Page 1

usable local materials and existing community; therefore, so-called master plan was not required in its design and construction procedure. However, collection of such free design procedure resulted in a harmonious community. This is the most important characteristic of the traditional Hanok design, CPFYJCVUJQWNFDGEQPXG[GFKPFGUKIPKPICPGY*CPQMKPVJGPGYGTC&GUKIPRTKPEKRNGUQHVJGPGY*CPQMUJQWNFHWNN[HQNNQYVJGVKOGTGSWKTGFFGUKIPCPFEQPUVTWEVKQPRTKPEKRNG6JGTGHQTGVJKURTQEGUUFQGUPQVHQNNQYEQPXGPVKQPCNCTEJKVGEVWTCNRTQVQV[RGFGUKIPOGVJQFĹżZGFOCUVGTRNCPCPF EQPXGPVKQPCNFGĹżPKVKQPQPVTCFKVKQPDWVRTQXKFGRGQRNGYKVJQRGPGPFGFRQUUKDKNKVKGUKPFGUKIPKPIVJGPGY*CPQM// Urban Exploration, 2003 // Cities carry pieces of memories throughout history and show how culture has developed. However, as Italo Calvino said, “the city does not simply describe the RCUVDWVECTTKGUVTCEGUNKMGNKPGUKPVJGRCNOQHQPGĹ?UJCPFĹ’$[TGCFKPIVJGVTCEGUNGHVKPVJGUKVGWPFGTTGFGXGNQROGPVUEJGFWNG+VTKGFVQWPFGTUVCPFVJGEWTTGPVUKVWCVKQPUCPFFKCIPQUGVJGCEVWCNXCNWGQHVJGGXGPVUETGCVGFD[VJGUGUKVWCVKQPU#NUQ+VTKGFVQHGGNVJGQDLGEVUCPFGXGPVUĹżNNKPIVJGUKVG their relationships with certain places, the depth of the space and the silence left in the space differently in a new manner. Furthermore, I conducted a performance with collected materials in the exploration, in order to make people share their living history in the city and help remain their history with the EKV[+VTKGFVQTGEQTFVJGTGCNKV[QHCEKV[VJCVGZKUVUQPOGOQTKGUQHGCEJEJKNFD[QRGPKPICOGPVCNOCRFTCYKPIYQTMUJQR6JGTGUWNVUUJQYGFVJCVEJKNFTGPJCXGFKHHGTGPVKFGCUCDQWVEKV[EQORCTGFVQCFWNVU(QTGZCORNGVJG[FKFPĹ?VWUGDKTFĹ?UG[GXKGYFTGYFCPIGTQWUQDLGEVU VTCHĹżENKIJVETQUUYCNM  NCTIGTECNNGFUCOGURCEGYKVJFKHHGTGPVPCOGUCPFFTGYGNGXCVKQPYJGPVJGHQEWUGFQDLGEVKUKORTGUUKXGGVE6JGTGHQTG+EQWNFTGCNK\GVJCVGXGT[RNCEGYQWNFJCXGXCTKQWUPCOGUCPFOGCPKPIU+PVJGGPF+EQODKPGFVJQUGĹżPFKPIUVJGPOCFGCEQNNCIGOCRQHVJGUKVGYJKEJUJQYUVJGIGPGTCN characteristics of the village. // Making Space Happen, 2003 // The history of this site started from railway, provided the urban thermoelectric power plant with coal. After the decline of the railway due to the change of power plant fuel, artists occupied the railway, and constructed cultural district, as CPKOCVKPIVJGTGIKQP6JKURJGPQOGPQPKUVJGRGEWNKCTEJCTCEVGTKUVKEQHVJKUUKVGYJKEJUJQWNFDGOCKPVCKPGFCPFKORTQXGF+RTQRQUGFKPFGVGTOKPCVGNCPFQEEWRCVKQPU[UVGOUKOKNCTVQUVKEMKPIRQUVKVPQVGUQPRCRGT5[UVGOK\GFCTVKĹżEKCNITQWPFYKVJJQNGUCPFURCEGOCMKPIWPKVUYQWNFDGUWRRNKGFVQ artists, whom will temporarily occupy some areas with cultural events. Occupation areas can be varied according to size of each event. It will make indeterminate cultural landscape, like trains had temporarily occupied the land, and diversify its culture. // Rill’s Relief, 2006 // All of us has experience of Ć€QCVKPICRCRGTDQCVQPĆ€QYKPIYCVGTEJCUKPIVJGOYKVJEWTKQUKV[CPFGZRGEVCVKQP6JGDQCVĹżPCNN[FKUCRRGCTUVQUQOGYJGTGGNUGUKPMUKPUQOGVKOG6JKUOGOQT[JCUCUVTQPITGNCVKQPVQVJGPCVWTGQHYCVGTVJCVEQPVKPWQWUN[Ć€QYUHTQOWRVQFQYPEJCPIGUCUTKUGCPFHCNN6JTQYUQOGUGCNGF RJQVQITCRJUFGRKEVKPIUVTGVEJGUQHPCVWTCNYCVGTUQPVJGWRUVTGCOQH%JGQPII[G5VTGCO6JGUGCDCPFQPGFRJQVQUTGNKGUKVUDQF[QPVJGJCTUJĆ€QYCUVJG[VWODNGFTKHVTGUVIGVDWTKGFKPOWFNQEMGFCVVJGUVGRRKPIUVQPGUĹ—CPFĹżPCNN[CRRTQCEJVQVJG*CP4KXGTGPTQWVGVQVJGUGCĹŒLWUVNKMGVJG RGTGPPKCNWPFWNCVKQPUCPFKTTGXGTUKDNGCURGEVQHNKHG2CUUGPIGTUQEECUKQPCNN[OQPKVQTVJGUGĆ€QYKPIRJQVQUĹ?RTGUGPEGHQNNQYKPIVJGĆ€QYQHĆ€WEVWCVKPIKOCIGU5QOGYKNNUVGRWRVQVJGUVTGCORWVVJGKTJCPFKPVQYCVGTCPFRKEMVJGOWRCUCUQNGUQWXGPKTQHVJGEKV[*GTGRGQRNGEGNGDTCVGOQTGKP VCUVKPIVJGNKXKPIYCVGTĹŒQWTKPGXKVCDNGNKHGTGUQWTEGĹŒĆ€QYKPIKPVJGFGPUGEGPVGTQH5GQWN// Yanggu Building Project, 2006 // This annual building project is held in abandoned rural areas due to rapid urbanization, and it aims to regenerate those places by introducing appropriate architectural solutions. +RCTVKEKRCVGFKPVJGRTQLGEVCPFLQKPGFVJGQXGTCNNEQPUVTWEVKQPRTQEGUUQHVJTGGDWKNFKPIU OCKPN[QPGDWKNFKPI ĹżGNFUWTXG[CPFRTGNKOKPCT[FGUKIPRTQEGUU1XGTXQNWPVCT[OCPFC[URCTVKEKRCVGFKPVJKURTQLGEV// Conservation, Conversion for Sustainable City, 2010 // Upon the foundation of last century’s brutal history which killed at least 150 millions of people through wars and disputes, vast expanse of lands around the world have been harshly urbanized in post-war era. Resultant problems of this rapid urbanization - easily zoned districts and increased use of energy, urban decay and social alienation, dangerous situation of environment, etc - are threatening human habitation, again. Now it’s time to critically examine contemporary urban problems and solve it smartly through conservation and conversion, not to repeat last century’s blunders and not to build in tabula rasa again, for sustainable human habitation. The purpose of my exploration is research about conservation and conversion of existing cities, mainly examining sites reconstructed in post-war era. As living in the only separated country in the world, right after the Japanese colonial time, war’s impact on human habitation and re-use of remain ruins of history have always been my big concern. Moreover, Korea has suffered from fastest urbanization of 80 percent rural to 80 percent urban population within 40 years after the Korean War, now remaining many aged buildings and still progressing urban sprawl, which is similar phenomenon in many post-war cities around the world. So, conservation and conversion of existing city - have various merits include adaptability to existing urban context and social needs, retention of structure and memory, reduce of wastes, etc - is an adequate issue on many EQPVGORQTCT[CIKPIEKVKGUHQTQWTUWUVCKPCDNGHWVWTG2QUVYCTWTDCPFGXGNQROGPV $GTNKP9CTUCY (KTUVUGEVKQPQHO[TGUGCTEJHQEWUGUQPVJGRQUVYCTWTDCPFGXGNQROGPVCPFKVĹ?UCHVGTYCTFUKVWCVKQP#UNKXKPIKPVJGQPN[FKXKFGFEQWPVT[KPVJGYQTNFCRRTQRTKCVGOQFKĹżECVKQPUQH0QTVJ-QTGCPEKVKGU CHVGTRTGFKEVCDNGTGWPKĹżECVKQPJCXGNQPIDGGPQPGQHO[EQPEGTPUCUCHWVWTGCTEJKVGEV6JKUNQPIKPVGTGUVNGFOGVQRCTVKEKRCVGKP)GTOCP-QTGCP[QWPIUVGTUVTCXGNGZEJCPIGRTQITCOOGHWPFGFD[VJG-QPTCF#FGPCWGT(QWPFCVKQPKPVYQ[GCTU  5JQTVXKUKVVQ$GTNKPCPFRCUV&&4 'CUVGTP )GTOCP[ UKVGUVQIGVJGTYKVJ)GTOCPUVWFGPVUOCFGOGTGCNK\GOCP[FKHĹżEWNVKGUHQNNQYGFD[WPKĹżECVKQPCUOGPVKQPGFKPPGZVCTVKENGĹ‘+P%GPVTCNCPF'CUVGTP'WTQRGQHVJGRQRWNCVKQPNKXGUKP2NCVVGPDCWCTGCUCPFKVKUGUVKOCVGFVJCVVJGTGPQXCVKQPQHVJGOYKNNVCMGCDQWVDKNNKQPGWTQUYJKEJ OGCPGORNQ[OGPVHQTOKNNKQPRGQRNG &KG9GNV/CTEJ Ĺ’$GTNKPJCUDGGPYKFGN[TGPQXCVKPIDWKNFKPIUHTQOCRCTVOGPVUVQVJGRCTNKCOGPVCEJKGXKPIJWIGEQPXGTUKQPQHOQTGVJCPVJQWUCPFRCUV2NCVVGPDCWWPKVUYKVJGEQNQIKECNCRRTQCEJGU'URGEKCNN[ITCFWCNOQFKĹżECVKQPQHRCUV$GTNKP Wall area and past industrial buildings could react to ordinary needs of citizens by insertion of new urban programs and remaining historical lessons at the same time. The Second World War demolished about 85 percent of old Warsaw. Like North Korea, Warsaw was once a socialistic society. This unique history of last century shows exceptional example of the comprehensive reconstruction of a city - holistic conservation by supports of inhabitants. This case also affected many European countries’ doctrines related to urbanization and conservation of urban development after the destruction of World War II. After the collapse of Soviet Block, Warsaw converted many socialistic public buildings in dense and mix-used way - extending pedestrian ways of old district. Also past characteristics of socialistic urban planning highlighted publicity are well remained. Inner city of London’s Dockland area was decayed by 1940’s urban bombing and transition of industry. But this area has remarkably regenerated in ecological and mix-used manner overcoming urban decay, now waiting for the 2012 Olympic. And the Open House Program held in every September enables urban community experience CPFWPFGTUVCPFVJGPQVKQPQHUWUVCKPCDNGFGXGNQROGPVYJKEJ+RNCPVQRCTVKEKRCVG8CNKFCFCRVCVKQPQHVJGUGTGPQYPGFECUGUYKNNDGPGGFGFOCP[CIKPIEKVKGUKPENWFG-QTGC2CUVKPFWUVTKCNHCEKNKVKGU 'UUGP&WKUDWTI0GY;QTM 5GEQPFRCTVQHO[TGUGCTEJHQEWUGUQPVJGEQPXGTUKQPQHRCUVKPFWUVTKCN HCEKNKVKGUOQFGTPTGOCKPU+PFWUVT[HCEKNKVKGUCTGKPGXGT[YJGTGDWVPQYJGTG$GECWUGVJGUGGFKĹżEGUCTGOQUVN[KUQNCVGFKPKPPGTEKV[RTQVGEVGFVQCEEGUU$WVUOCNNKPVGTXGPVKQPQPQNFHCEKNKV[ECPDGCIQQFUQNWVKQPHQTTGXKVCNK\CVKQPQPFGEC[KPIEKV[CURTGUGTXKPIWPKSWGNQECNJKUVQT[UCXKPITGUQWTEGU providing more public spaces to citizens - improving quality of urban life. These cities have proven that even heavy industrial facilities can be converted to different use in an ecological manner. Essen-Duisburg areas were Europe’s largest industrial area mainly used as coal-mining sites, damaging PGCTD[PCVWTG#HVGTVJGGOGTIGQHENGCPKPFWUVT[VJGUGEKVKGUEQPXGTVGFJWIGRTGEQCNOKPGEQORNGZNKMGCUOCNNEKV[EQPVCKPKPIXCTKQWUEWNVWTCNHCEKNKVKGUYKVJGPXKTQPOGPVCNRWTKĹżECVKQPEQPPGEVKPIKUQNCVGFRNCEGVQPGKIJDQTJQQFCTGC0GY;QTMKUQPGQHVJGQNFGUVCPFETQYFGFOQFGTPEKV[KPVJGYQTNF *GTGĹ?UTCKNTQCFYCUEQPXGTVGFVQRGFGUVTKCPRCTMTWPPKPIVJTQWIJQNFCTGCUKPENWFG/GCVRCEMKPI%JGNUGCFKUVTKEVCNUQVTCPUHQTOGFRCUVKPFWUVTKCNDWKNFKPIUKPVQXCTKQWUWUGU'URGEKCNN[VJGHCEVVJCVVJKURCTMYCUKPKVKCNN[FGXGNQRGFD[EKVK\GPĹ?UUWRRQTVCVVGUVUVQYJCVWTDCPFYGNNGTUĹ?PGGFU #PEGUVTCN%KV[ /GFKPCQH(GUCPF/CTTCMGUJ #UCEQPVTCFKEVQT[ECUG(GUCPF/CTTCMGUJKUCTGCUQPCDNGOQFGNQHUWUVCKPCDNGEKV[5KPEGHQWPFGFKPVJCPFVJEGPVWT[GCEJQVJGTVJGUGCPEGUVTCNEKVKGUJCXGDGGPNCUVGFKVUJKUVQT[HQTNQPIGTVJCPVJQWUCPF[GCTUYKVJQWVDKIEJCPIGYJKEJRTQXGU its vitality. Especially, Fes have been preserving it’s unique urban fabric of 14th century, small buildings in its Medina have always been converted without modern way of zoning - containing almost every urban behaviors. And its urban form is a suitable study case for sustainable city containing various factors in it - mix-used buildings, labyrinth-like pedestrian routes reaching 300 kilometer, use of natural ventilation system, etc. Additionally, this city looks more democratic than functionally divided cities. So, it’s humble but stable spaces with its own beauty, are still relevant. Though it is hard to adapt VJGUGXCNWGUFKTGEVN[VQOQFGTPEKVKGUYGPGGFVQNGCTPHTQOVJGUGUWUVCKPCDN[NCUVGFEKVKGU#FCRVCDNGCEEWNVWTCVKQPQHVJKUNQPINCUVKPIEKV[YKNNOCMGEQPVGORQTCT[EKVKGUOQTGEGNGDTCVKPIRNCEG%QORCTCVKXG%KV[ 5GQWN %QPVGORQTCT[OGICNQRQNKU5GQWNUJCTGUOCP[EJCTCEVGTKUVKEUQHTGHGTTGFEKVKGU 6JKU[GCTUQNFEKV[EQPVCKPUXCTKQWUTWKPUQHJKUVQT[OQFGTPK\CVKQPGTCYCTCPFEQNQPK\CVKQPRGTKQFGXGPOGFKGXCNVKOG#HVGTRTGFKEVCDNGTGWPKĹżECVKQPYKVJ0QTVJ-QTGCDKICOQWPVQHEQPUGTXCVKQPCPFEQPXGTUKQPQHQNFDWKNFKPIUCPFEKVKGUYKNNDGTGSWKTGF+DGNKGXGVJCVHQTGKIPNGUUQPUNGCTPGF from this exploration will give advice on this course. So, as a comparative case, I plan to study some renovated instances in old district of Seoul. I expect that comparing Seoul with other cities’ case will give me balanced perspective on this agenda, as remaining assignments of further study.

PORTFOLIO KANGIL JI

Harvard GSD Master in Architecture II 2014


Part I Personal Academic Works Ecologic Urbanism GSD Option Studio 2013

Elements of Architecture GSD Option Studio 2013 at OMA, Rotterdam

Liminal Nature GSD Option Studio 2012

Evolutionary Context K-Arts Option Studio 2010 (RIBA Part II)

Landscript (地文 K-Arts Option Studio 2009

Architectural Infrastructure K-Arts Option Studio 2006 (RIBA Part I)


4

Ecologic Urbanism

Ecologic Urbanism model 1:50 scale

GSD option studio I Spring 2013 I Instructor: Ingeborg Rocker Publication (pending): &DPMPHJDT3FmHVSJOHUIF$JWJD(SPVOE, Harvard GSD


Ecologic Urbanism

5

verticalized street life people in series of gated communities. The concept of ecologic urbanism proposes a new model of city development based on an alternative model of middle-rise, mix-used building typology. This third typology mixes modernist concept of city (faster construction of city based on Walter Gropius’ Torten Housing) and local people’s communal life based on its street culture, while providing diverse thermal properties in the building to generate varied urban activities based on architectural typology.

>

In last century, many modern architects failed in making better cities by applying function-oriented ideologies, such as faster construction and traffic flow, with less consideration on the cultural and environmental performance of the city. Yet, this failed notion of city design is more widely accepted in today’s China, as the only solution to build cities for 100 million people every year. Given this situation, modernists concept of city cannot be easily rejected, but should be revised. Today, urban environment of the city of Guangzhou in Southern China is becoming more deteriorated. This is due to its skyscraper-oriented development without consideration on the city’s climate and culture, which requires more energy and isolates

Location: Li-Wan, Guangzhou, China Site Area: 110-acre Building Area: 6,000m2 (building footprint of standard building) Program: Mix-used building

verticalization of street life

elevation perspective

0

10m


6

Ecologic Urbanism

methodology eco-logical urbanism (revising ideological approach) 1898 Garden City of Tomorrow Ebenezer Howard

1914 The Futurist City Antonio to o Sa Sant’Elia t a

autonomyy

1995 Alphabetical City Steven Holl

2008 Stop City Pier Vittorio Aureli

limitation

codification difi

p process

claim: speed+civic life 1928 Toerten City, Walter Gropius

congestion g

hi history y

expan expansion p

claim: eco-logical (interaction-based) approach - intensifying context of Chinese form of civic life

1977 Dialectic City O.M. Ungers

1952 Unité d’Habitation Le Corbusier

speed p

1972 City of the Captive Globe Rem Koolhaas

1928 Toerten City Walter Gropius

mass

1966 Typological City Aldo Rossi

1924 High Rise City Ludwig Hilbersheimer

suburbia b

mobility b y

environment 1960 Metabolism City Metabolist Movement

1924 Broadacre City Frank Lloyd Wright

phenomenon: ideological approach - context-less superimposition of ideological urbanisms

current: dominant urbanism in China = speed


Ecologic Urbanism

design process urban design

urban design plan

revision of Torten city plan (Walter Gropius) for Guangzhou, China - speed + context

master plan

7

topography - 0-11m level difference

0

stack - F.A.R 6 block

rotate - building direction = 0° ~ 23 ° - maxium wind and shadow

split - street section ratio = 1:4 - minimum solar envelope

merge - minimum solar envelope - maximum FAR

float - annual flooding (+8m) - wind corridor & shadow

300m

elements of urban design topography

valley & stream

plate

stiched grid

traffic

public network

civic network (alley)

building typology

figure/ground

combination

0

aerial view

300m


8

Ecologic Urbanism

design process architecture

typical floor plans

extension of street (civic) life into buildings & creation of shadowy street

topography - 0-11m level difference ground floor plan

stack - extension of street into building

2nd floor plan

rotate 1 - duplication of street

3rd floor plan

rotate 2 - diverse thermal properties by slope

4th floor plan split - wind/daylight corridor

5th floor plan

rotate 3 - extension of street (civic) life 0

30m


Ecologic Urbanism

9

models

elevation perspective

0

30m


10

Ecologic Urbanism

sections

section 1

circulation

section 2

wind ow

section 3

green space

commercial

ofďŹ ce

residential

multi-purpose (education, entertainment, etc)

0

10m


Ecologic Urbanism

11

perspectives


12

Elements of Architecture

Elements of Architecture

GSD option studio I Fall 2013 I Instructor: Rem Koolhaas, Stephan Trüby Publication: Rem Koolhaas, Elements of Architecture, Marsilio (August 12, 2014)

research on Elements of Architecture for 2014 Venice Architecture Biennale (collaborative work of GSD-AMO) From the Renaissance onwards, the discourse on architecture was largely based on the definition and analysis of architectural elements. Alberti’s six elements (locality, area, compartition, wall, roof, and opening: 1452), Gottfried Semper’s four elements (hearth, roof, enclosure, mound; 1851) and Le Corbusier’s Five Points of Architecture (pilotis, free facade, open plan, long window, roof garden; 1928) were all, in various degrees, efforts to analyze the history of buildings and codify the future of architecture. But since the globalization of modern architecture in the second half of the 20th century, the possibility of an elemental systematization of architecture has been largely ignored. Elements that used to be the specialty of architects - the ceiling

and window, but also even the facade - have become devices and ceded to more advanced technological domains. Architects themselves have largely ignored other elements in which they used to excel, like the corridor. There is a paradox though: today, despite standardization, device-fication and the attempts of parametric architecture to merge formerly distinct categories like roof, wall, and window into an ideally continuous architectural surface, the fundamental elements of architecture endure, albeit in sometimes radically different forms. back cover of the book (working version)

timeline corridor: ever-expanding element of architecture (from architecture to geography) 100 廊 [láng] (Cn) wall and n roof

h Shitenno-ji Temple, Japan 9 593

A k Wat, W A k Angkor Angkor ca. 1200s

e Jeongjeon 3 1394

a of Jongmyo Shrine, S (Mail Hall) Korea

E Lutton Hoo, England 1772

Blenheim Castle,, England 1724

Mughal Serai, r India 1600

Shoin B Buildings, Japan 1632

u d a h Humble Administrator’s Garden, China 5 1513

Saumur Barracks, a France 1770

1772 Corridor d Lutton H Hoo

1770

N Castle, Japan Nijo n 1625 6

1765 Corridor d (Fr)

1635 Corridor r

Trace Italienne e 1599

1535 Corridoio r

Saumur Barracks S

(fr) FortificationPath o

Humayun’s T Tomb, India 1572

1627 Coritore

Secret Passage

1677 Couloir

(fr) Water drain

c Versailles, France 1682

1698 Corridoorr

Castle Howard

1724 Corridoor i

Blenheim Castle

source of noise... no n longer in use except e inupper stories t of c buildings meant for storage or convents ( (Blondel)


Elements of Architecture

Corridor Form of Connection, Separation and Escape

PAGE 22

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

REAL

PAGE 29

During modernity, the

entered the Rue

transversals got

city of light, the old

Surrealiste, a long

replaced by the

dioramas, nested in

corridor with street

tangentials. The

the arcades, one of

signs marking out the

which today still bears

different sections;

the name Passage

these were given

FORTIĂšEDTRADITIONAL Western city with its city gates and main

des Panoramas. It

either the names of

roads is based on a

WAS INTHEĂšRST

actual streets of

topology of gates –

moment, as though

HISTORICALSIGNIĂšCANCE

LIKETHEENĂšLADE

you had entered an

- the Rue de la Vieille-

Inscribed in it is a

AQUARIUM!LONGTHE

Lanterne, where

MOVEMENTĂšGURE

wall of the great

Nerval committed

which unfolds

darkened hall, broken

suicide, the Rue

transversally to the

at intervals by narrow

Yivienne where

joints, it stretched like

spheric line of city

Lautreamont lived - or

a ribbon of illuminated

gate and partition

names which were

water behind glass.

wall. The corridor

purely imaginary : Rue

The play of colors

de Tous-les-Diables

among deep-sea

(All Devils’ Street),

fauna cannot be more

Rue Faible (Weak

ĂšERY

Street), Rue de la

organizations of modernity ended all that and established a principle which allows MOVEMENTĂšGURESTO

Transfusion-du-Sang

Benjamin, Walter, 1892-

touch a distinct

1940. and Rolf

(Blood Transfusion

sphere only at exactly

Tiedemann. 1999. The

Street), Rue Cerise

one point: the door of

Arcades Project.

(Cherry Street), etc.

the cell.

Cambridge, Mass.:

Alexandrian, Sarane.

Stephan Trueby

Belknap Press of

1970. Surrealist Art. Vol.

Harvard University

P-247. New York,:

Press.

Praeger.

The ‘Surrealist street’ referred to the presence of the big department stores and consumerism in Paris. In the showrooms and department stores, MANNEQUINSWERE used to present all kinds of clothing and, as an element of advertisement to entice the customer, usually a woman, into buyting the commodity, this object of desire. Joachim Stark, “Elements of Surrealist practices in contemporary visual art� (Master’s thesis., Open University, 2008)

1827 Passage Choiseul Paris, France

PAGE

1938 Surrealist Street Exposition Internationale du SurrĂŠalisme, GalĂŠrie Beaux-Arts, Paris, France

1920 )NĂšNITE#ORRIDOR Massachusetts Inistitute of Technology, USA

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PROCESSION

PAGE 25

PAGE 20

PROTECTION

Millions of men lived

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

A similar drill was

PAGE 21

ANTI-CORRIDOR

By the 1820’s the

The resulting in nformal

in the trenches during

held at the Madison

elements of the

groups of team ms and

World War I. More

Avenue address

modern corridor were

activities-given n the

than six million died

under the direction of

beginning to come

name BĂźroland dschaft,

there.

Sgt. Robert O’Donnell,

together as a spatial

OROFĂšCELANDSC CAPE

...

police precinct

extension of the

The futility of head-on

coordinator, and Gene

infantry assaults in the

McGinnity, acting

proved to be efffective,

nation-state and its

ÛEXIBLE ANDmo ore

ideals. Added to this

acceptable than either

FACEOFMODERNRIÛES 

building control

was the development

CORRIDOROFĂšCES SOR

machine guns and

director. Everyone in

of the decorated

open plans.

artillery was made

corridor that made the

THEBUILDINGĂšLEDINTO

Duffy, Francis, 1940-

apparent. Both sides

corridors, stairways or

corridor no longer just

and Anbar Public cations.

were forced to dig

the sub-basement

a passage but a

/FĂšCE

when the alarm

destination in its own

ground and

sounded and

right.

!PPROACHTO/FĂš ĂšCE

concentrate upon

deep holes in the

remained throughout

...

Planning. Vol. no o. 9.

breaking up any

the alert.

If anything, the

London, England d: Anbar

attacks launched by

The New, Y. T. (1951,

corridor was an

Publications.

their adversaries.

Landscaping : A New

imprint of the

Aug 25). 7,000 Take

The armies remained

Shelter in bomb raid

increasingly complex

in these holes for the

tests. New York Times

social structure of

!STHEĂšRSTSTEPINA

stability and, very

next four years,

Victorian society,

millions of men

introducing social

trapped in a desolate strip of territory, living

series of preparations

importantly, enforcing

and dying in a

for civil defense in

a sense of decorum in

wilderness of

the insides of a public

time of emergency,

trenches, dugouts,

the New York Hospital-

building. It

craters, ...

Cornell Medical

guaranteed that

Ellis, John, 1945-. 1976.

Center held a trial run

everyone was in their

Eye-Deep in Hell.

yesterday in the

proper position; awkward contacts

receiving and care of

London: Croom Helm. 8-9

casualties of a

with people outside of

simulated atom bomb

one’s peerage were kept to a minimum.

attack. ...

The corridor

Dr. Henry N. Pratt,

organized the world

director of the

into different, but

hospital, explained

parallel corridoric

that 100 cots had been

universe.

added in the corridors

Jarzombek, By Mark .

and rooms on the

2010. “Corridor

ÛOOR 

Spaces.� Critical

The New, Y. T. (1951,

Inquiry 36 (4): 728-770.

Aug 03). HOSPITAL IS READY SHOULD BOMB FALL. New York Times

1916 Trench Warfare British troops go over the top of the trenches during the Battle of the Somme, France (Photo by Paul Popper)

Hassobury House, o England 1866

1951 Bomb Drill St, Joan of Arc Parochial, NY, USA (Photo by Bettmann)

Empire State Building, u New Yorkk 1931

Chrysler Building, d New York 1930 1952 9

5

10

20m

Lu’s Salt Merchant c House, China 1897

1965 Orenstein-Koppell Building Albeck/Ernst/Fischer/Rathal Architects, Dortmund, Germany

World d Trade Center, N New York 1973

1971 7 “Corridor o Conversations� o s

Taipei p 101, Taiwan 2008 0

Single-Loaded e Corridor d

1922 Marching r Corridor d

1894 Mechanical e Corridor r

1870 The Royal Courts of Justice London, UK

Chen Clan a Acad Academy, d China n 1894

0

Nightingale g Pavilion n Plan Hospital, England E 1865 6

CORRIDOR

TANGENTIAL

Next the visitor

glowing cells of the

T

PAGE 23

SURREAL

The innermost

he corridor’s main function of speed is derived its etymology. In the 14th century, the corridor was not a place, but a person. From “currere,â€? to run, UIFDPSSJEĂ’SFmSTUEFTDSJCFEBDPVSJFS  and eventually referred to the pathways BCPWFGPSUJmFEXBMMT XIJDIFOBCMFEUIF transfer of messages. With the invention PGUIFUSBDFJUBMJFOOFGPSUJmDBUJPOTZTUFN in the 15th century, military leaders relocated troops to ditches at the bottom of the wall. The corridor followed. In the 17th century, architects interiorized the corridor. By The 19th century corridoio described a passage within a building. The corridor ceased to be an urban element, but still maintained a close relationship to the dimensions of the human body and the function of speed. But now it occurred within buildings rather than between them. Architects gradually abandoned the corridor after its heyday in the 19th century. However, escalating building heights of the 20th century brought increasing demands exit corridor.

13

Burj rj Khalifa, Dubai 2009 0

2011 Moose Sex corridor 2003 Wireless corridor 1993 Freight corridor

Manhattan n Life Insurance Building B

1992 Research corridor

Kirkbride Hospital, Ki kb id H i l USA 1850

1870 0 Bar Corridorr 1885 Judges’ g Corridorr Galerie Richelieu c Sorbonne Attorneys’ Corridorr e Public b Corridorr

1990 Metro corridor 1989 Chemical corridor

7

1987 Conservation corridor 1987 Green corridor

Royal Courts C of Justice e

1986 Jet Stream Corridor 1986 Resource Corridor

1870 0 Korridorr

W Westonbirt bii House, H E England l d 1864

1983 Ecological corridor

Berlin Poliklinikk

1982 Wind corridor

6

1980 Heritage corridor 1980 High-Tech corridor 1980 Power corridor 1978 Opportunity corridor Flight Corridor 1966

1977 Development corridor 1976 Canyon corridor 5

1976 Park corridor 1976 Rail corridor 1975 Travel corridor 1975 Stream corridor

W Westminster Palace a / Houses of P Parliament 1834

1834 Commons o Corridor r Chancellors a Corridor r Lords Corridor r

1973 Growth corridor

Royal Courts of Justice, London R u 1870

1852 Brumidi u Corridors o US Capitol p

1972 Business corridor 1971 Wildlife corridor

4

1970 Mining corridor 1970 Transit corridor 1968 Highway corridor 1967 Transportation corridor

British Parliament i

1965 River corridor

Le Corbusier threatens the Corridor-street Corridor street 1925

1962 Economic corridor

3

1961 Industrial corridor 1960 Watershed corridor 1959 Escape corridor

1823 Grand Corridor ido o

1955 Cultural corridor 1950 Utility corridor

Windsor C Castle stle

1952 Air corridor 2

1948 Urban corridor 1946 Trade corridor 1928 Valley corridor 1926 Exit corridor 1925 Corridor Street 1918 Polish corridor

published 1800-2000 “Corridor� in publish u hed material, a 1800 0-2000 10,000 Occurrence perr 10,0 000 words

1

1914 Community corridor 1914 Medical Corridor

1841 Street corridor

Danzig Corridor 1918


14

Elements of Architecture

PAGE 12

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

19th century visual corridors vs. service corridors (China vs. UK)

PAGE 13

CORRIDOR TYPES

PAGE 42

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

HOUSES TRANSVERSAL

Wall-Wall

Wall-Wall-Ceiling 0.9m-1.3m

Wall-Wall-Ceiling 1.4m-1.8m

Wall-Wall-Ceiling 1.6m-2.2m

Corridio

Singleg Loaded / Egress

Singleg Loaded / Ingress

DoubleDoubleLoaded / Loaded / Staggered Aligned

Wall-Wall-Ceiling 2.4m-2.6m

Column-Column-Ceiling

Column-Wall-Ceiling

Column-Wall-Ceiling

Column-Wall-Ceiling

Column-ColumnColumn-Column

Door-Door-Door-Door

Door-Wall-Door

坊 [lång]

坊 [lång]

坊 [lång]

坊 [lång]

Aisle

%NĂšLADE

Gallery

Segmented Corridors Service corridors in English manor houses

1897 Path & View Lu’s Salt Merchant House (�塞盧�隽商�厅), Yangzhou, China

ca.1368 - Present Coupling SĂŹhĂŠyuĂ n (Typical Courtyard House Typology), Beijing, China

Parallel to, but inaccessible from, the physical path of travel, a visual corridor penetrates the deep plan, resolving long distance to reach the main hall along the 90m depth of the plan. KJ

One row of interior space always meet with courtyard or small garden through the corridor as if today’s duct space above your head do. About 70 meters deep “typical� housing in pre-modern beijing: the environment of interior space is supported by the collaboration between corridorcourtyard couple. KJ

Visual a Corridor

A courtyard is an enclosed area and a private open spaces surrounded by walls or buildings. As the main architecture of Beijing people for generations, Beijing courtyard house is famous both home and abroad. Since the construction of capital of Yuan dynasty, Beijing courtyard houses were built up along with the palaces, GOVERNMENTOFĂšCE  street and Hutong. The courtyard is spacious; the houses are independent and connected by corridors. Editors, “Echo: Continuation of Heavenly Creation in the Noisy Timeâ€?, Urban China 27 (2008): 16

1864 Separation Bear Wood Manor, by Robert Kerr, Berkshire, UK

NDÛOORPLAN

Occupants of corridor - Nursery corridor - Woman Servants corridor - Transverse corridor - Butler’s corridor - Men’s corridor - Housekeepers’ corridor

STÛOORPLAN P

Visual Corridor C

0 5

PAGE 

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PAGE 15

10

CORRIDOR TYPES?

2 20m

'ROUNDÛOORPLANANDWESTELEVATION GROUNDÛOORPLAN

Corridor and universal requirement of privacy

view of corridor

overlap of views from/ to dark & light spaces

PAGE 30

Wall-Wall-Ceiling 0.9m-1.3m

Wall-Wall

Screen-Floor-Screen

Screen-Screen-FloorScreen-Screen

Wall-Floor-Wall

Arcade

Labyrinth

Avenue

AllĂŠe

Highway/ g y Railway

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

a b c d

1277 Urban wall Passetto di Borgo, Pope Nicholas III, Rome, Italy The 2,600 ft corridor, on top of a wall, serves as an escape route, linking the Vatican City with the Castel Sant’Angelo. MW

Space a

Space

The exterior corridoio connects Palazzo Pitti, on one side of the Arno River, with the Palazzo Vecchio. The upper level corridor crosses the street privately above the Arno Bridge. MW

e

1646 Interiorized Colossal Corridor The Corsia Sistina, Hospital of S. Spirito, Rome, Italy MW

593 Shitenno-ji Temple, Osaka, Japan 34°N

ca. 771-221 BC Layout of of Wangzheng city (the capital of the Later Zhou period), China, 34°N

1565 Exclusive passage Vasari’s Corridor, Giorgio Vasari, Florence, Italy

Form of Connection, Separation and Escape The corridor’s main function of speed is derived its etymology. In the 14th century, the corridor was not a place, but a person. From “currere,â€? to run, THECORRIDĂ‹REĂšRSTDESCRIBEDACOURIER

and eventually referred to the PATHWAYSABOVEFORTIĂšEDWALLS WHICH enabled the transfer of messages. With the invention of the trace italienne FORTIĂšCATIONSYSTEMINTHETHCENTURY  military leaders relocated troops to ditches at the bottom of the wall. The corridor followed. In the 17th century, architects interiorized the corridor. By The 19th century corridoio described a passage within a building. The corridor ceased to be an urban element, but still maintained a close relationship to the dimensions of the human body and the function of speed. But now it occurred within buildings rather than between them. Architects gradually abandoned the corridor after its heyday in the 19th century. However, escalating building heights of the 20th century brought increasing demands exit corridor. Stephan Trueby

Control, Speed Matters: From short pathway for the runner to device of separation, escape

618-907 Map of Xi’an (Capital of the Tang Dynasty), China 34°N

710-794 Layout of Heijokyo (Capital of the Nara Dynasty), Japan 34°N

1420 Forbidden Palace, Beijing, China 39°N

1599 Trace Italienne

1409 Cruciform hospital 1667 Coleshill Mansion, 1854 Kirkbride Plan, UK ward of S. Maria Nuova, Berkshire, UK 51°N Florence, Italy 43°N

1864 Westonbirt House, Gloucestershire, UK

Corridor and universal requirement of privacy: Half a century later, when Robert Kerr was informing his readership of the perils attending throughfare rooms, the issue had been resolved once and for all: the corridor and the universal requirement of PRIVACYWEREĂšRMLY established and principles of planning could be advanced with more or less equal application to all dwellings in all circumstances: larger houses, small houses, servant quarters, family apartments, rooms for business, for leisure - these discriminations were subsidiary to the key distinction between route and destination that would henceforth pervade domestic planning. Kerr made diagrams that reduced house plans to these two categories of trajectory and position, proposing that their proper arrangement was the substratum upon which both architecture and domesticity were to be raised. ... Kerr, for his part, mobilized architecture in its view of corridors entirely against the possibility of commotion and distraction, bringing to bear a range of tactics involving the meticulous planning and furnishing of each part of the building under a general strategy of compartmentalization on the other hand, coulpled with universal accessibility on the other. Evans, Robin, 1944-. 1997. “Figures, Doors, and Passagesâ€?, Translations from Drawing to Building. Vol. 2. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

1870 Hassobury House, Hertfordshire, UK

One row of interior space always meet with courtyard or small garden through the corridor as if today’s duct TQBDFBCPWFZPVSIFBEEP"CPVU70 meters deep “typical� housing in pre-modern beijing: the environment of interior space is supported by the collaboration between corridorDPVSUZBSEDPVQMF

PAGE 31

1660 Sapienza, Rome, Italy

Axis: Principal of architectural design in Chinese architecture Following axes believed to connect heaven (north) and earth (south), water (east) ANDĂšREWEST WASTHE major principal of place making. (The dynamics of interacting forces of nature - Above) Axes were usually enclosed by corridor or corridoric space (similar to the CLOISTER ADOFĂšCIAL buildings for royalties & the rich / b: cave dwelling / c: houses for rich and moderate class people / e: palace (Chang, Chao-Kang, 1987)

Axis Matters: From Cosmology to Urban Planning and Architecture

ca. 1100 BC Diagram of ca. 206 BC-220 AD King City in Zhouli (Rites Ming Tang-Composite of Zhou) Kaogongji Ritual Hall (of Han (Record of Trades), Dynasty), Xian, China China 34°N 34°N

Aerial view of SĂŹhĂŠyuĂ n

TANGENTIAL

ca. 1368 SĂŹhĂŠyuĂ n House, Beijing, China

Cosmology & Symbolism In essence, the city was a kind of mandala where the emperor or the king was ruling from a correct position of orientation, i.e. from the center of the axis mundi. The city should be carefully laid out in accordance with a system of orientation which provided law and order, as well as cosmological SIGNIĂšCANCE4HUS THECOSMO MAGICAL symbolism of a capital city was both a matter of religion and politics. - The Secret of Luo Shu: Numerology in Chinese Art and Architecture. SĂśdra Sandby: Sweden, Berglund, Lars, 1990 Cities (and also military camps) were round or usually square, with a palace and governmental buildings in the middle, surrounded by a wall that had gates in each cardinal direction. The majority of cities in China, except those limited by natural topographic features, were oriented to the south, as dictated by the cosmological theories where the cardinal points of the compass were represented symbolically. KJ+NP

visual corridor

'ROUNDÛOORPLAN

TYPOLOGY TRANSVERSAL

PAGE 43

TANGENTIAL

Visual & Physical Corridors Chinese tradition of courtyard houses

1913 Woolworth Building, NYC, USA

PAGE 36

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

TEMPLES & SHRINES TRANSVERSAL

PAGE 37

TANGENTIAL

Space for rituals Space between this world and the next

0

5

10

20m

Space for bifurcation Space for separation

0

View to Lettner

5

10m

Section of corridor

'ROUNDÛOORPLAN

Front view

Section of corridor View of Corridor

1394 Ceremony 1450 Reorientation

Jeongjeon (Main Hall) of Jongmyo Shrine, Seoul, Korea

Monastery Church, Buxheim, Germany

spirit chambers

100m-long corridor (盺�忧敺) of Jeongjeon is a

Passage and Ritual Divider: Outside the church

ancestral rites

space for royal ancestral ceremony. Located

proper, the corridor permits passage between

between spirit chambers and platforms for

monks’ quarters and church; after penetrating the

Corridor

orchestra and performance, the corridor is a space of mitigating spiritual and the physical

sanctuary walls, the thickened section of the corridor screens between the choir and the more

Site plan

world. Also, it is a theatrical space, which

profane volume of the nave beyond. MW

upper platform: orchestra

audiences can observe the whole ceremony through repeated columns. KJ

lower platform: orchestra and performance 'ROUNDÛOORPLAN Lower platform ca. 1625

ca. 1625

Pilgrimage Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, Italy

Orientation Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain

The basilica plan incribes a counterclockwise pilgrimage path inside the larger space of communal worship. NP

ca. 1625 Cosmology Chakravartin Temple Complex, Indian Subcontinent

Parallel spaces orient prayer toward the sacred representative object of the minbar, and Mecca. NP

ca. 1200s Cosmology Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia Numerous corridors surrouding the main temple exactly indicate directions and movement of celestial bodies. KJ Corridor on ceremony

17th century versatile corridors vs. secret corridors (Japan vs. France)

PAGE 44

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

INSTITUTIONS TRANSVERSAL 1894 Roofed Walkway

CORRIDOR

1829

The practice of placing individuals under ‘observation’ is a natural extension of a justice imbued with disciplinary methods and examination Corridors most explicitly procedures. It is segregated occupants surprising that the in prisons and asylums. cellular prison, Courthouse, parliament with its regular and government chronologies, forced ministry buildings labor, its authorities replicate the doctrine of surveillance and of normality in a more registration, its subtle ways. MW experts in normality, who continue and multiply the functions of the judge, would have become the modern instrument of penality? Is it surprising that prisons resemble factories, schools, barracks, aerial view hospitals, which all resemble prisons? Foucault, Michel, 19261984. 1977. Discipline and Punish : The Birth of the Prison. 1st American ed. New York: Pantheon Books. Panoptic Corridors Eastern State Penitentiary, by John Haviland, Philadelphia, USA

Chen Clan Academy, Guangzhou, China

PAGE 39

TANGENTIAL

PAGE 45

TANGENTIAL Peak of corridor Institutional corridors of prison and asylum

Roofed Walkway Corridor as grid

The overall layout of the Chen Clan Academy is a juxstaposition of roofed and open corridors operate as grid system of a city. Corridor connects 19 buildings with 9 halls and 6 courtyards, creating complex transition between indoor & outdoor spaces. Here, what one observe is the overlap of multiple views and constant change of the nature: achivement of transparency in architecture through corridor. KJ

Mixture o Mix of Views ews

Secret Corridors Service Corridor, Secret Passage

Mixture o Mix of Views iews

aerial view

linked solitude with moral and vocational instruction, EXEMPLIĂšEDTHE Pennsylvania System of penology, and became a model for over 300 prisons worldwide Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission marker posted outside of Eastern State Penitentiary, 1996

roofed corridor crossing the courtyard

view of corridor; roofed & uncovered

Mixture of views (View throughout corridor)

view of corridor

view of corridor

View of control (View through corridor) 1100s Housing Complex Tulou Building Typoology, Fujian, China

1791 Panopticon Jeremy Bentham Pure Visibility

1807-1814 Glasgow Lunatic Asylum William Stark Visibility and Separation

Mixture of Views

NDÛOORPLAN

'ROUNDÛOORPLAN 1682 Secret Corridors Palace of Versailles, Louis le Vau, Jules Hardoin Mansart, France Frugal and communtarian compared to the ÛAMBOYANTPUBLICSPACESOFTHE0ALACE THE ÛAMBOYANTPUBLICSPACESOFTHE0ALACE THE secret passages at Versailles initially permitted the discrete movement of servants — and later became a refuge for the Royal Family themselves at the dawn of the Revolution. KJ+MW

Wall conceiling the corridor

Corridor revealed

The vanishing point, discovered in the Renaissance and materialized here in a French Baroque Landscape, PQFSBUFTBTBDPSSJEPS EJSFDUJOHUSBGmD UPXBSEBmYFEQPJOUWJBTIJGUJOHQBUIT Privileging the solitary viewer, the corridic perspective foreshortens and rationalizes the distant vista from its TUBUJPOBSZPCTFSWBUJPOQPJOU


Elements of Architecture CORRIDOR

PARANOIA

PAGE 132

PAGE 125

CORRIDOR-DRIVEN LANDSCAPE WARTIME CORRIDORS

15

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PAGE 133

CODED IN THE CODE STREET FOR LIVING )NĂšNITE#ORRIDORS The increasing scale of Modernist social housing in the twentieth century was INEXTRICABLYTIEDTOTHEUSEOFTHECORRIDOR OFTENINNEWARRANGEMENTSTHATTRIED TOBREAKTHEANONYMITYOFTHEDOUBLE LOADEDCORRIDOR4HEFAILUREOFTHESE MODELSBECAMEANINDICTMENTOFTHECORRIDORrWHETHERDESERVEDORNOT NP

1928-1932 .ARKOMĂšN"UILDING Moscow, Russia -OISEI'INZBURG

82m

Wide, single-loaded corridor

%FÚCIENT0LANS IN $EFENSIBLE Corridors An administrative cost-cutting decision in St. Louis’ Pruitt-Igoe housing complex (1952-55, HOK/Minoru 9AMASAKI CONCENTRATEDCORRIDORS ONTOOVERYTHIRDÛOOR!BSENTTERRITORIAL oversight, the corridors, serving up to 150 residents, quickly deteriorated into anonymous, crime-ridden gauntlets; following the project’s demolition, the HEIGHTOFTHEBUILDINGS IFNOTALLOF modernism, was critiqued in antiCORRIDICnDEFENSIBLESPACEoTHEORIES

1939 World War II & the Danzig Corridor Nazi Propaganda concerning the Danzig Corridor

1952 Pedregulho Housing, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Affonso Reidy

1939 Line in the Corridor

260m

260m of single-loaded corridor, separated from the elements through a porous screen wall.

Military formation during the Nazi-led invasion of the Danzig Corridor.

Sigfried Giedion: “A simple example of how every CITYSHOULDBEBUILTo &RENCH (ILARY Walter Gropius: according to his wife’s notes, was nINLOVEoWITHTHEBUILDINGANDSAIDTHATITISnA MODELNOTONLYFOR"RAZILBUTFORTHEWORLDo

Danzig Corridor )F7ORLD7AR)WASTHEÚRSTTRULYCODDIDORICWARr TYPIÚEDBYTHEDIGGINGOFTRENCHESFORBATTLErBY 7ORLD7AR))THEALLIANCEBETWEENTHETERM lCORRIDORmANDCONÛICTHADBECOMEFULLYCEMENTED in the cultural conscious.

1972 Corviale Project Rome, Italy Mario Fiorentino

The so-called Danzig, or Polish, Corridor, DESCRIBEDIN'ERMAN.ATIONALISTPROPAGANDAOF THES WASUSEDTODESCRIBETHESTRIPOFLAND through German-claimed territories linking Poland with the Baltic Sea. The use of Corridor, wuth its KINETICMENINGS RATHERTHANREGION TODESCRIBE the land, was controversial in Poland, who claimed a more static notion of dwelling on the site. NP

! M  ÛOORCORRIDORSEPARATESTWOPARALLEL STRUCTURESTHEFOURTHÛOOR MEANTASASTREETIN THESKY WASQUICKLYTAKENOVERBYSQUATTERS 1952-1972

/SCAR.EWMAN $EFENSIBLE3PACE  1914 World War I : The Corridor War

958m

Trenches in the street of a Flanders town Photo: Hulton Archive/ Getty Images

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PAGE 127

PAGE 138

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PAGE 139

CODED IN THE CODE CODES AND BUILDING FORM

variation 01

Sort by ranking country & year

Australia 1988

31.3m / 6.1m / 1.43m

Australia 2007

29.9m / 5.8m / 2.58m

Guyana 2005

41.9m / 6.3m / 1.15m N

" 3'8

SIOIT EN EX DIM N L EE NA TW BE

6'8"

GO DIA100’

ILD

BU OF NSS SIG

MID mSTHE INCHUNITWASABANDONED BUT THE INCHSTANDARDWASRETAINED0RESENTDAY EGRESSnDESIGNoCORRELATESWIDTHDETERMINEDBY occupant loads) with discharge rates.

ING

49.6m / 10.3m / 1.69m

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code - 1999

49.6m / 10.3m / 1.69m

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code - 2006 Hong Kong 1996

51.3m / 14.7m / 3.0m

Hong Kong 2011 India 1986

[O

44.5m / 11.5m / 1.43m

DIA LL " 10 RA 20'0 VE

India 2005

59.5m / 15.2m / 1.43m

Saudi Arabia 2007

64.3m / 6.3m / 1.58m 65.3m / 6.2m / 1.58m

IBC 2000 IBC 2012

65.3m / 6.2m / 1.58m

N

SIOIT EN EX DIM N L EE NA TW GO BE 0’

variation 02

ING ILD " BU 20'0 OF NS SIG

66.1m / 15.2m / 1.58m

South Africa 1990

]/

56.1m / 10.2m / 1.58m

South Africa 2011

2

Australia 2007

29.9m / 5.8m / 2.58m [O

India 1986

44.5m / 11.5m / 1.43m

VARIATION

N

SIOIT EN EX DIM N L EE NA TW GO BE 0’

DIA LL 10 RA '0" VE 20

3'8 "

Australia 1988 Guyana 2005

31.3m / 6.1m / 1.43m 41.9m / 6.3m / 1.15m 49.6m / 10.3m / 1.69m

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code - 2006

49.6m / 10.3m / 1.69m

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code - 1999

]/ ING ILD '0" BU 20 OF NS SIG

51.3m / 14.7m / 3.0m

Hong Kong 2011

51.3m / 14.7m / 3.0m

Hong Kong 1996

2

56.1m / 10.2m / 1.58m

4"

4" 3'8"

#ENTRAL-ID,EVELS%SCALATORS (ONG+ONG Kinetic system of escalators Steep terrain #OORDINATESˆm.ˆm% 4EMPERATURE2ANGEˆ#ˆ#

3HINJUKU4OKYO *APAN Grade-Separated shopping district Connection to Metro and Train networks #OORDINATESˆm.ˆmmm7 4EMPERATURE2ANGEˆ#ˆ#

IBC 2000

Dead-End Corridor Stair Location

PAGE 150

CORRIDOR

CODED IN THE CODE TOWER CORRIDORS

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

CODED IN THE CODE TOWER CORRIDORS

0EACHTREE#ENTER !TLANTA 'EORGIA 53! Spatially independent system 4UBESANDLOBBIESPERCEPTIONOFCRIME #OORDINATESˆm.ˆm7 4EMPERATURE2ANGEˆ#ˆ#

IBC 2012 South Africa 1990 Corridor

VARIATION 2012).4m,"5),$).'#/$% ).4m,#/$% #/5.#),Chapter 10 - Means of Egress, SECTION 1018 CORRIDORS

20th century device-ďŹ cation of corridor (exit corridors) PAGE 148

2ÂĄ3/,A6ILLE3OUTERRAINIAN -ONTREAL Multiple-level underground system 60 separate complexes #OORDINATESˆm.ˆm7 4EMPERATURE2ANGEˆ# ˆ#

South Africa 2011

66.1m / 15.2m / 1.58m

plan

3KYWAY -INNEAPOLIS -INNESOTA 53! %LEVATED PRIVATELY OWNEDSYSTEMOFBRIDGES $OWNTOWNBLOCKS #OORDINATESˆm.ˆm7 4EMPERATURE2ANGEˆ# ˆ#

Saudi Arabia 2007

65.3m / 6.2m / 1.58m

4"

65.3m / 6.2m / 1.58m

3'8"

5NDERGROUND (OUSTON 4EXAS 53! Underground tunnel system DOWNTOWNBLOCKS #OORDINATESˆmmm.ˆmmm7 4EMPERATURE2ANGEˆ# ˆ#

India 2005

59.5m / 15.2m / 1.43m 64.3m / 6.3m / 1.58m

4"

4RACEDOVERITSHOSTCITYANDINSTRUMENTALIZEDTHROUGHTHECORRIDOR INTERIORURBANNETWORKSOPERATEACROSSA wide scalar gradient

2

51.3m / 14.7m / 3.0m

Sort by ranking of length

3 0" 3'0" 3'0 0

2012).4m,"5),$).'#/$% ).4m,#/$% #/5.#),Chapter 10 - Means of Egress, SECTION 1018 CORRIDORS

&ROM)NTERIOR5RBANISM0ORTMAN3PACE #HARLES Rice and Alina McConnochie, 2010

]/

Building code drives the form of the corridor. To section accommodate two queues of occupants, code PRESCRIBESAMINIMUMWIDTHOFINCHES AND a minimum height of 7.5 feet. The passage is CONTINUOUSANDUNOBSTRUCTEDFROMTHEPOINTOF ENTRYTOTHEPOINTOFDISCHARGE3PANNINGBETWEEN TWOEXITS THECORRIDORMUSTBEATLEASTON HALFTHE length of the overall diagonal dimension of the BUILDING#ODERESTRICTSDEAD ENDSTOFEET AND prevents intervening rooms from disrupting the continuity of the corridor. The egress corridor is a continuous, extruded DOORWAY WHEREnEXITINGoBECOMESTHEPRIMARY function. Omnipresent signs, spaced every 100 FEET GUARANTEETHEVISIBILITYANDLEGIBILITYOFEXIT POINTS"UILDINGCODEREDEĂšNESTHECORRIDORASAN attenuated escape device. MW

3'8" 3'8 3 3' '8 '8" 8"

3'0" 3'0 3 ''0 0"

1970s-80s Peachtree Center, Atlanta Axonometric View of Circulation Networks

LL RA VE

4"

3'8" 3 3'8 '8" 8 8"

 mS US model codes adopt the NBS report and NFPA 101 until the mode 1980’s.

1997 the International Code Council (ICC) PUBLISHESTHE)NTERNATIONAL"UILDING#ODE)"#  WITHA INCHMINIMUMCORRIDORWIDTH

3'8"

Life Belt: Form of collective fear &OLLOWING7ORLD7AR)) THEIMAGEOF(IROSHIMArINVENTED INTHECORRIDORSOFTHE0ENTAGONrANDTHETHREATOF INSTANTANEOUSURBANDESTRUCTIONCONTRIBUTEDTOA DYSTOPIANĂšELDOFURBANPLANNINGWHOSEPRIMARYSTUDYWAS THENEEDFORESCAPE!NURBANDESIGNSCHEMEPROPOSED BY-)4PROFESSOR.ORBERT7EINERANDPUBLISHEDINTHE mass-medium of TIME Magazine illustrates a rational SOLUTIONTOBOMBINGTHEDECENTRALIZATIONOFURBANLIFETO SUBURBIACONNECTEDVIAASO CALLEDn,IFE"ELTo!NATTEMPT to avoid the apocalyptic disaster to a dense city formally RESUSCITATEDTHERADIALPLANNINGOF%BENEZER(OWARDmS 'ARDEN#ITYOFTHEPREVIOUSCENTURY4HELIFEBELT AWIDE network of ‘corridoric’ space was envisioned as a huge life vest of the society, which can save millions of lives from the hell. NP

1935 the National Bureau of Standards (NBS, the present National Institute of Standards and 4ECHNOLOGY .)3# PUBLISHESTHE INCHEGRESS system in Design and Construction of Building %XITS CORRELATINGEGRESSWIDTHWITHÛOWRATES

[O

4"

Criteria 10th floor of a hotel building with maximum occupancy of 100 people Room size = 5.6m x 5.6m & 5.5m x 6.5m

2

slip resistant surface

)NTERIORURBANNETWORKS BUILTONAN infrastructure of corridors, permit CITIESrOFTENINEXTREMECLIMACTICOR GEOGRAPHICALSETTINGSrTOEXPAND horizontally on a new, virtual ground plane. From Hong Kong to Houston, the corridor-city formalizes an element of egress in the name of comfort. NP

]/ G ING

fire rated material

(OW53#ITIES#AN0REPAREFOR!TOMIC7ARn,IFEBELTSAROUNDCITIESWOULD PROVIDEAPLACEFORBOMBED OUTREFUGEESTOGOo -)4PROFESSORSSUGGEST ABOLDPLANTOPREVENTPANICANDLIMITDESTRUCTION ,)&% $ECEMBER  PAGE -)40ROFESSOR .ORBERT7IENER

CORRIDOR

4HE4OWERmS4WIN

0OSSIBLE-AXIMUM,ENGTH-INIMUM7IDTHOFCORRIDORS BYBUILDINGCODE

ILD

obstruction zone

Garden Cities of Terror The Corridic form of Victorian 5TOPIANCITYPLANNINGrNOTABLY %BENEZER(OWARDmS'ARDEN#ITY  rRETURNSINTHEDYSTOPIAN strategy of the Life Belt. NP

%8)4 !2#()4%#452% $ESIGNBETWEENWARAND PEACE 3TEPHAN4RUBY

1927 THESEnRECOMMENDATIONSoBECOME regulations under the NFPA Building Exits Code (NFPA 101-T), later known as the Life Safety Code.

BU OF NSS SIG

exit sign

1913 .EW9ORK3TATE$EPARTMENTOF,ABORmS LAWPRESCRIBESAMINIMUMSTAIRWIDTHOFINCHES  ANDAMAXIMUMOCCUPANTLOADOFPEOPLEPER ÛOOR

SIOIT EN EX DIM N L EE NA TW BE

)MAGINARYFORMOFCORRIDORACCORDINGTOTHE )"# 

0OSSIBLEEGRESSCORRIDORVARIATIONDRAWINGS : Following IBC

N

Egress Width Timeline 1913 the National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA) Committee on Fireproof Construction RECOMMENDSTHE INCHEXITSTAIR

GO 0’ DIA10 1

4HESUBSTITUTIONOFTHEONELARGECENTRE through many small centres starts with the most important war room in the Pentagon. During the First World War the US War Departments were to a large extent stationed in France, in the Second World War however, the majority of Allied military operations were increasingly supervised from Washington.“1 Worldwide operations pivoted around the so-called Signal #ENTERONTHE ĂšFTH Ă›OOROFTHEINNER Pentagon ring. The largest communications facility of its time, this ELEGANTROOMWITHITS Ă›UORESCENT SURFACES WASABLETOTRANSMIT ĂšVE million words per day. The Signal Center was the ultimate ‘centre in the periphery’. And the last of its kind.

PAGE 146

/CTOBER  “Housing Study: High 2ISE(IGH#RIME oBY Jack Rosenthal, The .EW9ORK4IMES

CORRIDOR-CITIES

)NTERNATIONAL$EĂšNITIONOF#ORRIDOR

Corridor: An enclosed exit access component THATDEĂšNESANDPROVIDESAPATHOFEGRESSTRAVEL Means of Egress: A continuous and UNOBSTRUCTEDPATHOFVERTICALANDHORIZONTAL egress travel from any occupied portion of a BUILDINGORSTRUCTURETOAPUBLICWAY!MEANSOF egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge. - IBC (International Building Code), International Code Council, 2012

3'8 "

without the nuclear threat.

LL RA VE [O

to reach one point from another. The change in paradigms from nationalized to denationalised warfare Admittedly this kind of architecture INITIALLYHADITSDRAWBACKSASFARAS LEFTAGIGANTICBUILDINGINITSWAKEr orientation was concerned. The the Pentagon in Arlington near 7ASHINGTON$#LTWASBUILTWITHTHE magazine Life compared Pentagon staff with rats in a purpose of BEHAVIOURAL winning nothing scientist’s less than the LABYRINTH4HE Second World Architectural War. Its Forum was more completion marks convinced and the emergence of WROTEIN THE ĂšRSTATOMIC “Here is the super power. The picture of a future Pentagon is not architecture in only the largest WHICHBUILDINGWILL BUILDINGINTHE BELINKEDTOTHEIR WORLDBUTALSOITS USERSBYSMOOTH design and Ă›OWINGTRAFĂšC construction are networks.â€? unsurpassed in the 1942 Standing guard in a still-under-construction speed in which they CORRIDOR 0ICTUREBY-YRON$AVIS An extremely were carried out. EFĂšCIENTANDSTALWARTMANAGER ,ESLIE Grove, was promoted following his /NTH3EPTEMBER NOTEVEN two months after the War Department organisation of the Pentagon’s construction site to military director of ANNOUNCEDTHEIRINTENTIONTOBUILD

THE-ANHATTAN0ROJECTrTHAT CONSTRUCTIONWORKBEGAN4HEREWAS FORMIDABLEANDTOP SECRETRESEARCH no ceremony, no photographs, project which eventually was to ABSOLUTELYNOTHING%VERYBODYSIMPLY PRODUCETHEATOMBOMBANDTHUSBRING got down to work. Architect George ABOUTTHEENDOF Edwin BergstrÜm’s workforce the 2nd World War. CONSISTEDOFARCHITECTS  STRUCTURALENGINEERS MECHANICAL The Pentagon ENGINEERS ELECTRICALENGINEERS  MARKSTHE ÚNAL DRAINAGEEXPERTSANDANUMBEROF hypostasis of other specialists. The extent of ORGANISATIONALPROBLEMS ANDPRESSURE CENTRALITYBEFORE decentralizing on the individual, was immense. Two tendencies in architects died of heart attacks, two military thinking construction workers in accidents TOOKTHE ÛOOR4HE involving concrete, one worker is development of SUPPOSEDTOHAVEBEENDISCOVERED ARPAnet, the cast in cement, the other is said to precursor to the have fallen in a ditch full of concrete Internet which which had not yet set. cleverly linked scattered At the end of this chaotic period an headquarters with extraordinary layout of corridors had BEENPRODUCEDLNSPITEOFTHEFACTTHAT leading US the total length of corridors amounted universities, would to 17.5 miles (28.2 kilometres) one only HAVEBEEN INCONCEIVABLE needed a maximum of seven minutes

3'8 "

CORRIDOR-DRIVEN LANDSCAPE WARTIME CORRIDORS

2'3"

PAGE 126

&OLLOWINGATHREE YEAROBSERVATIONALSTUDY  .EWMANmSAUTOPSYOF0RUITT )GOEBLAMED excessivley long, unpatrolled corridors for THEPROJECTmSDEMISE0RUITT )GOEBECAME THETOTEMFORANTI MODERNSENSIBILITIES CORRIDORS SEEMINGLY TOBLAMEFORTHEDEATHOF modernism.

0LANOFTYPICALRESIDENTIALÛOOR

PAGE 149

#ORRIDORINTHE3KY

&ORMALIZINGTHEESCAPEROUTE OUTOFOFĂšCIALPROPOSALSFORTHENEW7ORLD4RADE#ENTER CONTAINEDASKYBRIDGE OSTENSIBILYTOCALMPUBLICFEARS ABOUTTHESAFETYOFTALLBUILDINGS7//$ !.4/.9!.$0(),)0 OLDFIELD. 2007)

4HEWORLDmSTALLESTBUILDINGS  PRESENT 4HEFREE PLANSKYSCRAPERrSEEMINGLYANON CORRIDORTYPOLOGYrINEVITABLYREQUIRESTHEUSEOFCORRIDORSFOR 4HEFREE PLANSKYSCRAPERrSEEMINGLYANON CORRIDORTYPOLOGYrINEVITABLYREQUIRESTHEUSEOFCORRIDORSFOR EVACUATION4HETYPICALPLANENABLESTHEFREEPLAN

4RAUMAAND#ODE Ineffective Corridors: Corridors stagnated the evacuation process on 9/11. After descending into the exit stairwells, occupants periodically encountered 10 to 100-foot horizontal transfer corridors on mechanical levels. By forcing the occupants to exit stair shafts, the meandering CORRIDORSCREATEDUNCERTAINTYANDCONTRIBUTINGTOTHESLOW CORRIDORSCREATEDUNCERTAINTYANDCONTRIBUTINGTOTHESLOW DOWNWARDÛOW RATEOFONEÛOORPERMINUTE

1908-19683INGER"UILDING .9# 53!

The NISC concluded that the transfer corridors reduced THELEGIBILITYOFTHEEGRESSROUTE PREVENTINGMORE THELEGIBILITYOFTHEEGRESSROUTE PREVENTINGMORE occupants from escaping. 7 years later in 2008, the )NTERNATIONAL#ODE#OUNCILAPPROVEDBUILDINGANDÚRE )NTERNATIONAL#ODE#OUNCILAPPROVEDBUILDINGANDÚRE CODEREVISIONS REÛECTINGTHE.)34RECOMMENDATIONS CODEREVISIONS REÛECTINGTHE.)34RECOMMENDATIONS Though the 2009 International Building Code does not MAKECONSIDERABLECHANGESTOEGRESSCORRIDORS THE MAKECONSIDERABLECHANGESTOEGRESSCORRIDORS THE edition restructured the document to emphasize evacuation devices. The International Code Council added Chapter 10, Means of Ineffective Corridors Egress, which dedicated an entire section to the corridor device - section 1016 Corridors.

1909 Metropolitan Life Tower (Clock Tower), .9# 53!

PAGE 136

“As I descended the stairs down to the Mezzanine Level, once or twice I had to exit the staircase through a door and go down a corridor in order to RECONNECTTOTHESAMESTAIRWELL)FOUNDTHISTOBE RECONNECTTOTHESAMESTAIRWELL)FOUNDTHISTOBE extremely disconcerting. Everyone who did this, STOPPEDBEFORETHEYEXITEDTHESTAIRCASETOMAKE STOPPEDBEFORETHEYEXITEDTHESTAIRCASETOMAKE sure they were doing the right thing. This slowed us down and there was concern that the door WOULDLOCKBEHINDUSo WOULDLOCKBEHINDUSo )NTERVIEW.)34 Ă›OORS

,IKETHECORRIDËRE THE architectural device transmitted emergency information. Emergency exit regulations required DEPUTYÚREWARDENSTO DEPUTYÚREWARDENSTO gather and account for THEÛOORmSOCCUPANTS INTHECORRIDORSBEFORE descending into the egress stairwells.

1930 -ANHATTAN#OMPNAY .9# 53!

1930#HRYSLER"UILDING .9# 53!

d!IRPLANE#RASHBETWEENTHETHANDTH d&IREST THÛOORSÚREÚGHTERSTOOK ÛOORDEATHSANDINJURIES ELEVATORSTOTHETHÛOORANDWALKEDÛOORS UPWORKERSONTHETHTHROUGHTHESTÛOORS were evacuated as a precaution.

1973-20017ORLD4RADE#ENTER .9# 53!

2004 Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan

PAGE 137

Corridors stagnated the evacuation process on 9/11. After descending into the exit stairwells, occupants periodically encountered 10 to 100foot horizontal transfer corridors on mechanical levels. By forcing the occupants to exit stair shafts, the meandering corridors contributed to the TMPXEPXOXBSEnPXSBUFPGFTDBQF

21th century elements of corridor PAGE 152

CORRIDOR

CORRIDOR

PAGE 153

ENCODING: DEVICES OF THE CORRIDOR !.!4/-9/&!#/22)$/2

Space Syntax !BSENCEOFnPLACEo.ETWORKDIAGRAMS REPRESENTTHEEGRESSANDACCESSCAPABILITYOF ACOMPARTMENTALISEDÛOORPLANS4OPOLOGICAL graphs model depth and relative asymmetry to calculate the egress complexity of corridor types. The corridor is reduced to a set of nodes and links.

Generic corridor: "UILDING $ELFT5NIVERSITYOF4ECHNOLOGY $ELFT .ETHERLANDS

Smoke Detector

Elements of Corridor

%LEMENTSOF!RCHITECTURE Wall

Door

Floor

%QUIPMENTS

Smoke Detector

Exit Sign

7IĂš-ODEM

2ESEARCH,ABORATORY 

Speaker

)NSCRIPTIONOFTHEBODY%GRESSANDĂšRESAFETY codes use a 22 inch unit to accommodate the SHOULDERWIDTHOFOCCUPANTS4HESTANDARD inch corridor is intended to accommodate two lines of occupants.

x 26 Wood

Emergency Light Fire Alarm

x8

x 12

Fire Resistance Door

Analysis: Simulations of egress complexity and congestion in hospital corridors. Alper Unlu, Gokhan Ulken and Erincik Edgu, “A Space Syntax Based Model in Evacuation of Hospitals,� in Proceedings of the 5th International Space Syntax Symposium (2005)

2004 Passenger Boarding Bridge with Laterally !DJUSTABLE#AB0ORTION BY.EIL(UTTON United States Patent

Interior urban networks, built on an infrastructure of corridors, permit cities—often in extreme climactic or geographical settings—to expand horizontally on a new, virtual ground plane. From Hong Kong to Houston, the corridor-city formalizes an element of egress in the name of comfort.

!NATOMYOFAM LONGDOUBLE LOADED !NATOMYOFAM LONGDOUBLE LOADED CORRIDORINAUNIVERSITYBUILDINGCLEARLYREVEALSITS CORRIDORINAUNIVERSITYBUILDINGCLEARLYREVEALSITS contemporary character in architecture: a safety device. !SETOFSAFETYDEVICESSMOKEDETECTOR ĂšRE !SETOFSAFETYDEVICESSMOKEDETECTOR ĂšRE EXTINGUISHER ĂšREALARM ĂšREHOSE ETC AREONLY elements in architecture that are enforced to HAVESPECIĂšCCOLOR DIMENSION MATERIAL AND HAVESPECIĂšCCOLOR DIMENSION MATERIAL AND NUMBERBYLAW4HESESAFETYDEVICESAREELEMENTS NUMBERBYLAW4HESESAFETYDEVICESAREELEMENTS within element (= corridor), which maintain its independent position and determines the character of the corridor. KJ

%LEMENTSOF#ORRIDOR%XPLODED PERMANENTCOMPONENTSTHATMAKEAM LONGDOUBLELOADEDCORRIDOR %LEMENTSOF#ORRIDOR%XPLODED PERMANENTCOMPONENTSTHATMAKEAM LONGDOUBLELOADED CORRIDOR

x 10

Emergency Light

Elevator

X  Glass

X

Fire Hose

X

Halogen Light x8

Speaker

x 96

Fluorescent Light

x 28

x 10

Emergency Light

Evacuation Map

x 10

x 16

x 52

Gypsum

x5

Column x 56 Glass

Camera

Steel

Ceiling

x6

Fire Extinguisher x 10

Wood Panel

Fire Extinguisher

Fire Alarm

Glass

x5

x 56

Evacuation Map

x 10

X

x 10

Brick

Fire Hose

9.2m

!ĂšREDESTROYED.EW9ORK#ITYmS7INDSOR(OTELIN 4HEBUILDINGmSWIDECORRIDORSANDSTAIRCASES ĂšLLEDWITHSMOKE TRAPPINGGUESTSINTHEIRHOTEL rooms. Without any alternate escape route, FOURTEENPEOPLEDIEDINTHEĂšRE ANDĂšFTY TWO SUFFEREDINJURIES0RESENT.9#BUILDINGCODE requires a separate, specialized evacuation route. Coded egress corridors cannot supply, return, exhaust, or ventilate air.

Fire Resistance Door

x5 200m

x 21 Vinyl Roll

Stair

Exit Sign

Gillian E. Livesey and Anthony Donegan, “Addressing Normalisation in the Pursuit of #OMPARABLE)NTEGRATION oIN0ROCEEDINGSOFTHE TH)NTERNATIONAL3PACE3YNTAX3YMPOSIUM

1899 Pre-code: smokey grand corridors endanger OCCUPANTSIN.9#mS7INDSOR(OTEL ANDALL OTHERBURNINGBUILDINGSPRIORTOTHEINVENTIONOF specialized life safety code and egress devices.

Sara Wermiel, “No Exit - The Rise and Demise of the Outside Fire Escape,â€? Technology and Culture VOL NO  

x 105

X Glass Panel

Mathematical translation: Seeding arrangements OFÛOORPLANCOMPARTMENTS-ATRICESOF interconnected rooms, single-loaded corridors ANDDOUBLE LOADEDCORRIDORSHAVEVARYING quantities of depth (of exit nodes) and choice. By simulating and assessing the route complexity, researchers compare the required evacuation TIMESFOREACHÛOORPLAN

VOL NO  

4HEEGRESSCORRIDORBORROWSITSWIDTH dimension from the Life Safety Code, WHICHCODIĂšEDTHE.&0!mS RECOMMENDATIONS4HE INCH

d"OMB4HREAT%VACUATION † 2005 Power Blackout Evacuation

2009 "URJ+HALIFA $UBAI 5!%

Richard W. Bukowski, NIST Technical Note %MERGENCY%GRESSFROM"UILDINGS0ART 1: History and Current Regulations for Egress Systems Design (Maryland: NIST Building and Fire

Sara Wermiel, “No Exit - The Rise and Demise of the Outside Fire Escape,� Technology and Culture

The 44-inch Corridor Coded corridor dimensions are derived FROMEXITSTAIRWIDTHS)N THE National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA) Committee on Fireproof #ONSTRUCTIONRECOMMENDTHE INCH exit stair. The committee referenced THE.EW9ORK3TATE$EPARTMENTOF ,ABORmSLAW WHICHPRESCRIBEDA minimum stair width of 22 inches.

1998 Petronas Twin Tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

d"OMB4HREAT%VACUATION

CORRIDOR

#ORRIDOR4HE)NSCRIBED0ATHOFA3OLDIER

1974 Willis (Sears) Tower, Chicago, IL, USA

† 2001 Airplane Crash - designed to withstand † 2001 Evacuation - Pre-emptive Evacuation on THEIMPACTOFA"OEINGAIRCRAFT BUTNOTTHE 3EPTEMBER  767s and 20000 gallons of jet fuel of the plans that hit them. 5000+ deaths.

Egress corridors: WTC horizontal transfer CORRIDORSANDÚRE RATED CORRIDORSANDÚRE RATED corridors on mechanical ÛOORS   AND ÛOORS   AND  

CORRIDOR

-ILITARYTRACES4HEĂšRSTCORRIDORSOFTHE THCENTURYWEREPATHWAYSALONGFORTIĂšED walls. Designers dimensioned the passage accommodate the moving path of a military messenger. The present day egress-corridor ISBASEDONA INCHUNIT AMEASUREMENTOF SOLDIERSSTANDINGINALINE FROM"OTHTHE corridor device and the original corridore trace the MOVEMENTSOFASOLDIERmSBODY

2002 ,IFE3AFETY$IAGRAMBY0ETER%ISENMAN

Charles Gwathmey, Steven Holl and Richard Meier (Š Richard Meier & Partners Architects, from .ORDENSONAND2ILEY 

1931 %MPIRE3TATE"UILDING .9# 53!

WTC tower emergency announcement

CODED IN THE CODE CODES AND BUILDING FORM standard supports two lines of people APATHOFÛEEINGOCCUPANTS ANDTHE COUNTERÛOWOFÚREÚGHTERS4HE standard corridor unit is a 22-inch shoulder width derived from queueing soldiers. Before the coded corridor BECAMEASSOCIATEDWITHSPEEDAND EGRESSTIMES ITWASBOUNDTOTHE anthropometric dimensions of a human BODY,IKETHECORRIDËRETHECOVERED WAYATOPFORTIÚEDWALLS THEEGRESS corridor traced the movement of a soldier. The archetypal element and the LATERDEVICEAREBOTHINSCRIBEDWITH military dimensions.

2002 &OSTERAND0ARTNERS .9# 53!

)NSTRUCTION6IDEO 4HE0ORT!UTHORITYOF.9.* 74# Fire Escape Drill, World Trade Center Fire Prevention and Life Safety Division 3OURCEHTTPWWWYOUTUBECOM WATCHVLA9.M9.W

“4HEENTIRECORRIDORBECAMEANINFERNOOUTSIDE “4HEENTIRECORRIDORBECAMEANINFERNOOUTSIDE OURFRONTDOOR3MOKEBEGANTOENTEROUROFĂšCE 4HEREWASALSODEBRISFALLING4HEĂšREONTHE corridor was at least 10 ft high, and it ran the ... good length of the corridor. 4HEN)SAWAĂšREBALL corridor.4HEN)SAWAĂšREBALL COMEDOWNTHEELEVATORSHAFTANDBLEWTHE COMEDOWNTHEELEVATORSHAFTANDBLEWTHE ELEVATORDOORS4HEĂšREBALLCAMERIGHTATMEIT ELEVATORDOORS4HEĂšREBALLCAMERIGHTATMEIT WASAREALLYBRIGHTCOLORo )NTERVIEW.)34 Ă›OORS

2ESPONSETO&IRE The corridor device is rooted in disaster, and the emergence of BUILDINGREGULATIONSCANBETRACEDTO THEÚRSTÚRECODES4HEINVENTION OFTHEELEVATORSAFETYBREAK WHICH ENABLEDTHEWIDESPREAD implementation of the elevator, BROUGHTABOUTTHEÚRSTSKYSCRAPERSIN #HICAGO3IMULTANEOUSLY .EW9ORK City witnessed a proliferation of tenements, which eventually grew taller THANÚREDEPARTMENTLADDERS!FTERA ÚREINTRAPPEDANDKILLEDTEN PEOPLEONTHEUPPERÛOORSOFA BUILDING .EW9ORKmSARCHITECTSCREATED THEÚRSTCOMPREHENSIVEBUILDINGCODE BYCOMPOSITEDVARIOUSEXISTINGRULES WITHNEWBUILDINGREGULATIONS4HE CITYmSÚRSTEXITLAWSAPPLIEDONLYTO TENEMENTHOUSING PRESCRIBINGEITHER one protected egress stairway or two EXITPOINTS)NAÚREDESTROYEDTHE 7INDSOR(OTELIN.EW9ORK$ESPITE AVAILABLEESCAPEROUTES THEWIDE CORRIDORSÚLLEDWITHSMOKE TRAPPING guests in their hotel rooms. Fearing that primary circulation corridors could endanger occupants in disaster situations, legislators encouraged the isolation and specialization of egress systems.

2002 4EAM5NITED!RCHITECTS .9# 53!

)NANEMERGENCYEVACUATION THEĂšREDEPARTMENTCOULDORDERACTIVATIONOFTHESMOKEPURGESYSTEM4HISSYSTEMDRAWSSMOKEANDFUMESFROMTENANTAREAS ANDSIMULTANEOUSLYPUMPSFRESHAIRINTOCORRIDORSENABLINGOCCUPANTSTOTRAVELTOTHESTAIRWAY3OURCEHTTPWWWYOUTUBECOMWATCHVLA9.M9.

1965 Fire-rated corridors74#THÛOORPLAN  WITH FOOTHÚRE RATEDCORRIDORSINTENANT WITH FOOTHÚRE RATEDCORRIDORSINTENANT spaces

n9OURATTENTIONPLEASE

n9OURATTENTIONPLEASE  your attention please. !NIMPORTANTPUBLIC address announcement WILLBEMADEINTHEMAIN CORRIDOROFYOURÛOORIN CORRIDOROFYOURÛOORIN a few moments.�

“We descended on this stair until we got to the LANDINGBETWEENĂ›OORSAND4HELIGHTSNOW LANDINGBETWEENĂ›OORSAND4HELIGHTSNOW went out in the stairwell. )ENTEREDTHETHĂ›OOR and went down a corridor to a different staircase )mMNOTSUREWHICHSTAIR BUT)BELIEVEITWASTHE original one I started out on). )NTERVIEW.)34 Ă›OORS

2002 4EAM4().+ .9# 53!

Image Sources: Imagining Ground Zero: The /FĂšCIALAND5NOFĂšCIAL0ROPOSALSFORTHE7ORLD Trade Center Site (Architectural Record Book)

)NTERVIEWWITHSURVIVORS

“The corridor was dim. I also heard people SCREAMINGFROMTHE;NEARBY=Ă›OOR)FELTTHEHEAT SCREAMINGFROMTHE;NEARBY=Ă›OOR)FELTTHEHEAT ONMYFACEAND)THOUGHTTHATMYEYEBROWSWERE ONMYFACEAND)THOUGHTTHATMYEYEBROWSWERE GOINGTOGETBURNED "LACKSMOKESTARTINGĂšLLING GOINGTOGETBURNED"LACKSMOKESTARTINGĂšLLING the corridor, it got really dense really fast.â€? )NTERVIEW.)34 FROMTHES

2002 0ETER%ISENMAN ETAL .9# 53!

1913 7OOLWORTH"UILDING .9# 53!

Concrete

#ABLE4RAY x 260


16

Territorialism: Liminal Nature

Liminal Nature

GSD option studio I Fall 2012 I Instructor: Paola Vigano, Lauren Abrahams Publication (pending): Inside a New Form of Dispersed Megalopolis, Harvard GSD

map of Metropolitan Park System (2012) land use and water pollution 0

10

20

30

40Km

Charles River Emerald Necklace by Frederick Law Olmsted (1896) Neponset River Metropolitan Park System by Charles Eliot (1894)

water ow

private property

public property (nature)

open space

water


Territorialism: Liminal Nature

17

new urbanity on liminal nature The liminal nature in Megalopolis have largely been exploited to fulfil people’s desire to escape from crowded and bustling urban area and to reside within nature; in other words, this mindset of Megalopolitan people facilitated suburbanization, which created today’s problems of privatization, pollution of nature, and broad social issues as well. Hence, this Megalopolitan attitude of seeing liminal nature - residing in nature not for living and working, but for leisure or as a refugee from urban congestion - and widely networked transportation infrastructure has easily amalgamated two territories; urban and suburban. The Neponset river, the only tidal river in Charles Eliot’s Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston (1893),

however, has much potential to solve those problems through by creating a new urbanity along the forgotten river, while utilizing those problems and opportunities through an integrated water and green space management system. In bigger scale, this strategy can also be applied to pulverize numerous isolated suburban regions and to connect along water stream while creating new urbanity along the river. Location: Boston, MA Site Area: 8x6Km (Neponset River) Program: Park with indeterminated social uses

juxtaposition of Metropolitan Park System (Charles Eliot, 1894) on topography and land use map (2012)

land use map (2012) Neponset river area, South Boston 0

2

4

6

8

10

12Km

Different from Charles Eliot’s original plan, the Metropolitan Park System and newly added open spaces in the city are now fragmented and decreased, more privatized, polluted in some parts, serves monotonous function like suburbia, and even segregates adjacent neighborhoods, preventing social inclusion and losing its embedded energy as a public reservation. private property

public property (nature)

open space

water


18

Territorialism: Liminal Nature

design process from situation to sequence of scenarios Charles River

25% (polluted) water inflow for flooding control

restore riverbank ecology Neponset River

railway subway roads water

situation: water flow system in Metropolitan Park System

Charles Rive iv r ive

restore riverbank ecology Canal

x T&H Dam

x

Baker’s ’ss Dam Tide d

scenario 1: demolition of the dam, re-introduction of tide

collect stormwater using pedestrian way

scenario 2: change of stormwater drainage flow by using pedestrian ways collect stormwater using urban parks

scenario 3: weave fragmented open and green space, and add wetlands restore water leisure activities

scenario 4: retrofit riverfront malls / parking lots

open riverfront space to the public


Territorialism: Liminal Nature

design application on case study site (Neponset river)

This system goes through 4 phases 1) Demolish existing dams and restore tidal river condition, 2) Construct natural storm water drainage system by utilizing sloped topography, 3) Connect fragmented small parks and open spaces as urban wetlands through the drainage system while providing them with more functions like water puriďŹ cation and community gathering, 4) Collect all those water drainage system to riverfront and purify the storm water through bigger wet lands, create new civic spaces on several hot-spots that can connect the river, in-land water, and public amenities while generating new urbanity along the river.

19


20

Territorialism: Liminal Nature

master plan for case study site riverfront malls / parking lots

0

100m

sections

0

section-perspective view of riverfront

50m

The Neponset river has long been marginalized through history, and now became a forgotten space. On the other hand, many fragmented parks and open spaces were recently developed in the inland, while not actively utilizing the riverfront with huge open space. This project aims to create a new urbanity along the forgotten river while utilizing those problems and opportunities through an integrated water and open space management system.


Territorialism: Liminal Nature

21

images landscape of new liminal nature

10

50m m


22

Evolutionary Context

Evolutionary Context model 1:200 scale

K-Arts option studio I Fall 2010 I Instructor: Christian Schweitzer Exhibited work at RIBA President’s Medals Student Awards, RIBA, London, 2011


Evolutionary Context

23

evolutionary context Korea is a mountain-peninsula. In here, the traditional city-making method was fully adapted in this condition; thereby, arable land occupation and urbanization processes are similar. Also, most habitation was made in valleys as a finger-shaped leaf-structure pattern. Therefore, the resultant land lot plan looks different from BAR code shaped western cities (grid, axis), but looks more like a 3-dimensional QR code with more information. Consequential different building heights are another important context. In conclusion, these are crucial factors generating irregular cityscape of Korean cities. Seo-village, facing mountains defining the old territory of Seoul, has irregular cityscape. Although this landscape looks chaotic at a

glance, it also has positive factors which western and contemporary cities do not have: glimpse to hidden buildings, accidentally meeting void spaces, a chance to look at buildings’ facade on curved roads, active use of exterior spaces, etc. These spatial characteristics share common elements with contemporary socialistic theories which seek more complexity and multiplicity. Therefore, amplifying this irregular cityscape through architectural process would reveal hidden context of this place.

Bar Code = New York (Modern Grid)

QR Code = Seoul (Korean Grid)

Location: Seo Village, Seoul Site Area: 18,920m2 Building Area: 11,340m2 Program: Design Museum, Residence Community Park, Parking map of Seoul, old urban structure

design process compression of contexts mountain peninsula

pattern

irregular urban structure

Korean grid

evolved context

urban rural 1912 land map

1864 Great Map of Korea

2010 (abstraction of 1912 map) 1912

1925

2010


24

Evolutionary Context

plan drawings basement parking

1st floor

2nd floor

3rd floor

4th floor

0

50m

circulation plan temporary exhibition mixing chamber (4th floor)

temporary exhibition mixing chamber (2nd floor) temporary exhibition main entrance/hall

temporary exhibition workshop / storage offices / institute mixing chamber

visi vvisitor's isitor' tor'ss access access stafff access staf ac ess / loadi lloading oading ng deck deck emergency e mergency exit 0

50m


Evolutionary Context

25

landscape plan ground floor plan

2nd floor plan

0

100m


26

Evolutionary Context

section perspective drawings

0

10 0

50m m


Evolutionary Context

images urban landscape

27


28

Evolutionary Context

detail drawing typical wall section (scale 1/40)

joint detail


Evolutionary Context

images exhibition space

29


30

Landscript

Landscript (地文

K-Arts option studio I 2009 I Instructor: H-Sang Seung (Hon. FAIA) Exhibited work at STUDIOPLEX, UCLA’s lab. for cross cultural studies, LA, 2010

overall ground floor plan sector V

0

50m 50 0


Landscript

31

landscript urbanism landscape, and landscript. Application of adjustable housing plans will make residents adapt to fast-changing lifestyle of contemporary society and help them create a new community. Location: Junggyebon-dong, Seoul Site Area: 21,760m2 Building Area: 5,870m2 Program: Housing (330 units), Parking, Community Facility, Farm Land

existing buildings

>

Every land has its own figure. As we all have different fingerprints, a land has its own print. It is the history of nature itself, and sometimes a history of civilization. Therefore, the landscape is a magnificent history book of our life and land: a landscript is an organism, a mass of energy that requires appositional growth. Now, we start the architecture by listening to the land, and adding a poetic but modest gesture to it. Rediscover, redefine and renew existing small village with respect to the previous lives. Reuse small houses as activators of exterior activities, in order to encourage residents to make a new community life. Scattered small buildings will remind people of precedent existences of buildings,

arrangement of new buildings following trace of previous buildings

master plan whole complex

sector V

0

50 0

100m 0m


32

Landscript

design process sector V layout of the complex

layout of the complex

farmland

community facilities

living units

artiďŹ cial grounds

combination

landscape of existing village

0

50m

tracing logic of arrangement of previous buildings and ďŹ nding new logic of planning


Landscript

33

urban framework ground types

parking space plan

layout of the complex

ᆧcommunity farmland living unit types

ᆧ2-beds ᆧstudio ᆧduplex ᆧSOHO

ᆧclearstory, sunken circulation plan

ᆧᆧartificial platform ᆧnatural ground community & service facilities

ᆧroad ᆧemergency road ᆧbus stop

ᆧcommunity ᆧservice ᆧplayground

living units plan space variation system duplex type (85m2) 10 units

SOHO type (82.5m2) 18 units

2 beds type (56m2, 79.5m2) 168 units

studio type (39m2) 124 units

0

50m


34

Landscript

cross-sections A

A’

B

B’

C C’

D’ D

previous contour

0

10

50m


Landscript

urban landscape

aerial view : building arrangment follows previous buildings

hill area : trace of previous buildings as community facility

peak area : community facilities & garden

35


36

Architectural Infrastructure

Architectural Infrastructure

K-Arts option studio I 2005 I Instructor: Jongkyu Kim (ARB/RIBA) Hornorable mention, DO.CO.MO.MO Design Competition, 2008

master plan

0

100m 00


Architectural Infrastructure

37

blurring the boundary

perspective view urban park

large-scale public facility(urban park with cultural program) will continue to make collision with surrounding lowdensity residence area which does not have enough urban infrastructures. It is a plan of partly occupying the site by extending urban fabrics and transforming isolated power plant realm into a part of the city by two stages. Location: Dangin-dong, Seoul Site Area: 129,700m2(Whole Site) Building Area: 11,250m2 GFA: 15,370m2 Program: Convention center with urban park

blot out previous boundary of current power plant district

>

The number of factors that change urban environments increased with time. As the urban engineering alone cannot provide the speciďŹ cs, we have to deďŹ ne what to be left or gone and devise follow-up measurements. To this end, concrete plans considering time factor is required. If the timerelated changes are to be implemented in a city or a place in a gradual manner, owing to the various unpredictable elements of modern societies, they should be both concrete and indeterminate. In addition, it is necessary to make concrete planning of architectural infrastructures, in order to respond to the indeterminate changes of cities. Therefore, through this project, I tried to incorporate unpredictable events and future demands of the city. Dangin-ri power plant has been isolated from various urban contexts. Hence required transformation to

extension of local-urban pathways into the district for re-urbanization


38

Architectural Infrastructure

oblique section drawings

turbine hall of the existing power plant Building’s sloped surface draws sunlight into underground spaces. At the same time, alleviate bulky sense of the building. Double skin of the front elevation, composed by punched steel plate and opaque glass, makes it easier to draw sunlight and decrease massive sense of the building, too. Varied oor plates and hidden hanger devices in ceilings promote various activities and keep the impression of the past generation room. Previous trusses & chimneys are used as screen for the city, utilizing their extraordinary height and structure.

roof structure

10 0

30m 0m


Architectural Infrastructure

39

oblique section drawings

0

10

30m

detail drawings typical wall, oor and roof sections

joint system

0

1m


40

Architectural Infrastructure

section and elevation drawings

river side facade of current power plant

front elevation-perspective

view to the Han-river under current power plant

western elevation

plan drawings

level +8.0m

level +11.0m


Architectural Infrastructure

41

Non Object, Richard Serra

front underground space Utilize huge void space (-40m) of past generator rooms. Make movement routes, service facilities, and underground parking lot with in the void, so that those facilities do not hurt over ground space’s volume. Make them function as infrastructure of the overall building and the urban park.

eastern elevation

0

50m m

service facilities : longitudinal section

level +17.0m

level +20.0m 0

100m


Part II Professional Works / Competitions Yongsan Park Int’l Competition Metropolitan Architecture Research Unit, 2012

Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition Personal Competition Work, 2013

Klarman Hall, Cornell Univ. Koetter Kim & Associates, Boston, 2013

OO Federal Courthouse SOM+AECOM, LA, 2013

Mapo Oil Base Int’l Competition Personal Competition Work, 2013

Museum Sculpture Park Metropolitan Architecture Research Unit, 2012

Other Works 2006-2011


44

Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

3rd Prize I Professional work at M.A.R.U. I Project designer Jury: Charles Waldheim (GSD), Christophe Girot (ETH), Julia Czerniak (Syracuse), etc

master plan phase IV 1. So 1. Soc S Social occia o ial ial al re en ntta nta tal o tal of offi fffices ffi ffic fice fic ces ces es 2. Comme 2. Com C omme mer errcia e cciiia al 3.. Dormit 3 itori it tor oriies o 4.. You 4 Yo Yo ou uth h ho hostel te 5. Ho 5. Hot Hot ote tel 6. C 6. Chi Ch h ldren ldren' en's en' e en 'ss school ssc ol ol 7. Garden rden den schoo h l 8. Junior orr schools sch hoo 9. Senior sch schools choo hool ols 10. 0. Healing H ng center center cen ter 11. 1. Museum Mu eu 12. 2. Galleries Galler ess 13. 1 3 A Artistt stud studio studios dios d 14. Artisan Artis scho sch c o chool ool 15.. Glas Glasshouse ouse e 16. 6. Maintenance Maintenance tenan nce facilities aci cilitie 17. 7. Restored Restorred forest fore 18. Fo Forest est trail trails 19. Willow low w re reservo reservoir res voir 20. W Wetland etland la d 21. Meadow ad 22. Open O en n green g 23. 3. Picni Picnic Picn Pi nic green g green 24. Sports Spo orts fiel orts field fie d 25. Orchar 2 Orchard chard har 26. Nursery 26. Nurseryy N 27. 27 7. F Farmland Fa Farmla arrm m and 28. 8. Green Gr museum m mall ma m lll 29 29. 9. Veget Vegetable Ve ta gardens g ardens 30. 0 Th 0. Theme m garde ga ardens ar en ens 31. Sq Squa Squares uares 32. 2.. Yongs Yongsan Yo a Lin LLink nkk 33. Han H Ha River Link 34. Namsan Nams msan Lin msa Link nk 35. Art/Cultural village vill ge

34 35

7 29

2

30

17

6

13

25 31

13

18 2

14

3

2

2

11 28

12

5

30

11

2

12

31

31 11

2

12 1

11

2 1 8 17 2

3

3

3

5 18

24

1 4

9 2 22

12

25 10

21

31 23

15

2

20

16

19

17 4

0

500m 00m


Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

45

early opening, slow completion Yongsan Park is envisaged to be a free and open civic campus for all class of people where relaxation for creativity and potential for self-fulďŹ llment can be provided. Our intention is to render life-long chances of learning something new and valuable for the citizen whilst they relax and enjoy in the park. Therefore, Yongsan Park aims to become a socio-cultural infrastructure that can enhance the overall quality of life, rather than just to become a physical urban infrastructure that tends to emphasize the green at its forefront. It would be quite important to return the land that had been lost for over a century to the citizens, its original owners, as soon as possible. Hence, the earlier the park opens, the more heartily people will welcome it.

However, we seek an incremental and long-term approach afterwards. Whilst closely monitoring the relationship between the park and city, and through sufďŹ cient social discussions and active involvements of the citizens, the park will be reorganized in terms of space and readjusted in terms of function. The process of a space becoming a place and a place becoming an attraction takes a long period of time requiring strong public support and affection. Location: Yongsan Garrison, Seoul Site Area: 2,430,000m2 Building Area: 452,880m2 (2017) Building Area: to 129,706m2 (2027) Program: Park with indeterminate social uses

As the buildings disappear during the naturalization process, parcels join together and to create more indeterminate uses

design process park as city

>

now : Yongsan Garrison as one parcel in terms of its ownership - for military use

>

process : Designing urban structure on the park following topography and remaining buildings

aerial view phase IV

Future: Yongsan Park as urban plot in terms of its social use - for public use

future : Yongsan Park as city in terms of its social use with multiple parcels - for public use


46

Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

strategy 01 re-utilization of remaining buildings catalogue of buildings

Land type 1: Flat lands

Land type 2: Gentle slopes

Land type 3: Ridge area

565 Buildings

284 Buildings

212 Buildings

A rea s, scale 1:6000

1 21 th G e ne r a l H o s p ita l Total Building Area : 15933m 2 Num be r o f build ings : 1

Bicycle Lane

Num be r o f Sto r ie s : 2

Grove Eighth A r my H e a d qua r te r s Total Building Area : 3400m (smalles t : 52m / lar ges t : 1343m ) 2

2

2

Ecology Tour

Forest

Num be r o f build ings : 3 8 U.S. A r my H e a d qua r te r s , Ba rr acks , Wa rehou s es and Of f ices

15000- m 2

Vegetable Garden

11,870农

Yongsan Park Museum C o m m i s s a r y a n d S to r a g e

Holocaust Monument Peter Eisenman, Berlin

Total Building Area : 33156m 2

National Museum

(smalles t : 56m 2 / la r ge s t : 1 3 216m 2 ) Num be r o f build ings : 1 2 Citizen University 40 Class Rooms for 10,000 persons

Finance & Accounting Of f ice and other buildings

Bicycle Lane

Grove

Tota l Build ing A r e a : 81 2 0 m 2

Promenade

(smalles t : 1440m 2 / lar ges t : 2820m 2 ) Num be r o f build ings : 4

7001-15000m 2

Grassplot

Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain, London

Remedial Exercise Track

Se o u l A meri can El ement ar y School Total Building Area : 8680m 2

Ecology Tour Facility

(smalles t : 313m 2 / lar ges t : 4452m 2 ) Promenade

Numb er of b u i l di ngs : 6

D up lex H o us ing Units Total Building Area : 6979m 2 (smalles t : 1 22m 2 / la r ge s t : 8 9 0 m 2 ) Num be r o f Build ings : 8 Num be r o f Res id e nta l Units : 16 Housing Ty pes : 2bed, 3bed, 4bed

Citizen University 20 Class Rooms for 5,000 persons

Warehouse

6,605 农

3001-7000m 2

Training Institute -Accommodation for 180 persons -Seminar Rooms -Work Rooms -Cafeteria

U.S. A m ba s s a d o r O f f ice

Camp Site for 100 Family

Total Building Area : 5098m 2

Therme Vals Peter Zumthor, Vals

Se o ul A m e r ica n H igh Scho o l

(smalles t : 2987m 2 / lar ges t : 2111m 2 )

Tota l Build ing A r e a : 4754m 2

Num be r o f build ings : 2

(smalles t : 1483m 2 / la r ge s t : 3 271m 2 ) Num be r o f build ings : 2

Municipal Library for 80,645 persons

for 150 cars

Holocaust Museum Daniel Liebeskind, Berlin

Forest Lodge -Accommodation for 100 persons -Meeting Rooms -Cafeteria

Picnic Meadows

Social Enterprise for 350 persons

Resort Hotel for 60 Rooms (per 40-91m 2 )

Bicycle Lane

Theatre for 2100 persons

City Museum

Nature Refuge

Grassplot

Hospital for Senior for 300 persons

Cinema for 1,800 persons

Tailgate Party

Social Housing for 30 Family

Mimesis Art Museum Alvaro Siza Vieira, Paju

Vegetable Garden

Social Enterprise for 250 persons

Kiosks

City Hotel for 55 Rooms (per 28-50m 2 )

Tables

16 Buidings, 129 Family

for 120 cars 1,060 农

Resort Hotel for 25 Rooms (per 40-91m 2 )

Cinema for 1575 persons

Picnic Meadows

Theatre for 1350 persons

Vitra Fire Station Zaha Hadid, Weil am Rhein

(1173 x 3 + 6428) N u mb er of Bu i l di ngs : 4

Vegetable Garden

Public Library for 25641 persons

Black Hawk(Loring Village)

-Accommodation for 50 persons -Meeting Rooms -Cafeteria

Num be r o f build ings : 16

Social Housing 45 Buildings, 120 Bed Rooms

1,000 农 Yeongyeongdang, Seoul

N u mb er of Res i dent al U ni t s : 252

for 100 cars

Housing Types : 24.19m 2 (s tudio type)

Recreational Forest Accommodations

Total Building Area : 1 2264m 2 (smalles t : 426m 2 / lar ges t : 1063m 2 ) 870 农

Car Parking

Grassplot

Village Library for 16666 persons

German Pavilion Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona

Tot al Bu i l di ng A rea : 9947m 2

Hospital for Senior for 100 persons

Playground Kindergarten &ODVV5RRPV,QÀUPDU\ for 80 persons

701-1000m 2

Grassplot A rmy Dormi tori es and M ai n Exch a n g e

1,140 农

Yale University Art Gallery Louis Kahn, New Haven

Promenade

Bicycle Lane Car Parking

1001-1500m 2

Forest

Youth Hostel for 600 persons

1,500 农

1501-2000m 2

Social Housing for 50 Family

Promenade

Municipal Library for 57,142 persons

2,870 农

2001-3000m 2

Promenade

Car Parking

Car Parking for 210 cars

Housing Ty pes

Tot al Bu i l di ng A rea : 8161m 2

Apartement Hotel for 15 Rooms (per 70-100m 2 )

2bed - 106.37 & 114.18 m² (single-s tor y type) 3bed - 1 26.26 & 140.56 m² (single-s to r y type) 4 be d - 14 6 .61 m ² (2 s to r y typ e )

City Hotel for 35 Rooms (per 28-50m 2 )

Observation Platforms Itaewo n Acres(Kr zyzowski Hill)

Num be r o f Res id e nta l Units : 1 29

Social Housing for 20 Family

Cinema for 735 persons

(smalles t : 651m 2 / lar ges t : 963m 2 ) N u mb er of b u i l di ngs : 10 N u mb er of Res i dent al U ni t s : 98 Housing Ty pes

Senior Community Center

2bed - 106.37 & 114.18 m² (single-s to r y type)

for 250 persons

3bed - 1 26.26 & 140.56 m² (single-s tor y type)

Youth Hostel for 250 persons

4b ed - 146.61 m² ( 2 s tor y t y pe)

Information Desk Remedial Exercise Track

Car Parking 550 农

501-700m 2

Private Gallery

for 60 cars

Apartement Hotel for 20 Rooms (per 70-100m 2 )

Theatre for 630 persons

Byeongsan Seowon (Confucian School), Andong

Playground Village Museum

Bicycle Lane Cafeteria

360 农

301-500m 2

Villa Savoy Le Corbusier, Poissy

D up lex H o us ing Units

Social Enterprise for 150 persons

Total Building Area : 16442m 2 (s m a lle s t : 310 m 2 / la r ge s t : 724m 2 ) Restaurant

Restaurant Du pl ex Hou s i ng U ni t s

Num be r o f Build ings : 4 0

Total Building Area : 5546m 2

Num be r o f Res id e nta l Units : 7 8

Mobile Library for 1000 persons

Private Gallery 216 农

201-300m 2

Soswaewon ,Damyang

255 农 Ryoanji ,Kyoto

300 农

Cafeteria

H o us ing Units

Theatre for 180 persons

Total Building Area : 1 2436m 2

Cais Gallery Kim Jong-kyu, Seoul

Cinema for 210 persons

(smalles t : 266m 2 / lar ges t : 839m 2 )

N u mb er of Bu i l di ngs : 14 N u mb er of Res i dent al U ni t s : 30

(smalles t : 262m 2 / lar ges t : 537m 2 )

Hou s i ng Ty pes : 2 s tor y 3b ed, s i ngl e

N u mb er of b u i l di ngs : 50

s tor y 3bed, 5bed

Social Housing for 12 Family

Kinder Garden &ODVV5RRPV,QÀUPDU\ for 20 persons

for 10 cars

Social Enterprise for 50 persons

Information Desk

Atelier

Social Housing for 6 Family

Open Studio

Eagle Grove(Koelsch Grove) Total Building Area : 6501m 2

0DQDJHPHQW2IÀFH

170 农

101-200m 2

Hou s i ng U ni t s Total Building Area : 21131m 2

Num be r o f build ings : 27

Car Parking

(smalles t : 394m 2 / l ar ges t : 902m 2 )

Police Substation

N u mb er of b u i l di ngs : 10

Glass House Philip Johnson, New Canaan

Observation Platforms

(smalles t : 367m 2 / lar ges t: 460m 2 )

Housing Ty pes : 2bed, 3bed, 4bed

Restaurant

N u mb er of Res i dent al U ni t s : 73

Social Enterprise for 10 persons

Shade

0DQDJHPHQW2IÀFH

Housing Ty pes 2bed - 106.37 & 114.18 m² (single-s to r y type) 3bed - 1 26.26 & 140.56 m² (single-s to r y type)

Police Substation

Fa m i l y H o u s i n g

Cafeteria

Private Gallery

Bicycle Rack 13.9 农

0-100m 2

Henry David Thoreau's Cavin Massachusetts

4b ed - 146.61 m² ( 2 s tor y t y pe)

Restaurant

Tot al Bu i l di ng A rea : 2274m 2

Information Desk

( s mal l es t : 91m 2 / l ar ges t : 190m 2 )

for 100 persons

Ba r r a ck s a nd A nnex

52农

N u mb er of b u i l di ngs : 18

Tota l Build ing A r e a : 1601m 2

Azuma House Tadao Ando, Osaka

Pharmacy

Local Workshop Cafeteria

Num be r o f build ings : 2 2

Bicycle Parking

Namsan Park

Cha ngd o ng A r t Stud io

Rest Room

Rest Room

(smalles t : 13m 2 / la r ge s t : 1 2 2 m 2 )

Se ou l C i t y Hal l ,

Gwanak Children Park

Community Room

Gangdong Greenway Campsite

Seou l Yo u t h Hos tel

Rest Room

Police Substation

Private Gallery

Namsan Park

Seoul Housing Corpor ation, Shif t

Namsan Annex 11 . 4m 2 , 10p

Atelier 46 m 2

114m 2 , 100p

C o m m u n i t y Ro o m G ues t Room

Local Wo rkshop

60m 2 x2

5 5 m2

Open Studio

191m 2

60m

2

G a l l er y 1

40m

2

G a l l er y 2

2 0 m2

Theatre for Yo uth

132m

2

Management

105m

2

Of f ice

1 , 4 01 m 2 7,322m 2 2,448m

2

74 per s o ns 732 per s ons

Of f ice

80.41m 2

Ro o f to p G a r d e n

19.86m 2

Theatre Playground

1 20.24 m 2 85.74 m 2

Police Substation

Au to camping 7x8m x8 Family Camp 6x6m x9, 7x6m x40

116 m 2

29m 2 39m 2 x 71

Res t Ro o m s

11 8 m 2

Of f ice

80m 2

50 Rooms

Theatre

1 20 m 2

for 306 per s ons

Playground

85m 2

Social Housing for Newlyweds

Senior Centre

425m 2

36m 2

Botanical Garden Parking

National Theatre

216 m 2

46m

32 car s , 919m 2

Police Substation

116 m 2

49m 2 x200 2

51 m 2

Ko rea Land and Housing Corpor ation

Res t Ro o m

11 8 m 2

G a lle r y

33 6 m 2


Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

47

browsing and renting buildings

D - DAY

!

I was finally mov ed into my new dormitory !

with Park’ SRIS SERVICE TEAM

2. check parcel specification

1. browse for rentable space

3. check building specification & apply 4. move & register

information for rent period of future change parcel # Temp-185

parcel # Temp-186 parcel # Temp-187

parcel # L-Term-253

parcel # Temp-188

parcel # L-Term-254

parcel # Perm-56

parcel # Temp-189 0

building use period regulation

land surface types

temporary long-term

pavement

permanent newly built

road

soil road

grass land

garden

farm land

50m

wood land

water

period of building use

preservation phase 1 452,880m² (building area) phase 2 350,037m² phase 3 260,126m² phase 4 188,445m² phase 5 129,706m²

Social Rent System is proposed to actively reutilize buildings on site as social resources. By proposing a pool of programs that can be accommodated in indeterminate ways, we enable the park to change its performance in relation to relevant social changes to come. Those who wish to rent a facility within the Park can browse available property in the SRIS (Social Rent Info System) web page. This enable users to find suitable space themselves and provides information like rentable time limits for each parcel and architectural specifications for each building.


48

Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

strategy 02 indeterminate management of landscape The numerous traces and remnants left at the site of Yongsan Park are neither to be rejected nor to be disposed of all at once. Rather, they should be re-recognized or re-organized as new urban infrastructures of our own time.

section of land types land type

flat land

main program type

reconnect to the city 15m

yongsan park tower

121 hospital

helliport

colier training center

reuse manual building / planting by land types 0

type1 flatland

original building

manual for building : original - mainly adaptable to structurally stable buildings and buildings with non-military uses - preservation of buildings with historic values and buildings convertible to park programs

1

2

opening

3

opening

5

4

opening

6

volume

7

8

water space in flatland structure

wall

lot

erasing

type 2 gentle slope

manual for building : subtract - mainly adaptable to unsustainable military buildings - buildings destroyed and subtracted to restore landscape and regain public domain

a

b

entrance e

c

facade f

volume g

wall

XSSHUÁRRU

d

underground h

building

courtyard & roof

main open space in gentle slope

manual for building : add - adaptable to historic buildings & structurally stable buildings - buildings renovated to from artificial landscape

type 3 ridge tree planting index

ÁDWODQG

existing trees f1: platanus occidentalis g1: platanus occidentalis g2: robinia pseudoacacia g3: zelkova serrata g4: acer palmatum

f1 gentle slope

g1

g2

g3

g4 g5 g6

ridge

r1: pinus densiflora r2: robinia pseudoacacia transplantation r3: acer palmatum planting trees g5: prunus persica g6: prunus mume

r1

r2

r3 r4

r4: planting young trees

manual for planting - adapted according to characteristics of land (Flat lands, Gentle slope, Ridge areas) - plants planted for restoring landscape and transition to park

orchard in ridge

el


Yongsan Park Int’l Competition

49

keymap gentle slope

ridge area

reuse buildings

recovery of forest-scape

30m

69m

atland gentle slope

lementary school

performing arts center (Jam hut)

eagle grove housing complex

P2-138 / 8 entrance

0 4 7 8 a b d g

P2-N17 / d museum

P2-162

Dunjisan mt.

P2-N18 / g pavilion

P2-136 / 4b old facade restoration

P2-N20 / d shop

itaewon acres housing complex

P2-136 / 7 yard

P2-N21 / a ticket house

ridge

Í‘

P2-N22 / g pavilion

P2-160 P2-165

P2-166 P2-154

P2-139 P2-133

rambling around the museum area

0 2 6 7 8 h

P4-67 / 6, f observatory

P4-69 / 7 yard

P4-73 / 2, h community room

P4-75

P4-74

P4-79

P4-N12 / h workshop

P4-81 / 6, f harvest yard

P4-77 / 8 harvest yard

P4-82

P4-78

P4-81

P4-84

P4-73

P4-85

P1-432

looking towards the orchard village

3 4 7 8

P4-27 / 4 literature house

P4-30 / 3 kiosk

P1-366 / 7, 8 cityscape observatory

P4-25

strolling down the nature walk building use period regulation

land surface types

temporary

pavement

long-term permanent newly built

road

soil road grass land

garden

farm land wood land

water


50

Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition

Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition

Best prize I Exhibited work at 2013 Int’l Space Syntax Symposium Jury: Dominique Perrault, John Peponis , Renee Y Chow, etc

hyper landscape As shown on the old map of Seoul, 1918, the site is featured by its mountainous topography and numerous streams. In as-found condition of the site, all the urban elements (topography, waterway, road, and urbanity) were strongly bounded together by maintaining interdependency among each other: a model of integrated city. Afterwards, however, development of appropriate urban form responding to this unique history was not made. Yet, seemingly haphazard planned city, current urban fabric of the site is clearly divided by its topography and previous waterway. This project finds opportunity of creating future vision of the city from the such accumulated physical and metaphysical history of the site, and

creates hyper landscape by string such features together in a successive way as below: 1) Rediscover and reconnect hidden waterways to the site (Jemulpo-road) 2) Create park and amenities based on waterway. It also functions as a reservoir which prevent chronic flooding of the site 3) Induce successive restructuring of the urban fabric according to the reconnected waterway 4) Consolidates strong interdependency among urban elements and create new urbanity: Hyper Landscape.

as-found site map of topography and waterway

Location: Jemulpo, Seoul Site Area: 5x2Km (Jemulpo road) Program: urban park, water reservoir

master plan phase 2

0

100m


Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition

51

topological change of the territory’s landscape keymap

past fragmentation of urban fabric by time 1918 Inter-dependency among urban elements

agenda urban integration 1918 Inter-dependent relationship topography

water

1972 Superimposition of urban infrastructure (Jemulpo-Road)

road

local urbanity

> 2013 Disconnected relationship topography Jemulpo road water

road urban grid

2012 Fragmentation of urban fabric

local urbanity

> future Recovery of relationship topography

Intelligibility, R2=0.0199 urban park

water

local urbanity

as-found road

as-found waterway

floodplain area

flooded area (2000-2012)

future hyper-landscape

new waterway

flooding zone

Jemulpo road


52

Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition

future scenario creation of new urbanity (hyper-landscape) by recovering waterway 2013 (Phase 1) Recovery of waterway

Intelligibility, R2=0.0401

2028 (Phase 2) Extension of waterway into urban fabric

Intelligibility, R2=0.0519

2043 (Phase 3) Restructuring of urban fabric by waterway

open-ended program waterway as generator of new urbanity Intelligibility, R2=0.0729

waterway

green field (soft surface)

pedestrian way/plaza

new buildings

vision urban integration (comparison: degree of intelligibility) 2013 Urban Fabric Intelligibility, R2=0.0078 R² = 0.00767959

Connectivity

7

0 0.0633818

Integration [P-value]

1.05598

2033 Urban Fabric Intelligibility, R2=0.0515 R² = 0.0511315

Connectivity

32

0 0.0634031

Integration [P-value]

1.05598

New set of urban activities on Jemulpo-road Park are not designed in an arbitrary way, but will be determined following to the geographical features of the site. This project proposes waterway as a generator of new urban activities and urbanity for the sustainable, resilient future of the site. The major infrastructure of the Jemulpo-road Park is not inside the park, but connected to the city: sub streams that are collected on the site. Based on that, new activities on Jemulpo-road Park can be actively changed as a response to the environment - amount of precipitation, sun light, and temperature, while physically integrating isolated urban fabrics. In addition, it can be a good solution to chronic flooding of the region, as increased green field and retention pool can serve the function of urban reservoir.


Seoul Urban Design Int’l Competition

53

new urbanity hyper landscape

sector 01 water plaza

sector 03 green field

sector 05 wetland

technical strategy water management sector 01 plaza

sector 03 green field

sector 02 rain garden

sector 05 wetland

sector 04 pool


54

Klarman Hall, Cornell Univ.

Klarman Hall, Cornell Univ.

Internship at Koetter Kim & Associates, Boston, MA I Jan 2013 Position: Draftsman (CD Phase 70% detail drawing)

© Koetter Kim & Associates

selected section detail drawings

new in old The architecture of Klarman Hall is contemporary while being respectful of an emergent and continuing architectural timeline that characterizes the East Avenue Corridor in Cornell University, NY. As the new building will be inserted in courtyard of the Goldwin Smith Hall, careful consideration has been given to the scale and character of Klarman Hall. I have worked as a draftsman of the

project in 70% CD phase by drawing details for several parts of its sections while cooperating with other designers. Location: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY Site Area: 6,300m2 Building Area: 2,500m2 Program: Atrium, Lecture Hall, Office, etc © Koetter Kim & Associates


00 Federal Courthouse

OO Federal Courthouse

55

Professional work at SOM-AECOM, LA, CA I May 2013 - Aug 2013 Position: Design intern (design development, daylight analysis, etc) Option p #3 : Wood Trapezoid - East

Option p #3 : Wood Trapezoid - West

March / September p Equinox q

March / September p Equinox q

r

08:30 AM

13:15 PM

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08:30 AM

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08:30 AM

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15:45 PM

Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

08:30 AM

11:00 AM

09:45 AM

14:30 PM

13:15 PM

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Option p #4 : Metal Rod - East

Option p #4 : Metal Rod - West

March / September p Equinox q

March / September p Equinox q

r

08:30 AM

13:15 PM

11:00 AM

09:45 AM

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Summer Solstice

08:30 AM

09:45 AM

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Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

08:30 AM

11:00 AM

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Option p #5 : Wood Flat - East

Option p #5 : Wood Flat - West

March / September p Equinox q

March / September p Equinox q

r

08:30 AM

13:15 PM

11:00 AM

09:45 AM

14:30 PM

15:45 PM

Summer Solstice

08:30 AM

09:45 AM

11:00 AM

13:15 PM

14:30 PM

15:45 PM

08:30 AM

09:45 AM

11:00 AM

13:15 PM

14:30 PM

15:45 PM

08:30 AM

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11:00 AM

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Summer Solstice

08:30 AM

11:00 AM

09:45 AM

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Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

08:30 AM

09:45 AM

14:30 PM

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11:00 AM

15:45 PM

Option p #1 : Onyx (Full-Height) - East

March / September p Equinox q

March / September p Equinox q

07:00 AM

10:00 AM

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

01:00 PM

Summer Solstice

07:00 AM

10:00 AM

01:00 PM

04:00 PM

07:00 PM

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Summer Solstice

07:00 AM

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01:00 PM

10:00 AM

07:00 PM

Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

© SOM 01:00 PM

10:00 AM

07:00 AM

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

Option p #2 : Onyx (14’-Height) - East

Option p #2 : Onyx (14’ - Height) - West 14’

March / September p Equinox q

14’

March / September p Equinox q

07:00 AM

10:00 AM

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

01:00 PM

Summer Solstice

07:00 AM

10:00 AM

01:00 PM

04:00 PM

07:00 PM

07:00 AM

10:00 AM

01:00 PM

04:00 PM

07:00 PM

07:00 AM

10:00 AM

01:00 PM

04:00 PM

07:00 PM

Summer Solstice

07:00 AM

04:00 PM

01:00 PM

10:00 AM

07:00 PM

Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

01:00 PM

10:00 AM

07:00 AM

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

Option p #2-1 : Onyx (12’-Height) - East

Option p #2-1 : Onyx (12’-Height) - West 12’

March / September p Equinox q

12’

March / September p Equinox q

07:00 AM

10:00 AM

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

01:00 PM

Summer Solstice

07:00 AM

10:00 AM

01:00 PM

04:00 PM

07:00 PM

07:00 AM

10:00 AM

01:00 PM

04:00 PM

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10:00 AM

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07:00 PM

Summer Solstice

07:00 AM

04:00 PM

01:00 PM

10:00 AM

07:00 PM

Winter Solstice

Winter Solstice

01:00 PM

10:00 AM

07:00 AM

07:00 PM

04:00 PM

Back Wall Daylight Study (West)

Option 05 (Metal Rod)

courtroom design alternative samples with different types of back-walls

Option 06 (Wood, Trapezoid)

Option 07 (Wood, Flat)

Option 02 (Onyx 14ft)

Option 04 (Onyx 12ft)

11:00 AM

13:15 PM

11:00 AM

13:15 PM

11:00 AM

13:15 PM

13:15 PM

11:00 AM

13:15 PM

13:15 PM

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13:15 PM

courtroom design alternatives study based on daylight analysis

transparent courtroom The architecture of OO Federal Courthouse in Los Angeles proposes a new concept of courtroom - more transparent and light atmosphere filled with natural light. In achieving this goal, making new relationships between daylight and interior space was one of crucial design objectives. I have worked as a design intern of the project in 80% DD phase.

One of my main tasks was finding out optimum design alternatives of the courtroom with best sightline and comfort level through daylight analysis. I also participated in 1:1 mock-up courtroom design task. Location: Los Angeles, CA Site Area: 600,000 sq. ft. Program: Federal Courthouse


56

Other Works

Other Works

Selected professional and personal work experience 2006-2011

2011 Assistant designer Korea Appraisal Board office project SAMOO Architects & Engineers, Seoul (Realized) responsibility: working drawing and preliminary design

2010 Project designer Renovation for university theater and gallery Center for Performance & Exhibition of K-Arts, Seoul (Unrealized) responsibility: preliminary design

2009 Honorable mention (team work) Int’l Steel Design Competition, Korea Iron & Steel Association, Seoul responsibility: masterplan, model builder, 3D visualization

2009 Project designer Children’s playground prototype design GRÜNBAU Landscape Institute, Seoul (Unrealized) responsibility: research and preliminary design


Other Works

2006 Researcher and builder (group work) Rural village rehabitation project Culture City Research Institute, Seoul responsibility: construction, field survey, program & material proposal Exhibited work in 'Mega City Network: Contemporary Korean Architecture' , Frankfurt, Berlin, Barcelona, etc, 2007~2009 2006 - 09 Assistant construction manager Management of over 30 construction projects (as staff sergeant) Department of construction in engineering battalion, 9th Infantry division, Goyang (Realized)

2006 Model builder (design intern) Amorepacific Daejeon office project Metropolitan Architecture Research Unit, Seoul (Realized)

© M.A.R.U.

2006 Assistant exhibition designer Commemoration exhibition for architect Kim, Swoo-geun, ‘Kim, Swoo-geun Here & Now’ Arko Art Center, Seoul (Realized) responsibility: research, exhibition design concept proposal, and construction drawings

57


Trajectory of Works, 2003 - 2013

// Elements of Architecture, 2013 //(TQOVJG4GPCKUUCPEGQPYCTFUVJGFKUEQWTUGQPCTEJKVGEVWTGYCUNCTIGN[DCUGFQPVJGFGĹżPKVKQPCPFCPCN[UKUQHCTEJKVGEVWTCNGNGOGPVU#NDGTVKĹ?UUKZGNGOGPVU NQECNKV[CTGCEQORCTVKVKQPYCNNTQQHCPFQRGPKPI )QVVHTKGF5GORGTĹ?UHQWTGNGOGPVU JGCTVJTQQH GPENQUWTGOQWPF CPF.G%QTDWUKGTĹ?U(KXG2QKPVUQH#TEJKVGEVWTG RKNQVKUHTGGHCECFGQRGPRNCPNQPIYKPFQYTQQHICTFGP YGTGCNNKPXCTKQWUFGITGGUGHHQTVUVQCPCN[\GVJGJKUVQT[QHDWKNFKPIUCPFEQFKH[VJGHWVWTGQHCTEJKVGEVWTG$WVUKPEGVJGINQDCNK\CVKQPQHOQFGTPCTEJKVGEVWTGKPVJG second half of the 20th century, the possibility of an elemental systematization of architecture has been largely ignored. Elements that used to be the specialty of architects - the ceiling and window, but also even the facade - have become devices and ceded to more advanced technological domains. #TEJKVGEVUVJGOUGNXGUJCXGNCTIGN[KIPQTGFQVJGTGNGOGPVUKPYJKEJVJG[WUGFVQGZEGNNKMGVJGEQTTKFQT6JGTGKUCRCTCFQZVJQWIJVQFC[FGURKVGUVCPFCTFK\CVKQPFGXKEGĹżECVKQPCPFVJGCVVGORVUQHRCTCOGVTKECTEJKVGEVWTGVQOGTIGHQTOGTN[FKUVKPEVECVGIQTKGUNKMGTQQHYCNNCPFYKPFQYKPVQCPKFGCNN[ continuous architectural surface, the fundamental elements of architecture endure, albeit in sometimes radically different forms. // Ecologic Urbanism, 2013 // In last century, many modern architects failed in making better cities by applying function-oriented ideologies, such as faster construction and VTCHĹżEĆ€QYYKVJNGUUEQPUKFGTCVKQPQPVJGEWNVWTCNCPFGPXKTQPOGPVCNRGTHQTOCPEGQHVJGEKV[;GVVJKUHCKNGFPQVKQPQHEKV[FGUKIPKUOQTGYKFGN[CEEGRVGFKPVQFC[Ĺ?U%JKPCCUVJGQPN[UQNWVKQPVQDWKNFEKVKGUHQTOKNNKQPRGQRNGGXGT[[GCT)KXGPVJKUUKVWCVKQPOQFGTPKUVUEQPEGRVQHEKV[ECPPQVDGGCUKN[ TGLGEVGFDWVUJQWNFDGTGXKUGF6QFC[WTDCPGPXKTQPOGPVQHVJGEKV[QH)WCPI\JQWKP5QWVJGTP%JKPCKUDGEQOKPIOQTGFGVGTKQTCVGF6JKUKUFWGVQKVUUM[UETCRGTQTKGPVGFFGXGNQROGPVYKVJQWVEQPUKFGTCVKQPQPVJGEKV[Ĺ?UENKOCVGCPFEWNVWTGYJKEJTGSWKTGUOQTGGPGTI[CPFKUQNCVGURGQRNGKPUGTKGUQH ICVGFEQOOWPKVKGU6JGEQPEGRVQHGEQNQIKEWTDCPKUORTQRQUGUCPGYOQFGNQHEKV[FGXGNQROGPVDCUGFQPCPCNVGTPCVKXGOQFGNQHOKFFNGTKUGOKZWUGFDWKNFKPIV[RQNQI[6JKUVJKTFV[RQNQI[OKZGUOQFGTPKUVEQPEGRVQHEKV[ HCUVGTEQPUVTWEVKQPQHEKV[DCUGFQP9CNVGT)TQRKWUĹ?6QTVGP*QWUKPI CPFNQECN people’s communal life based on its street culture, while providing diverse thermal properties in the building to generate varied urban activities based on architectural typology. // Seoul Urban Design International Competition, 2013 // As shown on the old map of Seoul, 1918, the site is featured by its OQWPVCKPQWUVQRQITCRJ[CPFPWOGTQWUUVTGCOU+PCUHQWPFEQPFKVKQPQHVJGUKVGCNNVJGWTDCPGNGOGPVU VQRQITCRJ[CPFWTDCPKV[ YGTGUVTQPIN[DQWPFGFVQIGVJGTD[OCKPVCKPKPIKPVGTFGRGPFGPE[COQPIGCEJQVJGTCOQFGNQHKPVGITCVGFEKV[#HVGTYCTFUJQYGXGTFGXGNQROGPVQHCRRTQRTKCVGWTDCP HQTOTGURQPFKPIVQVJKUWPKSWGJKUVQT[YCUPQVOCFG;GVUGGOKPIN[JCRJC\CTFRNCPPGFEKV[EWTTGPVWTDCPHCDTKEQHVJGUKVGKUENGCTN[FKXKFGFD[KVUVQRQITCRJ[CPFRTGXKQWUYCVGTYC[6JKURTQLGEVĹżPFUQRRQTVWPKV[QHETGCVKPIHWVWTGXKUKQPQHVJGEKV[HTQOVJGUWEJCEEWOWNCVGFRJ[UKECNCPFOGVCRJ[UKECN JKUVQT[QHVJGUKVGCPFETGCVGUJ[RGTNCPFUECRGD[UVTKPIUWEJHGCVWTGUVQIGVJGTKPCUWEEGUUKXGYC[CUDGNQY 4GFKUEQXGTCPFTGEQPPGEVJKFFGPYCVGTYC[UVQVJGUKVG ,GOWNRQTQCF  %TGCVGRCTMCPFCOGPKVKGUDCUGFQPYCVGTYC[+VCNUQHWPEVKQPUCUCTGUGTXQKTYJKEJRTGXGPVEJTQPKEĆ€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streams that are collected on the site. Based on that, new activities on Jemulpo-road Park can be actively changed as a response to the environment - amount of precipitation, sun light, and temperature, while physically integrating isolated urban fabrics. In addition, it can be a good solution to chronic Ć€QQFKPIQHVJGTGIKQPCUKPETGCUGFITGGPĹżGNFCPFTGVGPVKQPRQQNECPUGTXGVJGHWPEVKQPQHWTDCPTGUGTXQKT// Mapo Oil Base Int’l Competition, 2013 // Different groups of users can change interior environment of the tank by adjusting the ratio of opening size of movable roof and window. Following this, VJGCOQWPVQHJGCVCKTCPFYCVGT CUTCKPUPQY KPVCMGECPDGEJCPIGFCPFVJGGPENQUGFGPXKTQPOGPVKPUKFGVJGVCPMEJCPIGUCEEQTFKPIN[%JCPIGFGPXKTQPOGPVKPURKTGURGQRNGVQKOCIKPGCPFETGCVGUEGPCTKQU QTWUGU +PUQOGECUGUUWEJCTEJKVGEVWTCNEQORQPGPVUOQXGKPTGCNVKOGYJKNG enabling more exciting and interactive programs inside the tank. // Liminal Nature, 2012 // 6JGNKOKPCNPCVWTGKP/GICNQRQNKUJCXGNCTIGN[DGGPGZRNQKVGFVQHWNĹżNRGQRNGĹ?UFGUKTGVQGUECRGHTQOETQYFGFCPFDWUVNKPIWTDCPCTGCCPFVQTGUKFGYKVJKPPCVWTGKPQVJGTYQTFUVJKUOKPFUGVQH/GICNQRQNKVCP people facilitated suburbanization, which created today’s problems of privatization, pollution of nature, and broad social issues as well. Hence, this Megalopolitan attitude of seeing liminal nature - residing in nature not for living and working, but for leisure or as a refugee from urban congestion - and YKFGN[PGVYQTMGFVTCPURQTVCVKQPKPHTCUVTWEVWTGJCUGCUKN[COCNICOCVGFVYQVGTTKVQTKGUWTDCPCPFUWDWTDCP6JG0GRQPUGVTKXGTVJGQPN[VKFCNTKXGTKP%JCTNGU'NKQVĹ?U/GVTQRQNKVCP2CTM5[UVGOQH)TGCVGT$QUVQP  JQYGXGTJCUOWEJRQVGPVKCNVQUQNXGVJQUGRTQDNGOUVJTQWIJD[ETGCVKPICPGY urbanity along the forgotten river, while utilizing those problems and opportunities through an integrated water and green space management system. In bigger scale, this strategy can also be applied to pulverize numerous isolated suburban regions and to connect along water stream while creating new urbanity along the river. // Yongsan Park International Competition, 2012 // ;QPIUCP2CTMKUGPXKUCIGFVQDGCHTGGCPFQRGPEKXKEECORWUHQTCNNENCUUQHRGQRNGYJGTGTGNCZCVKQPHQTETGCVKXKV[CPFRQVGPVKCNHQTUGNHHWNĹżNNOGPVECPDGRTQXKFGF1WTKPVGPVKQPKUVQTGPFGTNKHGNQPIEJCPEGUQHNGCTPKPI something new and valuable for the citizen whilst they relax and enjoy in the park. Therefore, Yongsan Park aims to become a socio-cultural infrastructure that can enhance the overall quality of life, rather than just to become a physical urban infrastructure that tends to emphasize the green at its forefront. It would be quite important to return the land that had been lost for over a century to the citizens, its original owners, as soon as possible. Hence, the earlier the park opens, the more heartily people will welcome it. However, we seek an incremental and long-term approach afterwards. Whilst ENQUGN[OQPKVQTKPIVJGTGNCVKQPUJKRDGVYGGPVJGRCTMCPFEKV[CPFVJTQWIJUWHĹżEKGPVUQEKCNFKUEWUUKQPUCPFCEVKXGKPXQNXGOGPVUQHVJGEKVK\GPUVJGRCTMYKNNDGTGQTICPK\GFKPVGTOUQHURCEGCPFTGCFLWUVGFKPVGTOUQHHWPEVKQP6JGRTQEGUUQHCURCEGDGEQOKPICRNCEGCPFCRNCEGDGEQOKPICP attraction takes a long period of time requiring strong public support and affection. // Evolutionary Context, 2010 //#UHQWPFKPVJGĹ‘)TGCV/CRQH-QTGC  Ĺ’-QTGCKUCOQWPVCKPRGPKPUWNC+PJGTGVJGVTCFKVKQPCNEKV[OCMKPIOGVJQFYCUHWNN[CFCRVGFKPVJKUEQPFKVKQPVJGTGD[CTCDNGNCPFQEEWRCVKQP CPFWTDCPK\CVKQPRTQEGUUGUCTGUKOKNCT#NUQOQUVJCDKVCVKQPYCUOCFGKPXCNNG[UCUCĹżPIGTUJCRGFNGCHUVTWEVWTGRCVVGTP6JGTGHQTGVJGTGUWNVCPVNCPFNQVRNCPNQQMUFKHHGTGPVHTQO$#4EQFGUJCRGFYGUVGTPEKVKGU ITKFCZKU DWVNQQMUOQTGNKMGCFKOGPUKQPCN34EQFGYKVJOQTGKPHQTOCVKQP %QPUGSWGPVKCNFKHHGTGPVDWKNFKPIJGKIJVUCTGCPQVJGTKORQTVCPVEQPVGZV+PEQPENWUKQPVJGUGCTGETWEKCNHCEVQTUIGPGTCVKPIKTTGIWNCTEKV[UECRGQH-QTGCPEKVKGU5GQXKNNCIGHCEKPIOQWPVCKPUFGĹżPKPIVJGQNFVGTTKVQT[QH5GQWNJCUKTTGIWNCTEKV[UECRG#NVJQWIJVJKUNCPFUECRGNQQMUEJCQVKECVCINCPEGKVCNUQ JCURQUKVKXGHCEVQTUYJKEJYGUVGTPCPFEQPVGORQTCT[EKVKGUFQPQVJCXGINKORUGVQJKFFGPDWKNFKPIUCEEKFGPVCNN[OGGVKPIXQKFURCEGUCEJCPEGVQNQQMCVDWKNFKPIUĹ?HCECFGQPEWTXGFTQCFCEVKXGWUGQHGZVGTKQTURCEGUGVE6JGUGURCVKCNEJCTCEVGTKUVKEUUJCTGEQOOQPGNGOGPVUYKVJEQPVGORQTCT[ socialistic theories which seek more complexity and multiplicity. Therefore, amplifying this irregular cityscape through architectural process would reveal hidden context of this place. // Landscript Urbanism, 2009 //6JG-QTGCPYQTFĹŽ6WJOQQPKĹ?EQODKPGUVJGYQTFUHQTĹ‘NCPFĹ’CPFĹ‘UETKRVĹ’ QTĹżIWTG 6Q QWTUWTRTKUGVJGRTGRQUVGTQWUEQORQWPFJCUCXGT[FKHHGTGPVFGĹżPKVKQPOGCPKPIĹ‘TGCUQPĹ’QTĹ‘DCEMITQWPFĹ’+VNGCFUWUVQVJGEQPENWUKQPVJCVVJGNKHGQHQWTCPEGUVQTUYCUFGGRN[KPXQNXGFYKVJVJGNCPFQPYJKEJVJG[NKXGF'XGT[NCPFJCUKVUQYPĹżIWTG#UYGCNNJCXGFKHHGTGPVĹżPIGTRTKPVUCNCPFJCUKVU QYPRTKPV+VKUVJGJKUVQT[QHPCVWTGKVUGNHCPFUQOGVKOGUCJKUVQT[QHEKXKNK\CVKQP6JGTGHQTGVJGNCPFUECRGKUCOCIPKĹżEGPVJKUVQT[DQQMQHQWTNKHGCPFNCPFCNCPFUETKRVKUCPQTICPKUOCOCUUQHGPGTI[VJCVTGSWKTGUCRRQUKVKQPCNITQYVJ0QYYGUVCTVVJGCTEJKVGEVWTGD[NKUVGPKPIVQVJGNCPFCPFCFFKPI CRQGVKEDWVOQFGUVIGUVWTGVQKV4GFKUEQXGTTGFGĹżPGCPFTGPGYGZKUVKPIUOCNNXKNNCIGYKVJTGURGEVVQVJGRTGXKQWUNKXGU4GWUGUOCNNJQWUGUCUCEVKXCVQTUQHGZVGTKQTCEVKXKVKGUKPQTFGTVQGPEQWTCIGTGUKFGPVUVQOCMGPGYEQOOWPKV[NKHG5ECVVGTGFUOCNNDWKNFKPIUYKNNTGOKPFRGQRNGQHRTGEGFGPV existences of buildings, landscape, and land-scripts. Application of adjustable housing plans will make residents adapt to fast-changing lifestyle of contemporary society and help them create a new community. // Blurring the Boundary, 2005 // The number of factors that change urban environments KPETGCUGFYKVJVKOG#UVJGWTDCPGPIKPGGTKPICNQPGECPPQVRTQXKFGVJGURGEKĹżEUYGJCXGVQFGĹżPGYJCVVQDGNGHVQTIQPGCPFFGXKUGHQNNQYWROGCUWTGOGPVU6QVJKUGPFEQPETGVGRNCPUEQPUKFGTKPIVKOGHCEVQTKUTGSWKTGF+HVJGVKOGTGNCVGFEJCPIGUCTGVQDGKORNGOGPVGFKPCEKV[QTRNCEGKPC gradual manner owing to the various unpredictable elements of modern societies, they should be both concrete and indeterminate. In addition, it is necessary to make concrete planning of architectural infrastructure, in order to respond to the indeterminate changes of cities. Therefore, in this project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traces of past facilities. Make it serve as buffer-zone to the surrounding residential area and correspond to future developments. Blot out physical barriers and promote various activities by extending riverside programs, such as sports facilities and green spaces. Second, extend riverside highway into VJGDWKNFKPIVQOCMGWTDCPUECNGEQOOWPKV[URCEGHTGSWGPVGFD[OCP[RGQRNG(TQPVQRGPURCEGUWRRQTVUGZRCPUKQPQHVJGRTQITCOYJKNGFKOKPKUJKPIUKFGGHHGEVUNKMGEQPIGUVKQPQHTGUKFGPEGCTGC4GOCKPGFWPQEEWRKGFURCEGUCVVJGOQOGPVYKVJQWVURGEKĹżEHWPEVKQPYKNNEQTTGURQPFGPVVQRTGFKEVCDNG HWVWTGEJCPIGUNKMGTGOQXCNQHUWDHCEKNKVKGU(QTGUVUUECVVGTGFQPRCUVHCEKNKVKGUĹ?NQECVKQPKURCTVN[TGOQXGFFWGVQRTGFKEVCDNGEJCPIGUCPFYKNNDGTGRNCEGFD[PGYHCEKNKVKGU6JKUCRRTQCEJYKNNCVVGPWCVGDQNFEJCTCEVGTKUVKEUQH&CPIKPTKRQYGTRNCPVCPFUWUVCKPĆ€GZKDNGTGNCVKQPYKVJEKV[7UKPIFGGR FGRVJ O QHRCUVIGPGTCVQTTQQOUOCMGOQXGOGPVTQWVGUUGTXKEGHCEKNKVKGUCPFRCTMKPINQVUQVJCVKVFQGUPQVJWTVQXGTITQWPFURCEGĹ?UXQNWOGCPFOCMGKVHWPEVKQPCUKPHTCUVTWEVWTGQHQXGTCNNDWKNFKPI5NQRGUYKVJFKXGTUGFKOGPUKQPUNKPMCPWODGTQHUKOWNVCPGQWUN[IGPGTCVGFOQXGOGPVTQWVGU GHHGEVKXGN[TCPIKPIHTQOTKXGTUKFGURCEGUVQHTQPVQRGPURCEGUWPFGTQXGTITQWPFURCEGUCUYGNN$WKNFKPIĹ?UUNQRGFUWTHCEGFTCYUUWPNKIJVKPVQWPFGTITQWPFURCEGU#VVJGUCOGVKOGCNNGXKCVGDWNM[UGPUGQHDWKNFKPI&QWDNGUMKPQHHTQPVGNGXCVKQPEQORQUGFD[RWPEJGFUVGGNRNCVGCPFQRCSWGINCUU OCMGKVGCUKGTVQFTCYUWPNKIJVCPFFGETGCUGOCUUKXGUGPUGQHDWKNFKPIVQQ8CTKGFĆ€QQTRNCVGUCPFJCPIGTFGXKEGUQPEGKNKPIKPUKFGVJGQXGTITQWPFXQNWOGRTQOQVGXCTKQWUCEVKXKVKGUCPFMGGRVJGKORTGUUKQPQHVJGRCUVIGPGTCVKQPTQQO2TGXKQWUVTWUUGUEJKOPG[CTGWUGFCUUETGGPHQTVJGEKV[ utilizing its height. // Anti-Urban Sprawl Strategy, 2004 // The city of Mokpo has expanded its territory by huge reclamation, regardless of its socioeconomic ability. The reclamation continuously enlarged its boundary, but economic power of the city continuously diminished due to change of industrial UVTWEVWTG1PVJGQVJGTJCPFVJGOCKPVTCHĹżENKPGTWPUCETQUUVJGEKV[EGPVGTUGRCTCVGUCPFGZRGFKVGUVJGQNFEKV[VQFGENKPG0QYYGRTQRQUGCPCPVKWTDCPURTCYNUVTCVGI[HQTVJGEKV[Ĺ?UUWUVCKPCDNGHWVWTG+VHQNNQYUEGPVTCNVTCHĹżEKPHTCUVTWEVWTGUCPFTGPQXCVGUVJGOYKVJCRRTQRTKCVGWTDCPRTQITCOUKP order to combine separated regions. // Let the City Move, 2004 //%KVK\GPUECPJCXGOQTGRQYGTVJTQWIJĹ‘KPFGVGTOKPCVGWTDCPGXGPVU RQNKVKECNFGOQPUVTCVKQPUCPFUWEJ Ĺ’+PĹ‘KPHQTOCVKQPFTKXGPUQEKGV[Ĺ’QHVQFC[KPHQTOCVKQPPGVYQTMEQWNFVTKIIGTUWEJGXGPVU6JTQWIJOGUUGPIGTQTHTQOCXGT[UKORNG comment uploaded on the web, people would gather. The number of people who can access the same information is more than you imagine. Therefore, more exposure to the information could increase the number of events. Let the city Seoul to have a grand landmark of information. This does not only EGNGDTCVGDWVCEVWCNN[HWPEVKQPUVQJGNRRGQRNGVQCEEGUUKPHQTOCVKQPQPWTDCPGXGPVU6JGHQTOQHVJGOQPWOGPVYCUFGVGTOKPGFD[KVUUJQRRGTUPGCT)NCUUCPFUETGGPYGTGEJQUGPHQTOCVGTKCNUVTCVGI[VQEQODKPGURGEKĹżECPFKPFGVGTOKPCVGKPHQTOCVKQP9JGPCURGEKCNGXGPVQEEWTUVJGUETGGP would suddenly show the scenes, visually asking for viewer’s participation. “Welcome into the building if you are interested, make departure to the event-site, spread your opinion to other people, and make more democratic society.â€? The network city does not coincide unambiguously with the built environment; it is very largely an invisible city, a spider’s web of invisible functional and social relationships running across and one another. “Increased spatial and social mobility means that people are no longer only involved in their own neighborhood or town built in the whole region or even the whole EQWPVT[Ĺ’ IGQITCRJGT,GCP)QVVOCPP +PVJGPGVYQTMEKV[GCEJKPFKXKFWCNCUUGODNGUJKUQYPRQN[EGPVTKEWTDCPFKUVTKEVVJGEGPVGTYJKEJPQNQPIGTPGGFUVQEQKPEKFGYKVJVJGQNFEKV[EGPVGT6JGKPETGCUKPIUECNGQHFCKN[NKHGCPFGPJCPEGFOQDKNKV[OGCPVJCVVJGTGCTGPQOQTGENQUGNQECNEQOOWPKVKGUUVKNN left. Neighbors have become “familiar strangersâ€?. New social links have been created on a larger scale. Transport and communication networks enable social networks to be maintained although people don’t live anymore in the same neighborhood as their friends or relatives. The use of networks in the EKV[OGCPUVJCVCPWTDCPNKHGUV[NGKUOQTGFKHĹżEWNVVQDGKFGPVKĹżGFQTNKPMGFVQCURGEKĹżEEKV[Ĺ?URJ[UKECNGPXKTQPOGPV6JKUKURTGEKUGN[VJGQPGQHVJGFKHĹżEWNVKGUCTEJKVGEVUJCXGVQFGCNYKVJKPVJGEQPVGORQTCT[EKV[UKPEGCTEJKVGEVUWUGFVQDGVJGGZRGTVUQPIKXKPIRJ[UKECNUJCRGVQURGEKĹżENKHGUV[NGUQTUQEKCN organizations. Our environment in the city is precisely the opposite, is a collage of “opportunitiesâ€? arising independently in a certain spot, the Hub. The chosen sample site is located in central commercial area of Seoul. Following the main road, diverse shops such as cafe, pub, hair salon, and restaurants are stacked up. All those shops have transparent elevation, which enables people to look at the main road and get much information from the urban landscape. Shopper’s view angle determines the overall shape of the social argument generator. Each different view heights from different PGCTD[DWKNFKPIUFGHQTOKVUUJCRGUGZVGTKQTOCVGTKCNUCPFGPVTCPEGNQECVKQP6JGIGPGTCVQTĹ?UUWTHCEGUYKNNFKURNC[CPFTGĆ€GEVVJGXKDTCPVWTDCPUEGPGUCPFYQWNFUWFFGPN[DGEJCPIGFKPVQCPWTDCPUETGGPYJKEJUJQYUCEEKFGPVCNWTDCPGXGPVUFGOQPUVTCVKQPUUVTGGVEJGGTUHQTYQTNFEWRCPF parades. This sudden change would encourage people to take in the bus, and participate in such urban events. // Stand on Tiptoe, 2009 // The Janghang Wetland has been maintained as the largest willow forest in South Korea and diverse biospecies, since it has been blocked from approach due to OKNKVCT[TGCUQPU*QYGXGTKVYKNNUQQPDGQRGPGFVQVJGRWDNKECUCĹżGNFQHGPXKTQPOGPVCNGFWECVKQP6JGTGHQTGFGNKECVGFGUKIPCRRTQCEJKUTGSWKTGFPQVVQFGUVTQ[GZKUVKPIPCVWTGCPFVQRTQXKFGUWHĹżEKGPVGPXKTQPOGPVCNGFWECVKQPCUYGNN(QTOQXGTCNNURCEGCPFUVTWEVWTGD[WVKNK\KPI4KD5VTWEVWTG Vierendeel Truss. The aim of the design is to minimize the contact area with wetland, not to interrupt environmental circulation, but to maximize the possibility of feeling the nature. // A Study on the Social Role of Architecture through the Soviet Communal House in the 1930s, 2009 //+P4WUUKC VJTQWIJVJG(GDTWCT[4GXQNWVKQPCPF4GF1EVQDGTVJG[GUVCDNKUJGFVJGYQTNFĹ?UĹżTUVUQEKCNKUVPCVKQPCPFCVVGORVGFVQGTCFKECVGVJGKTQDUQNGVGU[UVGOU+VYCUVJGDGIKPPKPIQHCPGYGRQEJ#TEJKVGEV/QKUGK)KP\DWTICTIWGFKPJKUDQQM5V[NGCPF'RQEJVJCVĹŽVJGCTEJKVGEVUOWUVVJKPMQHVJGOUGNXGUCUVJG EQPUVTWEVGTUQHNKHGHQTVJGPGYGTCCPFUJQWNFPQVNCXKUJCTEJKVGEVWTGYKVJQTPCOGPVĹ?+P15# 1TICPK\CVKQPQH%QPVGORQTCT[#TEJKVGEVU CITQWRHQWPFGFD[/QKUGK)KP\DWTIRWDNKUJGFVJGKTĹżTUVKUUWGQHVJG,QWTPCN5# 5QXTGOOGPPCKC#TMJKVGMVWTCQTĹŽ%QPVGORQTCT[#TEJKVGEVWTGĹ? CPFCTIWGF VJCVĹŽVJGOQFGTPCTEJKVGEVWTGUJQWNFET[UVCNNK\GVJGPGYUQEKCNKUVU[UVGOKPVQNKHGĹ?1PVJQH0QXVJGUCOG[GCT#PCVQNK.WPCEJCTUMKKĹŒVJGOKPKUVGTQH'FWECVKQPĹŒENCTKĹżGFVJCVVJGVTWGCKOQHVJGTGXQNWVKQPKUVQTGEQPUVTWEVVJGYC[QHNKHGEQORNGVGN[#EEQTFKPIVQVJGCDQXGUVCVGOGPVUKVYCUENGCTVJCV VJGCTEJKVGEVUYGTGVQCUUWOGVJGETWEKCNRCTVQHQTICPK\KPIPGYNKHG%QPUGSWGPVN[KPVJGKTCTEJKVGEVWTCNRTCEVKEGUKPVJGUCPFUCTEJKVGEVUQH5QXKGV7PKQPRWTUWGFVQEQPUVTWEV5QEKCNKUVKENKHGVJTQWIJHWPEVKQPCNCPFFKCNGEVKEOGVJQFU/GCPYJKNGVJGFGĹżPKVKQPUUWEJCUĹŽCTEJKVGEVWTGKUVJG EQPVCKPGTQHNKHGĹ?CPFĹŽYGUJCRGQWTDWKNFKPIUVJGTGCHVGTVJG[UJCRGWUĹ?CTGRTGXCNGPVCPFUVKNNYKFGN[SWQVGFGXGPCHVGTVJG)KP\DWTIGTC;GVVJGCWVJGPVKEKV[QHVJGUGSWQVGUKUJKIJN[CDUVTCEVCPFOCMGUQPGYQPFGTJQYGZCEVN[CTEJKVGEVUECPEQPUVTWEVĹŽJWOCPNKHGĹ?VJCVKUFGUETKDGFCUKPVCPIKDNGCPF WPRTGFKEVCDNG!#PFJQYGZCEVN[ECPCTEJKVGEVURTQXGYJGVJGTVJGKTRNCPJCUCEVWCNN[EJCPIGFVJGTGUKFGPVĹ?UNKXGU!6JGCKOQHVJKUTGUGCTEJKUVQUVWF[VJGCEVWCNKV[QHVJGCDQXGCODKIWQWUFGĹżPKVKQPUVJQWIJURGEKĹżEECUGUQHEQOOWPCNJQWUKPIUQH5QXKGVKPU+JCXGTGUVTKEVGFVJGUWDLGEVUQH TGUGCTEJVQVJG0CTMQOĹżP%QOOWPCN*QWUGD[VJGCTEJKVGEV)KP\DWTICPFVQ-QOOWPCNMC %QOOWPCN#RCTVOGPV YJKEJYCUVJGRTGFQOKPCPVHQTOQHJQWUKPIVJCVYCUDWKNVYKVJQWVCPCTEJKVGEV6JGEJQUGPHCEKNKVKGUYGTGVJGOQUVPQVCDNGRTCEVKEGUQHVJGPQVKQPĹŽ5QEKCN%QPFGPUGTĹ?VJGURCVKCNKFGCQH EQPUVTWEVKXKUOVJCVCTEJKVGEVWTGECPKPĆ€WGPEGUQEKCNDGJCXKQTCNUQVJG[CTGVJGOQUVTGNGXCPVGZCORNGUVQUVWF[VJGĹŽQTICPK\CVKQPQH5QEKCNKUVKENKHGĹ?DGECWUGDQVJGZCORNGUYGTGDWKNVDGHQTGVJGEQNNCRUGQH5QXKGV7PKQPKP6JGOGVJQFEJQUGPKUVJGEQORCTKUQPQHVJGGNGOGPVUQHUQEKCNKUVKENKHG RTQLGEVGFQPVQVJGURCVKCNRNCPUHQTGCEJDWKNFKPI#FFKVKQPCNN[VJGTGUKFGPVĹ?UTGXKGYUQHVJGUGDWKNFKPIUJCXGDGGPEQORCTGFCICKPUVVJGKPKVKCNKPVGPVKQPQHVJGCTEJKVGEVCPFVJGIQXGTPOGPVVJTQWIJVJKUUVWF[VJGKPĆ€WGPEGQHUQEKCNKUVKECTEJKVGEVWTGQPVJGTGUKFGPVUĹ?NKHGYKNNDGENCTKĹżGF// Dive into the City, 2006 //+PJKUVQTKEOGICNQRQNKU5GQWN%JGQPII[GTKXGTUKFGCTGCJCUGZCEVN[VJGUCOGCIGYKVJVJGEKV[&KHHGTGPVHTQOUVWHHGFJKUVQTKETGOCKPUXCTKQWURNCEGUKP%JGQPII[GTKXGTUKFGEQPPGEVUQNFĹżGNFUQHWTDCPCEVKXKVKGUUWEJCUEQOOGTEGCPFOCPWHCEVWTG+PVJGTKXGTYCUTGUVQTGFCHVGT demolishing the old expressway and deprived regions, and would further destroy the current dynamic activities. Moreover, although it became a tourist attraction, concentrated interest in the river would deprive citizens of chances to experience complex urban industrial area. The aim of this project is to enable people to expand their interest on the city, not only in the restored river, but also in the riverside region. Through this, we expect people to recognize and share new memories in the heart of Seoul. // Continuously Built Houses, 2009 // The power and possibility of Hanok (Korean Traditional *QWUG KUKPKVUHTGGFQOQHFGUKIPCPFEQPUVTWEVKQPRTQEGUUPQVKPHQTOCNRTQVQV[RG6TCFKVKQPCN*CPQMFGUKIPRTKPEKRNGYCUHWNĹżNNKPIRTKXCVGPGGFUCPFEJCTCEVGTKUVKEUCUYGNNCUHQNNQYKPIWPKXGTUCNFGUKIP0QVVQOGPVKQPCP[EQPUVTWEVKQPRTQEGUUUVCTVGFHTQOEQPUKFGTCVKQPQHPCVWTGPGKIJDQTJQQF


Kangil Ji_Portfolio Spring 2014  

Kangil Ji_Portfolio Spring 2014

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