÔπ[ zÁ≈Õ>√‚ƒ cˆÁ\ÔÁ·•D ƒKÁÔÔÁ·•D √§›m ∂¶¬˛ Œ|¬˛B>[ ÔV´\VÔºk >M ÂV| ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔ ®øÕ>m. ~w \¬Ô·V_ ¤™ÂVBÔ xÁ≈©√Ω

∂∫ˇÔˆ¬Ô©√‚¶ >MÂV| ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔÁB ÿƒB_√|›>ºk º√V´Vπ zø¬Ô^ cÚkV˛™. gÔ ÷™ \>kV> E∫Ô· ∂´E[ ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔº· ÷[Á≈B WÔμ°Ô”¬z ∂Ω©√Á¶ ®[√m Ô¶Õ> ÔVÈ WÔμ°Ô^ ÔV‚|D Ôı̶V™ cıÁ\. gÔºk ÷Õ> cıÁ\Ôπ[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ŒÚ EÈ xΩ°Ô”D kÕ>Á¶B©√‚|^·™. n¬˛B ÂV|Ô^ ƒÁ√l[ ∏´Ô¶™∫Ô^ √Ω•D >t—w \¬Ô^ kw∫˛B ¤™ÂVBÔ xÁ≈lÈV™ gÁÔπ[ √Ω•D >V[ ÷Õ> xΩ°Ô^ kÕ>Á¶B©√‚|^·™. >t—w \¬Ô”¬z >M ∂´∑ ºkı|\V? ºkı¶V\V? ®[√Á> ÿkπl_ ÷Ú©√kÏÔº·V E∫Ô· ∂´ºƒV xΩ° ÿƒFBxΩBVm. >t—w \¬Ô^ >V[ xΩ° ÿƒFBºkı|D. ∂Õ> xΩ°D ̶ n¬˛B ÂV|Ô^ ƒÁ√l[ s]xÁ≈Ô”¬z c‚√‚¶>VÔ ÷Ú¬Ô ºkı|D. ÷Õ> ∂Ω©√Á¶l_>V[ ÷Õ> xΩ°Ô^ kÕ>Á¶B© √‚|^·™. ÷Õ> xΩ°Ô^ EÈÚ¬z Ôƒ©√V™>VÔ, ∞uƬÿÔV^· xΩBV>>VÔ ÷Ú¬ÔÈVD. ®M–D x[A ̧Bm º√V_ n¬˛B ÂV|Ô^ ƒÁ√l[ ∏´Ô¶™∫Ô”¬z‚√‚|, >∫Ô^ ∂´∑¬ÔV™ ÷Æ] xΩÁk ®|¬zD >z] kVFÕ>kÏÔ^, >t—w \¬Ô^ \‚|º\ ®[√Á> ∞uƬÿÔVı| kÕ>Á¶B©√‚¶ xΩ°Ô^ ÷Ák. 11


n¬˛B ÂV|Ô^ ƒÁ√ \¬Ôπ[ ƒ\cˆÁ\ z§›mD, \¬Ôπ[ ∑BWÏB cˆÁ\ z§›mD EÈ s]xÁ≈ÔÁ· 1970_ cÚkV¬˛Bm. ÷Às]xÁ≈Ô^ “ ∑>Õ]´\V™, ÷Á≈BVıÁ\•Á¶B ∂´∑Ôπ[ ∏´º>ƒ ŒÚÁ\√V‚| cˆÁ\ÁB cÆ] ÿƒF˛≈m ”. ∂º> ƒ\BD “÷™ \> ºkÆ√VΩ[§ ®_ÈV \¬Ô”¬zD ƒ\ cˆÁ\ÁB•D ∑BWÏB cˆÁ\ÁB•D kw∫˛, ∂Á™›m \¬ÔÁ·•D ∏´]W]©√|›mD ŒÚ ∂´∑¬ºÔ ∏´º>ƒ ŒÚÁ\©√V‚Á¶ ko•Æ›mD cˆÁ\ cı| ” ®[˛≈m ÷©∏´Ô¶™D. “ ÷™ \> ºkÆ√VΩ[§ ®_ÈV \¬Ô”¬zD ƒ\ cˆÁ\ÁB•D ∑BWÏB cˆÁ\ÁB•D kw∫ÔVm EÆ√V[Á\l™ \¬ÔÁ· ∂¶¬˛ Œ|¬zD ÿ√Vøm, ŒÚ ∂´∑ >™m ∏´º>ƒ ŒÚÁ\©√V‚| cˆÁ\ÁB ÷w¬˛≈m ” ®[˛≈m ∂©∏´Ô¶™D. 1970gD gıΩ[ n¬˛B ÂV|Ô^ ƒÁ√l[ ÷Õ>© ∏´Ô¶™∫Ôπ[ √Ω, 1948 x>_ 2008 kÁ´ 60 kÚ¶∫Ô·VÔ >t—w \¬Ô”¬z ƒ\ cˆÁ\ÁB•D, ∑BWÏB cˆÁ\ÁB•D \Æ›m kÚD ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ >t—w \¬ÔÁ· ∂¶¬˛ Œ|¬˛ kÚ˛≈m ®[√º>V|, ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ ŒÚ ŒuÁ≈BV‚E ∂Á\©º√V| ÌΩB E∫Ô·äÿ√·›> ÷™kV> ∂´ƒVÔ°D ÷Ú¬˛≈m. gÔºk n¬˛B ÂV|Ôπ[ ∏´Ô¶™∫Ôπ[ √Ω, ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ >™m ∏´º>ƒ ŒÚÁ\©√V‚| cˆÁ\ÁB ÷w¬˛≈m. ∂º> ƒ\BD, 1977_ >M ~w, >M ∂´∑¬ÔV™ ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔÁB ∂∫ˇÔˆ›m >t—w \¬Ô^, ¤™ÂVBÔ xÁ≈lÈV™ xΩÁk ∂π›m^·º>V|, ∂>Á™ ∞>Vkm ŒÚ kal_ ÿƒB_√|›>°D gÁl‚|^·VÏÔ^. gÔ ÷ÁkÔÁ· ÷Á›m© √VϬzDÿ√Vøm “>t—w ∂´∑” ®[√m cÈÔ ƒ‚¶∫Ôπ[ √Ω•D >t—w \¬Ôπ[ ¤™ÂVBÔ gÁl[ √Ω•D c¶™ΩBVÔ ÿƒB_√|›>©√¶ ºkı|D. º\KD cÈÔ ƒ‚¶∫Ôπ[ √Ω•D ~w \¬Ôπ[ ¤™ÂVBÔ gÁÔπ[√Ω•D, “ ~w›Á>, E∫Ô· ∂´∑ g¬˛´t›m¬ ÿÔVıΩÚ©√>VÔºk ÔÚ> ºkı|D ”. ÷mºk xΩ°. ÷DxΩÁk ∞uÆ ∂>Á™ ∂∫ˇÔˆ©√º> ∂Á™kˆ[ ¤™ÂVBÔ¬ Ô¶Á\BVzD.

ÿ\Vaka› º>EBD ˛º´¬Ô ÷º´V\ ÂVÔˆÔD, ˛§›mk© √ı√V| g˛BÁkÔπ[ ka› º>V[≈_Ôº· ÿ√ÚD√VÈV™ ÷[Á≈B nº´V©∏B ÂV|Ô^. ÷ÕÂV|Ôπ_ ÿ√ÚD√z] ∂[Á≈B ÷º´V\ º√´´E[ ŒÚ√z]BVÔºk ÷ÚÕ>™. ˛º´¬Ô ÷È›y[ ÿ\VaÔπoÚÕm cÚkV™Ák>V[ ÷[Á≈B ÿ√ÚD√VÈV™ nº´V©∏B ÿ\VaÔ^. gÔ Œº´s>\V™ ÂVÔˆÔD, √ı√V|, ƒ\BD, ÿ\Va g˛BÁkÔº·V| {Ï ∂´E[ˇμ ÷ÚÕ>Ák>V[ ÷[Á≈B nº´V©∏B ÂV|Ô^. 15gD ±u≈Vı| kÁ´ ÷È›y[, ˛º´¬Ô ÿ\VaÔº· nº´V©√Vs[ ∂∫ˇÔˆ¬Ô©√‚¶ ÿ\VaÔ·VÔ ÷ÚÕmkÕ>™. g™V_ ˛.∏. 1000gD gı|¬z x[AD, ∏[AD nº´V©√Vs_ ÂÁ¶ÿ√u≈ √È º√VÏÔ·VKD, √Èÿ\Va ÷™ ÔÈ©AÔ·VKD, √È A]B ÿ\VaÔ^ cÚkV˛, A]B ÿ\Vaka› º>EB ÷™∫Ô^ cÚkV˛™. ˛.∏. 15gD ±u≈Vı|¬z©∏[A ∂>Vkm \Æ\ÈÏflE¬ ÔVÈ›m¬z©∏[A ÷Õ> ÿ\Vaka› º>EB ÷™∫Ô^, ÿ\Vaka› º>ƒ∫Ô·VÔ, ÿ\Vaka ÂV|Ô·VÔ cÚkV˛™. 15gD ±u≈VıΩ_ ÷∫˛ÈVÕm, ¸ÿ√l[, º√VÏfl∑¬Ô_, ∏´V[∑ x>oB ÂV|Ô^ ∂©√Ω cÚkV˛lÚÕ>™. ÿÂ>ÏÈVÕm («VÈÕm), g´fi∑s_oBD ®[√kˆ[ xBuEBV_ ¸ÿ√lÁ™ ®]Ï›m tÔ¬Ô|Á\BVÔ 40kÚ¶D º√Vˆ‚| tÔ©ÿ√ˆB ÷w©∏uz∏[ 17gD ±u≈VıΩ[ ÿ>V¶¬Ô›]_ (1609) >MÂV¶VÔ \V§Bm. ~w›]_ ÂÁ¶ÿ√ÆD º√VϬÿÔV|Á\Ô^ √È ∂∫zD ¶Õ>∏[™º´ ÿÂ>ÏÈVÕm s|>ÁÈ ∂Á¶Õ>m. g´fi∑s_oBD >ÁÈÁ\l_ \¬Ô^ cÆ]ºBV| º√VÏ ÿƒFm ÿku§ ÿ√u≈™Ï.

~w›]_ ¤™ÂVBÔ\u≈ ∂´∑ cÚkVzD ®[√™ º√V[≈ ÔV´∫ÔÁ·¬ ̧, >M~w›Á> \Æ©√m WBVB\_È. cÈ˛[ √È ÂV|Ôπ_, g¬˛´t›> ∂´∑Ô^ ÿkπºBÆD ÿ√Vøm ¤™ÂVBÔ\u≈ ∂´∑Ôº· cÚkV˛[≈™. ®M–D ∂Ák ∂Õ>Õ> \¬Ôπ[ º>EB ÷™ ∂´∑Ô·VzD. ®™ºk ÷Õ]B ∂´∑D >twÔ ∂´∑D, ÷Õ]B Ô‚EÔ”D >twÔ Ô‚EÔ”D, ÷Õ]B \¬Ô”D >twÔ \¬Ô”D ÷ÁkÔÁ· cÏÕm {´Ël_ ]´ı| >t—w›]_ ~w \¬Ôπ[ ¤™ÂVBÔ gÁÔπ[√Ω “>M ~w ∂´∑” cÚkVÔ› >∫Ô·m >VÏ*Ô g>´Ák kw∫Ô ºkı|D.

18gD ±u≈VıΩ_ ÿ¤Ï\[ ÿ\Va º√∑˛[≈ ÿ¤Ï\VMB Eu≈´∑Ô^ º>VuÔΩ¬Ô©√‚| ∂Ák Œ[ƺƒÏ¬Ô©√‚| Œº´ ÂV¶VÔ cÚkV˛™. 19gD ±u≈VıΩ_ ÷›>Vo ÿ\Va º√∑˛≈ ÷›>Vol[ EÆ∂´∑Ô^ Ôˆ√V_Ωl[ >ÁÈÁ\l_ Œ[Æ√|›>©√‚| ÷›>VoÂV| cÚkV˛Bm. √È>¶Ák E>Æı¶ º√VÈÕm x>_ cÈÔ©º√VÚ¬z ∏[ >MÂV¶VÔ cÚkV˛Bm. ÿ¤Ï\M, ÷›>Vo, º√VÈÕm, ÿÂ>ÏÈVÕm g˛B ÷ÕÂV|Ô^ ∂Á™›mD ÿ\Vaka› º>EB›][ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_>V[ cÚkV˛™. ÷∫˛ÈVÕ][ Ô‚|©√V‚ΩoÚÕm nˆ¸ ÿ\Va º√∑D \¬ÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı¶ nˆ¸º>ƒD 200 gı|ÔVÈD T´tz º√V´V‚¶›Á> ¶›], cÈ˛[ ÿ√ÚD√z]ÁB gı¶ ÷∫˛ÈVÕÁ>› º>VuÔΩ›m >M ÂV¶VÔ cÚkV˛Bm. Œº´ ÂV¶VÔ ÷ÚÕ> ÂVϺk, ¸T¶[ g˛B ÂV|Ô^ ∏[™Ï ÿ\Vaka› º>EBD ®[≈ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ÷ÚÂV|Ô·VÔ© ∏ˆÕ>™. ÷´iBVs[ g]¬ÔD sÈ˛B∏[ (1980¬z ∏[), ˛w¬z nº´V©√Vs_ √È E§B A]B ÂV|Ô^ ÿ\Vaka› º>EBD ®[≈

12

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∂Ω©√Á¶l_ cÚkV˛™. ÷[ÆD √ÈÂV|Ô^ ÿ>V¶ÏÕm cÚkV˛¬ ÿÔVı|^·™. ŒÚ ÂV‚|¬z ∂Ω©√Á¶ ∂>[ ÿ\Vaka› º>EBº\. ºÔVÏ√flºƒÀ ÔVÈ›]_ ÷´iBVsoÚÕm 13ÂV|Ô^ ∏ˆÕm >MÂV|Ô·VÔ g˛™. ∂ÁkÔπ_ ÿ√ÚD√VÈV™Ák x¸‹D ÂV|Ôº·, ®M–D ∂Ák \>kal_ ∂_ÈVm ÿ\Vaka› º>EBD ®[≈ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_>V[ ∏ˆÕ>™. ÔÚ∫Ô¶K¬zD ÔV¸∏B[ Ô¶K¬zD ÷Á¶©√‚¶ nVϘBV, gϺ\MBV, ∂¤ÏÁ√¤V[ g˛B J[Æ ÂV|Ô”D tÔ tÔflE§BÁk, Œº´√z]l_ ÷Ú©√Ák ®M–D ÿ\Vaka› º>EBD ®[≈ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ∂DJ[Æ º>EB ÷™∫Ô”D J[Æ ÂV|Ô·VÔ cÚkV˛™.

~w›Á> cÚkV¬Ô º>Ï>_ JÈD gÁl‚¶™Ï. º√V´Vπ¬ zø¬Ô^ ~w \¬Ôπ[ ∂Õ> gÁÁB WÁ≈ºku≈ºk º√V´VΩ kÚ˛[≈™.

ÂV|Ô^ A]B>VÔ cÚkV˛¬ÿÔVı|^· ÷¬ÔVÈ›]_ ∏ˆÕm ÿƒ[≈ ÂV|Ô^ ºƒÏÕmD c^·™. ÷´ı¶VD cÈÔ©º√Vˆ[ ÷Æ]l_ º\uz ÿ¤Ï\M, ˛w¬z ÿ¤Ï\M ®™ ÷´ı¶VÔ© ∏ˆÕ> ÿ¤Ï\[ º>ƒD ÿ\Vaka› º>EBD ®[≈ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_, ÿ¤Ï\[ ÿ\Va º√∑˛≈ ∂ÀsÚ ÂV|Ô”D Œ[Æ ºƒÏÕm Œº´ ÿ¤Ï\[ ÂV¶VÔ g˛™. ∂º> ÷´ı¶VD cÈÔ©º√Vˆ_ ÷ÚÂV|Ô·VÔ© ∏ˆÕ> k¶ÿÔVˆBV, ÿ>[ÿÔVˆBV g˛B ÷ÚÂV|Ô”D ÿ\Vaka› º>EBD ®[≈ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ®]ÏÔVÈ›]_ Œ[Æ ºƒ´ º√fl∑¬ÔÁ· ¶›] kÚ˛[≈™.

x[A \[™ÏÔ^ >∫Ô·m g‚E cˆÁ\ÁB, ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ cˆÁ\ÁB ÿ>FTÔ cˆÁ\ ®™©º√E ÿƒB_√|›]kÕ>™Ï. ‘ºƒV ®[≈ ∏´V[∑ ∂§QÏ >™m ƒx>VB Œ©√Õ>D ®[≈ ±o_, “ \¬Ô^>V[ ∂]ÔV´∫ÔÁ· \[™–¬z kw∫˛™Ï; \¬Ô^ ®©ÿ√Vøm ºkı|\V™VKD ∂>Á™ ]Ú©∏ ®|›m¬ÿÔV^”D cˆÁ\ ÿÔVı¶kÏÔ^ ” ®[≈VÏ. ÷Õ> ÿ>FTÔ cˆÁ\ÁB ko•Æ›]B ÷∫˛ÈVÕm \[™[ ƒVÏÈE[ >ÁÈ 1649gD gı| ÷Èı¶M_ mıΩ¬Ô©√‚¶m. ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ ®[√m ®∫˛ÚÕº>V kÕ>m ∂_È; \¬Ô^ >Õ>m. gÔ ∂>Á™¬ÔV‚Ω \¬ÔÁ· ∞\Vu≈xB[≈ \[™–¬ºÔ ÷Õ> Ô] ®[≈V_ ÷[Á≈B ∂´EB_kV]Ôπ[ Ô] ®[™kVzD? gÔ ÷Õ> ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ ®[≈ ÿ√VF¬ÔÁ>ÔÁ·© º√E >M ~w›Á> \Æ©√m \Vÿ√ÚD k´ÈVuÆ© ∏ÁwBVzD.

gÔ ŒÚ ÿ\Va º√∑˛≈ Œº´ √z]l_ kVøD \¬Ô^, >∫ÔÁ· ŒÚ º>EB ÷™\VÔ¬ ÔÚ] >∫Ô”¬ÔV™ >MÂV| ºÔVˆ ÿ√Ækÿ>[√m x>ÈVπ›mkD cÚkVÔ› ÿ>V¶∫˛B 15gD ±u≈Vı| x>_ cÈÔD xøkmD ¶Õm kÚ˛≈m. gÔ ŒÚ ÂV| ∂_Èm ŒÚ º>ƒD ®[√m ŒÚ ÿ\Va º√∑˛≈ Œº´ √z]l_ kVøD \¬Ô^, >∫ÔÁ· ŒÚ º>EB ÷™\VÔ¬ ÔÚ] >V∫Ô^ kVøD √z]ÁB >∫Ô^ ÂV¶VÔ ÔÚmDÿ√Vøm cÚkVkm gzD. √V˛¸>Vº™V| ÷ÚÕ> ˛w¬z √V˛¸>V[ ®[˛≈ k∫Ôÿ\Va º√∑D \¬ÔÁ·¬ÿÔVı¶ k∫ÔV·º>ƒD ÿ\Vaka› º>EBD ®[≈ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ >MÂV¶VÔ cÚkVÔ Â\m ÷Õ]BV c>sBm. º\ºÈ z§©∏‚¶ k´ÈVuÆ ºÂV¬˛_ ÷È∫ÁÔÁB© √VÚ∫Ô^. ÷´ı¶Vl´D gı|Ô”¬zº\ÈVÔ ∂∫z ÷Úÿ\Vaº√∑˛≈ ÷Úº>EB ÷™∫Ô^ ÷Ú∂´∑Ôº·V| ÷ÚÕmkÕm^·™. 1833_ ÷´ıÁ¶•D Œ[≈VÔ ÷Á›>m ∏ˆ‚Ωi ∂´∑. ÷´ı¶Vl´D gı|Ô·VÔ ÷Úÿ\Va º√∑D º>EB ÷™∫Ô·VÔ°D ÷Ú∂´∑Ô·VÔ°D ÷ÚÕ> ÷ÚÂV|ÔÁ· Œ[≈VÔfl ºƒÏ›> ∏ˆ‚Ωi ∂´∑, s|>ÁÈ >Õ>ÿ√Vøm ÷Ú∂´∑Ô·VÔ, ÷ÚÂV|Ô·VÔ ∂_ÈkV s|>ÁÈ ÿƒF]Ú¬Ô ºkı|D? g™V_ ∏ˆ‚Ωi ∂´∑ ∂Á>fl ÿƒFBs_ÁÈ. ~w \¬Ô^ ∂>Á™ ®]Ï›m x©√m kÚ¶∫Ô·VÔ ∂Á\] kal_ º√V´VΩ cˆÁ\ ºÔ‚¶™Ï; ˛Á¶¬Ôs_ÁÈ. gÔºk 1977_ ¤™ÂVBÔ xÁ≈l_ >M 14

>M~w ∂´Áƒ ∂Á\©√m ®[√m ÷È∫ÁÔl[ ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ÁB *Ækm ®[˛[≈™Ï EÈÏ. cÈ˛_ >MÂV¶VÔ cÚkV™ ®_ÈV ÂV|Ô”D >[Á™ g‚EÿƒF> ÂV‚Ω[ ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ÁB *§›>V[ >MÂV¶VÔ cÚkV˛ c^·™. ®|›m¬ÔV‚¶VÔ ∂ÿ\ˆ¬ÔV 1776_ ∏ˆ‚Ωi ∂´Áƒ ®]Ï›m ¤VÏÎ kVE∫¶[ >ÁÈÁ\l_ cÆ]ºBV|D ys´\VÔ°D º√Vˆ‚|› >MÂV¶VÔ \V§Bm. ∏ˆ‚Ωi ∂´E[ ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ÁB ®]Ï›m© º√V´VΩ›>V[ ∂ÿ\ˆ¬ÔV, s|>ÁÈ ∂Á¶Õm >MÂV¶VÔ \V§Bm. ÷m k´ÈVuÆ cıÁ\.

√V˛¸>VMoÚÕm k∫ÔV·›Á> ∏ˆ›> ÿ√Vøm ∂Õ> ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ ®∫ºÔ º√V™m? \¬Ô^ >VD ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ÁB ∂´∑¬z kw∫z˛[≈™Ï. ∂>Á™ ∂kÏÔ^ ®©ÿ√Vøm ºkı|\V™VKD ]ÚD√©ÿ√≈ cˆÁ\ √Á¶›>kÏÔ^. ~w\¬Ô^ >∫Ôπ[ ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ÁB, 1977_ >M ~w›m¬z kV¬Ôπ›>>[ JÈD ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´E¶tÚÕm >V∫Ôº· ®|›m¬ÿÔVı¶™Ï. ®™ºk ~w›Á>, ~w\¬Ôπ[ ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ÁB *§, E∫Ô· ∂´∑ g¬˛´t›m¬ ÿÔVı|^·m ®[√m>V[ k´ÈVuÆ cıÁ\. ~w\¬Ôπ[ ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ÁB *‚| ∂kÏÔπ¶D Œ©√Á¶©√m cÈÔ\¬Ô^ ∂Á™kˆ[ ¤™ÂVBÔ¬ Ô¶Á\. ÿ\Vaka› º>EB ÷™∫Ôπ[ ∑BWÏB cˆÁ\ÁB, ∂>Vkm ∏ˆÕmº√VzD cˆÁ\ÁB ÷[Á≈B n.ÂV. ƒÁ√•D ÷[™∏≈ x[º™§B ÂV|Ô”D ∞uƬÿÔVı|^·™. ÿ\Vaka› º>EB ÷™∫Ôπ[ ∑BWÏB cˆÁ\ÁB ÿ√Vm°Á¶Á\ >›mk›][ x©ÿ√ÚD >ÁÈkÏÔ·V™ \VϬ¸, ∞∫Ô_¸, ÿÈM[ g˛BkÏÔ^ 15


tÔ›ÿ>πkVÔ ko•Æ›] c^·™Ï. ÿ\Vaka› º>EB ÷™∫Ô”¬z© ∏ˆÕmº√VzD cˆÁ\ ®[˛≈ ∑BWÏB cˆÁ\ÁB ÿÈM[ ∂kÏÔ^ ÷´iBVs[ ∂´EB_ WÏB ƒ‚¶›]_ kw∫˛lÚÕ>VÏ. ∂>™V_>V[ 13 ÿ\Vaka› º>EB ÷™∫Ô^ ∂Á\] kal_ ∏ˆÕm >MÂV|Ô·VÔ g˛™. ‘ÿ\Vaka› º>EB ÷™∫Ô”¬z© ∏ˆÕmº√VzD cˆÁ\ÁB kw∫zkº> xøÁ\BV™ ¤™ÂVBÔD ’ ®[≈VÏ ÿÈM[. ∂kÏÔ^ kal_ cÚkV™ ÷´iBV°D, Ê™V°D >M~w¬ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔÁB ®]Ï©√º>V|, ÷È∫ÁÔ¬z ®_ÈVs> c>sÔ”D kw∫˛ kÚ˛[≈™. ÷º>º√V[≈ >k≈V™ WÁÈ√V‚Á¶ Â\m ÷Õ]B ÿ√Vm°Á¶Á\ kV]Ôπ_ EÈÏ º\uÿÔVı|, ÿ√Vm°Á¶Á\› >›mk›][ x©ÿ√ÚD >ÁÈkÏÔÁ·•D ºÔo ÿƒF˛≈VÏÔ^. ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ ®[√Á> \¬Ô”¬z º\D√‚¶>VÔfl EÈÏ √Vs¬˛[≈™Ï. ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ ®[√m \¬Ô·V_ ∂´∑¬z kw∫Ô©√|km. \¬Ô”¬z º\ÈV™ ®m°D ÷©Ø°È˛_ ÷_ÁÈ. k´ÈVuÆ ºÂV¬˛_, ÿ\Vaka› º>EB›][ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ~w\¬Ô^ >tμº√∑D >M º>EB ÷™\VzD. ∂kÏÔ^ kVøD ÷È∫ÁÔl[ k¶¬z, ˛w¬z √z] ~w\¬Ôπ[ >MÂV¶V™ ~w\VzD. ∂kÏÔ”¬z ∑BWÏB cˆÁ\ ®[˛≈ ∏ˆÕmº√VzD cˆÁ\ cı|. ∂>[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ 1977 ÿ√Vm›º>Ï>o_ >M ~w›m¬z kV¬Ôπ›m ∏ˆÕm º√VÔ ¤™ÂVBÔ gÁÁB kw∫˛•^·™Ï. ÷>[ JÈD ~w\¬Ô^ ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑¬z kw∫˛lÚÕ> ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ÁB› >V∫Ôº· ®|›m¬ ÿÔVı¶™Ï. gÔ ~w\¬Ôπ[ ÷Á≈BVıÁ\ÁB *§, E∫Ô· ∂´∑ ~w›Á> g¬˛´t›m ∂kÏÔÁ· √|ÿÔVÁÈ ÿƒFm kÚ˛≈m. Â\m ÷Õ]BV ∂>uz c>s kÚ˛≈m. ÷>Á™›>|›m› >M ~wD cÚkVÔ› >VÏ*Ô g>´° kw∫zkm ÂD ∂Á™kˆ[ Ô¶Á\. ÷È∫ÁÔl_ ˛.x. 150 Ôπ_ gı¶ m‚¶ÔVtM ®[˛≈ E∫Ô· ∂´ƒ[, >twÏÔº·V| º√Vˆ¶¬Ì¶Vm ®™ ∂k™m >ÕÁ> ∂§°Á´ >Õ>Á>•D *§ >tμ \[™ÏÔº·V| º√VÏ ÿƒFm ∂kÏÔÁ·› º>VuÔΩ›>V[. >twÏÔÁ· ∂a©√º> ®™m >ÁÈBVB Ô¶Á\ ®™ ∂k[ √Á≈ƒVu§fl ÿƒB_√‚¶V[. ∂ÁkÔÁ· *§ ÷´ı¶Vl´D gı|Ô·VÔ› >twÏÔ^ >M ∂´ƒVÔ ÷ÚÕm kÕm^·™Ï. ÷[Á≈B E∫Ô· ∂´EB_kV]Ô”D m‚¶ÔVtM º√V[Æ>V[ ÿƒB_√|˛[≈™Ï. ÷È∫ÁÔl_ >twÏÔÁ· ∂a©√m ®[√m ÷´ı¶Vl´D kÚ¶∫Ô·VÔ E∫Ô· ÷™ÿk§BÏÔ^ ÿƒFmkÚk>VzD. ÷ÁkÔÁ· ÷[Á≈B ¤™ÂVBÔ cÈÔD cÏÕm, >M ~wº\ yÏ° ®[≈ ~w\¬Ôπ[ xΩÁk ∂∫ˇÔˆ›m, ∂>Á™fl ÿƒB_√|›> ∂kÏÔ”¬z c>°kº> cÈÔ \¬Ô^ ∂Á™kˆ[ >VÏ*Ô, ¤™ÂVBÔ¬ Ô¶Á\BVzD. 16

“ ÷Õ>› º>Ï>o_ º>ÏÕÿ>|¬Ô©√|D >tμ

º√∑D ∏´]W]Ô^ ÷È∫ÁÔ› º>EB ∂´∑ \[≈ cÆ©∏™ÏÔ·VÔ ÷B∫zD ∂º> ºkÁ·, >t—w› º>EB \[≈\VÔ°D >DÁ\ kˆ›m¬ÿÔVı|, >t—w ∂´∑¬ÔV™ ∂´EB_ BV©A Œ[Á≈ kÁ´Õm, ∂Õ> BV©Á√ ∂Á\] kaÔ·VºÈV, ºÂ´Ω ¶kΩ¬ÁÔBVºÈV, º√V´V‚¶›>VºÈV ÂÁ¶xÁ≈¬z¬ ÿÔVı| kÕm >t—w›][ ∑>Õ]´›Á> WÆk ºkı|D.. ” -1977äD gı| >twÏ s|>ÁÈ x[™Ël[ º>Ï>_ ∂§¬ÁÔ

“÷™ \> ºkÆ√VΩ[§ ®_ÈV \¬Ô”¬zD ƒ\

cˆÁ\ÁB•D ∑BWÏB cˆÁ\ÁB•D kw∫ÔVm EÆ√V[Á\l™ \¬ÔÁ· ∂¶¬˛ Œ|¬zD ÿ√Vøm, ŒÚ ∂´∑ >™m ∏´º>ƒ ŒÚÁ\©√V‚| cˆÁ\ÁB ÷w¬˛≈m” -1970äD gı| n¬˛B ÂV|Ô^ ƒÁ√l[ ∏´Ô¶™D

cÈÔ ƒ‚¶∫Ôπ[ √Ω•D ~w \¬Ôπ[ ¤™ÂVBÔ gÁÔπ[√Ω•D, “~w›Á>, E∫Ô· ∂´∑ g¬˛´t›m¬ ÿÔVıΩÚ©√>VÔºk ÔÚ> ºkı|D”.

Am\ÈÏ


Ilangaiyum Eelamum  

About the brief history of Eelam Tamils from 1947 to 1983

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