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Eco Quest New Quest New Solution

Take a Pledge: Segregate Your Waste Arceivala Speaks:

Paper

Green Building: A Novel Current Status of Common Approach Towards Better Environment Effluent Treatment Plants


Volume 01. Issue 01 January 2012

What’s Inside? Editor in Chief

Dr. U. C. Mishra, Former Director Health, Safety & Environment Group, BARC, Mumbai

Editorial Advisory Board

Dr. B. Sengupta, Former Mem. Sec. CPCB, New Delhi Mr. Sudhir Badami, Civil Engg., Transportation, Anti Noise Pollution Activist Sunil Kumar, Scientist, NEERI Dr. Sunil Purohit, Principal Mumbai College of Arts, Commerce and Science

Cover Story Take a Pledge: Segregate Your Waste

Arcievala Speaks Current Status of Common Effluent Treatment Plants

Interview

Associate Editors

Dr. Abba Elizabeth, Prof. K. J. Somiya College Kanchan C wakadikar, EPRI Avick Sil, EPRI

Assistant Editors

Mr. Chandrasekhar Chandagade

Paper

Layout & Designing

Kanchan C Wakadikar Avick Sil

Green Building: A Novel Approach Towards Better Environment

Admin & Business Head

Mrs. Rohini Choudhari, EPRI

Marketing Division

Mr. Alok Prasad Mr. Niranjan Kolekar

Office

Environment Policy and Research India (EPRI) 219, Gopi Cine Mall, Nana Shankar Sheth Road, Dombivli (West) 421 202, Maharashtra, India, Ph: 0251 3192839

Tara Ramani gives her thought on better Waste Management Practices for India

Current Research This section highlights the publication of Indian research work in peer review journals……...

Take a Pledge: Segregate Your Waste

Other Offices at Shakapur, Delhi – 110092, Malleswaram, Bangalore – 560003, Odisha, Bhubaneshwar - 751014

Current Status of Common Effluent Treatment Plants Green Building: A Novel Approach Towards Better Environment

EQ Jan 2012

Copyright © 2012 Eco-Quest


Editorial Amongst all living beings, on per kg body weight basis, man consumes maximum natural resources like air, water, vegetables, animals as non-veg food, minerals and metals etc., directly or indirectly. Man also produces on the same per kg body weight basis, largest quantity of waste and to make matters still worse, pollutes the environment by not treating them and throwing them in the open spaces around him. It indicates how selfish we are and how rapidly we are exploiting natural resources. However, time has come when this high-handed behavior of human beings has started hurting and threatening our future. A few months ago, I had mentioned that the two major sources of pollution in metro cities are air pollution from automobiles and municipal solid waste. As enlightened citizens, we can reduce air pollution by using public transport, if possible electricity driven and impressing on authorities the need to provide better and better public transport system. The second problem is of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) or the waste produced by human beings. It has several components where we can play pro-active role. The first is to reduce generation of waste through optimum and efficient use of materials, use of recyclable materials, wherever possible, segregation of waste and impressing on local Municipal Authorities to treat each components of segregated waste properly and make fuller use of the treated waste products. The cover article of this issue gives some ideas on segregation and treatment of MSW. These are not theoretical concepts but are actually being practiced in several advanced countries like USA, Canada etc. and have been tried with success in some of the wards of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) by active NGO’s but are still to be implemented on city-wide scale. In Navi Mumbai, some of the Housing Societies started segregating domestic wastes into green and general categories but found that the vehicle of NMMC which comes for collection of domestic waste, mixes both portions, thereby defeating the purpose of segregation. The enormous amount of waste produced by citizens finds its way to dump yards where green or kitchen wastes start rotting and produce unpleasant smell. If the same green waste is treated, we can get methane gas which can be used as heat energy and its treated waste can be used as manure for farming. Since it constitutes nearly 50% of MSW, the capacity of the dumping ground to hold MSW is doubled. Similarly if recyclables are separated, they can provide raw materials for a number of industries and reduce fresh natural source utilization for such industries. The MSW after separation of various components when used for reclaiming low lying areas for building construction at a later date result in odor free and more compact dump yards. It is urged that we should contribute our might to REDUCE (no coke etc. in cans, no plastic bags for vegetables etc.), RECYCLE (paper, glass, metals and plastics) and REUSE the products (Jute or thick plastic bags etc.) and make our country and the earth a cleaner and long lasting planet.

Dr. U. C. Mishra Former Director, Health, Safety and Environment Group, BARC Head of Editorial Board, Eco Quest Magazine (ucmishra@hotmail.com)

For Editorial details; Contact: Kanchan Wakadikar, Associate Editor (wakdikarkanchana@rediffmail.com) Avick Sil, Associate Editor (avick1411@gmail.com) EQ Jan 2012

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Avick Sil

Cover Story

Take a Pledge: Segregate Your Waste “We all take many pledges but never fulfill them. We all understand the deteriorating quality of environment. But we all can do something for the environment. It starts at home. In this New Year, we all can take an environmental pledge of segregating our household waste. What benefit we would get? Let concentrate on the article…….” Solid waste management (SWM) in general and transportation of waste in particular have become one of the most important challenging tasks in urban centre of India. Household sector is the main producer of MSW. Apart from household wastes, MSW is also generated from municipal and commercials activities, hotels and restaurant, markets, schools, colleges, hospitals, offices, construction and silting activities. According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi, India, the per capita generation of waste in urban cities of India increased from 0.376 kg in 2001 to 0.475 in 2006. The day-by-day population of the city is increasing by leaps and bound. As a result of

this increasing population, the solid waste generation is also increasing (Table 1). According to the physicochemical analysis of MSW (Table 2), around 56% of the waste is composed of biodegradable components. This biodegradable component of the waste could be used as raw materials for production of energy while recyclable component could be recycled and reused. Finally, the inert materials could be disposed into sanitary landfills. In order to achieve this, proper segregation of waste is needed. Hence, through this article author tries to highlight the importance of segregation of waste and it is the need of the year.

Table 1: Increasing solid waste generation with time (in Mumbai) Year

MSW Generation (tonnes)/day

2001

5320

2006

7026

2009

8500

Table 2: Physico-chemical Analysis of MSW Contents

Other Including Inerts

EQ Jan 2012.

Total (%)

55.25

55.25

Paper

8.85

20.50

Plastic

10.30

Glass

0.92

Total Compostable Recyclables

Quantity (%)

Metal

0.44

Inerts

14.42

Rubber& Leather

1.51

Rags

4.24

Wooden Matter

0.87

Coconut

3.30

Bones

0.20

Total

100.00

Copyright © 2012 Eco-Quest

24.25

100.00 3


Avick Sil

Cover Story

What Does Rules Says? According to the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, the municipal authorities would be responsible for collection and disposal of MSW. But the segregation of the waste is in the hand of households or the waste generators. The waste must be segregated into organic (biodegradable waste), recyclables, hazardous, inert, etc. According to the rule, “segregation� means to separate the municipal solid wastes into the groups of organic, inorganic, recyclables and hazardous wastes. Currently no segregation of MSW is practiced in household or community level. Municipal authority must en-

courage segregation for betterment of the environment. In order to encourage the citizens, municipal authority shall organize awareness programmes for segregation of wastes and promote recycling or reuse of segregated materials. The municipal authority shall undertake phased programmes to ensure community participation in waste segregation. For this purpose, regular meetings at quarterly intervals must be arranged by the municipal authorities with representatives of local resident welfare associations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).

Current Practice Currently wastes generated in different sectors are collected by sweeper and it is dumped in community bins. In case of household sector, the wastes generated are collected by sweepers and they dispose it into community bins. Municipal authorities collect these waste from community bins and disposes them into landfills through their mostly outdated transportation vehicles (Figure 1). But till now, no segregation of waste is performed. Currently un-segregated waste is disposed off into open landfills in an unscientific manner. These landfills are termed as open dumping grounds. This is creating environmental nuisance like odor problems, leachate affecting the ground water sources at the Households

Waste Generation

landfill sites, also contributing to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. When this un-segregated waste is transported, it generates foul odor which is even more harmful for environment and health. It is very common to see that, the rag pickers collect plastic and recyclable waste and finally sell them for their livelihood. If MSW is segregated, then various components of the waste could end up at different treatment plant for efficient disposal. For example, biodegradable (organic) component could be used for biomethanation, hazardous waste could be disposed at secured landfills, while recyclable could be sold and recycled.

Community Bin

Transportation

Dumping

No segregation

Figure 1: Current practices for Waste Management EQ Jan 2012.

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Avick Sil

Cover Story

Benefits of Segregation Some of the literature indicated that India’s MSW has greater methane potential than rest of the world. This is mainly due to its high moisture content and environmental conditions of India. The biodegradable component of waste could be converted into methane and this methane could be used as a source of energy. It could be directly used for cooking purposes or it could be converted into electricity or could be converted into natural gas. Thus, it is possible to serve as an alternative to starved energy sector of the country. It would also aid in reducing the GHG emission from wastes.

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

Segregated waste helps in efficient transportation of the waste. Municipal authorities could assign separate vehicles for transporting different segregated components of the waste. These vehicles can dispose the particular waste into different treatment facilities for efficient treatment. (Figure 2).

Segregation

Biodegradables

Recyclables

Inert

Transportation

Transportation

Transportation

Recycling Process

Sanitary Landfills

Methane Production

Energy Source

Reuse

Figure 2: Benefits of Segregated Waste towards Environment

For Further Reading

How to Achieve this

First of all, we as individual have to understand the importance of segregation of waste. In New Year, we all must take an environmental pledge to segregate waste. If this happens, it would benefit the society from every aspect. Municipal authority could arrange for free seminar in different parts of the cities to educate the countrymen about the importance of segregation. Even they could provide hoarding and advertisement about the importance of segregation. They must target school and college student to spread this awareness. They are the future of this nation and they must be made aware of the benefits of segregation. Also housing societies could be given incentive towards this cause. Household could earn by segregating and selling the components of the wastes. Proper incentive scheme must be launched by the government for the same. Proper awareness is the key towards the success.

1. Pre-Feasibility Analysis for the Conversion of Landfill Gas to Liquefied Natural Gas to Fuel Refuse Trucks in India, Project Report Prepared for U.S. EPA Methane to Markets Partnership, August 31, 2009 2. Landfill Gas as a Source of Fuel, Kanchan Wakadikar. Earth Quest (5), 24 - 27 3. CPCB, 2006. Waste generation and composition of different cities in India, Central Pollution Control Board, India. 4. BCPT, 2007. Solid waste management of Mumbai, Bombay Community Public Trust (BCPT), Mumbai. 5. Sil A, Wakadikar K, Kumar S, Kumar R, 2010. Driving Characteristics of Waste Transportation Vehicles and their Effect on E mission Load: A Case Study of Mumbai, India, Waste Management, Accepted Manuscript and Unpublished Results.

Author Avick Sil, Senior Manger, Environment Policy and Research India (EPRI) Email: avick1411@gmail.com EQ Jan 2012.

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Soli Arceivala

Arceivala Speaks

Current Status of Common Effluent Treatment Plants C

ommon Effluent Treatment plants (CETPs) are specialty of India where a large number of such plants exist and a lot has been learnt. They serve a group of relatively small or medium scale industries, all manufacturing the same or similar

products and producing similar effluents. Each manufactures is perhaps too small by itself to afford a separate treatment plants and skilled staff for its operation and maintenance. The need for a common plant facility emerges from this sector.

C

T

ommon Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) are essentially industrial waste treatment plants which serve a group of small and mediumscale industries, each contributing a relatively small quantity of effluent which is polluting or hazardous in nature and needs treatment which would normally be beyond the capability of each individual unit to set up and operate skillfully. EQ Jan 2012.

he objective of grouping is to benefit from the resulting larger size of the operation to be able to set up its own treatment facility as required and employ the right people to operate it. Finally, for the younger readers, there is the interesting topic of employment and business opportunities in the environment field. Plenty of new opportunities exist for all whether they wish to remain in service or enter business.

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Soli Arceivala

Arceivala Speaks

CETPs in India There are over 100 CETPs in India (30% in Tamil Nadu alone) to serve groups of small and medium-scale industries. Most of them serve clusters of less than 100 units per clusters, but some have over 600 units within a cluster. Flows vary from 200 to 55,000 cu m per day. Some have homogenous units (e.g., all tanneries). Some have heterogeneous units (various chemicals) and each one runs production campaigns at different times of the year. Thus, a lot of problems are created. Correspondingly, a lot of experience exists countrywide in dealing with the problems.

How relevant are “CETPs”? Of course, they are very relevant locally. They have localized importance. CETPs serve only small and medium scale industrial units grouped together for ease of treatment in a common treatment plant. Sometimes, the manufacturing units are themselves relocated in order to benefit from grouping. Another form of benefit occurs when one industry uses the wastewater of another industry nearby. On a countrywide basis, the importance of CETPs is relatively small because industrial wastewater is only 10-15% of total wastewater produced in India. This is not belittle CETPs, but just to put things in perspective. The remaining 85% is all people’s sewage. We are very populous and have a very large backlog of plants to be built for treating sewage!

Some thoughts on design and layout of “CETPs” It is best to promote the use of “clean technologies” at the planning stage for all types large, small and medium-scale – whether having an individual or a common treatment facility. As can be seen from the following Table 1, CETPs are often cheaper than individual treatment plants. Why? Because, generally CETPs have advantage of making the wastewater more easily treatable and the treatment more EQ Jan 2012.

affordable because of common operating staff looking after the plant. Of course, as stated earlier, for any specific waste it pays to reduce the volume of the effluent. In the following text, we refer only to those items of a general in nature in which all persons including NGOs and non-engineers would be interested.

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Soli Arceivala

Arceivala Speaks

Table 1: Cost of Treatment Source

Rs. per cu. m. per day

Cotton Textiles (excluding denims)

5000 – 8000

Pharmaceuticals

20,000 – 30,000

Bulk drugs, antibiotics

50,000 – 90,000

Petrochemicals

80,000 – 120,000

CETPs

5,000 – 40,000 Land cost is not included in above estimates

Collection of wastewater

Pretreatment at factory level

A question emerges: Should collection be done by pipelines from each of the units contributing to a CETP or the collection done by tankers? It is often that when a common pipeline is used, there is some scope for not declaring the true nature or quantity of the waste. Where tankers are used, samples can be withdrawn from each vehicle as it arrives. Many arguments seem to be valid for both sides. Merely on economic basis, an early study showed the breakeven point at 2km. Up to 2 km, both types were equally costly. For longer distances, pipelines worked out cheaper than tankers. Today’s costs are different in most case and a study of relative costs may need to be redone at an answer in a specific case.

Another question that emerges is the extent of pretreatment of the wastewater that is necessary to be done at the factory site before the wastewater enters the common treatment facility. Pretreatment is essential for certain items only (like oil and grease) at the factory level. Rest would perhaps be better done in admixture with other wastes at the common plant. Guidelines for pretreatment are often reported to be too strict for small-scale industries which usually have weak in-plant controls. This is a problem area. Correct flow estimation from the units is another problem area. Reliable figures are often difficult to get.

EQ Jan 2012.

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Soli Arceivala

Arceivala Speaks

steps, it is normally better to use Trickling Filter first and Activated sludge Sludge afterwards. The rugged Equalization: Often equalization is needed to balance trickling filter will be better able to withstand variaout variation in inflows from different units. Usually, tions. aeration in the equalization tank helps mixing and hoReuse: Among newer applications, reuse of the wastemogeneity before passes on to next unit. water is emphasized. Where good money is being Aerated Lagoons are useful as equalization devices (as spent for treatment, why not spend a little more if in Jedimetla, AP). They also provide some biological thereby one can reuse the effluent? “ZERO” distreatment. However, aeration is not recommended if charge, if possible, would be ideal.

At the main treatment plant

an anaerobic unit follows next because the presence of Operation: Experience shows that operation of CETPs oxygen is not desirable in waste which is to undergo is only as good as their operators and Government’s anaerobic degradation. In that case, it is better to use enforcement policies submerged, slow moving paddles, not aerators. Hence, use qualified, certified, trained and Biological Treatment: Where biological treatment is experienced operators. Pay a little more if necessary. required, trickling filter is more rugged to use than Tone up monitoring and enforcement because if you activated sludge, especially where inputs are variable. let people cheat, they will cheat. Similarly, where biological treatment is done in two

EQ Jan 2012.

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Soli Arceivala

Common or Combined? A question that often arises is whether to have a common effluent treatment plant or to have a combined plant in which the industrial wastes are mixed with domestic sewage (as in typical municipal systems in cities)? The general thinking in this respect seems to be: Let the private industrial sector do its own thing. Let them have a CETP all for themselves! Let the public sewerage system remain exclusively for sewage. Why mix up public and private sectors? On the other hand, often better treatment is

Arceivala Speaks

achieved if industrial wastewaters are combined with municipal wastewater. This provides dilution, equalization and nutrients.

Then Why Is It Not Done? Perhaps: fear of damage to public sewers if industries are allowed to discharge their waste into sewers. Sewer standards are often flouted by industries and we know our enforcement procedures are weak. When final effluent discharge standards are not possible to meet, it may become difficult to catch culprits. Small industries might take advantage of such a situation.

Combining must became a “win-win” situation for both parties if it is to succeed Prof. Soli J. Arceivala Former, Director, NEERI Nagpur, India Chief, Environmental Health, UN/WHO SE Asia Region, Chairman Emeritus, MWH Consultants (India) pvt. Ltd.

Prof. Soli J. Arceivala graduated in Environmental Engineering from the well known Harvard University, USA, in 1965 and practiced as a teacher, research worker and consultant at different times during his career. After introducing the first post-graduate in Environmental Engineering in VJT Institute, Mumbai he became director of the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) at Nagpur. This gave him insights in the working of both public and private sectors in India. His international work (with WHO/UN) for 16 years thereafter has given him a further understanding of the ways of doing things in several Asian and European countries. During this time he was also visiting professor at the well known International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Delft Netherlands (IHE). In 1993-94 he was selected President of the Indian water works Association and in 1996 he became the founder-President of the Indian Environmental Association. In 1998, he became the first Indian ever to be awarded “Distinguished Membership” of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) for his work in the environmental field. Six Indian organizations have bestowed honours on him. His special lifelong interest has been in wastewater treatment and reuse of water. He was the first in India to introduce reuse for industrial purposes and worked in 45 industries. In recent years, he has been developing reuse technique for augmenting public water supplies. He is the author of 3 books and several papers. EQ Jan 2012.

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11

Tara Ramani

Interview

Tara Ramani gives her thoughts on better Waste Management Practices for India On Open Dumps

G

enerally, sanitary landfill can be thought of as the ideal, and done from the outset, i.e. you create the landfill with cells, lining, etc. and

then begin to use it for waste disposal, unlike open dumping which did not entail any prior work except for locating a site. There are options in between the two that can be used to convert or upgrade

an

open

dump

to

better

stan-

dards through retrofitting or securing the landfill.

On Landfill Gas

L

andfill gas is mostly methane and carbon dioxide. The methane component is very dangerous as it is 20-25 times more harmful than carbon dioxide in

terms of global warming potential, so it is a harmful greenhouse gas. Methane can also be used as an energy source – so this makes it a very good idea to utilize landfill gas to get energy – reduces greenhouse gas emissions and also provides alternative source of energy. EQ Jan 2012.

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Tara Ramani

Interview

Landfill gas to Energy

A

mong landfill gas to energy applications, one is most familiar with the use as CNG or LNG – this has been successfully implemented in some

places in the United States of America and also in Sweden and emissions and fuel consumption testing shows that it is beneficial for use for refuse trucks or other fleets.

Towards Betterment

D

efinitely, in the Indian context, we need to have NGOs and government agencies work with the

public and also be committed to improving waste management and using landfill gas as a clean energy source.

About Tara Ramani Tara Lakshmi Ramani Associate Transportation Researcher Email: t_ramani@ttimail.tamu.edu

Experience Associate Transportation Researcher, Air Quality Studies, Texas Transportation Institute, August 2008 - Present. Graduate Assistant Research, Air Quality Studies, Texas Transportation Institute, September 2006 - August 2008.

Selected Publications D. Lee, J. Zietsman, M. Farzaneh, J.D. Johnson, T.L. Ramani, A.A. Protopapas, J.H. Overman.Characterization of In-Use Emissions from TxDOT's Non-road Equipment Fleet - Final Report. 0-5955-2. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX. August 2010. T.L. Ramani, J. Zietsman, W.L. Eisele, D. Rosa, D.L. Spillane, B.S. Bochner. Developing Sustainable Performance Measures for TxDOT's Strategic Plan: Technical Report. 0-5541-1. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX. April 2009. EQ Jan 2012.

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Shankargouda and Halasagi

Paper

Green Building

A Novel Approach Towards Better Environment Padmaja Shankargouda and S. O. Halasagi

T

Email: shankargouda_padmaja@rediffmail.com; sohalasagi@gmail.com

his topic on green building has been prepared on ideology of Mahatma Gandhi‟s statement “We must become the change we want to see”. Green buildings are the new face in construction industry. Going green results in environment protection, water conservation, energy efficiency, usage of recycled products and renewable energy. The building in which we live, work and play protect us from Nature‟s extreme calamities like cold, heat, wind, rain, snow, etc. But sometimes these structures affect and shape our environment that we live in. Building construction requires enormous amounts of energy, water and concrete materials and this process produces large quantity of waste. Location in which these building are

EQ Jan 2012

built also affects the eco-system around it. Similarly these buildings create a new indoor environment. This indoor environment presents new environmental problems and challenges which has to be dealt scientifically. The building sector is growing rapidly, and it is the third largest consumer of energy, after industry and agriculture. In today‟s world the buzz word is construction of environmentally sustainable building called “Green Building”. The new construction technology aims at designing building that are more environment friendly, scarce and valuable resources and human being. At the industrial production centre, waste reduction, pollution control, improved employee productivity etc. are ensured.

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Shankargouda and Halasagi

Green buildings are often provided with an environment friendly certificate by a third party audit. This certificate is issued on the basis of construction, usage, design, technology, innovative practices, well being of occupant, long-term economic gains, etc. It follows the principle of „Mini Max‟ that ensures minimization of construction and operations cost and maximization of gains and contributions towards environment. All sorts of constructions including new, old, small, large establishment can be brought under Green building concept. More higher the building more environmental impact it would have on land use, energy and

Paper

air. Thus it could alter the atmosphere in and around the building. According to EPA, the environmental impact of building is often underestimated and the perceived costs of green buildings are over estimated. A recent survey by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development states that green building costs are overestimated by 300 percent. Practices and technologies employed in green building should ensure efficiency throughout the life cycle of the building i.e., from its initial stage of design and concept up to its operation and maintenance. The green building ensures the following efficiencies.

1. Minimax Principle Green building works on minimization of environmental impact and maximization of impact on performance. It is achieved through constructing in harmony with natural features and surrounding resources. The plan begins with building concept, design and runs through the life-cycle stages. Higher efficiency is achieved in sitting and structure design. Though the building‟s process is not rationalized, its multitude material and components could have an impact on environment.

2. Thermal Comfort As claimed by Karnataka State Police Housing Corporation, “Thermal comfort is the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment. America Society for Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, is an international technical society for all individuals and organizations interested in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration”. The standards prescribe indoors temperatures of 24 + 1 Degree Celsius. Using passive architecture cooling, in a hot and dry climate zones the thermal comfort levels can be maintained at optimum temperatures. EQ Jan 2012

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Shankargouda and Halasagi

Paper

3. Resource Efficiency The construction industry has been witnessing many changes from increase in demand for value of money to the discerning customers. This has been forcing the construction industries to adopt the policy of optimizing maximum utilization of resources. Green building has got the inbuilt technology that saves the wastage of natural resources and optimum utilization of resources. The efficiency is achieved in the areas of, a)

ter.

b) Water Efficiency

Energy Efficiency

Use natural energy is the guiding philosophy behind green building. The energy is saved through use of high efficiency windows and insulation in walls, ceilings and floors. The natural light is allowed more into the building to avoid use of electricity in day. The adoption of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, biomass etc., has significantly contributed towards lessening the buildings impact on environment. Further, the windows are shaded by trees, porches, awnings to protect during summer while maximizing solar gain in the win-

Keeping water consumption at the lowest and maintaining water qualities are the two main objectives of sustainable building. There is a mis-match between demand and replenishment of purified water. Green building facilitate for collection, purification, re -use, conservation, recycling of the natural rain water. Use of ultra low flush conserves the water in toilet. The water quality maintained and energy is saved through point of use water treatment systems. The use of non- sewage and grey-water for on site irrigation minimizes the demand on local aquifer.

c) Material Efficiency Green building heavily borrows materials from nature. The forest materials like bamboo, straw, lumber etc. are sustainably managed. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests the usage of recycled industrial materials such as coal combustion product, foundry sand, demolished debris for green buildings. American company Insulock uses Polyurethane blocks instead of CMTs, which provide more speed, low cost and are environment friendly. The non-toxic inputs like (ecology blocks, dimensions stone recycled stone, recycled metal) trass, linoleum, sheep wool, paper flake panels, compressed earth blocks, baked earth, rammed earth, clay, vermiculite, sisal, cork, coconut, wood fiber plates, calcium sand stones etc. are the core of Green building. Material efficiency is enhanced through the use of ecology blocks, dimension stones, recycled stone and metal. Off-site manufacturing of building elements minimize the waste and transportation costs. EQ Jan 2012

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Shankargouda and Halasagi

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4. LEED Standards US Green Building Council issues certificate based on environmental issues such as site sustainability, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, material and resources, indoor environmental quality and innovational and design process. The certification aims at comfort, well-being and productivity of occupants. Indoor air quality (IAQ) reduces volatile organic compound and other air impurities. The toxic gases such as VOC‟s and formaldehyde are emitted by some materials which have a detrimental impact on occupants‟ health and productivity. Adequate ventilation and air filtration is also provided by HVAC system. IAQ can be improved by using materials and interior having zero or low emission. Thermal quality is enhanced by a system of HVAC, airflow control, personal temperature coupled with well-designed building envelope. A careful integration of natural and artificial light by creating high performance luminous environment will improve lighting quality.

5. Waste Minimization Green architecture seeks to reduce the waste of energy, water and materials. Well- designed buildings helps to reduce the waste generated by occupants though use of compost bins. Water for non-potable purposes such as toilet flushing and car wash can be obtained from grey water and waste water from washing machines. Rain water harvesting must be practiced to harvest natural water. Conversion of waste into energy is other means to reap benefits. By collecting human waste at the sources and running it to a semi centralized biogas plant with other biological waste, both energy (biogas) and liquid fertilizer can be produced. The soil gets organic nutrients and creates carbon sinks that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, offsetting greenhouse gas emission.

6. Cost - Control The environmental protection issues are criticized for their cost, Green Building is not an exception to it. Premium in green building cost is true in case of short term evaluation. Researches reveal that, a 2 percent increase in building cost will yield 10 times in long run. The savings is due to waste reduction and efficient use of utilities. EQ Jan 2012

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Shankargouda and Halasagi

The initial Footprints The concept of Green Building is promoted by the US and World Green Building Council. In India, The Indian Green Building Council is working to translate the world standards for Indian Conditions. The Karnataka State Police Housing Corporation Ltd., has built the Police Bhavan at Gulbarga. It has the credit of The First Indian Green Building in the Government Sector for which KS P HC was warded the plague and certificate issued by US Green Building

A Green Building in Karnataka KSPHC (Karnataka State Police Housing Corporation Ltd) has been awarded with Gold Rated Green Building for the construction of Police Bhavan at Gulbarga. A testimony to the LEED IAQ can be cited through this.

Paper

Council (USGBC) with Gold ( 69 credit points). The USGBC has developed the Leadership in Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building System to create a bench mark for sustainable building performance as a tool for market transformation. The USGBC started rating system in 1995 which received world wide acceptance. In the last ten years, it has received 40,000 applications for building certification, of these only 500 have received Green Building Status. Since the inception of LEED- NC in 2003, it has trained more than 23000 professional of all industry, sectors and discipline. In 2004, LEED- NC has introduced three grades such as Silver (26 to 32 points), Gold ( 39 to 51 points) and Platinum (52 to 69 points). India‟s first Green Building is the CII Sohrab Godrej Building at Hyderabad, which was rated at „Platinum‟ in 2004. The saga of success continues. Green Facts - Size: 33000 Square Feet. Cost: Rs 975 per sq ft. (The most cost effective Rate for any Non AC Green Building in India). LEED for New Construction Rating out of - 69 Sustainable site

10

Water Efficiency

03

Energy and Atmosphere

09

Materials and Resources

09

Indoor Environmental Quality

06

Innovation and Design Process

04

Total Score

41

Certification Level – Gold Energy Savings (on site renewable energy)

23.57%

Water savings (Reduction in the use of potable water )

47.23%

Total Building materials manufactured within 500 miles 97.11% Rapidly Renewable Materials used

15.61%

Day-light and Views (Views and Space)

90.00%

Landscaping and Exterior Design (Non- Roof Surface)

30.00%

Landscaping and Exterior Design ( Roof Surface)

76.00%

EQ Jan 2012

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17


Shankargouda and Halasagi

Paper

Can existing buildings go Green?

Great Future for India

Todayâ€&#x;s concern is about the existing buildings. Can these be converted into Green Buildings? Though 100 percent conversion is not possible an attempt could be made by going for solar system, solar energy, terrace garden, change in ventilation by applying large size windows and ventilators, wall painting to cool the interiors, pasting thermacol for fall ceiling and making provision for rain water harvesting.

The corporate world in recent years is going for environmental friendly policies. They attach more importance to safety standards at all the installations. Necessary steps are regularly undertaken to ensure the safety of employee and equipment. Reliance Power Company has adopted Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which reduces GHGs. This could enable developers to earn carbon credits. Green Building concept is becoming a more acceptable in India. Various corporate and Government agencies are entering the field of designing Green Building. This has opened up plethora of opportunities to serve and satisfy the number of stakeholders. For the year 2007, India had a total turnover of Rs, 730 Crores in Green Building Sector. It is estimated to be bright in coming future.

EQ Jan 2012

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18


Current Research

Current Research

This section highlights the publication of Indian research work in peer review journals……...

Energy Poverty Energy poverty: A special focus on energy poverty in India and renewable energy technologies Published in: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(2), 2011, 1057-1066 Authors: Anjali Bhide, Carlos Rodríguez Monroy

A

s a large percentage of the world's poor come from India, development in India is a key issue. After the establishment of how access to energy enhances development and the achievement of the millennium development goals, energy poverty has become a major issue. In India there is a great interest in addressing the subject of energy poverty, in order to reach development goals set by the Government. This will imply an increase in India's energy needs. In a climate of change and environmental consciousness, sustainable alternatives must be considered to address these issues. Renewable energy technologies could provide a solution to this problem. The Government of India has been focussing in implementing electricity policies as well as on promoting renewable energy technologies. The focus of this article is to bring to light the problems faced in Indiain terms of energy consumption as well as the hindrances faced by renewable-based electrification networks. Government policies aimed at addressing these issues, as well as the current state of renewable energy technologies in India are discussed, so as to analyse the possibility of a solution to the problems of finding a sustainable method to eradicate energy poverty in India. The research reveals that the Government ofIndia has been unable to meet some of its unrealistic development goals, and in order to achieve the remaining goals it will have to take drastic steps. The Government will have to be more aggressive in the promotion of renewable energy technologies in order to achieve sustainable development in India.

EQ Jan 2012.

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19


Current Research

Potential of Renewable Energy in India Resource potential and scope of utilization of renewable energy in Jammu and Kashmir, India Published in: Renewable Energy, 39(1), 2012, 24-29 Authors: Shiv Kumar Lohan, Jagvir Dixit, Sheikh Modasir, Mohd. Ishaq

J

ammu and Kashmir the northern most state of India is blessed with immense potential for utilization of renewable energy. The state at present is fairly untapped in terms of energy utilization and thus venturing into this region would definitely prove to be profitable. The natural energy sources like sunshine, wind, vegetation, water flow, biomass and other biological wastes though abundantly available in the state yet are not being potentially harnessed resulting in very low per capita energy availability, deforestation and poor health. Renewable energy acquires a promising option not only for energy availability next view and of environment protection but also the socio-economic conditions of the people residing in these areas can be improved to a great extent. The hydroelectric power has tremendous potential for generation of electricity in the state because the topography of the state provides extensive network of canals and streams. This paper describes the resource potential and opportunity to enter the market and bring more renewable energy projects in the form of solar, biomass derived fuels, biogas and hydroelectric in the state.

Policies for Promotion of Renewable Energy in India Current status and analysis of renewable promotional policies in Indian restructured power sector—A review Published in: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 (1), 2011, 657-664 Authors: Randhir Singh, Yog Raj Sood

R

estructuring has changed the traditional mission and mandates of power utilities in complex ways, and had large impacts on environmental, social, and political conditions for any particular country. At the same time, new regulatory approaches are being found for reducing environmental impacts in restructured power sectors. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources, and it has one of the largest programs in the world for deploying renewable energy based products and systems. So this paper attempts to review the various policies and measures undertaken by Indian government for promotion of renewable energy. The aim of this paper is also to review the current policy mechanisms, especially investment- or generation-based price-driven and capacity-driven mechanisms, ranging from investment incentives for the development of renewable energy projects, feed-in tariffs, production tax incentives, tradable green certificates, and their effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy in Indian restructured power sector. This will make renewable more attractive in the Indian future electricity market. EQ Jan 2012.

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20


Current Research

Renewable Energy in Environment Protection Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: a review Published in: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 (3), 2011, 1513-1524 Authors: N.L. Panwar, S.C. Kaushik, Surendra Kothari

R

enewable technologies are considered as clean sources of energy and optimal use of these resources minimize environmental impacts, produce minimum secondary wastes and are sustainable based on current and future economic and social societal needs. Sun is the source of all energies. The primary forms of solar energy are heat and light. Sunlight and heat are transformed and absorbed by the environment in a multitude of ways. Some of these transformations result in renewable energy flows such as biomass and wind energy. Renewable energy technologies provide an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission and reducing global warming through substituting conventional energy sources. In this article, a review has been done on scope of CO2 mitigation through solar cooker, water heater, dryer, biofuel, improved cookstoves and by hydrogen.

Adoption of Renewable Energy Why do some emerging economies proactively accelerate the adoption of renewable energy? Published in: Energy Economics, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 28 August 2011 Authors: Ruhul A. Salim, Shuddhasattwa

T

This article analyses the determinants of renewable energy consumption in a panel of six major emerging economies, namely Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Philippines and Turkey that are proactively accelerating the adoption of renewable energy. Using Fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS), Dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS), and Granger causality methods, this paper finds that in the long-run, renewable energy consumption is significantly determined by income and pollutant emission in Brazil, China, India and Indonesia while mainly by income in Philippines and Turkey. Causal link between renewable energy and income; and between renewable energy and pollutant emission are found to be bidirectional in the short-run. These results suggest that the appropriateness of the efforts undertaken by emerging countries to reduce the carbon intensity by increasing

the energy efficiency and substantially increasing the share of renewable in the overall energy mix. EQ Jan 2012.

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21


Current Research

Climate Proof City How to make a city climate-proof, addressing the urban heat island effect Published in: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 2 October 2011 Authors: Laura Kleerekoper, Marjolein van Esch, Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo

T

he climate of a city influences the ways in which its outdoor spaces are used. Especially public spaces intended for use by pedestrians and cyclists, such as parks, squares, residential and shopping streets, and foot- and cycle-paths will be used and enjoyed more frequently when they have a comfortable and healthy climate. Due to a predicted global temperature rise, the climate is likely to be more uncomfortable in the Netherlands, especially in summer, when an increase in heat stress is expected. As the phenomenon of urban heat islands (UHI) aggravates heat stresses, the effects will be more severe in urban environments. Since the spatial characteristics of a city influence its climate, urban design can be deployed to mitigate the combined effects of climate change and UHI's. This paper explores these effects and tries to provide tools for urban design and strategies for implementation. Consequently, the applicability of the design tools is tested in a design for two existing Dutch neighbourhoods.

Governance could accelerate Climate Policies Dynamic governance of clean-energy markets: how technical innovation could accelerate climate policies Published in: Journal of Cleaner Production, 22(1), 2012, 50-59 Author: Martin Jänicke

T

This article explores the governmental means to accelerate technical progress in climate protection. It is based on selected “best practice” cases in which the diffusion of low-carbon technologies has been accelerated by ambitious policies. The empirical cases involve not just renewable energies, but also energy efficiency (the latter being considered more difficult in terms of governance). The examples are taken from advanced OECD countries as well as from emerging economies. This article will explore, which factors have caused this dynamic development. The conclusion reached will show that the interaction of positive feedback mechanisms – which has already been described as “virtuous cycle” – provides only a plausible theoretical explanation, if the policy cycle is added to the market cycle and the innovation cycle. Climate policy should not only define ambitious targets but also address all three feedback mechanisms. EQ Jan 2012.

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22


Important days

Important Days 4 – 10th January: Oil Conservation Week (OCW) In order to generate awareness among the masses about the urgency of conserving petroleum products, the celebration of an Oil Conservation Week (OCW), with the participation of the Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) and the entire oil industry under the guidance of the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MPNG), began in January, 1991. Considering the overwhelming response and enthusiasm generated by OCW in the country, and to further increase the reach as well as the effectiveness of the oil conservation campaign, the duration of the program was increased to a fortnight from the year 1997 onwards.

10-16th January: Road Safety Week National Road Safety Week takes place from January 10 to 16. It is an enforcement-driven initiative designed to increase public compliance with safe driving measures and ultimately, to save lives. Part of the activities will involve targeted enforcement in the areas of impaired driving, occupant restraint use, intersection safety, inattention and unsafe speeds. The other part is an education campaign to address the importance of wearing a seat belt.

25th January: India Tourism Day India Tourism Day is observed on January 25 th. This day is aimed at increasing awareness about tourism through range of activities. As an important sector in the services economy, “tourism” is increasingly playing a major role in contributing to the overall growth and sustainability of destinations and local communities by creating direct and indirect jobs. Tourism brings together people of different cultures and regions and fosters better mutual understanding. For doing this effectively and durably, it demands conditions of peace. It is, therefore, rightly said that tourism is the greatest peace movement in the world.

30 January: National Cleanliness day A State-wide Cleanliness day is observed on January 30th in all the villages of Maharashtra under a “Total Sanitation Campaign” for creating awareness among the people of rural areas to lead a healthy life by way of cleanliness. Our immediate environment consists of our house, our compound and the surrounding area near our home. A healthy environment is important if we want to stay healthy. Sometimes people keep their environment very dirty with the result that it badly affects their health. Wherever we live, it is important for us to keep it clean. Common practices, which make our environment unhealthy, should be avoided. The cleanliness of a village or entire town begins from the cleanliness of individual homes. The responsibility for environmental cleanliness is that of all. The teacher should impress on the students the need for individual participation in keeping the environment clean and healthy.

EQ Jan 2012.

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23


The Research League Thinking Together , Thinking Beyond

Its Necessity

EPRI has launched this program to overcome all the challenges for students and research communities

 Researchers face challenge in finding relevant literature for research topic, guidance about

research work and other activities  Indian Researchers are not able to cope with the recent up gradation of international research

communities  Difficulties in publications (peer review journals)  Difficulties in patent and technical report preparation  Interpretation of scientific data and data validations  Statistical evaluation of data

About the Programme Civitas

Crossing The Hurdle

Final Frontier

Registration

Free

Rs. 10,000/Year

Rs. 15,000/Year

Benefits

 Access to the

 Membership of Research League  Scientific and technical research knowledge will be provided  Guidance on research topic  Statistical evaluation of data

 Crossing the Hurdle +  Paper publications in peer review journals  Technical report & patent preparation  Interpretation of data  Evaluation of research proposal

 Registering with Crossing the Hurdle of Research League  Email the requirement to coordinator

 Registering with Final Frontier of Research League  Email the requirement to coordinator

Blog  Knowledge sharing

How to Go About

 Questions and doubts to email

Kindly make payment in favour of “eprindia” For more details: info@eprindia.com; researchleague.epri@gmail.com “Research League” will bridge the gap between researchers and success stories

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