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OPCW - AN EPITOME OF DISARMAMENT SUCCESS STORY AND INDIA’S CONTRIBUTION TO CWC (To Commemorate 29th April - First International Day for the Foundation of OPCW)

ANAND KANE In-Charge, CWC HelpDesk, Western Region, Indian Chemical Council (Ex-OPCW Inspector)

PREAMBLE: The negotiations on a comprehensive prohibition of chemical and biological weapons have been the subject of attention in both the United Nations General Assembly and the Geneva disarmament body for more than 20 years. The bilateral negotiations held between the Soviet Union and the United States from 1978 to 1980, and from 1986 to 1990 had exerted an additional significant influence on the negotiations that resulted into an agreement on destruction and non-production of Chemical Weapons and on measures to facilitate Multilateral Convention on banning Chemical Weapons. The breakthrough could be achieved with disappearance of East-West conflict and the experience of two gulf wars. The pact was signed during a summit meeting between US and Soviet Union in Washington D.C. on June 1, 1990. 34 z CHEMICAL NEWS MAY 2016

The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC) constitutes an arms control and disarmament treaty which is unique in several aspects. It is the first and so far the only arms control agreement with global application which treats all parties on a completely equal footing. At the same time, it combines genuine disarmament obligations. This sophisticated international agreement illustrate complex provisions of the Convention. The complexity is one of the reason for many years of negotiations. U.N. Secretary-General opened

the Convention for signature in Paris on 13 January 1993 that was signed by more than 130 States. The treaty is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), based in The Hague, Netherlands. The OPCW is the legal platform for specification of the CWC provisions, which entered into force 19 years ago on 29 April 1997. OPCW is the fastest growing international disarmament organisation in history. As of today it has 192 Member States, whose mission is to work together to achieve a world free of Chemical Weapons. In a short span, CWC has remarkably successful in attaining


near universality. It covers 98% of the global population, 90% of the world’s declared stockpile of chemical agent have been destroyed and over 6200 inspections have taken place on the territory of 86 Member States since April 1997. There are 4 States, namely Egypt, Israel, North Korea and South Sudan, yet to become members to CWC to achieve Universality to the CWC. The United Nations has called upon the remaining States to join the CWC and to rid the world of the threat chemical weapons pose to international security. India has urged that these States accede to the Convention at the earliest. The Key points of the Convention are: (a) Prohibition of production and use of chemical weapons, (b) Destruction (or monitored conversion to other functions) of chemical weapons production facilities,(c) Destruction of all chemical weapons (including chemical weapons abandoned outside the State Parties territory),(d) Assistance between State Parties and the OPCW in the case of use of chemical weapons,(e) an inspection regime and (f) International cooperation in the peaceful use of chemistry in relevant areas.

INDIA’S COMMITMENT TO THE OBJECT AND PURPOSE OF CONVENTION: In order to solemnize 29th April, FIRST INTERNATIONAL DAY FOR THE FOUNDATION OF OPCW It is worth to note India’s commitment and contribution as a Member State, to the OPCW success story. India’s commitment comes from sense of responsibility and firm conviction that (a) use of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) are inhuman and that its use in any form is against mankind and global peace, and (b) demilitarization of WMDS and non-proliferation is part of the larger process of maintaining global peace and security. The World community recalls with shock

the recent history of sufferings of victims as a result of use of Chemical Weapons. z As an original signatory, India signed the Convention on 14th January, 1993 and deposited the instrument of ratification on 3rd September, 1996. National Authority - Chemicals Weapons Convention (NACWC) has been established under the Chemical Weapons Convention Act- 2000 for implementing the provisions of the Convention. NACWC is an office in the Cabinet Secretariat, Government of India. z India’s National Authority was the first one to obtain an ISO 9001 2008 certificate. NA CWC’s mission is to seek to be a leader in establishing best practices in all the key areas of its operations, and management of knowledge relating to CWC. z CWC Act-2000 was amended by Parliament of India in the year 2012 to strengthen implementation of CWC. The Act is called “The Chemical Weapons Convention (Amendment) Act, 2012”. The amendment is in force since 23 November 2012. z On 16 March 2009, India finished its CW destruction operations, ahead of the 28 April 2009 extended deadline for completion of destruction established by the Conference of State Parties. z The Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and their Delivery System Act-2005 passed by Indian Parliament is in force from 7th June 2005. Weapons of Mass

Destruction are defined to include atomic explosive weapons, radioactive-material weapons, lethal chemical and biological weapons, and any weapons developed in the future which have characteristics comparable in destructive effect to those of the atomic bomb or other weapons mentioned above. z India has the distinction to be the First State Party to set up CWC Help Desks. First Help Desk was inaugurated in December 2007 in Gujarat to mark 10th Anniversary of EIF by the then Deputy Director General OPCW Mr. John Freeman. z Indian Chemical Council (ICC), the apex National body representing all branches of the Chemical Industry in India took initiative in the year 2007 for setting up CWC Help Desks in Public Private Partnership mode across the country for implementation of CWC and CWC Act. Six CWC Help Desks are operational in various regions. Help Desks act as an important interface between Government and Chemical Industry. Their activities include identification of potential declaring industry through industry survey and facilitate filing of declarations. Help Desks through its Awareness programmes disseminate information on (a) clear understanding on the provisions of CWC and the role of National Authority for CWC (b) importance of declaration CHEMICAL NEWS MAY 2016 z 35






and that what should be and should not be declared besides maintaining confidentiality of its business information (c) imparting Knowledge on Export and Import trade controls with respect to CWC schedule chemicals, and (d) live demonstration on E- filing procedure. India is the second State Party to collect on line declarations from source, an important step in promoting e-governance. 15-20 CWC Awareness programmes (CWCAP) are conducted every year by Help Desks in their respective region. Awareness programmes have also been conducted for Officials of Customs & Excise. CWCAPs are being conducted since early 2004. As a result of outreach and education, Industry declarations of the country stand at number two, China being first (Ref: Annex 4-6 of OPCW Annual Report 2014). Quality and quantity of declarations is on rise as a result of training. Country’s statistics of declarations and inspections under Article VI is given in ensuing tables One of the most important missions of ICC is to promote Responsible Care (RC). The RC initiative measures include training, creating awareness and self-discipline in industry’s code of conduct. Encouraging training of Associates under OPCW Associate Programme at the plants sites of its chemical industry since the year 2008. Hosting of Seminars/workshops on “Chemical Plant Safety and Security” and “International Phosgene Safety Conference” every year. ICC has participated in National events like INDIA CHEM/ INDIA CHEM-Gujart by putting up CWC stall and displaying exhibits to disseminate relevant information


on CWC to participants and to visiting technical college students to the event. A symposium on Chemical Safety & Security was organized at INDIA CHEM-Gujart in Oct. 2015. INDIA CHEM is the largest annual event of Chemical and Petrochemical industry. z NA CWC has drafted a comprehensive “plant safety and security rating system” for implementation. z Appointment of a distinguished researcher and scientist and

recipient of India’s national Civilian honour for excellence in science and engineering, as a member of the Advisory Board on Education and Outreach. z Laboratory designated for the analysis of authentic samples. z Voluntary contribution agreement with Technical Secretariat of OPCW for destruction of Syrian CW. z Contribution to the contents of The Declarations Handbook published by T.S. of OPCW

ARTICLE VI DECLARATIONS AND INSPECTION FIGURES UPTO DECEMBER 2015 A total of 597 Annual Declarations on Past Activities have been filed during the calendar year 2015.

DECLARING FACILITIES IN INDIA TYPE 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Schedule 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Schedule 2 24 27 35 37 43 43 30 32 Schedule 3 30 34 37 35 38 40 38 41 Other Chemical Production Facilities (OCPFs) 360 445 509 532 532 522 531 518 TOTAL 415 507 582 605 614 606 600 592

INSPECTIONS IN INDIA Till December 2015, India has undergone 216 Inspections. Number of inspections have gone up from 2 (1998) to 27 (2013) & 25 each (2014 and 2015) S.NO. YEAR SCHEDULE 1 SCHEDULE 2 SCHEDULE 3 OCPF

1. 1997 1 2. 1998 0 3. 1999 1 4. 2000 1 5. 2001 1 6. 2002 0 7. 2003 1 8. 2004 1 9. 2005 0 10. 2006 0 11. 2007 1 12. 2008 0 13. 2009 0 14. 2010 1 15. 2011 0 16. 2012 0 17. 2013 1 18. 2014 0 19. 2015 0 - TOTAL 09

0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 7 4 6 5 3 6 2 7 5 6 57

0 0 2 2 0 3 0 2 1 4 5 3 5 4 1 5 5 1 0 43


0 1 0 2 0 3 0 3 0 1 0 3 3 6 1 4 0 3 1 12 2 12 8 17 5 15 11 19 10 17 14 21 14 27 19 25 19 25 107 216

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