Page 1

usable local materials and existing community; therefore, so-called master plan was not required in its design and construction procedure. However, collection of such free design procedure resulted in a harmonious community. This is the most important characteristic of the traditional Hanok design, and what should be conveyed in designing a new Hanok in the new era. Design principles of the new Hanok should fully follow the time-required design and construction principle. Therefore, this process does not follow conventional architectural prototype, design method, fixed master plan, and conventional definition on tradition, but provide people with open-ended possibilities in designing the new Hanok. // Urban Exploration, 2003 // Cities carry pieces of memories throughout history and show how culture has developed. However, as Italo Calvino said, “the city does not simply describe the past, but carries traces like lines in the palm of one’s hand.” By reading the traces left in the site under redevelopment schedule, I tried to understand the current situations and diagnose the actual value of the events created by these situations. Also, I tried to feel the objects and events filling the site, their relationships with certain places, the depth of the space and the silence left in the space differently in a new manner. Furthermore, I conducted a performance with collected materials in the exploration, in order to make people share their living history in the city and help remain their history with the city. I tried to record the reality of a city that exists on memories of each child by opening a mental map drawing workshop. The results showed that children have different ideas about city compared to adults. For example, they didn’t use bird’s eye view, drew dangerous objects (traffic light, crosswalk) larger, called same space with different names, and drew elevation when the focused object is impressive, etc. Therefore, I could realize that every place would have various names and meanings. In the end, I combined those findings then made a collage map of the site which shows the general characteristics of the village. // Making Space Happen, 2003 // The history of this site started from railway, provided the urban thermoelectric power plant with coal. After the decline of the railway due to the change of power plant fuel, artists occupied the railway, and constructed cultural district, as animating the region. This phenomenon is the peculiar characteristic of this site, which should be maintained and improved. I proposed indeterminate land occupation system, similar to sticking post-it notes on paper. Systemized artificial ground with holes and space-making units would be supplied to artists, whom will temporarily occupy some areas with cultural events. Occupation areas can be varied according to size of each event. It will make indeterminate cultural landscape, like trains had temporarily occupied the land, and diversify its culture. // Rill’s Relief, 2006 // All of us has experience of floating a paper boat on flowing water, chasing them with curiosity and expectation. The boat finally disappears to somewhere else, sinks in some time. This memory has a strong relation to the nature of water that continuously flows from up to down, changes as rise and fall. Throw some sealed photographs depicting stretches of natural waters on the upstream of Cheonggye-Stream. These abandoned photos relies its body on the harsh flow, as they tumble, drift, rest, get buried in mud, locked at the stepping stones … and finally approach to the Han River, en route to the sea – just like the perennial undulations and irreversible aspect of life. Passengers occasionally monitor these flowing photos’ presence; following the flow of fluctuating images. Some will step up to the stream, put their hand into water, and pick them up as a sole souvenir of the city. Here, people celebrate more in tasting the living water – our inevitable life resource – flowing in the dense center of Seoul. // Yanggu Building Project, 2006 // This annual building project is held in abandoned rural areas due to rapid urbanization, and it aims to regenerate those places by introducing appropriate architectural solutions. I participated in the 2006 project and joined the overall construction process of three buildings (mainly one building), field survey, and preliminary design process. Over 3,000 voluntary man-days participated in this project. // Conservation, Conversion for Sustainable City, 2010 // Upon the foundation of last century’s brutal history which killed at least 150 millions of people through wars and disputes, vast expanse of lands around the world have been harshly urbanized in post-war era. Resultant problems of this rapid urbanization - easily zoned districts and increased use of energy, urban decay and social alienation, dangerous situation of environment, etc - are threatening human habitation, again. Now it’s time to critically examine contemporary urban problems and solve it smartly through conservation and conversion, not to repeat last century’s blunders and not to build in tabula rasa again, for sustainable human habitation. The purpose of my exploration is research about conservation and conversion of existing cities, mainly examining sites reconstructed in post-war era. As living in the only separated country in the world, right after the Japanese colonial time, war’s impact on human habitation and re-use of remain ruins of history have always been my big concern. Moreover, Korea has suffered from fastest urbanization of 80 percent rural to 80 percent urban population within 40 years after the Korean War, now remaining many aged buildings and still progressing urban sprawl, which is similar phenomenon in many post-war cities around the world. So, conservation and conversion of existing city - have various merits include adaptability to existing urban context and social needs, retention of structure and memory, reduce of wastes, etc - is an adequate issue on many contemporary aging cities for our sustainable future. Post-war urban development (Berlin, Warsaw): First section of my research focuses on the post-war urban development and it’s afterward situation. As living in the only divided country in the world, appropriate modifications of North Korean cities after predictable reunification have long been one of my concerns as a future architect. This long interest led me to participate in German & Korean youngsters travel exchange programme funded by the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in two years (2002/2003). Short visit to Berlin and past DDR(Eastern Germany) sites together with German students made me realize many difficulties followed by unification, as mentioned in next article: “In Central and Eastern Europe, 70% of the population lives in Plattenbau-areas and it is estimated that the renovation of them will take about 350 billion euros which mean employment for 16 million people (Die Welt, March 17, 2005).” Berlin has been widely renovating buildings from apartments to the parliament, achieving huge conversion of more than 200 thousand past Plattenbau-units with ecological approaches. Especially, gradual modification of past Berlin Wall area and past industrial buildings could react to ordinary needs of citizens by insertion of new urban programs and remaining historical lessons at the same time. The Second World War demolished about 85 percent of old Warsaw. Like North Korea, Warsaw was once a socialistic society. This unique history of last century shows exceptional example of the comprehensive reconstruction of a city - holistic conservation by supports of inhabitants. This case also affected many European countries’ doctrines related to urbanization and conservation of urban development after the destruction of World War II. After the collapse of Soviet Block, Warsaw converted many socialistic public buildings in dense and mix-used way - extending pedestrian ways of old district. Also past characteristics of socialistic urban planning highlighted publicity are well remained. Inner city of London’s Dockland area was decayed by 1940’s urban bombing and transition of industry. But this area has remarkably regenerated in ecological and mix-used manner overcoming urban decay, now waiting for the 2012 Olympic. And the Open House Program held in every September enables urban community experience and understand the notion of sustainable development - which I plan to participate. Valid adaptation of these renowned cases will be needed many aging cities, include Korea. Past industrial facilities (Essen, Duisburg, New York): Second part of my research focuses on the conversion of past industrial facilities - modern remains. Industry facilities are in everywhere but nowhere. Because these edifices are mostly isolated in inner city protected to access. But small intervention on old facility can be a good solution for revitalization on decaying city as preserving unique local history, saving resources, providing more public spaces to citizens - improving quality of urban life. These cities have proven that even heavy industrial facilities can be converted to different use in an ecological manner. Essen-Duisburg areas were Europe’s largest industrial area mainly used as coal-mining sites, damaging nearby nature. After the emerge of clean industry, these cities converted huge pre-coal mine complex like a small city containing various cultural facilities with environmental purification, connecting isolated place to neighborhood area. New York is one of the oldest and crowded modern city in the world. Here, 1930’s railroad was converted to pedestrian park, running through old areas include Meatpacking & Chelsea district - also transformed past industrial buildings into various uses. Especially, the fact that this park was initially developed by citizen’s support attests to what urban dwellers’ needs. Ancestral City (Medina of Fes and Marrakesh): As a contradictory case, Fes and Marrakesh is a reasonable model of sustainable city. Since founded in 9th and 10th century each other, these ancestral cities have been lasted its history for longer than thousand years without big change - which proves its vitality. Especially, Fes have been preserving it’s unique urban fabric of 14th century, small buildings in its Medina have always been converted without modern way of zoning - containing almost every urban behaviors. And its urban form is a suitable study case for sustainable city containing various factors in it - mix-used buildings, labyrinth-like pedestrian routes reaching 300 kilometer, use of natural ventilation system, etc. Additionally, this city looks more democratic than functionally divided cities. So, it’s humble but stable spaces with its own beauty, are still relevant. Though it is hard to adapt these values directly to modern cities, we need to learn from these sustainably lasted cities. Adaptable acculturation of this long lasting city will make contemporary cities more celebrating place. Comparative City (Seoul): Contemporary megalopolis Seoul shares many characteristics of referred cities. This 600 years old city contains various ruins of history - modernization era, war and colonization period, even medieval time. After predictable reunification with North Korea, big amount of conservation and conversion of old buildings and cities will be required. I believe that foreign lessons learned from this exploration will give advice on this course. So, as a comparative case, I plan to study some renovated instances in old district of Seoul. I expect that comparing Seoul with other cities’ case will give me balanced perspective on this agenda, as remaining assignments of further study.

PORTFOLIO KANGIL JI

Harvard GSD Master in Architecture II 2014


Part I Academic Works Los Angeles as Architecture GSD Option Studio 2014 at Michael Maltzan Architecture, Los Angeles

Ecologic Urbanism GSD Option Studio 2013

Elements of Architecture GSD Option Studio 2013 at OMA, Rotterdam

Liminal Nature GSD Option Studio 2012

Evolutionary Context K-Arts Option Studio 2010 (RIBA Part II)

Landscript (地文) K-Arts Option Studio 2009

Architectural Infrastructure K-Arts Option Studio 2006 (RIBA Part I)


4

Los Angeles as Architecture TERRITORIALISM 2012

Los Angeles as Architecture model 1:300 scale

GSD option studio I Spring 2014 I Instructor: Michael Maltzan (FAIA), Mia Lehrer


Los TERRITORIALISM Angeles as Architecture 2012

5

compression of LA experience into architecture that the city strives towards the synoptic view: the hillside house that frames the panoramic urban spread below.

How LA works? conventional idea on city Flat ground, vertical buildings - flat ground, vertical buildings

Location: Sherman Oaks Neighborhood, San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles, CA Site Area: 14 acre Building Area: 16.8 acre Program: Mix-used building (micro city) Flat ground, vertical buildings

Ve

As Los Angeles confronts the need to densification, this project propose a strategy to do so in a fashion that preserves and amplifies the experience of the city today, and makes good on its longstanding promise of a lifestyle of convenience and rich experience. Fundamental to phenomenological interpretation of the city is the idea that it is built by an urbanism of desire, connecting programs through continuous surface and the impression of horizontal movement. We observe that Los Angeles is topographically complex, but feels “flat” from the perspective of the user because it is constructed on a continuous paved surface, with little to no threshold between parking and the contents of its structures. This project also observe

LosVertical Angeles ground, flat buildings - vertical ground, flat buildings

study models

0

10m


6

TERRITORIALISM Los Angeles as Architecture 2012

analysis of Los Angeles unusual scale of urban block

scale / view comparison with other cities Living Working Commercial

vertical ground, horizontal movement map of main roads w/ topography

scenery of merged landscape and architecture


Los TERRITORIALISM Angeles as Architecture 2012

7

operating system of Los Angeles: the line of desire flat movement (desire) and bumpy topography (reality)

action: flattened road

reaction: mutation of building typology

Eexpanding xpanding (mini mall) (Mini Mall)

Large House

Large House

Journey from South to North (Fairfax Ave) nudging N udging

Korean Food

(street shop) (Street Shop)

Large House

Fancy Motel Cheap Gas

Korean Food

Fancy Motel Cheap Gas

T

twisting wisting (signs rooftop) (Signs onon Rooftop)

LA Dream

Korean Food Fancy Motel Cheap Gas

Apartment

Apartment Apartment

Shop Gas station

W

widening idening (traffic light) (Traffic Light)

Apartment House

Shop Motel

Gas station

Gas station

Motel Mini-mall

House

Apartment Mini-mall

Mini-mall

Shop

Apartment

Mini-mall Gas station Gas station

Ppunching unching

House

(everywhere) (Everywhere)

Motel Mini-mall

Mini-mall Gas station

Bbanding anding

(gasStation) station) (Gas

Ssubtracting ubtracting

LA Reality

(apartment) (Apartment)

Zzigzagging

continuous matrix of paved surface Journey from East to West (Wilshire Blvd)

sleeping

igzagging (gentle (Gentle Hill)hill)

cantilevering C antilevering (steep (Steep Hill)hill)

Rotating

(Bunker Hill)

Rotating

(Bunker Hill) rotating

shopping

(bunker hill)

entertainment

working

O verlapping overlapping (Hollywood Hill)

(hollywood hill)

O verlapping

(Hollywood Hill)

the line of desire

Culture Civic Education Sports Green Living Parking Offices Shopping Water Other


8

TERRITORIALISM Los Angeles as Architecture 2012

design concept 01 - folded road/experience

design concept 02 - cooler space

folding road, tilting & minimizing land use

in-between space

Daylight Daylight Amount Amount Analysis Analysis

Daylight DayligA

typical envelope (straight)

Straight Straight Envelope Envelope

4.5°

0° 0.6°

Curved Curved En

Summer Summer solstice solstice

summer

Summer Summer solstice solstice summer

winter

Winter Winter solstice solstice

30% 51%

96% 100%

Curved Curved Envelope Envelope

4.5°

0° 0.6°

solar envelope (curved)

30% 51%

96% 100%

winter

Winter solstice Winter solstice

Daylight Amount Daylight Analysis Amount Analysis

Daylight Amount Daylight Analysis Amount Analysis

Straight Envelope Straight Envelope

Curved Envelope Curved Envelope

design development process

Curved Envelope Curved Envelope

slab and envelope

initial land

35% (Built Area) solstice Summer solstice 100 (# ofSummer Houses)

Summer solstice Summer solstice

0 (F.A.R)

0.5 (F.A.R)

?

Solar Radiance Solar Radianc

summer

Winter solstice Winter solstice

daylight analysis - ground floor

cutting land-mass

0.5 (F.A.R)

- River Channel & Wind Corridor

Daylight Amount Analysis

Daylight Amount Analysis

Straight Envelope

Curved Envelope

Curved Envelope

summer solstice - 12% CDA (500Lux) Summer solstice - 12% CDA (Continuous Daylight Autonomy), 500Lux

1.3 (F.A.R)

0.5 (F.A.R)

Summer solstice

Summer solstice

connecting

- Continuous surface (ramp and pedestrian walk) Solar Radiance High

Summer solstice

Winter solstice

1.2 (F.A.R)

0.5 (F.A.R)

Winter solstice

Winter solstice

winter solstice - 12.5% CDA (500Lux)

Low

Winter solstice - 12.51% CDA (Continuous Daylight Autonomy), 500Lux

wind analysis (prevalent wind SE-NW) Wind Analysis (prevailing wind: NW-SE)

mixing

- Mixed programs along continuous surface

65% (Built Area) 100 (# of Houses) 1.2 (F.A.R)

Level +6ft

Level +18ft

Level +30ft

Level +42ft

0.5 (F.A.R)

Wind Amount High

Level +54ft

Level +66ft

Low

Low

Winter solstice Winter solstice

Winter solstice Winter solstice

1.5 (F.A.R)

High

winter

Summer solstice Summer solstice

raising land

High

Level +78ft

Wind Diagram

Low


Los TERRITORIALISM Angeles as Architecture 2012

9

landscape and architectural components

green roofs / sunken courtyards

folded multimodal spine

-Primary residential access -Folded Roads -Ramps/stairs spiral around building envelope to provide continuous movement

architectural islands : canopy infiltratio

-Three canopy roles, deployed on 20’ grid 1. Heat- and pollutiontolerant street trees 2. 15-20’-tall trees forms bosques and plazas 3. Densified upland and lowland vegetation

ground permeability and circulation - Enclosed ground floor provides building access - Open ground floor serves as connective tissue, interfacing with street and central spine - Non-parking space provides dwelling room for pedestrians -Jogging trails encircle the site

channel cut

- Drawing water from the Sepulveda Basin and stormwater swales north of the site, the artificial channel serves as both generator of microclimate and connective space

The first engine of the project is a continuous paved Spine, lifted off the ground plane and compressed through switchbacks, along which residences are arranged. The spine becomes the crest of a constructed topography, serving as a plinth or “thickened ground” into which a wealth of other programs are intercalated, all connected to arterial roads and the Spine itself through grading and exterior ramps. The second driver of the project is the ground plane itself. The adjacency of the site to the Los Angeles River offers the opportunity to lead in a system of channels, carved to maximize cooling winds during peak summer heat. We slice the building by the channel and further sculpt the profile of its facades to provide light and shading from the sun. The result is an exotic form that blurs the perception of “ground” while paying homage to the lines of desire, movement, climate, and program that typify Los Angeles.


10

TERRITORIALISM Los Angeles as Architecture 2012

site plan ground floor plan

roof plan

0

helicopter view from due east

500ft


Los TERRITORIALISM Angeles as Architecture 2012

models partial model

site model

11


12

TERRITORIALISM Los Angeles as Architecture 2012

sections

A

22

17 27 8

8

B

33 13

17 30

14 14 6

17 15

26 21

32

C

10

16

18 25 33

21 30

9

12

17

10

29 34

D 17

6

20

8 32 14

24

13

17

13

22

E 17 12

20

7

24

9

13

25

9

23

18 7 21 15 20

20 38

18 9

7

12

29 17

16 16

25

30 21 11

17 24 13

20 38 26

10 11 47 32

11

9

16 35 21 9

10 14 23 23

F

24

24 11

10

10

20

16

10

23

17

25 30

31

29 25

A 9

22

18

B 20

C

24

G 13

D

9

23

E 19

F

5 6

17

25

25

G 20

H

39

I

9

16

H 25

25

I

perspectives

13

20

Culture Civic Education Sports Green Living Parking Offices Shopping Water Other


Los TERRITORIALISM Angeles as Architecture 2012

13

section perspectives

0

50ft


14

Ecologic Urbanism

Ecologic Urbanism model 1:50 scale

GSD option studio I Spring 2013 I Instructor: Ingeborg Rocker Publication (pending): Ecologics: Refiguring the Civic Ground, Harvard GSD


Ecologic Urbanism

15

verticalized street life people in series of gated communities. The concept of ecologic urbanism proposes a new model of city development based on an alternative model of middle-rise, mix-used building typology. This third typology mixes modernist concept of city (faster construction of city based on Walter Gropius’ Torten Housing) and local people’s communal life based on its street culture, while providing diverse thermal properties in the building to generate varied urban activities based on architectural typology.

>

In last century, many modern architects failed in making better cities by applying function-oriented ideologies, such as faster construction and traffic flow, with less consideration on the cultural and environmental performance of the city. Yet, this failed notion of city design is more widely accepted in today’s China, as the only solution to build cities for 100 million people every year. Given this situation, modernists concept of city cannot be easily rejected, but should be revised. Today, urban environment of the city of Guangzhou in Southern China is becoming more deteriorated. This is due to its skyscraper-oriented development without consideration on the city’s climate and culture, which requires more energy and isolates

Location: Li-Wan, Guangzhou, China Site Area: 110-acre Building Area: 6,000m2 (building footprint of standard building) Program: Mix-used building

verticalization of street life

elevation perspective

0

10m


16

Ecologic Urbanism

methodology eco-logical urbanism (revising ideological approach) 1898 Garden City of Tomorrow Ebenezer Howard

1914 The Futurist City Antonio Sant’Elia

autonomy

1977 Dialectic City O.M. Ungers

1995 Alphabetical City Steven Holl

2008 Stop City Pier Vittorio Aureli

phenomenon: ideological approach - context-less superimposition of ideological urbanisms

X claim: speed+civic life 1928 Toerten City, Walter Gropius

limitation

codification

process

congestion

history

expansion

claim: eco-logical (interaction-based) approach - intensifying context of Chinese form of civic life

1952 Unité d’Habitation Le Corbusier

speed

1972 City of the Captive Globe Rem Koolhaas

1928 Toerten City Walter Gropius

mass

1966 Typological City Aldo Rossi

1924 High Rise City Ludwig Hilbersheimer

suburbia

mobility

environment 1960 Metabolism City Metabolist Movement

1924 Broadacre City Frank Lloyd Wright

current: dominant urbanism in China = speed


Ecologic Urbanism

design process urban design

urban design plan

revision of Torten city plan (Walter Gropius) for Guangzhou, China - speed + context

master plan

17

topography - 0-11m level difference

0

stack - F.A.R 6 block

rotate - building direction = 0째 ~ 23 째 - maxium wind and shadow

split - street section ratio = 1:4 - minimum solar envelope

merge - minimum solar envelope - maximum FAR

float - annual flooding (+8m) - wind corridor & shadow

300m

elements of urban design

Topography

Valley & Stream

Plate

Stiched Grid

Traffic

Topography topography

Valley & Stream valley & stream

Plate plate

Stiched Grid grid stiched

Traffic

Public Network (Temple Road) public network

Civic Network (Alley) (alley) civic network

Building Typology building typology

Figure / Ground

figure/ground

Combination

Public Network (Temple Road)

Civic Network (Alley)

Building Typology

Figure / Ground

Combination

aerial view

traffic

combination

00

200m

0

200m

300m


18

Ecologic Urbanism

design process architecture

typical floor plans

extension of street (civic) life into buildings & creation of shadowy street

topography - 0-11m level difference ground floor plan

stack - extension of street into building

2nd floor plan

rotate 1 - duplication of street

3rd floor plan

rotate 2 - diverse thermal properties by slope

4th floor plan split - wind/daylight corridor

5th floor plan

rotate 3 - extension of street (civic) life 0

30m


Ecologic Urbanism

19

models

elevation perspective

0

30m


20

Ecologic Urbanism

sections

section 1

circulation

section 2

wind flow

section 3

green space

commercial

office

residential

multi-purpose (education, entertainment, etc)

0

10m


Ecologic Urbanism

21

perspectives


22

Elements of Architecture

Elements of Architecture

GSD option studio I Fall 2013 I Instructor: Rem Koolhaas, Stephan Trüby Publication: Rem Koolhaas, Elements of Architecture, Marsilio (August 12, 2014)

research on Elements of Architecture for 2014 Venice Architecture Biennale (collaborative work of GSD-AMO) From the Renaissance onwards, the discourse on architecture was largely based on the definition and analysis of architectural elements. Alberti’s six elements (locality, area, compartition, wall, roof, and opening: 1452), Gottfried Semper’s four elements (hearth, roof, enclosure, mound; 1851) and Le Corbusier’s Five Points of Architecture (pilotis, free facade, open plan, long window, roof garden; 1928) were all, in various degrees, efforts to analyze the history of buildings and codify the future of architecture. But since the globalization of modern architecture in the second half of the 20th century, the possibility of an elemental systematization of architecture has been largely ignored. Elements that used to be the specialty of architects - the ceiling

and window, but also even the facade - have become devices and ceded to more advanced technological domains. Architects themselves have largely ignored other elements in which they used to excel, like the corridor. There is a paradox though: today, despite standardization, device-fication and the attempts of parametric architecture to merge formerly distinct categories like roof, wall, and window into an ideally continuous architectural surface, the fundamental elements of architecture endure, albeit in sometimes radically different forms. back cover of the book (working version)

timeline corridor: ever-expanding element of architecture (from architecture to geography) 100 廊 [láng] (Cn) wall and roof

Shitenno-ji Temple, Japan 593

Angkor Wat, Angkor ca. 1200s

Jeongjeon (Mail Hall) of Jongmyo Shrine, Korea 1394

Lutton Hoo, England 1772

Blenheim Castle, England 1724

Mughal Serai, India 1600

Shoin Buildings, Japan 1632

Humble Administrator’s Garden, China 1513

Saumur Barracks, France 1770

1772 Corridor

Lutton Hoo

1770

Nijo Castle, Japan 1625

1765 Corridor (Fr)

1635 Corridor

Trace Italienne 1599

1535 Corridoio

Saumur Barracks

(fr) FortificationPath

Humayun’s Tomb, India 1572

1627 Coritore

Secret Passage

1677 Couloir

(fr) Water drain

Versailles, France 1682

1698 Corridoor

Castle Howard

1724 Corridoor

Blenheim Castle

source of noise... no longer in use except inupper stories of buildings meant for storage or convents (Blondel)


Elements of Architecture

Corridor Form of Connection, Separation and Escape

PAGE 22

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

REAL

PAGE 29

During modernity, the transversals got

Surrealiste, a long

replaced by the

corridor with street

tangentials. The

the arcades, one of

signs marking out the

which today still bears

fortified traditional

different sections;

the name Passage

Western city with its

these were given

des Panoramas. It

city gates and main

either the names of

was, in the first

roads is based on a

actual streets of

moment, as though

topology of gates –

historical significance

you had entered an

like the enfilade.

- the Rue de la Vieille-

Inscribed in it is a

Lanterne, where

movement figure

wall of the great

Nerval committed

which unfolds

darkened hall, broken

suicide, the Rue

transversally to the

at intervals by narrow

Yivienne where

joints, it stretched like

spheric line of city

Lautreamont lived - or

a ribbon of illuminated

gate and partition

names which were

water behind glass.

wall. The corridor

purely imaginary : Rue

The play of colors

organizations of

de Tous-les-Diables

among deep-sea

modernity ended all

(All Devils’ Street),

fauna cannot be more

that and established a

Rue Faible (Weak

fiery.

principle which allows

Street), Rue de la

movement figures to

Transfusion-du-Sang

Benjamin, Walter, 1892-

touch a distinct

1940. and Rolf

(Blood Transfusion

sphere only at exactly

Tiedemann. 1999. The

Street), Rue Cerise

one point: the door of

Arcades Project.

(Cherry Street), etc.

the cell.

Alexandrian, Sarane.

Stephan Trueby

Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of

1970. Surrealist Art. Vol.

Harvard University

P-247. New York,:

Press.

Praeger.

The ‘Surrealist street’ referred to the presence of the big department stores and consumerism in Paris. In the showrooms and department stores, mannequins were used to present all kinds of clothing and, as an element of advertisement to entice the customer, usually a woman, into buyting the commodity, this object of desire. Joachim Stark, “Elements of Surrealist practices in contemporary visual art” (Master’s thesis., Open University, 2008)

1938 Surrealist Street Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme, Galérie Beaux-Arts, Paris, France

1827 Passage Choiseul Paris, France

PAGE 24

1920 Infinite Corridor Massachusetts Inistitute of Technology, USA

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PROCESSION

PAGE 25

PAGE 20

PROTECTION

Millions of men lived

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

A similar drill was

in the trenches during

The resulting informal

elements of the

Avenue address

PAGE 21

ANTI-CORRIDOR

By the 1820’s the

held at the Madison

World War I. More

groups of teams and

modern corridor were

activities-given the

than six million died

under the direction of

beginning to come

name Bürolandschaft,

there.

Sgt. Robert O’Donnell,

together as a spatial

or office landscape-

...

police precinct

The futility of head-on

extension of the

coordinator, and Gene

infantry assaults in the

proved to be effective,

nation-state and its

McGinnity, acting

face of modern rifles,

flexible, and more

ideals. Added to this

building control

machine guns and

director. Everyone in

artillery was made

the building filed into

apparent. Both sides

acceptable than either

was the development

corridor offices or

of the decorated

open plans.

corridor that made the

corridors, stairways or

were forced to dig

the sub-basement

deep holes in the

when the alarm

Duffy, Francis, 1940-

corridor no longer just

and Anbar Publications.

a passage but a

1966. Office

destination in its own

Landscaping : A New

ground and

sounded and

right.

Approach to Office

concentrate upon

remained throughout

...

Planning. Vol. no. 9.

breaking up any

the alert.

attacks launched by

The New, Y. T. (1951,

their adversaries.

If anything, the

London, England: Anbar

corridor was an

Publications.

imprint of the

Aug 25). 7,000 Take

The armies remained

Shelter in bomb raid

increasingly complex

in these holes for the

tests. New York Times

social structure of

As the first step in a

stability and, very

next four years,

Victorian society,

millions of men

introducing social

trapped in a desolate strip of territory, living

series of preparations

importantly, enforcing

and dying in a

for civil defense in

a sense of decorum in

wilderness of

the insides of a public

time of emergency,

trenches, dugouts,

building. It

the New York Hospital-

craters, ...

guaranteed that

Cornell Medical

everyone was in their

Center held a trial run

Ellis, John, 1945-. 1976.

proper position;

yesterday in the

Eye-Deep in Hell.

awkward contacts

receiving and care of

London: Croom Helm.

with people outside of

casualties of a

8-9

one’s peerage were

simulated atom bomb

kept to a minimum.

attack. ...

The corridor

Dr. Henry N. Pratt,

organized the world into different, but

director of the hospital, explained

parallel corridoric

that 100 cots had been

universe.

added in the corridors

Jarzombek, By Mark .

and rooms on the

2010. “Corridor

floor, ...

Spaces.” Critical

The New, Y. T. (1951,

Inquiry 36 (4): 728-770.

Aug 03). HOSPITAL IS READY SHOULD BOMB FALL. New York Times

1916 Trench Warfare British troops go over the top of the trenches during the Battle of the Somme, France (Photo by Paul Popper)

Hassobury House, England 1866

1870 The Royal Courts of Justice London, UK

1965 Orenstein-Koppell Building Albeck/Ernst/Fischer/Rathal Architects, Dortmund, Germany

Chen Clan Academy, China 1894 0

5

10

20m

Chen Clan Academy, Guangzhou, China

Empire State Building, New York 1931

0

Chrysler Building, New York 1930 1952

5

10

20m

Lu’s Salt Merchant House, China 1897

1922 Marching Corridor

1894 Mechanical Corridor

1951 Bomb Drill St, Joan of Arc Parochial, NY, USA (Photo by Bettmann)

Date Unknown

Nightingale Pavilion Plan Hospital, England 1865

CORRIDOR

TANGENTIAL

Next the visitor entered the Rue

city of light, the old dioramas, nested in

aquarium. Along the

T

CORRIDOR

SURREAL

The innermost glowing cells of the

he corridor’s main function of speed is derived its etymology. In the 14th century, the corridor was not a place, but a person. From “currere,” to run, the corridóre first described a courier, and eventually referred to the pathways above fortified walls, which enabled the transfer of messages. With the invention of the trace italienne fortification system in the 15th century, military leaders relocated troops to ditches at the bottom of the wall. The corridor followed. In the 17th century, architects interiorized the corridor. By The 19th century corridoio described a passage within a building. The corridor ceased to be an urban element, but still maintained a close relationship to the dimensions of the human body and the function of speed. But now it occurred within buildings rather than between them. Architects gradually abandoned the corridor after its heyday in the 19th century. However, escalating building heights of the 20th century brought increasing demands exit corridor.

PAGE 23

23

WTC Tower World Trade Center, New York 1973

1971 “Corridor Conversations”

Taipei 101, Taiwan 2008

Single-Loaded Corridor

Burj Khalifa, Dubai 2009

2011 Moose Sex corridor 2003 Wireless corridor 1993 Freight corridor

Manhattan Life Insurance Building

1992 Research corridor

Kirkbride Hospital, USA 1850

1870 Bar Corridor 1885 Judges’ Corridor Galerie Richelieu Sorbonne Attorneys’ Corridor Public Corridor

1990 Metro corridor 1989 Chemical corridor

7

1987 Conservation corridor 1987 Green corridor

Royal Courts of Justice

1986 Jet Stream Corridor 1986 Resource Corridor

1870 Korridor

Westonbirt House, England 1864

1983 Ecological corridor

Berlin Poliklinik

1982 Wind corridor

6

1980 Heritage corridor 1980 High-Tech corridor 1980 Power corridor 1978 Opportunity corridor Flight Corridor 1966

1977 Development corridor 1976 Canyon corridor 5

1976 Park corridor 1976 Rail corridor 1975 Travel corridor 1975 Stream corridor

Westminster Palace / Houses of Parliament 1834

1834 Commons Corridor Chancellors Corridor Lords Corridor

1973 Growth corridor

Royal Courts of Justice, London 1870

1852 Brumidi Corridors

US Capitol

1972 Business corridor 1971 Wildlife corridor

4

1970 Mining corridor 1970 Transit corridor 1968 Highway corridor 1967 Transportation corridor

British Parliament

1965 River corridor

Le Corbusier threatens the Corridor-street 1925

1962 Economic corridor

3

1961 Industrial corridor 1960 Watershed corridor 1959 Escape corridor

1823 Grand Corridor

1955 Cultural corridor 1950 Utility corridor

Windsor Castle

1952 Air corridor 2

1948 Urban corridor 1946 Trade corridor 1928 Valley corridor 1926 Exit corridor 1925 Corridor Street 1918 Polish corridor

“Corridor” in published material, 1800-2000 Occurrence per 10,000 words

1

1914 Community corridor 1914 Medical Corridor

1841 Street corridor

Danzig Corridor 1918


24

Elements of Architecture CORRIDOR

PAGE 12

CORRIDOR

19th century visual corridors vs. service corridors (China vs. UK)

PAGE 13

CORRIDOR TYPES

PAGE 42

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

HOUSES TRANSVERSAL Segmented Corridors Service corridors in English manor houses

1897 Path & View Lu’s Salt Merchant House (揚州盧氏鹽商住宅), Yangzhou, China

ca.1368 - Present Coupling Sìhéyuàn (Typical Courtyard House Typology), Beijing, China

Parallel to, but inaccessible from, the physical path of travel, a visual corridor penetrates the deep plan, resolving long distance to reach the main hall along the 90m depth of the plan. KJ

One row of interior space always meet with courtyard or small garden through the corridor as if today’s duct space above your head do. About 70 meters deep “typical” housing in pre-modern beijing: the environment of interior space is supported by the collaboration between corridorcourtyard couple. KJ

Date Unknown

Wall-Wall

Wall-Wall-Ceiling 0.9m-1.3m

Wall-Wall-Ceiling 1.4m-1.8m

Wall-Wall-Ceiling 1.6m-2.2m

Corridio

SingleLoaded / Egress

SingleLoaded / Ingress

DoubleDoubleLoaded / Loaded / Staggered Aligned

Wall-Wall-Ceiling 2.4m-2.6m

Column-Column-Ceiling

Column-Wall-Ceiling

Column-Wall-Ceiling

Column-Wall-Ceiling

Column-ColumnColumn-Column

Door-Door-Door-Door

Door-Wall-Door

廊 [láng]

廊 [láng]

廊 [láng]

廊 [láng]

Aisle

Enfilade

Gallery

A courtyard is an enclosed area and a private open spaces surrounded by walls or buildings. As the main architecture of Beijing people for generations, Beijing courtyard house is famous both home and abroad. Since the construction of capital of Yuan dynasty, Beijing courtyard houses were built up along with the palaces, government office, street and Hutong. The courtyard is spacious; the houses are independent and connected by corridors. Editors, “Echo: Continuation of Heavenly Creation in the Noisy Time”, Urban China 27 (2008): 16

Visual Corridor

0 5

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PAGE 15

10

CORRIDOR TYPES?

1864 Separation Bear Wood Manor, by Robert Kerr, Berkshire, UK

2nd floor plan

Occupants of corridor - Nursery corridor - Woman Servants corridor - Transverse corridor - Butler’s corridor - Men’s corridor - Housekeepers’ corridor

1st floor plan

Date Unknown

Visual Corridor

PAGE 14

20m

Ground floor plan and west elevation ground floor plan

Corridor and universal requirement of privacy

0 5

view of corridor

10 overlap of views from/ to dark & light spaces

20m

PAGE 30

Wall-Wall-Ceiling 0.9m-1.3m

Wall-Wall

Screen-Floor-Screen

Screen-Screen-FloorScreen-Screen

Wall-Floor-Wall

Arcade

Labyrinth

Avenue

Allée

Highway/ Railway

Ground floor plan

CORRIDOR CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR CORRIDOR

TYPOLOGY TRANSVERSAL

visual corridor

Aerial view of Sìhéyuàn

0

5

10

20m

1660 Sapienza, Rome, Italy

ca. 1368 Sìhéyuàn House, Beijing, China

a b c d

Axis: Principal of architectural design in Chinese architecture Following axes believed to connect heaven (north) and earth (south), water (east) and fire (west) was the major principal of place making. (The dynamics of interacting forces of nature - Above) Axes were usually enclosed by corridor or corridoric space (similar to the cloister). a & d: official buildings for royalties & the rich / b: cave dwelling / c: houses for rich and moderate class people / e: palace (Chang, Chao-Kang, 1987)

1277 Urban wall Passetto di Borgo, Pope Nicholas III, Rome, Italy The 2,600 ft corridor, on top of a wall, serves as an escape route, linking the Vatican City with the Castel Sant’Angelo. MW

Space

1646 Interiorized Colossal Corridor The Corsia Sistina, Hospital of S. Spirito, Rome, Italy MW

593 Shitenno-ji Temple, Osaka, Japan 34°N

ca. 771-221 BC Layout of of Wangzheng city (the capital of the Later Zhou period), China, 34°N

1565 Exclusive passage Vasari’s Corridor, Giorgio Vasari, Florence, Italy The exterior corridoio connects Palazzo Pitti, on one side of the Arno River, with the Palazzo Vecchio. The upper level corridor crosses the street privately above the Arno Bridge. MW

e

Axis Matters: From Cosmology to Urban Planning and Architecture

ca. 1100 BC Diagram of ca. 206 BC-220 AD King City in Zhouli (Rites Ming Tang-Composite of Zhou) Kaogongji Ritual Hall (of Han (Record of Trades), Dynasty), Xian, China China 34°N 34°N

Space

Form of Connection, Separation and Escape The corridor’s main function of speed is derived its etymology. In the 14th century, the corridor was not a place, but a person. From “currere,” to run, the corridóre first described a courier, and eventually referred to the pathways above fortified walls, which enabled the transfer of messages. With the invention of the trace italienne fortification system in the 15th century, military leaders relocated troops to ditches at the bottom of the wall. The corridor followed. In the 17th century, architects interiorized the corridor. By The 19th century corridoio described a passage within a building. The corridor ceased to be an urban element, but still maintained a close relationship to the dimensions of the human body and the function of speed. But now it occurred within buildings rather than between them. Architects gradually abandoned the corridor after its heyday in the 19th century. However, escalating building heights of the 20th century brought increasing demands exit corridor. Stephan Trueby

Control, Speed Matters: From short pathway for the runner to device of separation, escape

618-907 Map of Xi’an (Capital of the Tang Dynasty), China 34°N

710-794 Layout of Heijokyo (Capital of the Nara Dynasty), Japan 34°N

1420 Forbidden Palace, Beijing, China 39°N

1599 Trace Italienne

1409 Cruciform hospital 1667 Coleshill Mansion, 1854 Kirkbride Plan, UK ward of S. Maria Nuova, Berkshire, UK 51°N Florence, Italy 43°N

1864 Westonbirt House, Gloucestershire, UK

Corridor and universal requirement of privacy: Half a century later, when Robert Kerr was informing his readership of the perils attending throughfare rooms, the issue had been resolved once and for all: the corridor and the universal requirement of privacy were firmly established and principles of planning could be advanced with more or less equal application to all dwellings in all circumstances: larger houses, small houses, servant quarters, family apartments, rooms for business, for leisure - these discriminations were subsidiary to the key distinction between route and destination that would henceforth pervade domestic planning. Kerr made diagrams that reduced house plans to these two categories of trajectory and position, proposing that their proper arrangement was the substratum upon which both architecture and domesticity were to be raised. ... Kerr, for his part, mobilized architecture in its view of corridors entirely against the possibility of commotion and distraction, bringing to bear a range of tactics involving the meticulous planning and furnishing of each part of the building under a general strategy of compartmentalization on the other hand, coulpled with universal accessibility on the other. Evans, Robin, 1944-. 1997. “Figures, Doors, and Passages”, Translations from Drawing to Building. Vol. 2. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

1870 Hassobury House, Hertfordshire, UK

One row of interior space always meet with courtyard or small garden through the corridor as if today’s duct space above your head do. About 70 meters deep “typical” housing in pre-modern beijing: the environment of interior space is supported by the collaboration between corridorcourtyard couple.

PAGE 31

TANGENTIAL

Date Unknown

Cosmology & Symbolism In essence, the city was a kind of mandala where the emperor or the king was ruling from a correct position of orientation, i.e. from the center of the axis mundi. The city should be carefully laid out in accordance with a system of orientation which provided law and order, as well as cosmological significance. Thus, the cosmo-magical symbolism of a capital city was both a matter of religion and politics. - The Secret of Luo Shu: Numerology in Chinese Art and Architecture. Södra Sandby: Sweden, Berglund, Lars, 1990 Cities (and also military camps) were round or usually square, with a palace and governmental buildings in the middle, surrounded by a wall that had gates in each cardinal direction. The majority of cities in China, except those limited by natural topographic features, were oriented to the south, as dictated by the cosmological theories where the cardinal points of the compass were represented symbolically. KJ+NP

PAGE 43

TANGENTIAL

Visual & Physical Corridors Chinese tradition of courtyard houses

1913 Woolworth Building, NYC, USA

PAGE 36

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

TEMPLES & SHRINES TRANSVERSAL

PAGE 37

TANGENTIAL

Space for rituals Space between this world and the next

0

5

10

20m

1450

Space for bifurcation Space for separation

0

View to Lettner

5

10m

Section of corridor

Ground floor plan

Front view

Section of corridor View of Corridor

1394 Ceremony 1450 Reorientation

Jeongjeon (Main Hall) of Jongmyo Shrine, Seoul, Korea

Monastery Church, Buxheim, Germany

spirit chambers

100m-long corridor (퇴칸 退間) of Jeongjeon is a

Passage and Ritual Divider: Outside the church

ancestral rites

space for royal ancestral ceremony. Located

proper, the corridor permits passage between

between spirit chambers and platforms for

monks’ quarters and church; after penetrating the

Corridor

orchestra and performance, the corridor is a space of mitigating spiritual and the physical

sanctuary walls, the thickened section of the corridor screens between the choir and the more

Site plan

world. Also, it is a theatrical space, which

profane volume of the nave beyond. MW

upper platform: orchestra

audiences can observe the whole ceremony through repeated columns. KJ

lower platform: orchestra and performance Ground floor plan Lower platform ca. 1625

ca. 1625

Pilgrimage Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, Italy

Orientation Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain

The basilica plan incribes a counterclockwise pilgrimage path inside the larger space of communal worship. NP

ca. 1625 Cosmology Chakravartin Temple Complex, Indian Subcontinent

Parallel spaces orient prayer toward the sacred representative object of the minbar, and Mecca. NP

ca. 1200s Cosmology Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia Numerous corridors surrouding the main temple exactly indicate directions and movement of celestial bodies. KJ Corridor on ceremony

17th century versatile corridors vs. secret corridors (Japan vs. France)

PAGE 44

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

INSTITUTIONS TRANSVERSAL 1894 Roofed Walkway

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

1829

The practice of placing individuals under ‘observation’ is a natural extension of a justice imbued with disciplinary methods and examination Corridors most explicitly procedures. It is segregated occupants surprising that the in prisons and asylums. cellular prison, Courthouse, parliament with its regular and government chronologies, forced ministry buildings labor, its authorities replicate the doctrine of surveillance and of normality in a more registration, its subtle ways. MW experts in normality, who continue and multiply the functions of the judge, would have become the modern instrument of penality? Is it surprising that prisons resemble factories, schools, barracks, aerial view hospitals, which all resemble prisons? Foucault, Michel, 19261984. 1977. Discipline and Punish : The Birth of the Prison. 1st American ed. New York: Pantheon Books. Panoptic Corridors Eastern State Penitentiary, by John Haviland, Philadelphia, USA

Chen Clan Academy, Guangzhou, China

PAGE 39

TANGENTIAL

PAGE 45

TANGENTIAL Peak of corridor Institutional corridors of prison and asylum

Roofed Walkway Corridor as grid

The overall layout of the Chen Clan Academy is a juxstaposition of roofed and open corridors operate as grid system of a city. Corridor connects 19 buildings with 9 halls and 6 courtyards, creating complex transition between indoor & outdoor spaces. Here, what one observe is the overlap of multiple views and constant change of the nature: achivement of transparency in architecture through corridor. KJ

Mixture of Views

Secret Corridors Service Corridor, Secret Passage

Mixture of Views

aerial view

0

5

10

linked solitude with moral and vocational instruction, exemplified the Pennsylvania System of penology, and became a model for over 300 prisons worldwide Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission marker posted outside of Eastern State Penitentiary, 1996

20m

Chen Clan Academy, Guangzhou, China

roofed corridor crossing the courtyard

view of corridor; roofed & uncovered

Mixture of views (View throughout corridor)

view of corridor

view of corridor

View of control (View through corridor) 1100s Housing Complex Tulou Building Typoology, Fujian, China

1791 Panopticon Jeremy Bentham Pure Visibility

1807-1814 Glasgow Lunatic Asylum William Stark Visibility and Separation

Mixture of Views

2nd floor plan

Ground floor plan 1682 Secret Corridors Palace of Versailles, Louis le Vau, Jules Hardoin Mansart, France Frugal and communtarian compared to the flamboyant public spaces of the Palace, the secret passages at Versailles initially permitted the discrete movement of servants — and later became a refuge for the Royal Family themselves at the dawn of the Revolution. KJ+MW

Wall conceiling the corridor

Corridor revealed

The vanishing point, discovered in the Renaissance and materialized here in a French Baroque Landscape, operates as a corridor, directing traffic toward a fixed point via shifting paths. Privileging the solitary viewer, the corridic perspective foreshortens and rationalizes the distant vista from its stationary observation point.


Elements of Architecture PAGE 124

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PARANOIA

PAGE 132

PAGE 125

CORRIDOR-DRIVEN LANDSCAPE WARTIME CORRIDORS

25

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PAGE 133

CODED IN THE CODE STREET FOR LIVING Infinite Corridors The increasing scale of Modernist social housing in the twentieth century was inextricably tied to the use of the corridor, often in new arrangements that tried to break the anonymity of the double-loaded corridor. The failure of these models became an indictment of the corridor—whether deserved or not. NP

1928-1932 Narkomfin Building Moscow, Russia Moisei Ginzburg

82m

Wide, single-loaded corridor

Efficient Plans, (in)Defensible Corridors An administrative cost-cutting decision in St. Louis’ Pruitt-Igoe housing complex (1952-55, HOK/Minoru Yamasaki), concentrated corridors onto overy third floor. Absent territorial oversight, the corridors, serving up to 150 residents, quickly deteriorated into anonymous, crime-ridden gauntlets; following the project’s demolition, the height of the buildings, if not all of modernism, was critiqued in anticorridic “defensible space” theories.

1939 World War II & the Danzig Corridor Nazi Propaganda concerning the Danzig Corridor

1952 Pedregulho Housing, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Affonso Reidy

1939 Line in the Corridor

260m

260m of single-loaded corridor, separated from the elements through a porous screen wall.

Military formation during the Nazi-led invasion of the Danzig Corridor.

Sigfried Giedion: “A simple example of how every city should be built” (French, Hilary. 2008) Walter Gropius: according to his wife’s notes, was “in love” with the building and said that it is “a model not only for Brazil but for the world.”

Danzig Corridor If World War I was the first truly coddidoric war— typified by the digging of trenches for battle—by World War II the alliance between the term ‘corridor’ and conflict had become fully cemented in the cultural conscious.

1972 Corviale Project Rome, Italy Mario Fiorentino

The so-called Danzig, or Polish, Corridor, described in German Nationalist propaganda of the 1920s, was used to describe the strip of land through German-claimed territories linking Poland with the Baltic Sea. The use of Corridor, wuth its kinetic menings, rather than region, to describe the land, was controversial in Poland, who claimed a more static notion of dwelling on the site. NP

A 958-m, 9-floor corridor separates two parallel structures; the fourth floor, meant as a street in the sky, was quickly taken over by squatters. 1952-1972

Oscar Newman, Defensible Space, 1972 1914 World War I : The Corridor War

958m

Trenches in the street of a Flanders town Photo: Hulton Archive/ Getty Images

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PAGE 127

PAGE 138

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PAGE 139

CODED IN THE CODE CODES AND BUILDING FORM Egress Width Timeline 1913 the National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA) Committee on Fireproof Construction recommends the 44-inch exit stair.

Possible egress corridor variation drawings : Following IBC

GO DIA100’

1913 New York State Department of Labor’s 1913 law prescribes a minimum stair width of 22 inches, and a maximum occupant load of 14 people per floor.

N ING

ILD BU OF NS SIG ]/ 2

Hong Kong 1996

51.3m / 14.7m / 3.0m

Hong Kong 2011

" 3'8

variation 02

65.3m / 6.2m / 1.58m

IBC 2000 IBC 2012

N

65.3m / 6.2m / 1.58m

ING ILD " BU 20'0 OF NS SIG

66.1m / 15.2m / 1.58m

South Africa 1990

]/

56.1m / 10.2m / 1.58m

South Africa 2011

2

Sort by ranking of length [O

" 3'8

Australia 1988 Guyana 2005 India 1986

44.5m / 11.5m / 1.43m

variation 03

2'3"

N

SIOIT EN EX DIM N L EE NA TW GO BE 0’

DIA LL 10 RA '0" VE 20

3'0"

Australia 2007

29.9m / 5.8m / 2.58m 31.3m / 6.1m / 1.43m 41.9m / 6.3m / 1.15m 49.6m / 10.3m / 1.69m

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code - 2006

49.6m / 10.3m / 1.69m

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code - 1999

]/ ING ILD '0" BU 20 OF NS SIG

51.3m / 14.7m / 3.0m

Hong Kong 2011

51.3m / 14.7m / 3.0m

Hong Kong 1996

2

56.1m / 10.2m / 1.58m

4"

4" 3'8"

4"

4"

4"

3'8"

Peachtree Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Spatially independent system Tubes and lobbies / perception of crime Coordinates 33°45’N 84°23’W Temperature Range 31.7°C / 1.3°C

Central Mid Levels Escalators, Hong Kong Kinetic system of escalators Steep terrain Coordinates: 23°08’N 113°16’E Temperature Range 32.8°C / 10.3°C

Shinjuku (Tokyo), Japan Grade-Separated shopping district Connection to Metro and Train networks Coordinates: 35°139’N 95°22’59’’W Temperature Range 24.5°C / 1.66°C

South Africa 2011

IBC 2000 South Africa 1990 Corridor Dead-End Corridor Stair Location

PAGE 150

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

CODED IN THE CODE TOWER CORRIDORS

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PAGE 149

The world’s tallest buildings, 1908-present

CODED IN THE CODE TOWER CORRIDORS

RÉSO / La Ville Souterrainian, Montreal Multiple-level underground system 60 separate complexes Coordinates 45°30’N 73°34’W Temperature Range 43°C / -2°C

IBC 2012

65.3m / 6.2m / 1.58m 66.1m / 15.2m / 1.58m

variation 04 2012 INT’L BUILDING CODE, INT’L CODE COUNCIL Chapter 10 - Means of Egress, SECTION 1018 CORRIDORS

20th century device-fication of corridor (exit corridors) PAGE 148

Skyway, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA Elevated, privately-owned system of bridges 69 Downtown blocks Coordinates: 44°459’N 93°16’W Temperature Range 28.6°C / -13.6°C

Saudi Arabia 2007

65.3m / 6.2m / 1.58m

4" 3'8"

plan 2012 INT’L BUILDING CODE, INT’L CODE COUNCIL Chapter 10 - Means of Egress, SECTION 1018 CORRIDORS

Underground, Houston, Texas, USA Underground tunnel system 90 downtown blocks Coordinates 29°45’46’’N 95°22’59’’W Temperature Range 43°C / -2°C

India 2005

59.5m / 15.2m / 1.43m

4" 3'8"

Traced over its host city and instrumentalized through the corridor, interior urban networks operate across a wide scalar gradient

India 2005 Saudi Arabia 2007

64.3m / 6.3m / 1.58m

64.3m / 6.3m / 1.58m

4"

From Interior Urbanism: Portman Space, Charles Rice and Alina McConnochie, 2010

India 1986

59.5m / 15.2m / 1.43m

SIOIT EN EX DIM N L EE NA TW GO BE 0’

3'0"

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code - 2006

44.5m / 11.5m / 1.43m

DIA LL " 10 RA 20'0 VE

3'0"

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code - 1999

49.6m / 10.3m / 1.69m 51.3m / 14.7m / 3.0m

[O

3'0"

Building code drives the form of the corridor. To section accommodate two queues of occupants, code prescribes a minimum width of 44 inches, and a minimum height of 7.5 feet. The passage is continuous and unobstructed from the point of entry to the point of discharge. Spanning between two exits, the corridor must be at least on-half the length of the overall diagonal dimension of the building. Code restricts dead-ends to 20 feet, and prevents intervening rooms from disrupting the continuity of the corridor. The egress corridor is a continuous, extruded doorway, where “exiting” becomes the primary function. Omnipresent signs, spaced every 100 3'8" feet, guarantee the visibility and legibility of exit points. Building code redefines the corridor as an attenuated escape device. MW

3'8"

Guyana 2005

49.6m / 10.3m / 1.69m 2

3'8"

Australia 2007

29.9m / 5.8m / 2.58m

]/

3'8"

Australia 1988

31.3m / 6.1m / 1.43m

41.9m / 6.3m / 1.15m

ING

4"

Sort by ranking country & year

ILD BU OF NS SIG

1997 the International Code Council (ICC) publishes the International Building Code (IBC), with a 44-inch minimum corridor width.

3'8"

Life Belt: Form of collective fear Following World War II, the image of Hiroshima—invented in the corridors of the Pentagon—and the threat of instantaneous urban destruction contributed to a dystopian field of urban planning whose primary study was the need for escape. An urban design scheme proposed by M.I.T. professor Norbert Weiner and published in the mass-medium of TIME Magazine illustrates a rational solution to bombing: the decentralization of urban life to suburbia connected via a so-called “Life Belt.” An attempt to avoid the apocalyptic disaster to a dense city formally resuscitated the radial planning of Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City of the previous century. The life belt - a wide network of ‘corridoric’ space was envisioned as a huge life vest of the society, which can save millions of lives from the hell. NP

mid-1980’s the 22-inch unit was abandoned, but the 44-inch standard was retained. Present day egress “design” correlates width (determined by occupant loads) with discharge rates.

N

4"

variation 01

SIOIT EN EX DIM N L EE NA TW BE

slip resistant surface

GO DIA100’

fire rated material

How U.S. Cities Can Prepare for Atomic War “Life belts around cities would provide a place for bombed-out refugees to go”- M.I.T. professors suggest a bold plan to prevent panic and limit destruction, LIFE, December 18, 1950 page 76-82 / MIT Professor, Norbert Wiener

3'8

"

LL RA VE

1935-1980’s US model codes adopt the NBS report and NFPA 101 until the mode 1980’s.

obstruction zone

Garden Cities of Terror The Corridic form of Victorian Utopian city planning—notably Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City (1898)—returns in the dystopian strategy of the Life Belt. NP

EXIT-ARCHITECTURE, Design between war and peace, Stephan Truby 2008

1970s-80s Peachtree Center, Atlanta Axonometric View of Circulation Networks

[O

1935 the National Bureau of Standards (NBS, the present National Institute of Standards and Technology, NISC) publishes the 44-inch egress system in Design and Construction of Building Exits, correlating egress width with flow rates.

exit sign

CORRIDOR

Interior urban networks, built on an infrastructure of corridors, permit cities—often in extreme climactic or geographical settings—to expand horizontally on a new, virtual ground plane. From Hong Kong to Houston, the corridor-city formalizes an element of egress in the name of comfort. NP

Criteria 10th floor of a hotel building with maximum occupancy of 100 people Room size = 5.6m x 5.6m & 5.5m x 6.5m

SIOIT EN EX DIM N L EE NA TW BE

1927 these “recommendations” become regulations under the NFPA Building Exits Code (NFPA 101-T), later known as the Life Safety Code.

Imaginary form of corridor according to the IBC, 2012

CORRIDOR

The Tower’s Twin

Possible Maximum Length / Minimum Width of corridors by building code

LL RA VE

The substitution of the one large centre through many small centres starts with the most important war room in the Pentagon. During the First World War the US War Departments were to a large extent stationed in France, in the Second World War however, the majority of Allied military operations were increasingly supervised from Washington.“1 Worldwide operations pivoted around the so-called Signal Center on the fifth floor of the inner Pentagon ring. The largest communications facility of its time, this elegant room with its fluorescent surfaces, was able to transmit five million words per day. The Signal Center was the ultimate ‘centre in the periphery’. And the last of its kind.

PAGE 146

October 26, 1972 “Housing Study: High Rise=High Crime,” by Jack Rosenthal, The New York Times

CORRIDOR-CITIES

International Definition of Corridor

Corridor: An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel. Means of Egress: A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge. - IBC (International Building Code), International Code Council, 2012

"

without the nuclear threat.

[O

to reach one point from another. The change in paradigms from nationalized to denationalised warfare Admittedly this kind of architecture initially had its drawbacks as far as left a gigantic building in its wake — orientation was concerned. The the Pentagon in Arlington near magazine Life compared Pentagon Washington D.C. lt was built with the staff with rats in a purpose of behavioural winning nothing scientist’s less than the labyrinth. The Second World Architectural War. Its Forum was more completion marks convinced and the emergence of wrote in 1943: the first atomic “Here is the super power. The picture of a future Pentagon is not architecture in only the largest which building will building in the be linked to their world but also its users by smoothdesign and flowing traffic construction are networks.” unsurpassed in the 1942 Standing guard in a still-under-construction speed in which they corridor, Picture by Myron Davis An extremely were carried out. efficient and stalwart manager, Leslie Grove, was promoted following his On 11th September 1941, not even two months after the War Department organisation of the Pentagon’s construction site to military director of announced their intention to build, the Manhattan Project — that construction work began. There was formidable and top-secret research no ceremony, no photographs, project which eventually was to absolutely nothing. Everybody simply produce the atom bomb and thus bring got down to work. Architect George about the end of Edwin Bergström’s workforce the 2nd World War. consisted of 110 architects, 54 structural engineers, 43 mechanical The Pentagon engineers, 18 electrical engineers, 13 marks the final drainage experts and a number of hypostasis of other specialists. The extent of organisational problems, and pressure centrality before decentralizing on the individual, was immense. Two tendencies in architects died of heart attacks, two military thinking construction workers in accidents took the floor. The involving concrete, one worker is development of supposed to have been discovered ARPAnet, the cast in cement, the other is said to precursor to the have fallen in a ditch full of concrete Internet which which had not yet set. cleverly linked scattered At the end of this chaotic period an headquarters with extraordinary layout of corridors had been produced. ln spite of the fact that leading US the total length of corridors amounted universities, would to 17.5 miles (28.2 kilometres) one only have been inconceivable needed a maximum of seven minutes

3'8

CORRIDOR-DRIVEN LANDSCAPE WARTIME CORRIDORS

6'8"

PAGE 126

Following a three-year observational study, Newman’s autopsy of Pruitt-Igoe blamed excessivley long, unpatrolled corridors for the project’s demise. Pruitt-Igoe became the totem for anti-modern sensibilities: corridors, seemingly, to blame for the death of modernism.

Plan of typical residential floor

Corridor in the Sky

Formalizing the escape route: 5 out of 7 official proposals for the new World Trade Center contained a sky bridge, ostensibily to calm public fears about the safety of tall buildings. (WOOD, ANTONY AND PHILIP OLDFIELD. 2007)

The free-plan skyscraper—seemingly a non-corridor typology—inevitably requires the use of corridors for evacuation. The typical plan enables the free plan.

Trauma and Code: 9/11/2001 Ineffective Corridors: Corridors stagnated the evacuation process on 9/11. After descending into the exit stairwells, occupants periodically encountered 10 to 100-foot horizontal transfer corridors on mechanical levels. By forcing the occupants to exit stair shafts, the meandering corridors created uncertainty and contributing to the slow downward flow-rate of one floor per minute.

2002 Peter Eisenman, et al, NYC, USA

1908-1968 Singer Building, NYC, USA

The NISC concluded that the transfer corridors reduced the legibility of the egress route, preventing more occupants from escaping. 7 years later in 2008, the International Code Council approved 23 building and fire code revisions, reflecting the NIST recommendations. Though the 2009 International Building Code does not make considerable changes to egress corridors, the 2003 edition restructured the document to emphasize evacuation devices. The International Code Council added Chapter 10, Means of Ineffective Corridors Egress, which dedicated an entire section to the corridor device - section 1016 Corridors.

1909 Metropolitan Life Tower (Clock Tower), NYC, USA

2002 Team United Architects, NYC, USA

PAGE 136

Instruction Video: The Port Authority of NY & NJ, WTC Fire Escape Drill, World Trade Center Fire Prevention and Life Safety Division Source: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=28laYNm5YNw

“The entire corridor became an inferno outside our front door. Smoke began to enter our office. There was also debris falling. ... The fire on the corridor was at least 10 ft high, and it ran the ... good length of the corridor. Then I saw a fireball come down the elevator shaft and blew the elevator doors. The fireball came right at me; it was a really bright color.” Interview 1000055 (NIST 2004) floor: 80s “As I descended the stairs down to the Mezzanine Level, once or twice I had to exit the staircase through a door and go down a corridor in order to reconnect to the same stairwell. I found this to be extremely disconcerting. Everyone who did this, stopped before they exited the staircase to make sure they were doing the right thing. This slowed us down and there was concern that the door would lock behind us.” Interview 1000053 (NIST 2004) floor: 60s

Like the corridóre, the architectural device transmitted emergency information. Emergency exit regulations required deputy fire wardens to gather and account for the floor’s occupants in the corridors before descending into the egress stairwells.

1930 Manhattan Compnay, NYC, USA

1930 Chrysler Building, NYC, USA

1931 Empire State Building, NYC, USA

† 1945 Airplane Crash between the 78th and 80th floor; 14 deaths and 26 injuries

† 1997 Fire 71st -77th floors; firefighters took elevators to the 57th floor and walked 17 floors up ... workers on the 67th through the 71st floors were evacuated as a precaution.

WTC tower emergency announcement WTC Tower

1973-2001 World Trade Center, NYC, USA

Egress corridors: WTC horizontal transfer corridors and fire-rated corridors on mechanical floors 82, 76, 48, and 42, 1965.

CORRIDOR

2009 Burj Khalifa, Dubai, UAE

PAGE 137

PAGE 152

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

Generic corridor: Building 23, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands

Smoke Detector Speaker

Elements of Architecture Wall

Door x 132

Fire Alarm

x 12

Fire Resistance Door

x8

Fire Resistance Door

2004 Passenger Boarding Bridge with Laterally Adjustable Cab Portion, by Neil Hutton United States Patent

Interior urban networks, built on an infrastructure of corridors, permit cities—often in extreme climactic or geographical settings—to expand horizontally on a new, virtual ground plane. From Hong Kong to Houston, the corridor-city formalizes an element of egress in the name of comfort.

Anatomy of a 200m-long double-loaded corridor in a university building clearly reveals its contemporary character in architecture: a safety device. A set of safety devices (smoke detector, fire extinguisher, fire alarm, fire hose, etc) are only elements in architecture that are enforced to have specific color, dimension, material, and number by law. These safety devices are elements within element (= corridor), which maintain its independent position and determines the character of the corridor. KJ

x 56

x5

Fire Extinguisher

Elements of Corridor Exploded: 4,541 permanent components that make a 200m-long double loaded corridor

x 10

Elevator

Emergency Light

x 3,526 Glass

x4

Halogen Light x8

Speaker

x 96

Fluorescent Light

x 28

x 10

Emergency Light

Evacuation Map

x 10

x 16

x 52

Gypsum

x5

Column x 56 Glass

x 14

Fire Hose

Steel

Ceiling

x6

Fire Extinguisher x 10

Wood Panel

Evacuation Map

x 10

Camera

Glass

Fire Hose

9.2m

Analysis: Simulations of egress complexity and congestion in hospital corridors. Alper Unlu, Gokhan Ulken and Erincik Edgu, “A Space Syntax Based Model in Evacuation of Hospitals,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Space Syntax Symposium (2005)

Fire Alarm

x 10

Brick

x5 200m

Wifi Modem

x 40

x 21 Vinyl Roll

Stair

Exit Sign

Gillian E. Livesey and Anthony Donegan, “Addressing Normalisation in the Pursuit of Comparable Integration,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Space Syntax Symposium (2003)

1899 Pre-code: smokey grand corridors endanger occupants in NYC’s Windsor Hotel, and all other burning buildings prior to the invention of specialized life safety code and egress devices.

Equipments

Smoke Detector

Exit Sign x 26

Wood

Emergency Light Mathematical translation: Seeding arrangements of floorplan compartments. Matrices of interconnected rooms, single-loaded corridors and double-loaded corridors have varying quantities of depth (of exit nodes) and choice. By simulating and assessing the route complexity, researchers compare the required evacuation times for each floorplan.

Elements of Corridor Floor

x 105

Glass Panel

A fire destroyed New York City’s Windsor Hotel in 1899. The building’s wide corridors and staircases filled with smoke, trapping guests in their hotel rooms. Without any alternate escape route, fourteen people died in the fire, and fifty-two suffered injuries. Present NYC building code requires a separate, specialized evacuation route. Coded egress corridors cannot supply, return, exhaust, or ventilate air.

PAGE 153

ENCODING: DEVICES OF THE CORRIDOR ANATOMY OF A CORRIDOR

Space Syntax Absence of “place”: Network diagrams represent the egress and access capability of a compartmentalised floor plans. Topological graphs model depth and relative asymmetry to calculate the egress complexity of corridor types. The corridor is reduced to a set of nodes and links.

Inscription of the body: Egress and fire safety codes use a 22 inch unit to accommodate the shoulder width of occupants. The standard 44 inch corridor is intended to accommodate two lines of occupants.

Sara Wermiel, “No Exit - The Rise and Demise of the Outside Fire Escape,” Technology and Culture vol. 44, no. 2 (2003): 258-28

Corridors stagnated the evacuation process on 9/11. After descending into the exit stairwells, occupants periodically encountered 10 to 100foot horizontal transfer corridors on mechanical levels. By forcing the occupants to exit stair shafts, the meandering corridors contributed to the slow downward flow-rate of escape.

21th century elements of corridor

Research Laboratory, 2008)

vol. 44, no. 2 (2003): 258-284

The egress corridor borrows its width dimension from the Life Safety Code, which codified the NFPA’s recommendations. The 44-inch

Corridor: The Inscribed Path of a Soldier

† 2001 Bomb Threat Evacuation † 2005 Power Blackout Evacuation

Taipei 101

2004 Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan

Richard W. Bukowski, NIST Technical Note 1623: Emergency Egress from Buildings Part 1: History and Current Regulations for Egress Systems Design (Maryland: NIST Building and Fire

Sara Wermiel, “No Exit - The Rise and Demise of the Outside Fire Escape,” Technology and Culture

The 44-inch Corridor Coded corridor dimensions are derived from exit stair widths. In 1913, the National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA) Committee on Fireproof Construction recommend the 44-inch exit stair. The committee referenced the New York State Department of Labor’s 1913 law, which prescribed a minimum stair width of 22 inches.

Military traces: The first corridors of the 14th century were pathways along fortified walls. Designers dimensioned the passage accommodate the moving path of a military messenger. The present day egress-corridor is based on a 22-inch unit - a measurement of soldiers standing in a line, from 1914. Both the corridor device and the original corridore trace the movements of a soldier’s body.

1998 Petronas Twin Tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

† 2004 Bomb Threat Evacuation

CORRIDOR

standard supports two lines of people - a path of fleeing occupants, and the counter flow of firefighters. The standard corridor unit is a 22-inch shoulder width derived from queueing soldiers. Before the coded corridor became associated with speed and egress times, it was bound to the anthropometric dimensions of a human body. Like the corridóre (the covered way atop fortified walls), the egress corridor traced the movement of a soldier. The archetypal element and the later device are both inscribed with military dimensions.

1974 Willis (Sears) Tower, Chicago, IL, USA

† 2001 Airplane Crash - designed to withstand † 2001 Evacuation - Pre-emptive Evacuation on the impact of a Boeing 707 aircraft - but not the September 11, 2001 767s and 20000 gallons of jet fuel of the plans that hit them. 5000+ deaths.

CODED IN THE CODE CODES AND BUILDING FORM Response to Fire The corridor device is rooted in disaster, and the emergence of building regulations can be traced to the first fire codes. The 1854 invention of the elevator safety break, which enabled the widespread implementation of the elevator, brought about the first skyscrapers in Chicago. Simultaneously, New York City witnessed a proliferation of tenements, which eventually grew taller than fire department ladders. After a fire in 1860 trapped and killed ten people on the upper floors of a building, New York’s architects created the first comprehensive building code by composited various existing rules with new building regulations. The city’s first exit laws applied only to tenement housing, prescribing either one protected egress stairway or two exit points. In 1899 a fire destroyed the Windsor Hotel in New York. Despite available escape routes, the wide corridors filled with smoke, trapping guests in their hotel rooms. Fearing that primary circulation corridors could endanger occupants in disaster situations, legislators encouraged the isolation and specialization of egress systems.

2002 Life Safety Diagram by Peter Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey, Steven Holl and Richard Meier (© Richard Meier & Partners Architects, from Nordenson and Riley, 2003)

In an emergency evacuation, the fire department could order activation of the smoke purge system. This system draws smoke and fumes from tenant areas and simultaneously pumps freshair into corridors enabling occupants to travel to the stairway. Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=28laYNm5YN

1965 Fire-rated corridors WTC1 96th floor plan, with 10 - 100 foot 2h fire-rated corridors in tenant spaces

“Your attention please, your attention please. An important public address announcement will be made in the main corridor of your floor in a few moments.”

“We descended on this stair until we got to the landing between floors 7 and 8. The lights now went out in the stairwell. I entered the 8th floor and went down a corridor to a different staircase (I’m not sure which stair, but I believe it was the original one I started out on). Interview 1000042 (NIST 2004) floor: 30s

2002 Foster and Partners, NYC, USA Image Sources: Imagining Ground Zero: The Official and Unofficial Proposals for the World Trade Center Site (Architectural Record Book)

2001 Interview with survivors

“The corridor was dim. I also heard people screaming from the [nearby] floor. I felt the heat on my face and I thought that my eyebrows were going to get burned. Black smoke starting filling the corridor, it got really dense really fast.” Interview 1000109 (NIST 2004) from the 40s

2002 Team THINK, NYC, USA

1913 Woolworth Building, NYC, USA

Concrete

Cable Tray x 260


26

Territorialism: Liminal Nature

Liminal Nature

GSD option studio I Fall 2012 I Instructor: Paola Vigano, Lauren Abrahams Publication (pending): Inside a New Form of Dispersed Megalopolis, Harvard GSD

map of Metropolitan Park System (2012) land use and water pollution 0

10

20

30

40Km

Charles River Emerald Necklace by Frederick Law Olmsted (1896) Neponset River Metropolitan Park System by Charles Eliot (1894)

water flow

private property

public property (nature)

open space

water


Territorialism: Liminal Nature

27

new urbanity on liminal nature The liminal nature in Megalopolis have largely been exploited to fulfil people’s desire to escape from crowded and bustling urban area and to reside within nature; in other words, this mindset of Megalopolitan people facilitated suburbanization, which created today’s problems of privatization, pollution of nature, and broad social issues as well. Hence, this Megalopolitan attitude of seeing liminal nature - residing in nature not for living and working, but for leisure or as a refugee from urban congestion - and widely networked transportation infrastructure has easily amalgamated two territories; urban and suburban. The Neponset river, the only tidal river in Charles Eliot’s Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston (1893),

however, has much potential to solve those problems through by creating a new urbanity along the forgotten river, while utilizing those problems and opportunities through an integrated water and green space management system. In bigger scale, this strategy can also be applied to pulverize numerous isolated suburban regions and to connect along water stream while creating new urbanity along the river. Location: Boston, MA Site Area: 8x6Km (Neponset River) Program: Park with indeterminated social uses

2 mile 4 mile 6 mile 8 mile 10 mile

juxtaposition of Metropolitan Park System (Charles Eliot, 1894) on topography and land use map (2012)

land use map (2012) Neponset river area, South Boston 0

2

4

6

8

10

12Km

Different from Charles Eliot’s original plan, the Metropolitan Park System and newly added open spaces in the city are now fragmented and decreased, more privatized, polluted in some parts, serves monotonous function like suburbia, and even segregates adjacent neighborhoods, preventing social inclusion and losing its embedded energy as a public reservation. private property

public property (nature)

open space

water


28

Territorialism: Liminal Nature

design process from situation to sequence of scenarios Charles River

25% (polluted) water inflow for flooding control

restore riverbank ecology Neponset River

railway subway roads water

situation: water flow system in Metropolitan Park System

Charles River

restore riverbank ecology Canal

x

T&H Dam

x

Baker’s Dam Tide

scenario 1: demolition of the dam, re-introduction of tide

collect stormwater using pedestrian way

scenario 2: change of stormwater drainage flow by using pedestrian ways collect stormwater using urban parks

scenario 3: weave fragmented open and green space, and add wetlands restore water leisure activities

scenario 4: retrofit riverfront malls / parking lots

open riverfront space to the public


Territorialism: Liminal Nature

design application on case study site (Neponset river)

This system goes through 4 phases 1) Demolish existing dams and restore tidal river condition, 2) Construct natural storm water drainage system by utilizing sloped topography, 3) Connect fragmented small parks and open spaces as urban wetlands through the drainage system while providing them with more functions like water purification and community gathering, 4) Collect all those water drainage system to riverfront and purify the storm water through bigger wet lands, create new civic spaces on several hot-spots that can connect the river, in-land water, and public amenities while generating new urbanity along the river.

29


30

Territorialism: Liminal Nature

master plan for case study site riverfront malls / parking lots

0

sections

0

section-perspective view of riverfront

50m

100m

The Neponset river has long been marginalized through history, and now became a forgotten space. On the other hand, many fragmented parks and open spaces were recently developed in the inland, while not actively utilizing the riverfront with huge open space. This project aims to create a new urbanity along the forgotten river while utilizing those problems and opportunities through an integrated water and open space management system.


Territorialism: Liminal Nature

31

images landscape of new liminal nature

0

10

50m


32

Evolutionary Context

Evolutionary Context model 1:200 scale

K-Arts option studio I Fall 2010 I Instructor: Christian Schweitzer Exhibited work at RIBA President’s Medals Student Awards, RIBA, London, 2011


Evolutionary Context

33

evolutionary context Korea is a mountain-peninsula. In here, the traditional city-making method was fully adapted in this condition; thereby, arable land occupation and urbanization processes are similar. Also, most habitation was made in valleys as a finger-shaped leaf-structure pattern. Therefore, the resultant land lot plan looks different from BAR code shaped western cities (grid, axis), but looks more like a 3-dimensional QR code with more information. Consequential different building heights are another important context. In conclusion, these are crucial factors generating irregular cityscape of Korean cities. Seo-village, facing mountains defining the old territory of Seoul, has irregular cityscape. Although this landscape looks chaotic at a

glance, it also has positive factors which western and contemporary cities do not have: glimpse to hidden buildings, accidentally meeting void spaces, a chance to look at buildings’ facade on curved roads, active use of exterior spaces, etc. These spatial characteristics share common elements with contemporary socialistic theories which seek more complexity and multiplicity. Therefore, amplifying this irregular cityscape through architectural process would reveal hidden context of this place.

Bar Code = New York (Modern Grid)

QR Code = Seoul (Korean Grid)

Location: Seo Village, Seoul Site Area: 18,920m2 Building Area: 11,340m2 Program: Design Museum, Residence Community Park, Parking map of Seoul, old urban structure

design process compression of contexts mountain peninsula

pattern

irregular urban structure

Korean grid

evolved context

urban rural 1912 land map

1864 Great Map of Korea

2010 (abstraction of 1912 map) 1912

1925

2010


34

Evolutionary Context

plan drawings basement parking

1st floor

2nd floor

3rd floor

4th floor

0

50m

circulation plan temporary exhibition mixing chamber (4th floor)

temporary exhibition mixing chamber (2nd floor) temporary exhibition main entrance/hall

temporary exhibition workshop / storage offices / institute mixing chamber

visitor's access staff access / loading deck emergency exit

0

50m


Evolutionary Context

35

landscape plan ground floor plan

2nd floor plan

0

100m


36

Evolutionary Context

section perspective drawings

0

10

50m


Evolutionary Context

images urban landscape

37


38

Evolutionary Context

detail drawing typical wall section (scale 1/40)

joint detail


Evolutionary Context

images exhibition space

39


40

Landscript

Landscript (地文)

K-Arts option studio I 2009 I Instructor: H-Sang Seung (Hon. FAIA) Exhibited work at STUDIOPLEX, UCLA’s lab. for cross cultural studies, LA, 2010

overall ground floor plan sector V

0

50m


Landscript

41

landscript urbanism landscape, and landscript. Application of adjustable housing plans will make residents adapt to fast-changing lifestyle of contemporary society and help them create a new community. Location: Junggyebon-dong, Seoul Site Area: 21,760m2 Building Area: 5,870m2 Program: Housing (330 units), Parking, Community Facility, Farm Land

existing buildings

>

Every land has its own figure. As we all have different fingerprints, a land has its own print. It is the history of nature itself, and sometimes a history of civilization. Therefore, the landscape is a magnificent history book of our life and land: a landscript is an organism, a mass of energy that requires appositional growth. Now, we start the architecture by listening to the land, and adding a poetic but modest gesture to it. Rediscover, redefine and renew existing small village with respect to the previous lives. Reuse small houses as activators of exterior activities, in order to encourage residents to make a new community life. Scattered small buildings will remind people of precedent existences of buildings,

arrangement of new buildings following trace of previous buildings

master plan whole complex

sector V

0

50

100m


42

Landscript

design process sector V layout of the complex

layout of the complex

farmland

community facilities

living units

artificial grounds

combination

landscape of existing village

0

50m

tracing logic of arrangement of previous buildings and finding new logic of planning


Landscript

43

urban framework ground types

parking space plan

layout of the complex

■clearstory, sunken

■community farmland living unit types

■2-beds ■studio ■duplex ■SOHO

■■artificial platform ■natural ground community & service facilities

circulation plan

■road ■emergency road ■bus stop

■community ■service ■playground

living units plan space variation system duplex type (85m2) 10 units

SOHO type (82.5m2) 18 units

2 beds type (56m2, 79.5m2) 168 units

studio type (39m2) 124 units

0

50m


44

Landscript

cross-sections A

A’

B

B’

C C’

D’ D

previous contour

0

10

50m


Landscript

urban landscape

aerial view : building arrangment follows previous buildings

hill area : trace of previous buildings as community facility

peak area : community facilities & garden

45


46

Architectural Infrastructure

Architectural Infrastructure

K-Arts option studio I 2005 I Instructor: Jongkyu Kim (ARB/RIBA) Hornorable mention, DO.CO.MO.MO Design Competition, 2008

master plan

0

100m


Architectural Infrastructure

47

blurring the boundary

perspective view urban park

large-scale public facility(urban park with cultural program) will continue to make collision with surrounding lowdensity residence area which does not have enough urban infrastructures. It is a plan of partly occupying the site by extending urban fabrics and transforming isolated power plant realm into a part of the city by two stages. Location: Dangin-dong, Seoul Site Area: 129,700m2(Whole Site) Building Area: 11,250m2 GFA: 15,370m2 Program: Convention center with urban park

blot out previous boundary of current power plant district

>

The number of factors that change urban environments increased with time. As the urban engineering alone cannot provide the specifics, we have to define what to be left or gone and devise follow-up measurements. To this end, concrete plans considering time factor is required. If the timerelated changes are to be implemented in a city or a place in a gradual manner, owing to the various unpredictable elements of modern societies, they should be both concrete and indeterminate. In addition, it is necessary to make concrete planning of architectural infrastructures, in order to respond to the indeterminate changes of cities. Therefore, through this project, I tried to incorporate unpredictable events and future demands of the city. Dangin-ri power plant has been isolated from various urban contexts. Hence required transformation to

extension of local-urban pathways into the district for re-urbanization


48

Architectural Infrastructure

oblique section drawings

turbine hall of the existing power plant Building’s sloped surface draws sunlight into underground spaces. At the same time, alleviate bulky sense of the building. Double skin of the front elevation, composed by punched steel plate and opaque glass, makes it easier to draw sunlight and decrease massive sense of the building, too. Varied floor plates and hidden hanger devices in ceilings promote various activities and keep the impression of the past generation room. Previous trusses & chimneys are used as screen for the city, utilizing their extraordinary height and structure.

roof structure

0

10

30m


Architectural Infrastructure

49

oblique section drawings

0

10

30m

detail drawings typical wall, floor and roof sections

joint system

0

1m


50

Architectural Infrastructure

section and elevation drawings

river side facade of current power plant

front elevation-perspective

view to the Han-river under current power plant

western elevation

plan drawings

level +8.0m

level +11.0m


Architectural Infrastructure

51

Non Object, Richard Serra

front underground space Utilize huge void space (-40m) of past generator rooms. Make movement routes, service facilities, and underground parking lot with in the void, so that those facilities do not hurt over ground space’s volume. Make them function as infrastructure of the overall building and the urban park.

eastern elevation

0

50m

service facilities : longitudinal section

level +17.0m

level +20.0m 0

100m


Part II Professional Works / Competitions Yongsan Park Int’l Competition Metropolitan Architecture Research Unit, 2012

Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition Personal Competition Work, 2013

Klarman Hall, Cornell Univ. Koetter Kim & Associates, Boston, 2013

OO Federal Courthouse SOM+AECOM, LA, 2013

Mapo Oil Base Int’l Competition Personal Competition Work, 2013

Museum Sculpture Park Metropolitan Architecture Research Unit, 2012

Other Works 2006-2011


54

Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

3rd Prize I Professional work at M.A.R.U. I Project designer Jury: Charles Waldheim (GSD), Christophe Girot (ETH), Julia Czerniak (Syracuse), etc

master plan phase IV 1. Social rental offices 2. Commercial 3. Dormitories 4. Youth hostel 5. Hotel 6. Children's school 7. Garden school 8. Junior schools 9. Senior schools 10. Healing center 11. Museum 12. Galleries 13. Artist studios 14. Artisan school 15. Glasshouse 16. Maintenance facilities 17. Restored forest 18. Forest trails 19. Willow reservoir 20. Wetland 21. Meadow 22. Open green 23. Picnic green 24. Sports field 25. Orchard 26. Nursery 27. Farmland 28. Green museum mall 29. Vegetable gardens 30. Theme gardens 31. Squares 32. Yongsan Link 33. Han River Link 34. Namsan Link 35. Art/Cultural village

34 35

7 29

2

30

17

6

13 25 13 31

18 2

14

3

2

2

11 28

12

5

30

11

2

12

31

31 11

2

12 1

11

2 1 8 17 5

2 18 24

3 3

3 1

4

9 2 22

12

25 10

21

31 23

15

2

20 19

16

17 4

0

500m


Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

55

early opening, slow completion Yongsan Park is envisaged to be a free and open civic campus for all class of people where relaxation for creativity and potential for self-fulfillment can be provided. Our intention is to render life-long chances of learning something new and valuable for the citizen whilst they relax and enjoy in the park. Therefore, Yongsan Park aims to become a socio-cultural infrastructure that can enhance the overall quality of life, rather than just to become a physical urban infrastructure that tends to emphasize the green at its forefront. It would be quite important to return the land that had been lost for over a century to the citizens, its original owners, as soon as possible. Hence, the earlier the park opens, the more heartily people will welcome it.

However, we seek an incremental and long-term approach afterwards. Whilst closely monitoring the relationship between the park and city, and through sufficient social discussions and active involvements of the citizens, the park will be reorganized in terms of space and readjusted in terms of function. The process of a space becoming a place and a place becoming an attraction takes a long period of time requiring strong public support and affection. Location: Yongsan Garrison, Seoul Site Area: 2,430,000m2 Building Area: 452,880m2 (2017) Building Area: to 129,706m2 (2027) Program: Park with indeterminate social uses

As the buildings disappear during the naturalization process, parcels join together and to create more indeterminate uses

design process park as city

>

now : Yongsan Garrison as one parcel in terms of its ownership - for military use

>

process : Designing urban structure on the park following topography and remaining buildings

aerial view phase IV

Future: Yongsan Park as urban plot in terms of its social use - for public use

future : Yongsan Park as city in terms of its social use with multiple parcels - for public use


56

Yongsan Park Int’l Competition Land type 1: Flat lands

Land type 2: Gentle slopes

Land type 3: Ridge area

565 Buildings

strategy 01 re-utilization of remaining buildings

284 Buildings

212 Buildings

Area s,

sca le 1: 6000

1 21 th G e ne r a l H o s p ita l Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 15 9 3 3 m 2 Numbe r o f build ings : 1

catalogue of buildings

Bicycle Lane

Numbe r o f Sto r ie s : 2

Land type 1: Flat lands

Grove

Land type 2: Gentle slopes

Eighth A r my H e a d qua r te r s Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 34 0 0 m 2 ( s mal l es t : 52m 2 / l ar ges t : 1343m 2 ) Numbe r o f build ings : 3 8

Forest

565 Buildings

284 Buildings

U.S. Ar my H e a d qua r te r s , Ba rr acks , Warehou s es and Of f i ces

m2 Ar ea15000s, sca le 1:6000

Yongsan Park Museum

Holocaust Monument Peter Eisenman, Berlin

Co mm is s a r y a nd Sto r a ge

1 21 th G e ne r a l H o s p ita l

Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 3 315 6 m

Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 15 9 3 3 m 2

National Museum Bicycle Lane

Numbe r o f build ings : 1 2

Numbe Citizen r o f Sto r ie s : 2 University

Grove

40 Class Rooms for 10,000 persons

F ina nce & Acco unting O f f ice a nd othe r Eighth A r my H e a d qua r te r s build ings Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 34 0 0 m 2 ( s mal l es t : 52m 2 / l ar ges t : 1343m 2 ) Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 81 2 0 m 2 Numbe r o f build ings : 3 8 (s m a lle s t : 14 4 0 m 2 / la r ge s t : 2 8 2 0 m 2 ) U.S. Ar my H e a d qua r te r s , Ba rr acks , Warehou s es and Of f i ces Numbe r o f build ings : 4

7001-15000m 2

2

(s m a lle s t : 5 6 m 2 / la r ge s t : 1 3 216 m 2 )

Numbe r o f build ings : 1

15000- m

11,870㎡

Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Holocaust Monument Fountain, London Peter Eisenman, Berlin

Ecology Tour Facility Promenade

build ings

Bicycle Lane

Grove

Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 81 2 0 m 2

Promenade

(s m a lle s t : 14 4 0 m 2 / la r ge s t : 2 8 2 0 m 2 )

H o us ing Typ e s : 2 be d , 3 be d , 4 be d

Citizen University 20 Class Rooms for 5,000 persons Se o ul A meri can El ement ar y School

Numbe r o f build ings : 4

Training Institute

Grassplot

-Accommodation for 180 persons -Seminar Rooms -Work Rooms -Cafeteria

Total Bu i l di ng Area : 8680m 2 U.S. Amba s s a d o r O f f ice (s m al l es t : 313m 2 / l ar ges t : 4452m 2 ) Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 5 0 9 8 m 2 Numb er of b u i l di ngs : 6 (s m a lle s t : 2 9 87 m 2 / la r ge s t : 2111m 2 )

6,605 ㎡

Therme Vals Peter Zumthor, Vals

Remedial Exercise Track

F ina nce & Acco unting O f f ice a nd othe r

Numbe r o f Re s id e nta l Units : 16 Warehouse

3001-7000m 2

Promenade Vegetable Garden

Numb er of b u i l di ngs : 6

Numbe r o f build ings : 1 2

Numbe r o f Build ings : 8

7001-15000m 2

Forest

Grassplot

Total Bu i l di ng Area : 8680m 2 Museum 2 (s m al l es t : 313m 2 / l ar ges tNational : 4452m )

Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 3 315 6 m 2 (s m a lle s t : 5 6 m 2 / la r ge s t : 1 3 216 m 2 )

Bicycle Lane

Grove

Ecology Tour

Yongsan Park Museum Se o ul A meri can El ement ar y School

Co mm is s a r y a nd Sto r a ge

D up lex H o us ing Units Citizen University Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 6 97 9 m 2 40 Class Rooms 2 (s m a llefor s t10,000 : 122m / la r ge s t : 8 9 0 m 2 ) persons

Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain, London

212 Buildings

Vegetable Garden

11,870㎡

2

Land type 3: Ridge area

Ecology Tour

o us Units Se o D ulup Alex me rHica n ing H igh Scho o l 2 l Build a :54 6 97 TotaTota l Build ing ing Ar e aAr:e47 m 29 m

Camp Site for 100 Family Ecology Tour Facility

Remedial Exercise Track

Promenade

Numbe r o f build ings : 2

t : 8132m 2m r ge 8 9 0m m2 )) 2 (s m(sam lleaslle t :s 14 / /lala r ge s ts :t 3: 271 Numbe o f Build Numbe r o f rbuild ingsings : 2 : 8 Numbe r o f Re s id e nta l Units : 16 2

2

H o us ing Typ e s : 2 be d , 3 be d , 4 be d

Citizen University 20 Class Rooms for 5,000 persons

Warehouse

㎡ 3001-7000m 2

2001-3000m 2

6,605 ㎡

Municipal Library for 80,645 persons

Car Parking for 210 cars

Training Institute -Accommodation for 180 persons -Seminar Rooms -Work Rooms -Cafeteria

Car Parking for 150 cars

U.S. Amba s s a d o r O f f ice Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 5 0 9 8 m 2

Therme Vals Peter Zumthor, Vals 2,870 ㎡

Se o ul A me r ica n H igh Scho o l

(s m a lle s t : 2 9 87 m 2 / la r ge s t : 2111m 2 )

Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 47 54 m 2

Numbe r o f build ings : 2 Municipal Library for 57,142 persons

(s m a lle s t : 14 8 3 m 2 / la r ge s t : 3 271 m 2 )

Holocaust Museum Daniel Liebeskind, Berlin

Numbe r o f build ings : 2

Forest Lodge -Accommodation for 100 persons -Meeting Rooms -Cafeteria

Picnic Meadows

Social Enterprise for 350 persons

Resort Hotel for 60 Rooms (per 40-91m 2 ) Municipal Library for 80,645 persons

for 150 cars

Bicycle Lane

2001-3000m 2 1501-2000m 2

Theatre for 2100 persons Municipal Library Cinema for 57,142 persons for 1,800 persons

City Museum

2,870 ㎡

Holocaust Museum Daniel Liebeskind, Berlin 1,500 ㎡

Tailgate Party Picnic Meadows

Mimesis Art Museum Alvaro Siza Vieira, Paju

Nature Refuge Promenade

Car Parking

Car Parking for 210 cars

Social Housing for 50 Family

Promenade

Youth Hostel for 600 persons

Resort Hotel for 60 Rooms (per 40-91m 2 )

Social Enterprise for 250 persons

Social Enterprise for 350 persons

Social Housing for 30 Family

Vegetable Garden Nature Refuge City Hotel for 55 Rooms (per 28-50m 2 )

Tables Bicycle Lane

Theatre for 2100 persons

City Museum

1001-1500m 2

for 120 cars

Mimesis Art Museum Alvaro Siza Vieira, Paju 1,060 ㎡ Yale University Art Gallery Louis Kahn, New Haven

Vitra Fire Station Zaha Hadid, Weil am Rhein

Theatre for 1350 persons

Tables

Vegetable Garden

701-1000m

2

for 120 cars

German Pavilion Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona

Public Library for 25641 persons

(Confucian School), Andong

Numbe r o f Re s id e nta l Units : 1 2 9 H o us ing Typ e s Private Gallery 2 be d - 10 6 .37 & 114 .1 8 m² (s ingle -s to r y typ e ) 4 be d - 14 6 .61 m² (2 s to r y typ e )

Village Museum

501-700m

2b ed - 106.37 & 114.18 m² ( s i ngl e-s tor y t ype)

for 250 persons

3b ed - 1 26.26 & 140.56 m² ( s i ngl e-s tor y t ype)

Hou s i ng Ty pes Senior Community Center

2b ed - 106.37 & 114.18 m² ( s i ngl e-s tor y t ype)

for 250 persons

3b ed - 1 26.26 & 140.56 m² ( s i ngl e-s tor y t ype)

301-500m 2

Soswaewon ,Damyang

Ryoanji ,Kyoto

Cafeteria Information Desk

Numbe r o f Re s id e nta l Units : 7 8 H o us ing Typ e s : 2 be d , 3 be d , 4 be d

(s m a lle s t : 2 6 6 m 2 / la r ge s t : 8 3 9 m 2 )

216 ㎡

Management Office

101-200m 2

13.9 ㎡

52㎡

Azuma House Tadao Ando, Osaka

(s m a lle s t : 2 6 6 m 2 / la r ge s t : 8 3 9 m 2 ) Numbe r o f build ings : 27

for 10 cars 170 ㎡

: present

: phase 4

0-100m 2

13.9 ㎡ Henry David Thoreau's Cavin Massachusetts

Cafeteria

Gent l e s l opes 173,833m 2 ( 100%)

public urban facilities

Fami l y Hou s i ng

Pharmacy

: present

1 97 ,94 6 m 2 (10 0 % ) Bicycle Pa rk ing public urban facilities

: phase 4

2 .4m (62.3%) Atel i er 46 m 2 1 2 11 3 ,4 242 ,m10p

infrastructure

Loca l Workshop

60m 2 x2

55 m

2

Open St ud i o

191m

2

60 m

2

G a l l er y 1

132m

2

M a n a g em en t

40 m

2

G a l l er y 2

105m

2

Of f i ce

self-governed programs

social G ues t Room education

20 m 2

Bicycle Pa rk ing

green

commercial

accommodation

culture

Cha ngd o ng Ar t Stud io

Se ou l C i t y Hal l , housing Na ms an Annex 1 ,401m

2

etc

Information Desk Open Studio Local Workshop Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : 6501m 2 2 Room Rest s mal l es t : 394m / l ar ges t : 902m 2 ) Private Gallery Community( Room N u mb er of b u i l di ngs : 10 Management Office N u mb er of Res i dent al U ni t s : 73 Eagl e Grove( Koel s ch Grove)

building area

welfare

2,448 m

Atel i er 46 m 2 55 m 2

Loca l Workshop

60m 2 x2

Open St ud i o

191m 2

social

Cafeteria accommodation

education

infrastructure

green7 3 2 pe r s on s commercial

Se ou l C i t y Hal l ,

1 ,401m 2

P laygr oun d

74 pe r s on s

8 5 . 74 m 2

etc

social

37

Gwanak C hi l dren Park O f f ic e

8 0 . 41 m 2

Roof top G a r d e n

1 9 . 8 6 m2

Auto c a mpin g

2b ed - 106.37 & 114.18 m² ( s i ngl e-s tor y t ype)

Ri dge areas

3b ed - 1 26.26 & 140.56 m² ( s i ngl e-s tor y t ype)

72,621m 2 ( 100%)

4b ed - 146.61 m² ( 2 s tor y t ype) building area 17,393 m 2 (23.9%) Information Desk

Local Workshop culture

Rest Room Community welfare Room infrastructure

7x8m x8 6x6m x9, 7x6m x40

Seou l You t h Hos tel

green area

Private Galleryetc commercial

green

building area

building area Rest Room education

green area Police Substation culture

116 m 2

Re s t Room s

11 8 m 2

O f f ic e

80m2

5 0 Room s

T h e a tr e

1 2 0 m2

for 3 0 6 pe r s on s

P laygr oun d

85m2

accommodation

culture

Gangdong Greenway C amps i te

3 9 m 2 x 71

welfare

49m2 x200

infrastructure

116 m 2

Re s t Room s

11 8 m 2

O f f ic e

80m2

72,621m 2 ( 100%)

green

Nams an Park

S oc ia l H ous in g for N ew lywe d s

infrastructure

S e n ior C e n tr e

36m2

B ota n ic a l G a r d e n P a rkin g

Na tion a l T h e a tr e

46m

3 2 c a r s , 91 9 m 2

P olic e S ubs ta tion

2

green area

Seou l You t h Hos tel

P olic e S ubs ta tion

S e oul H ous in g C orpor a tion , S h if t

2 9 area m2 17,393 m 2 (23.9%) building

P olic e S ubs ta tion

building area

Fa m ily C a mp

education

Police Substation

Shade

Ri dge areas

1 9 . 8 6 m2

T h e a tr green e 1area 2 0 . 24 m 2

7,322m2 2

Na m s a n Pa rk

T hea t re for Yout h

Rest Room

Hou s i ng Ty pes

173,833m 2 ( 100%) Gwanak C hi l dren Park Gangdong Greenway C amps i te

Roof top G a r d e n

Na ms an Annex 11 .4m 2 , 10p

3b ed - 1 26.26 & 140.56 m² ( s i ngl e-s tor y t ype) 4b ed - 146.61 m² ( 2 s tor y t ype) Atelier

Restaurant

Social Enterprise for 10 persons

2 2 building 8 0 . 41 m47,627m O f farea ic e (100%) (27.3%)

T hea t re for Yout h

Information Desk Shade

Management Office

2b ed - 106.37 & 114.18 m² ( s i ngl e-s tor y t ype)

Rest Room

Na m s a n Pa rk Cha ngd o ng Ar t Stud io military facilities

C omm un i t y Room

114 m 2 , 100p

Observation Platforms

Hou s i ng Ty pes

N u mb er of b u i l di ngs : 18 building area

green area

Open Studio

Gent l e s l opes

F la t la nd s

114 m , 100p

N u mb er Ty ofpes b u i:l di Hou s i ng 2 ngs s tor:y 10 3b ed, s i ngl e u mb ered, of Res i dent al U ni t s : 73 sN tor y 3b 5b ed

Restaurant Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : 2274m 2 Privatearea Gallery building (100%) 47,627m 2 (27.3%) ( s mal l es t : 91m 2 / l ar ges t : 190m 2 )

Ba r r a ck s a nd Annex

Numbe r o f build ings : 2 2 accommodation culture welfare

Building area

Progr am

housing Cafeteria

Police Substation

2 (62.3%) 1 2 3Bicycle ,4 24 mRack

2

Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : 5546m 2

Cafeteria

Restaurant

1 97 ,94 6 m 2 (10 0 % )

education

Du pl ex Hou s i ng U ni t s

Rest Room Management Office Police Substation

military facilities

Atelier

Grove( Koel2 /s ch ( sEagl malel es t : 367m l arGrove) ges t: 460m 2 ) 2 al er Buof i l diBu ngi l di Area NTot u mb ngs :: 6501m 14 2 maler l esoft :Res 394m ges 902m 2 ) N(us mb i dent/all ar U ni t st : : 30

( s mal l es t : 91m 2 / l ar ges t : 190m 2 ) Social N u mb er of b u i l di ngs : 18Housing for 6 Family

F la t la nd s

social

Restaurant

Social Enterprise for 50 persons

Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : 2274m 2

Private Gallery

Pharmacy

Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 16 01 m 2 building area (s m a lle s t : 1 3 m 2 / la r ge s t : 1 2 2 m 2 ) Progr am

Social Enterprise for 50 persons

for 10 persons

Numbe r o f build ings : 2 2

for 100 persons self-governed programs

52㎡

Azuma House Tadao Ando, Osaka

Cafeteria

N u mb er of b u i l di ngs Enterprise : 50 Social Social Housing for 12 Family Fami l y Hou s i ng

Cinema for 210 persons

Police Substation

Kinder Garden Ba r r a ck s a nd Annex Class Rooms Infirmary Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 16 01 m 2 for 20 persons (s m a lle s t : 1 3 m 2 / la r ge s t : 1 2 2 m 2 )

Car Parking

Glass House Philip Johnson, New Canaan Building area

N u mb er of b u i l di ngs : 50

Hou s i ng U ni t s Police Substation Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : 21131m 2

Cafeteria Theatre for 180 persons

Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 1 24 3 6 m 2

Observation Platforms Information Desk

Hou s i ng Ty pes : 2 s tor y 3b ed, s i ngl e s tor y 3b ed, 5b ed

( s mal l es t : 262m 2 / l ar ges t : 537m 2 ) Restaurant

H o us ing Units

Cais Gallery Kim Jong-kyu, Seoul

for 100 persons Henry David Thoreau's Cavin Massachusetts

N u mb er of Res i dent al U ni t s : 30

Social Enterprise for 150 persons

Bicycle Rack

0-100m 2

N u mb er of Bu i l di ngs : 14

Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : 21131m 2

Social Housing for 6 Family

Mobile Library for 1000 persons

Private Gallery

Glass House Philip Johnson, 300 ㎡ New Canaan

255 ㎡ Ryoanji ,Kyoto

Hou s i ng U ni t s

Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 16 4 4 2 m 2 (s m a lle s t : 310 m 2 / la r ge s t : 724m 2 )

for 10 cars

Apartement Hotel Du pl ex Hou s i ng U ni t s for 20 Rooms 2 Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : (per 5546m 70-100m 2 ) ( s mal l es t : 367m 2 / l ar ges t: 460m 2 )

( s mal l es t : 262m 2 / l ar ges t : 537m 2 )

Social Housing for 12 Family

Cinema for 210 persons

Kinder GardenNumbe r o f Build ings : 4 0 Class Rooms Infirmary Numbe r o f Re s id e nta l Units : 7 8 for 20 persons H o us ing Typ e s : 2 be d , 3 be d , 4 be d

Car Parking

Soswaewon ,Damyang

Cafeteria

Bicycle LaneTheatre for 180 persons

Numbe r o f build ings : 27 D up lex H o us ing Units

Villa Savoy Le Corbusier, Poissy Restaurant

201-300m 2

Playground

H o us ing Units Village Museum Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 1 24 3 6 m 2

Cais Gallery 360 ㎡ Kim Jong-kyu, Seoul

101-200m 2

Restaurant

for 150 persons

Theatre for 630 persons

Mobile Library for 1000 persons

300 ㎡

170 ㎡

Youth Hostel for 250 persons

4b ed - 146.61 m² ( 2 s tor y t ype)

Remedial Exercise TrackEnterprise Social

2 Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 16Private 4 4 2 mGallery (s m a lle s t : 310 m 2 / la r ge s t : 724m 2 ) Numbe r o f Build ings : 4 0

for 60 cars Restaurant

Private Gallery 255 ㎡

Observation Platforms Information Desk

It aewon Acres ( Kr zyzows ki Hi l l ) Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : 8161m 2 Apartement Hotel 2 ( s mal l es t : 651m 2 / l ar ges t : 963m ) for 20 Rooms N u mb er of b u i l di ngs : 10 (per 70-100m 2 ) N u mb er of Res i dent al U ni t s : 98

Bicycle Lane

D up lex H o us ing Units

Car Parking

Byeongsan Seowon (Confucian School), Andong

216 ㎡

Youth Hostel for 250 persons

4b ed - 146.61 m² ( 2 s tor y t ype)

360 ㎡ Villa Savoy Le Corbusier, Poissy 550 ㎡

2

201-300m 2

Hou s i ng Types : 24.19m 2 ( s t u di o t yp e )

Senior Community Center

Playground

301-500m 2

N u mb er of Res i dent al U ni t s : 25 2

for 100 cars

Hou s i ng Ty pes

Social Housing for 20 Family

Cinema for 735 persons

Car Parking

N u mb er of Res i dent al U ni t s : 98

Remedial Exercise Track Apartement Hotel for 15 Rooms (per 70-100m 2 )

Theatre for 630 persons

3 be d - 1 2 6 .2 6 & 14 0 .5 6 m² (s ingle -s to r y typ e ) City Hotel for 35 Rooms (per 28-50m 2 )

N u mb er of b u i l di ngs : 10

-Accommodation for 50 persons -Meeting Rooms -Cafeteria

Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 1 2 2 6 4 m 2 (s m a lle s t : 4 2 6 m 2 / la r ges t : 1063m 2 )

501-700m 2

( s mal l es t : 651m 2 / l ar ges t : 963m 2 )

Recreational Forest Accommodations

Numbe r o f build ings : 16

45 Buildings, Car Parking 120 Bed Rooms for 60 cars

1,000 ㎡ 550 ㎡ Yeongyeongdang, Seoul Byeongsan Seowon

N u mb er of Bu i l di ngs : 4

Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : 8161m 2

(per 70-100m 2 )

Bla ck H aw k (L o r ing V illa ge )

Social Housing

870 ㎡ German Pavilion Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona

Army Dormi tori es and M ai n Exc h a n g e Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : 9947m 2 Observation Platforms ( 1173 x 3 + 6428)

Hospital for Senior for 100 persons It aewon Acres ( Kr zyzows ki Hi l l )

Apartement Hotel Vegetable Garden for 15 Rooms Social Housing for 20 Family

Cinema for 735 persons

Village Library for 16666 persons

Grassplot

-Accommodation for 50 persons -Meeting Rooms -Cafeteria

Theatre for 1350 persons

Numbe r o f build ings : 16 Social Housing Playground Numbe r o f Re s id e nta l Units : 1 2 9 45 Buildings, H o us ing Typ e s 120 Bed Rooms Kindergarten 2 be d - 10 6 .37 & 114 .1 8 m² (s ingle -s to r y typ e ) Class Rooms Infirmary 3 be d - 1 2 6 .2 6 & 14 0 .5 6 m² (s ingle -s to r y typ e ) for 80 persons Grassplot 4 be d - 14 6 .61 m² (2 s to r y typ e ) City Hotel for 35 Rooms (per 28-50m 2 )

701-1000m 2

Hou s i ng Types : 24.19m 2 ( s t u di o t yp e )

Resort Hotel for 25 Rooms (per 40-91m 2 ) Recreational Forest Accommodations

Cinema Public Library for 1575 persons for 25641 persons

Picnic Meadows

Bla ck H aw k (L o r ing V illa ge )

Tota l Build ing Ar e a : 1 2 2 6 4 m 2 (s m a lle s t : 4 2 6 m 2 / la r ge s t : 1063m 2 )

N u mb er of Res i dent al U ni t s : 252

for 100 cars

Bicycle Lane

Village Library for 16666 persons

Vitra Fire Station Zaha Hadid, Weil am Rhein 1,000 ㎡ Yeongyeongdang, Seoul

Car Parking

Grassplot

1,140 ㎡

Yale University Art Gallery Louis Kahn, 870 ㎡New Haven

Army Dormi tori es and M ai n Exch a n g e Promenade Tot al Bu i l di ng Area : 9947m 2 ( 1173 x 3 + 6428) N u mb er of Bu i l di ngs : 4

Car Parking

1,060 ㎡

Vegetable Garden Grassplot City Hotel for 55 Rooms (per 28-50m 2 )

Hospital for Senior for 100 persons

Playground Kindergarten Class Rooms Infirmary for 80 persons 16 Buidings, 129 Family

1001-1500m 2

Social Housing for 30 Family

Resort Hotel for 25 Rooms (per 40-91m 2 ) Social Enterprise for 250 persons

Cinema for 1575 persons

Picnic Meadows

Kiosks

1,140 ㎡

Forest

Youth Hostel for 600 persons Bicycle Lane

Car Parking

1,500 ㎡

1501-2000m 2

Promenade

Grassplot

Hospital for Senior for 300 persons

Cinema for 1,800 persons

Tailgate Party 16 Buidings, 129 Family

Forest Lodge -Accommodation for 100Forest persons -Meeting Rooms -Cafeteria

Grassplot

Hospital for Senior for 300 persons

Kiosks

Promenade Camp Site for 100 Family

Social Housing for 50 Family

Promenade

building area

Re s t Room

51 m 2

Korea Land and Hou s i ng C orpor at i on green commercial etc

education

y culture G a lle rinfrastructure

29m2 49m2 x200

36m2 2

216 m 2 116 m 2

green area 11 8 m 2 3 3 6green m2

Nams an Park

S e oul H ous in g C orpor a tion , S h if t

3 9 m 2 x 71

2 4 2 5 marea building

B ota n ic a l G a r d e n P a rkin g 3 2 c a r s , 91 9 m 2

S e n ior C e n tr e

4 2 5 m2

Na tion a l T h e a tr e

216 m 2 2


Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

57

browsing and renting buildings

D - DA DY- !DAYDD- -DDAY ! AY ! ! I was final I was finally mov I was ly mov final edlyinto Imov wased into moved ed into my new dorm my new myfinal newlydorm itory dorm ! my itory itoryinto ! new!

dormitory ! with Park’ SRIS with Park’ with SERVIC SRIS SRIS SERVICE TEAM E TEAM SERVICE Park’ with Park’TEAM SRIS SERVICE TEAM

2. check parcel specification

1. browse for rentable space

3. check building specification & apply 4. move & register

information for rent period of future change parcel # Temp-185

parcel # Temp-186

parcel # Temp-187

parcel # L-Term-253

parcel # Temp-188

parcel # L-Term-254

parcel # Perm-56

parcel # Temp-189 0

building use period regulation

land surface types

temporary long-term

pavement

permanent newly built

road

soil road

grass land

garden

farm land

50m

wood land

water

period of building use

preservation phase 1 452,880m² (building area) phase 2 350,037m² phase 3 260,126m² phase 4 188,445m² phase 5 129,706m²

Social Rent System is proposed to actively reutilize buildings on site as social resources. By proposing a pool of programs that can be accommodated in indeterminate ways, we enable the park to change its performance in relation to relevant social changes to come. Those who wish to rent a facility within the Park can browse available property in the SRIS (Social Rent Info System) web page. This enable users to find suitable space themselves and provides information like rentable time limits for each parcel and architectural specifications for each building.


58

Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

strategy 02 indeterminate management of landscape The numerous traces and remnants left at the site of Yongsan Park are neither to be rejected nor to be disposed of all at once. Rather, they should be re-recognized or re-organized as new urban infrastructures of our own time.

section of land types land type

flat land

main program type

reconnect to the city 15m

yongsan park tower

121 hospital

helliport

colier training center

reuse manual building / planting by land types type1 flatland

0

original building

manual for building : original - mainly adaptable to structurally stable buildings and buildings with non-military uses - preservation of buildings with historic values and buildings convertible to park programs

2

1

opening

3

opening

5

4

opening

6

volume

7

8

water space in flatland structure

wall

lot

erasing

manual for building : subtract

type 2 gentle slope

- mainly adaptable to unsustainable military buildings - buildings destroyed and subtracted to restore landscape and regain public domain

a

b

entrance e

c

facade f

upper floor

d

volume g

wall

underground h

building

courtyard & roof

main open space in gentle slope

manual for building : add - adaptable to historic buildings & structurally stable buildings - buildings renovated to from artificial landscape flatland

type 3 ridge

tree planting index existing trees f1: platanus occidentalis g1: platanus occidentalis g2: robinia pseudoacacia g3: zelkova serrata g4: acer palmatum

f1 gentle slope

g1

g2

g3

g4 g5 g6

ridge

r1: pinus densiflora r2: robinia pseudoacacia transplantation r3: acer palmatum planting trees g5: prunus persica g6: prunus mume

r1

r2

r3 r4

r4: planting young trees

manual for planting - adapted according to characteristics of land (Flat lands, Gentle slope, Ridge areas) - plants planted for restoring landscape and transition to park

orchard in ridge

el


Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

59

keymap gentle slope

ridge area

reuse buildings

recovery of forest-scape

30m

69m

flatland gentle slope

lementary school

performing arts center (Jam hut)

0 4 7 8 a b d g

Dunjisan mt.

eagle grove housing complex

P2-N17 / d museum

P2-138 / 8 entrance

P2-162

P2-N18 / g pavilion

P2-136 / 4b old facade restoration

P2-N20 / d shop

itaewon acres housing complex

P2-136 / 7 yard

P2-N21 / a ticket house

ridge

P2-N22 / g pavilion

P2-160 P2-165

P2-166 P2-154

P2-139 P2-133

rambling around the museum area

0 2 6 7 8 h

P4-67 / 6, f observatory

P4-69 / 7 yard

P4-73 / 2, h community room

P4-75

P4-74

P4-79

P4-N12 / h workshop

P4-81 / 6, f harvest yard

P4-77 / 8 harvest yard

P4-82

P4-78

P4-81

P4-84

P4-73

P4-85

P1-432

looking towards the orchard village

3 4 7 8

P4-27 / 4 literature house

P4-30 / 3 kiosk

P1-366 / 7, 8 cityscape observatory

P4-25

strolling down the nature walk building use period regulation

land surface types

temporary

pavement

long-term permanent newly built

road

soil road grass land

garden

farm land wood land

water


Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition

60

Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition

Best prize I Exhibited work at 2013 Int’l Space Syntax Symposium Jury: Dominique Perrault, John Peponis , Renee Y Chow, etc

hyper landscape creates hyper landscape by string such features together in a successive way as below: 1) Rediscover and reconnect hidden waterways to the site (Jemulpo-road) 2) Create park and amenities based on waterway. It also functions as a reservoir which prevent chronic flooding of the site 3) Induce successive restructuring of the urban fabric according to the reconnected waterway 4) Consolidates strong interdependency among urban elements and create new urbanity: Hyper Landscape.

As shown on the old map of Seoul, 1918, the site is featured by its mountainous topography and numerous streams. In as-found condition of the site, all the urban elements (topography, waterway, road, and urbanity) were strongly bounded together by maintaining interdependency among each other: a model of integrated city. Afterwards, however, development of appropriate urban form responding to this unique history was not made. Yet, seemingly haphazard planned city, current urban fabric of the site is clearly divided by its topography and previous waterway. This project finds opportunity of creating future vision of the city from the such accumulated physical and metaphysical history of the site, and

as-found site map of topography and waterway

Location: Jemulpo, Seoul Site Area: 5x2Km (Jemulpo road) Program: urban park, water reservoir

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master plan phase 2

0

100m


Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition

61

topological change of the territory’s landscape keymap

past fragmentation of urban fabric by time 1918 Inter-dependency among urban elements

agenda urban integration 1918 Inter-dependent relationship topography

water

1972 Superimposition of urban infrastructure (Jemulpo-Road)

road

local urbanity

> 2013 Disconnected relationship topography Jemulpo road water

road urban grid

2012 Fragmentation of urban fabric

local urbanity

> future Recovery of relationship topography

Intelligibility, R2=0.0199 urban park

water

local urbanity

as-found road

as-found waterway

floodplain area

flooded area (2000-2012)

future hyper-landscape Hard Paving = 5% Soft Paving = 40% Water = 55%

Floodplain & River

Proposed Corridor

Jemulpo-gil

of Regional Topography and Relevant Stream, Floodplain, and River newAnalysis waterway flooding zone Jemulpo road


62

Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition

future scenario creation of new urbanity (hyper-landscape) by recovering waterway 2013 (Phase 1) Recovery of waterway

Intelligibility, R2=0.0401

2028 (Phase 2) Extension of waterway into urban fabric

Intelligibility, R2=0.0519

2043 (Phase 3) Restructuring of urban fabric by waterway

open-ended program waterway as generator of new urbanity Intelligibility, R2=0.0729

New set of urban activities on Jemulpo-road Park are not designed in an arbitrary way, but will be determined following to the geographical features of the site. This project proposes waterway as a waterway green field (soft surface) pedestrian way/plaza new buildings generator of new urban activities and urbanity for the sustainable, resilient vision urban integration (comparison: degree of intelligibility) future of the site. The major infrastructure of the 2013 Urban Fabric Jemulpo-road Park is not inside the Intelligibility, R2=0.0078 park, but connected to the city: sub streams that are collected on the site. Based on that, new activities on Jemulpo-road Park can be actively Future Scenario: changed as a response to the Utilization of Valley and Stream as New Green/Civic Corridor Hard Paving = 5% Intelligibility Analysis, R =0.0076 (Current Condition, Left) environment - amount of precipitation, Soft Paving = 40% R =0.0515 (Future Scenario, Right) Water = 55% 2033 Urban Fabric sun light, and temperature, while Intelligibility, R2=0.0515 physically integrating isolated urban fabrics. In addition, it can be a good solution to chronic flooding of the region, as increased green field and retention pool can serve the function Hard Paving = 5% Intelligibility Analysis, R =0.0076 (Current Condition, Left) of urban reservoir. Soft Paving = 40% R =0.0515 (Future Scenario, Right) 0

0.5

1Km

7

R² = 0.0511315

32

Connectivity

Connectivity

R² = 0.00767959

0

0

0.0633818

Integration [P-value]

1.05598

0.0634031

2 2

0

0.5

1Km

0

0.0633818

32

R² = 0.0511315

Connectivity

R² = 0.00767959

Connectivity

7

High

0

Integration [P-value]

1.05598

0.0634031

2

0

0.5

2

1Km

Water = 55%

Integration [P-value]

Low

1.05598

Integration [P-value]

1.05598


Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition

63

new urbanity hyper landscape

sector 01 water plaza

sector 03 green field

sector 05 wetland

technical strategy water management Water inflow through topography

sector 01 plaza

Water inflow through topography

sector 03 green field

sector 05 wetland

Water outflow through softscape >> Anyang-Stream

Water outflow through softscape >> Anyang-Stream

Water outflow through softscape >> Tunnel >> Anyang-Stream

Water inflow from the tunnel Water outflow >> Tunnel >> Anyang-Stream

Water inflow from the tunnel

Water inflow from the tunnel Water outflow through open ditch Water outflow through open ditch

Water inflow through topography

sector 02 rain garden

Water inflow through topography

sector 04 pool Water outflow through softscape >> Anyang-Stream Water outflow >> Tunnel >> Anyang-Stream

Water outflow through softscape >> Anyang-Stream Water outflow >> Tunnel >> Anyang-Stream

Water inflow from the tunnel

Water inflow from the tunnel Water outflow through open ditch

Water outflow through open ditch


64

Klarman Hall, Cornell Univ.

Klarman Hall, Cornell Univ.

Internship at Koetter Kim & Associates, Boston, MA I Jan 2013 Position: Draftsman (CD Phase 70% detail drawing)

Š Koetter Kim & Associates

selected section detail drawings

new in old The architecture of Klarman Hall is contemporary while being respectful of an emergent and continuing architectural timeline that characterizes the East Avenue Corridor in Cornell University, NY. As the new building will be inserted in courtyard of the Goldwin Smith Hall, careful consideration has been given to the scale and character of Klarman Hall. I have worked as a draftsman of the

project in 70% CD phase by drawing details for several parts of its sections while cooperating with other designers. Location: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Site Area: 6,300m2 Building Area: 2,500m2 Program: Atrium, Lecture Hall, Office, etc Š Koetter Kim & Associates


00 Federal Courthouse

OO Federal Courthouse

65

Professional work at SOM-AECOM, LA, CA I May 2013 - Aug 2013 Position: Design intern (design development, daylight analysis, etc) Judicial Accent Wall

Judicial Accent Wall

Studies - Option 04

Studies - Option 04

Option #3 : Wood Trapezoid - East

Option #3 : Wood Trapezoid - West

Elevation - Eye Level

Sectional Perspective

Elevation - Eye Level

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013

March / September Equinox

4

08:30 AM

15:45 PM

14:30 PM

13:15 PM

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Sectional Perspective

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013

March / September Equinox

Summer Solstice

4

08:30 AM

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Summer Solstice

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Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

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Judicial Accent Wall

Judicial Accent Wall

Studies - Option 03

Studies - Option 03

Option #4 : Metal Rod - East

Option #4 : Metal Rod - West

Elevation - Eye Level

Sectional Perspective

Elevation - Eye Level

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013

March / September Equinox

3

08:30 AM

15:45 PM

14:30 PM

13:15 PM

11:00 AM

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Sectional Perspective

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013

March / September Equinox

Summer Solstice

3

08:30 AM

09:45 AM

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Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

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Judicial Accent Wall

Judicial Accent Wall

Studies - Option 05

Studies - Option 05

Option #5 : Wood Flat - East

Option #5 : Wood Flat - West

Elevation - Eye Level

Elevation - Eye Level

Sectional Perspective

March / September Equinox

5

08:30 AM

15:45 PM

14:30 PM

13:15 PM

11:00 AM

09:45 AM

Sectional Perspective

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013

March / September Equinox

Summer Solstice

5

08:30 AM

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Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

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Judicial Accent Wall

Studies - Option 01

Judicial Accent Wall Studies - Option 01

Option #1 : Onyx (Full-Height) - East

Elevation - Eye Level Elevation - Eye Level

1

07:00 AM

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© SOM

1

March / September Equinox

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

01:00 PM

10:00 AM

Summer Solstice

Sectional Perspective

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013

Sectional Perspective

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013

March / September Equinox

Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

01:00 PM

10:00 AM

07:00 AM

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Judicial Accent Wall

Judicial Accent Wall

Studies - Option 12

Option #2 : Onyx (14’-Height) - East

Studies - Option 12

Option #2 : Onyx (14’ - Height) - West 14’

Elevation - Eye Level

14’

Sectional Perspective

Elevation - Eye Level

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013 8

March / September Equinox

07:00 AM

8

March / September Equinox

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

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Sectional Perspective

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013

Summer Solstice

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Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

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Judicial Accent Wall

Judicial Accent Wall

Studies - Option 12

Option #2-1 : Onyx (12’-Height) - East

Studies - Option 12

Option #2-1 : Onyx (12’-Height) - West 12’

Elevation - Eye Level

12’

Sectional Perspective

Elevation - Eye Level

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013

07:00 AM

8

March / September Equinox

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

01:00 PM

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Sectional Perspective

LA FEDERAL COURTHOUSE | Courtroom Studies Los Angeles, CA 06.17.2013 8

March / September Equinox

Summer Solstice

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Back Wall Daylight Study (West)

Option 05 (Metal Rod)

courtroom design alternative samples with different types of back-walls

Option 06 (Wood, Trapezoid)

Option 07 (Wood, Flat)

Option 02 (Onyx 14ft)

Option 04 (Onyx 12ft)

11:00 AM

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courtroom design alternatives study based on daylight analysis

transparent courtroom The architecture of OO Federal Courthouse in Los Angeles proposes a new concept of courtroom - more transparent and light atmosphere filled with natural light. In achieving this goal, making new relationships between daylight and interior space was one of crucial design objectives. I have worked as a design intern of the project in 80% DD phase.

One of my main tasks was finding out optimum design alternatives of the courtroom with best sightline and comfort level through daylight analysis. I also participated in 1:1 mock-up courtroom design task. Location: Los Angeles, CA Site Area: 600,000 sq. ft. Program: Federal Courthouse


68

Other Works

Other Works

Selected professional and personal work experience 2006-2011

2011 Assistant designer Korea Appraisal Board office project SAMOO Architects & Engineers, Seoul (Realized) responsibility: working drawing and preliminary design

2010 Project designer Renovation for university theater and gallery Center for Performance & Exhibition of K-Arts, Seoul (Unrealized) responsibility: preliminary design

2009 Honorable mention (team work) Int’l Steel Design Competition, Korea Iron & Steel Association, Seoul responsibility: masterplan, model builder, 3D visualization

2009 Project designer Children’s playground prototype design GRÜNBAU Landscape Institute, Seoul (Unrealized) responsibility: research and preliminary design


Other Works

2006 Researcher and builder (group work) Rural village rehabitation project Culture City Research Institute, Seoul responsibility: construction, field survey, program & material proposal Exhibited work in 'Mega City Network: Contemporary Korean Architecture' , Frankfurt, Berlin, Barcelona, etc, 2007~2009 2006 - 09 Assistant construction manager Management of over 30 construction projects (as staff sergeant) Department of construction in engineering battalion, 9th Infantry division, Goyang (Realized)

2006 Model builder (design intern) Amorepacific Daejeon office project Metropolitan Architecture Research Unit, Seoul (Realized)

© M.A.R.U.

2006 Assistant exhibition designer Commemoration exhibition for architect Kim, Swoo-geun, ‘Kim, Swoo-geun Here & Now’ Arko Art Center, Seoul (Realized) responsibility: research, exhibition design concept proposal, and construction drawings

69


Trajectory of Works, 2003 - 2013

// Elements of Architecture, 2013 // From the Renaissance onwards, the discourse on architecture was largely based on the definition and analysis of architectural elements. Alberti’s six elements (locality, area, compartition, wall, roof, and opening: 1452), Gottfried Semper’s four elements (hearth, roof, enclosure, mound; 1851) and Le Corbusier’s Five Points of Architecture (pilotis, free facade, open plan, long window, roof garden; 1928) were all, in various degrees, efforts to analyze the history of buildings and codify the future of architecture. But since the globalization of modern architecture in the second half of the 20th century, the possibility of an elemental systematization of architecture has been largely ignored. Elements that used to be the specialty of architects - the ceiling and window, but also even the facade - have become devices and ceded to more advanced technological domains. Architects themselves have largely ignored other elements in which they used to excel, like the corridor. There is a paradox though: today, despite standardization, device-fication and the attempts of parametric architecture to merge formerly distinct categories like roof, wall, and window into an ideally continuous architectural surface, the fundamental elements of architecture endure, albeit in sometimes radically different forms. // Ecologic Urbanism, 2013 // In last century, many modern architects failed in making better cities by applying function-oriented ideologies, such as faster construction and traffic flow, with less consideration on the cultural and environmental performance of the city. Yet, this failed notion of city design is more widely accepted in today’s China, as the only solution to build cities for 100 million people every year. Given this situation, modernists concept of city cannot be easily rejected, but should be revised. Today, urban environment of the city of Guangzhou in Southern China is becoming more deteriorated. This is due to its skyscraper-oriented development without consideration on the city’s climate and culture, which requires more energy and isolates people in series of gated communities. The concept of ecologic urbanism proposes a new model of city development based on an alternative model of middle-rise, mix-used building typology. This third typology mixes modernist concept of city (faster construction of city based on Walter Gropius’ Torten Housing) and local people’s communal life based on its street culture, while providing diverse thermal properties in the building to generate varied urban activities based on architectural typology. // Seoul Urban Design International Competition, 2013 // As shown on the old map of Seoul, 1918, the site is featured by its mountainous topography and numerous streams. In as-found condition of the site, all the urban elements (topography, and urbanity) were strongly bounded together by maintaining interdependency among each other: a model of integrated city. Afterwards, however, development of appropriate urban form responding to this unique history was not made. Yet, seemingly haphazard planned city, current urban fabric of the site is clearly divided by its topography and previous waterway. This project finds opportunity of creating future vision of the city from the such accumulated physical and metaphysical history of the site, and creates hyper landscape by string such features together in a successive way as below: 1) Rediscover and reconnect hidden waterways to the site (Jemulpo-road) 2) Create park and amenities based on waterway. It also functions as a reservoir which prevent chronic flooding of the site 3) Induce successive restructuring of the urban fabric according to the reconnected waterway 4) Consolidates strong interdependency among urban elements and create new urbanity: Hyper Landscape. New set of urban activities on Jemulpo-road Park are not designed in an arbitrary way, but will be determined following to the geographical features of the site. This project proposes waterway as a generator of new urban activities and urbanity for the sustainable, resilient future of the site. The major infrastructure of the Jemulpo-road Park is not inside the park, but connected to the city: sub streams that are collected on the site. Based on that, new activities on Jemulpo-road Park can be actively changed as a response to the environment - amount of precipitation, sun light, and temperature, while physically integrating isolated urban fabrics. In addition, it can be a good solution to chronic flooding of the region, as increased green field and retention pool can serve the function of urban reservoir. // Mapo Oil Base Int’l Competition, 2013 // Different groups of users can change interior environment of the tank by adjusting the ratio of opening size of movable roof and window. Following this, the amount of heat, air and water (as rain & snow) intake can be changed, and the enclosed environment inside the tank changes accordingly. Changed environment inspires people to imagine and create scenarios (or uses). In some cases, such architectural components move in real-time while enabling more exciting and interactive programs inside the tank. // Liminal Nature, 2012 // The liminal nature in Megalopolis have largely been exploited to fulfil people’s desire to escape from crowded and bustling urban area and to reside within nature; in other words, this mindset of Megalopolitan people facilitated suburbanization, which created today’s problems of privatization, pollution of nature, and broad social issues as well. Hence, this Megalopolitan attitude of seeing liminal nature - residing in nature not for living and working, but for leisure or as a refugee from urban congestion - and widely networked transportation infrastructure has easily amalgamated two territories; urban and suburban. The Neponset river, the only tidal river in Charles Eliot’s Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston (1893), however, has much potential to solve those problems through by creating a new urbanity along the forgotten river, while utilizing those problems and opportunities through an integrated water and green space management system. In bigger scale, this strategy can also be applied to pulverize numerous isolated suburban regions and to connect along water stream while creating new urbanity along the river. // Yongsan Park International Competition, 2012 // Yongsan Park is envisaged to be a free and open civic campus for all class of people where relaxation for creativity and potential for self-fulfillment can be provided. Our intention is to render life-long chances of learning something new and valuable for the citizen whilst they relax and enjoy in the park. Therefore, Yongsan Park aims to become a socio-cultural infrastructure that can enhance the overall quality of life, rather than just to become a physical urban infrastructure that tends to emphasize the green at its forefront. It would be quite important to return the land that had been lost for over a century to the citizens, its original owners, as soon as possible. Hence, the earlier the park opens, the more heartily people will welcome it. However, we seek an incremental and long-term approach afterwards. Whilst closely monitoring the relationship between the park and city, and through sufficient social discussions and active involvements of the citizens, the park will be reorganized in terms of space and readjusted in terms of function. The process of a space becoming a place and a place becoming an attraction takes a long period of time requiring strong public support and affection. // Evolutionary Context, 2010 // As found in the “Great Map of Korea(1864),” Korea is a mountain-peninsula. In here, the traditional city-making method was fully adapted in this condition; thereby, arable land occupation and urbanization processes are similar. Also, most habitation was made in valleys as a finger-shaped, leaf-structure pattern. Therefore, the resultant land lot plan looks different from BAR code shaped western cities (grid, axis), but looks more like a 3-dimensional QR code with more information. Consequential different building heights are another important context. In conclusion, these are crucial factors generating irregular cityscape of Korean cities. Seo-village, facing mountains defining the old territory of Seoul, has irregular cityscape. Although this landscape looks chaotic at a glance, it also has positive factors which western and contemporary cities do not have: glimpse to hidden buildings, accidentally meeting void spaces, a chance to look at buildings’ facade on curved road, active use of exterior spaces, etc. These spatial characteristics share common elements with contemporary socialistic theories which seek more complexity and multiplicity. Therefore, amplifying this irregular cityscape through architectural process would reveal hidden context of this place. // Landscript Urbanism, 2009 // The Korean word ‘Tuh-mooni’ combines the words for “land” and “script”(or figure). To our surprise, the preposterous compound has a very different definition: meaning “reason” or “background”. It leads us to the conclusion that the life of our ancestors was deeply involved with the land on which they lived. Every land has its own figure. As we all have different fingerprints, a land has its own print. It is the history of nature itself, and sometimes a history of civilization. Therefore, the landscape is a magnificent history book of our life and land: a land-script is an organism, a mass of energy that requires appositional growth. Now, we start the architecture by listening to the land, and adding a poetic but modest gesture to it. Re-discover, redefine and renew existing small village with respect to the previous lives. Reuse small houses as activators of exterior activities, in order to encourage residents to make new community life. Scattered small buildings will remind people of precedent existences of buildings, landscape, and land-scripts. Application of adjustable housing plans will make residents adapt to fast-changing lifestyle of contemporary society and help them create a new community. // Blurring the Boundary, 2005 // The number of factors that change urban environments increased with time. As the urban engineering alone cannot provide the specifics, we have to define what to be left or gone and devise follow-up measurements. To this end, concrete plans considering time factor is required. If the time-related changes are to be implemented in a city or place in a gradual manner owing to the various unpredictable elements of modern societies, they should be both concrete and indeterminate. In addition, it is necessary to make concrete planning of architectural infrastructure, in order to respond to the indeterminate changes of cities. Therefore, in this project, I tried to incorporate such unpredictable changes and future demands of city. Dangin-ri power plant has been isolated from various urban contexts. And hence required transformation to large-scale public facility (urban park with cultural program) will continue to make collision with surrounding lowdensity residence area which does not have enough urban infrastructures. It is a plan of partly occupying the site by extending urban fabrics and transforming isolated power plant realm into a part of city by two stages. Strategies: First, extend local pathways as elevated promenade and make forest on traces of past facilities. Make it serve as buffer-zone to the surrounding residential area and correspond to future developments. Blot out physical barriers and promote various activities by extending riverside programs, such as sports facilities and green spaces. Second, extend riverside highway into the building to make urban-scale community space frequented by many people. Front open space supports expansion of the program while diminishing side effects like congestion of residence area. Remained unoccupied spaces at the moment without specific function will correspondent to predictable future changes like removal of sub-facilities. Forests, scattered on past facilities’ location is partly removed due to predictable changes and will be replaced by new facilities. This approach will attenuate bold characteristics of Dangin-ri power plant and sustain flexible relation with city. Using deep depth(-40m) of past generator rooms, make movement routes, service facilities and parking lot so that it does not hurt over ground space’s volume and make it function as infrastructure of overall building. Slopes with diverse dimensions link a number of simultaneously generated movement routes effectively, ranging from riverside spaces to front open spaces, under & over ground spaces as well. Building’s sloped surface draws sunlight into underground spaces. At the same time, alleviate bulky sense of building. Double skin of front elevation composed by punched steel plate and opaque glass, make it easier to draw sunlight and decrease massive sense of building, too. Varied floor plates and hanger devices on ceiling, inside the over ground volume, promote various activities and keep the impression of the past generation room. Previous trusses & chimney are used as screen for the city, utilizing its height. // Anti-Urban Sprawl Strategy, 2004 // The city of Mokpo has expanded its territory by huge reclamation, regardless of its socioeconomic ability. The reclamation continuously enlarged its boundary, but economic power of the city continuously diminished due to change of industrial structure. On the other hand, the main traffic line, runs across the city center, separates and expedites the old city to decline. Now, we propose an anti-urban sprawl strategy for the city’s sustainable future. It follows central traffic infrastructures and renovates them with appropriate urban programs in order to combine separated regions. // Let the City Move, 2004 // Citizens can have more power through “indeterminate urban events (political demonstrations and such)”. In “information-driven society” of today, information network could trigger such events. Through messenger, or from a very simple comment uploaded on the web, people would gather. The number of people who can access the same information is more than you imagine. Therefore, more exposure to the information could increase the number of events. Let the city Seoul to have a grand landmark of information. This does not only celebrate but actually functions to help people to access information on urban events. The form of the monument was determined by its shoppers near. Glass and screen were chosen for material strategy to combine specific and indeterminate information. When a special event occurs, the screen would suddenly show the scenes, visually asking for viewer’s participation. “Welcome into the building if you are interested, make departure to the event-site, spread your opinion to other people, and make more democratic society.” The network city does not coincide unambiguously with the built environment; it is very largely an invisible city, a spider’s web of invisible functional and social relationships running across and one another. “Increased spatial and social mobility means that people are no longer only involved in their own neighborhood or town built in the whole region or even the whole country” (geographer Jean Gottmann). In the network city each individual assembles his own polycentric urban district, the center which no longer needs to coincide with the old city center. The increasing scale of daily life and enhanced mobility mean that there are no more close local communities still left. Neighbors have become “familiar strangers”. New social links have been created on a larger scale. Transport and communication networks enable social networks to be maintained although people don’t live anymore in the same neighborhood as their friends or relatives. The use of networks in the city means that an urban lifestyle is more difficult to be identified or linked to a specific city’s physical environment. This is precisely the one of the difficulties architects have to deal with in the contemporary city since architects used to be the experts on giving physical shape to specific lifestyles or social organizations. Our environment in the city is precisely the opposite, is a collage of “opportunities” arising independently in a certain spot, the Hub. The chosen sample site is located in central commercial area of Seoul. Following the main road, diverse shops such as cafe, pub, hair salon, and restaurants are stacked up. All those shops have transparent elevation, which enables people to look at the main road and get much information from the urban landscape. Shopper’s view angle determines the overall shape of the social argument generator. Each different view heights from different nearby buildings deform its shapes, exterior materials, and entrance location. The generator’s surfaces will display and reflect the vibrant urban scenes, and would suddenly be changed into an urban screen, which shows accidental urban events - demonstrations, street cheers for world cup, and parades. This sudden change would encourage people to take in the bus, and participate in such urban events. // Stand on Tiptoe, 2009 // The Janghang Wetland has been maintained as the largest willow forest in South Korea and diverse biospecies, since it has been blocked from approach due to military reasons. However, it will soon be opened to the public, as a field of environmental education. Therefore, delicate design approach is required not to destroy existing nature and to provide sufficient environmental education as well. Form overall space and structure by utilizing Rib Structure & Vierendeel Truss. The aim of the design is to minimize the contact area with wetland, not to interrupt environmental circulation, but to maximize the possibility of feeling the nature. // A Study on the Social Role of Architecture through the Soviet Communal House in the 1930s, 2009 // In 1917 Russia, through the February Revolution and Red October they established the world’s first socialist nation and attempted to eradicate their obsolete systems. It was the beginning of a new epoch. Architect Moisei Ginzburg argued in his book Style and Epoch that ‘the architects must think of themselves as the constructers of life for the new era, and should not lavish architecture with ornament.’ In 1926, OSA (Organization of Contemporary Architects)-a group founded by Moisei Ginzburg- published their first issue of the Journal SA (Sovremmennaia Arkhitektura or ‘Contemporary Architecture’) and argued that ‘the modern architecture should crystallize the new socialist system into life’. On 18th of Nov. the same year, Anatoli Lunacharskii – the minister of Education – clarified that the true aim of the revolution is to reconstruct the way of life completely. According to the above statements, it was clear that the architects were to assume the crucial part of organizing new life. Consequently in their architectural practices in the 1920s and 30s, architects of Soviet Union pursued to construct Socialistic life through functional and dialectic methods. Meanwhile, the definitions such as ‘architecture is the container of life’ and ‘we shape our buildings, thereafter they shape us.’ are prevalent and still widely quoted even after the Ginzburg era. Yet, the authenticity of these quotes is highly abstract and makes one wonder how exactly architects can construct ‘human life’ that is described as intangible and unpredictable? And how exactly can architects prove whether their plan has actually changed the resident’s lives? The aim of this research is to study the actuality of the above ambiguous definitions though specific cases of communal housings of Soviet in 1930s. I have restricted the subjects of research to the Narkomfin Communal House by the architect Ginzburg and to Kommunalka (Communal Apartment) which was the predominant form of housing that was built without an architect. The chosen facilities were the most notable practices of the notion ‘Social Condenser’- the spatial idea of constructivism that architecture can influence social behavior - also they are the most relevant examples to study the ‘organization of Socialistic life’ because both examples were built before the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991. The method chosen is the comparison of the elements of socialistic life projected onto the spatial plans for each building. Additionally, the resident’s reviews of these buildings have been compared against the initial intention of the architect and the government, through this study the influence of socialistic architecture on the residents’ life will be clarified. // Dive into the City, 2006 // In historic megalopolis Seoul, Cheonggye riverside area has exactly the same age with the city. Different from stuffed historic remains, various places in Cheonggye riverside connects old fields of urban activities such as commerce and manufacture. In 2005, the river was restored after demolishing the old expressway and deprived regions, and would further destroy the current dynamic activities. Moreover, although it became a tourist attraction, concentrated interest in the river would deprive citizens of chances to experience complex urban industrial area. The aim of this project is to enable people to expand their interest on the city, not only in the restored river, but also in the riverside region. Through this, we expect people to recognize and share new memories in the heart of Seoul. // Continuously Built Houses, 2009 // The power and possibility of Hanok (Korean Traditional House) is in its freedom of design and construction process, not in formal prototype. Traditional Hanok design principle was fulfilling private needs and characteristics, as well as following universal design. Not to mention, any construction process started from consideration of nature, neighborhood,

Kangil Ji_Portfolio (Spring 2014)  

Kangil Ji_Portfolio (Spring 2014)

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