The Training Cookbook
How to create easily adaptable Non-Formal Learning tools: guidelines and examples
© Social Youth Development - K.A.NE., Kalamata 2013 This booklet was created as a result of the training course “Formal Education Meets Non-Formal Learning: The Competence Based Approach” that took place in Kalamata, Greece, in the framework of action 4.3 of the European Youth in Action Programme. The training course was organised by the organisation Social Youth Development - K.A.NE. from the 3rd to the 11th of November 2012. Editors: Filaretos Vourkos and Fotini Arapi Graphic Design: Dimitrios Bouris Photos: Andreea Roxana Constantin, Sonia Fronteddu, Manuela Gascon, Loic Marchand We would like to thank all those who were involved in this training course and made this publication possible (in alphabetical order): Aguilar Sanchez Javier, Anastasiadou Matina, Arapi Fotini, Bajkusa Mario, Banova Sylvia, Brezoiu Gabriel-Andrei, Constantin Andreea-Roxana, Fronteddu Sonia, Gascon Manuela, Georgopoulous Dimitris, Karlovic Ana, Koncz Diana, Kotnowska Anna, Kovacs Akos, Kukovic Karmen, Lopez Rodriguez Pablo Javier, Marchand Loic, Oksaar Sandra, Panagides Panagiotis, Podgorska Izabela, Ratkowska-Teliczan Anna Maria, Stamatova Tanya, Sterle Vito, Tamm Veronika, Tavares Andre, Testasecca Francesco, Torres Nunez Maria Del Carmen, Vourkos Filaretos
Contact Details Social Youth Development - K.A.NE. Address: Plateia Othonos 10, 24100, Kalamata, Greece E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Url: www.ngokane.org Tel.: +30 2721110740 Fax: +30 2721095441
The Training Cookbook How to create easily adaptable Non-Formal Learning tools: guidelines and examples
Kalamata, January 2013
Some information about the project
Chapter 1: Six steps to create a training tool
First Step: Needs Analysis
Second Step: Set the Objectives
Third Step: Develop your Training Tool
Fourth Step: Implementing the trainign activity
Fifth Step: Be prepared for Changes
Sixth Step: Conclusion / Evaluation
Chapter 2: Practical examples: Tools created during this training course by trainers and participants
Mapping the Community
Happy to be together despite our differences
Dance to Express
Pirate Treasure hunt
Some information about the project The training course “Formal Education Meets Non-Formal Learning: The competence-based approach” took place from the 3rd to the 11th of November 2012 in Kalamata, Greece, organised by the organisation K.A.NE. - Social Youth Development, in the framework of Action 4.3 of the Youth in Action programme. 24 youth workers, youth leaders, educators and facilitators from 11 different countries and 12 different organisations: K.A.NE. - Social Youth Development, Greece Cooperativa Sociale Muovimente, Italy MTU Noortevahetuse Arengu Uhing ESTYES, Estonia Warmińsko-Mazurska Wojewódzka Komenda OHP, Poland Forum for Freedom in Education, Croatia Mladinski center Dravinjske doline, Slovenia The Group of the European Youth for Change, Romania HELPI Kecskemeti Ifjusagi Iroda es Modszertani Muhely, Hungary Centro Intercultural Ideas de Colores, Spain Cyprus Youth Clubs Organization, Cyprus Cultural Triangle of Prespa, Greece Centre for European Initiatives Foundation, Bulgaria
Introduction Cooking is a symbol of creativity… It is an art that excites all the senses. It is a combination of ingredients that, using imagination and experimentation, leads you to pleasure. It is an everyday activity, with which one, if he/she has inspiration and motivation, can nourish the soul as well as the body… When working with young people, you often have to create your own educational tools. To combine their interests with the goals of an activity, in order to offer them what they need. Your materials for this is your knowledge and experience, their competences and “wants”, as well as the inspiration you can get from the world around you. In this training course, our cooking lesson brought us this “Training Cookbook”, with recipes that anyone can use in his/her everyday work with the young people, modifying them and adapting them to the learning needs of their own target group and embellishing his/her learning “menu”. “The Training Cookbook” was created in the framework of the training course “Formal Education Meets Non-Formal Learning: the competence based approach”, and is a result of the collective work of all the participants and the trainers. One of the main objectives of this training course was to create the appropriate space where the participants will be able to understand the way they can create their own non-formal education training tools. As an “open” process, this booklet wishes to remain “alive” and to be embellished with your own ideas, notes and comments!
CHAPTER 1 Six steps to create a training tool! by Filaretos Vourkos
First Step: Needs analysis How do you determine what the participants/ local community need? 1. Focus on the specific elements you want to identify 2. Identify the target group 3. Identify operational objectives of the training activity 4. Identify knowledge based solution 5. Identify skills-based solution
Second Step: Set the objectives *
Objectives are the guidance in implementing any kind of training activity
They help you set the target
They are the milestones you want to reach
They assist you in identifing the success of your activity
Remember to be clear about the timeline to achieve the objectives
Third Step: Develop your training tool 1. Identify the type of the tool you would like to develop TYPES: •
Soft activity (energizer, group division, ice breaker etc)
!!! All aspects of the training material must focus on the needs of the trainees !!! 2. Define the time and material that you need for your activity. 3. Do not forget to include debriefing sessions!
Creativity is your friend
Don’t be afraid to get inspired by:
Something the participants have achieved
Things they’ve said
Try to create something interactive
◊ A bit of humor or pleasant activity is always attracting the attention of the learners.
Important Details ◊
Decide on the duration of the activity dividing it to:
Introduction, explanation, questions
Debriefing, evaluation, comments
Time to change rooms, moving (if necessary)
Write down or give print outs with the instructions
◊ Prepare all the needed material and have some extra, in case you need them ◊ Do not give the participants more or less material than what you have planned ◊
Experiment/test the tool
Form an assessment policy
Form an evaluation policy
Fourth Step: Implementing the training activity ◊
Create a comfortable learning environment
Set up the training area with the appropriate material
Check your technical equipment (if needed)
◊ Be always there in advance (to receive the participants) and during the activity (to assist, advice, keep time, etc)
Fifth Step: Be prepared for changes
Be aware that changes may be needed for several reasons
Try to “read” the participants
Assess and evaluate
Have a plan B
◊ In case the tool fails, think fast and change it. If that is not possible, discuss it with the participants. Do not proceed to the next activity without the closure
◊ Don’t forget that in non-formal education, even failures can be transformed to learning activities
Sixth Step: Conclusion / Evaluation ◊
Re-visit the training objectives
Check if all previous steps were working properly
◊ Seek to understand the reactions of the participants. Assess and evaluate
Change something if necessary for the next time
Ask for recommendations, advice, tips
CHAPTER 2 Practical examples: Tools created during this training course by trainers and participants
MAPPING THE COMMUNITY Type of Tool: Simulation exercise / Group Building Activity Target group: Youth workers, trainers, educators, volunteers Topics addressed: Group Dynamics / Project Management Material / Equipment needed: You need to print the instructions and if there are any cameras, ask the participants to film some of the interviews (not necessary). Duration: approx. 70 mins 10 minutes for dividing groups, explaining the tasks and answering to questions 30 minutes for the activity 20-30 minutes for presentation and discussion
Aim: To act as an example on how to make a needs analysis in the local community by involving the members or the volunteers of your organisation. During a training course it can be a stimulus for a discussion on the needs of the youth and the local community in general, or for an actual needs analysis in order to introduce a session on the creation of non formal education tools as a means to approach certain issues.
Description: Divide the group in 4 subgroups and give them the paper with the following instructions (this is just an example. You can adapt the questions/tasks according to your objectives): Group 1: Observation Task: Walk down the main shopping street and observe the people. Group 2: Interviews Task: Interview at least 10 people on the street, in order to identify the needs of the local community Group 3: Typical week of a young person Task: In your own way, try to find out the typical week of 5 young people Group 4: Explore how aware the people are about non-formal education Task: Using your own method try to identify the level of awareness of the local community about nonâ€?formal education. If they donâ€™t know what it is, ask them what they think it could be.
PICTURE ME! Type of Tool: Ice-breaker / name game-getting to know each other / Group Building Activity Target group: Any Group
Material / Equipment needed: You need to print the pictures in A3 or A4 paper
Duration: approx. 1h and 15 minutes (depending on the size of the group)
Aim: Getting to know each other better and creating a more friendly atmosphere in the group.
Description: The trainer should ask the participants to send him/her their favorite picture or a picture/drawing that represents them. Nobody else should see this picture before, besides the trainer/ facilitator. The trainer has to print the pictures and organise this activity on the first or the second night (at the latest). The participants enter the room, where they should find a warm atmosphere with chill out music, and are sitting on pillows on the floor (forming a circle). The trainer puts the pictures in the centre of the room (face down so nobody can see) and picks the first one. The participants observe the picture and they try to imagine what kind of person is the one whom this picture represents. They say what they think about this person (e.g. he/she is romantic, passionate, organised, etc). When many people speak the trainer facilitates the process and asks from the person to whom the picture belongs to reveal him/herself. This process continues until all pictures are viewed and discussed. Usually you need 3-5 minutes per picture, so for 20 participants it will last for about an hour.
ALCOHOL DRAMA Type of Tool: Simulation exercise Target group: Upper classes of primary school pupils and secondary school pupils aged between 12 and 16. Topic Addressed: Alcohol abuse
Material / Equipment needed: Questions for the group work written on a flip chart, markers, pens, A4 paper sheets, empty bottles of alcohol drinks.
Duration: approx. 45 minutes Energizer-5 min Drama act- 1 min Introduction of the tool and meeting with the other youth workers - 3 min Work in groups - 15 min Presentations and discussion - 20 min Aims: * Make youngsters aware of the serious consequences of alchocol abuse. * Allow youngsters to realise that they need to take responsibility for their actions. * Make sure that they understand the dangers of alchocol abuse. * Allow the young people to develop social and moral responsibility towards their peers in school. * Emphasize on the proper use of alcohol
Description: This tool is designed to raise the youngstersâ€˜ awareness on the topic of alchocol abuse. It is based on the principle of experiental learning which means that activates youngsters on cognitive, emotional and practical level. * Energizer - The energizer is used to create a diversion for the main activity that follows without the pupils knowing that. The youth worker explains the rules of the energizer and in the meantime the other two youth workers prepare to implement the method of extreme drama performance. *Drama performance - The two youth workers burst arguing into the room/ classroom and act as drunk. The energizer is stopped. The youth worker that was carrying out the energizer acts as if he/she has no idea what is going on. The act lasts for 30 seconds. Its goal is to activate the youngsters to think about the consequenses of achocol abuse. *Working in groups - The group is divided in smaller working groups and the youngsters discuss and express their feelings and opinions about the scene. The questions on which they should focus are: - Did you understand what happened? - How did you feel? - Who do you think these people are? - What in your opinion caused the agression between them? - Did you want to do anything about it? - Would you get involved in this situation? - What should be done in a situation like this? *Presentations and discussion - The youngsters present their thoughts and ideas. The discussion is facilitated by the youth workers.
HAPPY TO BE TOGETHER DESPITE OUR DIFFERENCES Type of Tool: Intercultural learning exercise Target group: Teenagers / Young adults Material / Equipment needed: Cards with everyday situations; questionnaire; flipchart with table to be filled in Duration: approx. 65 minutes Stage 1 - 15 min Stage 2 -30min Stage 3 - 20 min Aim: Raise awareness about cultural identity in order to have a successful intercultural communication and build up tolerance.
Description: The tool aims at building up tolerance on the basis of raising cultural awareness. It has three stages involving the use of body language to cope with problems in different everyday situations, a questionnaire to analyze differences in body language and behavior, and presentation of culturespecific jokes and analyzing how different the things we laugh at are. Activity No.1 (STARTER) Participants are divided into pairs. They are given cards with information about where the activity takes place (e.g a hotel, a restaurant, a train station, a hospital, a taxi). Student A is a receptionist/doctor/waitress etc., student B is a guest at the hotel/a patient/a customer, etc facing a problem and his/ her task is to explain his/her problem to his/her partner in 1 minute. Both members of the pair can only use their mother tongue and body language. They cannot use the same language! Students report back what the situation was and talk about their feelings and the difficulties they faced. If some of the pairs do not succeed to sort the problem out within one minute, the other participants are asked to guess what the situation was. There is a debriefing after the activity focusing on cultural identities, similarities and differences between cultures, intercultural communication. Activity No.2 (MAIN DISH -Cross-cultural trivia) Participants work with people from their country and fill in a questionnaire circling true/false (whatever stands for their culture). While answering the questions, people should think of examples of critical incidents based on their personal experience to illustrate some of the issues raised. After answering all the questions, the groups will have to report back. The facilitator will summarize the results by filling a table. During the procedure mentioned above potential critical incidents and embarrassing situations based on the different cultural background are to be discussed.At the time of the discussion the students are expected to become more aware that their way of doing things is not the only way and to become more tolerant toward the â€˜othernessâ€™. Acticity No.3 (DESSERT - A Culture-specific Joke) Participants work with partners from their own country and they have to think of a culture-specific joke. A member of each group presents the joke to the others and students analyze together the response of the other groups. A discussion whether people from other cultures will find the joke funny or not and what the reasons are is to follow.
DANCE TO EXPRESS Type of Tool: Group Building Activity Target group: target group is very wide, it can involve participants as young as 10 years old, but the approach and performance should be adjusted to the age of participants Topic Addressed: using dance and traditional dance for non-verbal communication, expression, different topics can be addressed, such as: love, tolerance, conflict, spirituality, feelings, creativity.. Material / Equipment needed: •
a big enough space for dance
music and – or instruments
flip chart or board for debriefing
comfortable clothes are an advantage
Duration: 60/70 min at least (it could be adjusted to 2 school hours, if the whole classroom works together or bigger groups) Aims: • to express a given subject or topic in a group using simple dance movements, similar to traditional dance and perform it in front of others, so that others can also easily learn it and perform together • participants learn how to express themselves more openly, in a nonverbal way, they feel more confident and connected, •
• cultural awareness (the tool can be made more complex by giving the task not only to create a “traditional” dance, but also an imagined culture world, with their specific behavior, language, habits, dances, songs...
Description: This is a tool for developing cultural awareness and emotional expression, creativity, team work and is also active physically, as it uses dance. 1. The facilitator(s) give a short, 10-15 min introduction (using power point presentation with images and/or videos) about the history and importance of dance and traditional dances. They motivate the group, stressing out the expressive importance of dance and, if the group is young, they could demonstrate one traditional dance. If they want to work on a specific subject (union, cooperation, conflict, love... they can also give introduction about the topic that will be expressed through dance). 2. They explain the rules of creating the dance (5 min). The rules are: - each group should create a short dance, consisting of few simple movements, about a topic defined in advance (preparing for battle and being brave, love and seduction, a tribute to nature, etc...). - each group should consist of 5-7 members - they have 30 minutes for preparation - they have to decide on the music they want to use (prepared music, drum, singing, sounds, other...) - the trainer should be available to help and support the groups. 3. Each group shows their dance in front of the others and teach them their dance (5 min per group) 4. Discussion: the facilitator(s) ask them about their experience, group work, their suggestions, feedback, and make conclusions
THE RACE Type of Tool: Group Building Activity Target group: You can adapt it to any group Topic Addressed: 8 key competences, but it can be adapted also to address other topics Material / Equipment needed: •
Cards with different questions
Computers ( one for two persons)
Duration: approx. 1 hour Aims: Team work To develop the 8-key competences during the different activities Ability to work under pressure Self- evaluation by playing fair Description: The goal of the game is to finish a race with as many points as possible. Splitting the group into two groups, they have to complete different tasks based on the 8-key competences. For each task, they will earn between one and three points. The group who earns the highest mark will be the winner. The marks are appointed sometimes by the facilitators and sometimes from the other group.
Tasks: 1. SUDOKU: We have to explain Sudoku rules to students. We can give Sudoku to each participant or one to share between couples. You can adapt the time limit according to the participants (max. 10 mins) 2. Telephone: The participants are asked to form two lines, each team is in one line. Then the facilitator tells one sentence to the first person and then they have to pass the message to the person behind them and do so till the end of the line. At the end of the line the facilitators check if the message itÂ´s the same. To make things more interesting, you can use languages other than english. 3. Findâ€Ś : Participants have to find answers to questions using Internet. The time limit depents on the number of questions and computersâ€Ś 4. Films: The facilitators distribute cards with the name of a movie on them. One person of each team has to make the others guess the movie without speaking. The person presenting changes with each card. 5. Dance: The participants have four minutes to prepare a dance to the music the facilitators propose. Each team receives a mark from 1-10 by the other team. 6. Painting: This task is similar to the film-task but they have to draw instead of show. Time limit should be around 20-30 seconds for each picture. 7. Sentences: Participants have to practice a saying and after 1-minute preparation, they will read it aloud as a choir (it can be in different languages) 8. Photos: Each team has to think about three photos for the other team to represent. Each team has to evaluate the other one and give them the mark.
Type of Tool: Boardgame / Simulation exercise Target group: Young people aged 18-25. With proper modification and adaptation it can be used in working with other target groups Topic Addressed: Cultural awareness, Social interaction, Sustainable Development, Citizenship, Intercultural Learning Material / Equipment needed: •
Jenga blocks or dominos (no. of sets depends on no. of participants)
Flip chart paper
Duration: 30-45 min (depending on group size) Aims: To make participants aware of effects of human activity To develop positive attitude towards protection of historical heritage
Description: This tool can be used to develop cultural awareness and social competences. It deals with the ways we take care of our historical and natural heritage. Before the session, make a tower or any kind of other construction out of Jenga block or dominos. Ask participants to come to place with blocks, observe, and let each of participants take one block and let them observe what is happening. The idea is that the construction of blocks represents one of the culture sites where the participants are tourists. They should act as tourists, some of them just visiting the site and others taking objects from there. After they finish, ask participants the following questions to facilitate discussion •
What happened during the game?
What is the effect of human activities?
Can you predict the consequences of such activity in the long-term?
The facilitator should write the key points of the discussion on the flipchart so that participants can become aware of the situation and its future consequences. After the first discussion, ask participants: • What would you say if this tower/construction was Acropolis (Athens), Forum Romanum (Rome), Postojna Cave (Slovenia) or a similar place? Observe how participants react, what they say, how they interact. Write key points on flipchart. Direct the discussion in problem solving direction by asking them what they would put as general instruction on how to behave in history/natural sites.
PIRATE TREASURE HUNT Type of Tool: Team Building Activity Target group: Young people aged 16-25. Material / Equipment needed: •
Coins made from carton paper
Duration: approx. 2 hours (plus preparation beforehand)
Aim: To make the young people more active, built up team spirit, allow them to become more confident and to develop different skills (communication in mother tongue and foreign languages, cultural awareness, mathematical competence, etc). Description: Make a treasure hunt around the city or any place, and give the participants tasks in a way that will build their team spirit and based on the 8 key competences. Example: Treasure hunt, with 5 check points with pirate theme. The participants collect coins along the way, each coin has a word and with those words in the end they have to make a sentence to uncover the treasure. 1st – build a ship (with several materials) 2nd – To make a pirate a song (with key words they had to use) 3rd – Make physical team build activities (towel and rope) 4th – Decide who will survive from a big list of people and explain why, then select someone from their group to “sacrifice” and explain why. There is a old man to check and advise good decisions. 5th – To make a pirate dance with the pirate song that they have already created
Type of Tool: Quiz / team building game Target group: Participants in youth exchanges/seminars etc Topic Addressed: Intercultural learning Material / Equipment needed: •
One printed list with the questions, categorized by country
• Something for the teams to make noise with (bells, small brass instruments, etc) Duration: approx. 1 hour Aims: To allow the participants to learn about each other’s countries Description: - Ask the participants, as part of the preparation they have to do beforehand, to send you 5-6 questions with not so known facts about their countries. - You can play this game during the intercultural night. - Divide the participants in mixed groups of 5-8 people. - Ask the participants of the first group to choose a country and a number. - Read aloud the question that corresponds to that country and number. The first team to ring the bell (or instrument or whatever they have) gets to answer. If they answer correctly, they get to choose a country and a number if they are worng, the team on their right get to choose, and the game continues.. - Each correct answer corresponds to 1 point. - The team that has the most points at the end of the game wins!
+ This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
“The Training Cookbook” was created in the framework of the training course “Formal Education Meets Non-Formal Learning: the competence base...