STUCTURES 1 B
STRUCTURES 1 B
Wall Framing and Roof Framing Main Programme:
Certificate in Applied Technology – Carpentry
Learning Time: Directed/Supervised 150 hours
Self-Directed 150 hours
Total 300 hours
Course description: Tasks and Procedures
The student is able to carry out processes that
4 • • •
require a wide range of technical and scholastic skills offered a considerable range of procedures are employed in a variety of familiar and unfamiliar tasks…
Responsibility / Accountability
… employing • • • •
a knowledge base incorporating theoretical and practical concepts analytical interpretation of information informed judgement a range of innovative responses to real but often unfamiliar problems …
… and applied • • • •
with self-directed activities under guidance and evaluation with full responsibility for quality of own productivity with possible responsibility for the extent and the quality of the output of others.
Course aim: To enable students to understand and apply the principles of wall and roof framing construction to a single level residential building, to erect walls and a roof structure in a safe and professional manner. Learning outcomes: 1. Identify timber wall framing components, calculate quantities and describe the procedure to erect wall frames. 2. Set out and erect fabricated timber wall framing from working drawings for a single level dwelling; plumb, straighten and brace walls to NZS 3604 tolerances and explain these procedures.
3. Describe the principles of setting out and construct a conventional roof Including eaves and verges, purlins, and framing for openings. 4. Construct an equally pitched gable end roof to plans and specifications to comply with NZS 3604 and the requirements of working at height. Assessment: A Pass Mark has to be achieved in both Theory and Practical
Nature of assessment
Learning Outcome s 2,3,4,
Evidence that a student has met the practical task learning outcomes by the satisfactory completion of practical tasks within campus workshops, on site, or a combination of these. 1,2,3,4, Theory Orientated Tasks
Assessment by one or a combination of: assignment, case study, portfolio, report, presentation, video, multimedia, written test, or any other method as negotiated with the lecturer, and can be either group or individual work, which will show evidence of acquired knowledge and understanding.
Topics: Included but not limited to; Wall framing: • •
• • •
Timber – Correct use of different timber treatments, selection of correct timber size, grading and cutting lists, Wall Framing – Terminology, reading and interpreting plans and working drawings (incl; symbols, cross sections, elevations and prenail plans). Framing components, stud spacing, cavity construction, the setting out, standing, straightening and fixing of wall frames, weather-tightness risk matrix, lintel sizes for openings, prefabricating of wall frames, notches and holes. Bracing – Principles of wall bracing, temporary and permanent types of braces, location of braces and specific fixing requirements. Calculations – Take off quantities and work out cost of materials required. Practical – Top and bottom Plate set-out and pattern stud exercise. 3
Erect pre- fabricated wall frames, plumb and straighten walls and studs, installation of permanent and temporary braces, hold down straps, connectors and fasteners that comply with NZS 3604 and install building wrap. General - nogs and blocking, boring holes, trimming out for appliances, ensuring subcontractors work complies with NZS 3604.
Roof Framing: • Design – The types of trussed roofs and the principles of construction, gable end roof construction, plan reading, truss identification and components, setting out, handling, standing and fixing requirements. Investigate spacing and sizes of members, roof plane and space bracing, wind zones, sloping / boxed / flush eaves and verge construction, durability zones, fastening and tiedown methods and structural requirements for framed roof openings to NZS3604. • Calculations - calculation of rafter lengths, quantities of gable roof materials. • Practical – Set out and erect a trussed roof and gable end framing, install fastenings and tie-downs, roof bracing, purlins and ceiling battens, vapour barriers. • Safety – Safe use of electrical portable tools at height, safe practice when working at height incl: scaffolding, safe lifting practices, demonstrating safety conscious behaviour at all times. • Field work – Non notifiable scaffolding exercise, roof framing exercise. Learning and teaching approaches: Lectures, tutorials, practical exercises, student directed learning, field trips Learning resources: DBH - Timber treatment requirements – Notes for Builders – Feb 2005 Pringle, T.(2004). House Building Guide (Second Edition). Wellington: BRANZ. New Zealand Standard, 3604:1999 Timber Framed Building, 1999,(incl. Amendments 1&2). Department of Building and Housing Building Act 2004 NZS 3604 1999 (including Amendments 1 &2) Building Code (latest edition) E2/SA1 New Zealand Standards New Zealand Standard 3602 Specifying timber New Zealand Standard 632, Kiln drying of timber New Zealand Standard 3631:1988 BRANZ Bulletins BRANZ Bulletin, 424 BRANZ bulletin, 431 BRANZ Bulletin, 445 BRANZ bulletin, 447 BRANZ Bulletin, 451 BRANZ Bulletin, 453 BRANZ Bulletin, 454
Measuring Moisture on Building Sites 2002 Care of Kiln Dried Timber 2002 Timber Treatment 2004 Preventing Construction Moisture problems in New Building 2004 Grading and specifying (Treated timber) 2004 Fastener selection and use 2004 Avoiding Thermal Bridging in Steel Framing Houses 2004
BRANZ Bulletin, 490 Metal Component Technology 2007 BRANZ Bulletin, 493 Timber Treatment 2007 BRANZ Best Practice Guides 4
BRANZ Selecting Timber
Miscellaneous Publications • •
Building Your Own House, Willson R J 1994, Plans and Specifications, Auckland, New Zealand Specifiers and users Manual, Bowmac Lumberlok, Auckland - Christchurch
Theory and Practical resources • • • • • •
Wall & roof framing Scaffolding system Machinery and electrical portable tools Computer and Lab; Internet; Plans of working drawings and specifications
DUE DATE: All questions must be answered to achieve the learning outcomes: PART 1:
WALL FRAMING 1. WALL FRAME MEMBERS 1.1. Complete the table on Terminology and Function of wall framing members Correctly identify the timber wall framing members indicated on the drawing (pg 7) and give its description and/or function on the table below
NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Identify the components indicated on this drawing and describe their function in the table on pg 6.
The manufacturer supplies a plan of the pre-cut wall frame with the wall frames when they are delivered. From this plan: 1.2.1. Describe the information that tells you how to position the frames. 1.2.2. What other information does it have about the timber framing? 1.2.3. Why is it supplied to builders when erecting the frames? 1.2.4. What is the â€˜Disclaimerâ€™ and what is it for?
ERECTING WALL FRAMES 8
1.3.1. Give a detailed description on how to erect timber wall frames from setting out the positioning, of the frames, to finally permanently fixing them in place. 1.3.2. Describe the process of how to ‘plumb’ an exterior corner of a timber framed building. 1.3.3. What is the process involved in straightening the top and bottom plates? 1.3.4. How do you make sure the rooms are square within a house? 1.4.
TIMBER WALL FRAME BRACING 1.4.1. Describe the type of connection used to join the top plates in the following situations:126.96.36.199.
Butted walls that contain braces
Adjacent walls that contain less than 100 bracing units.
1.4.2. Explain what is required to be done to a timber framed wall to make provision for a bracing unit (BL1) 2.4 m long on an exterior wall(use labelled drawings). 1.4.3. What difference is there between the fixings required for an external Braceline wall to the fixings required for an internal Braceline wall? 1.4.4. Draw to scale and label a wall 3.000mm long x 2420mm high with a window 1200mm square and show the fixings required to resist up-lift when you have a:- Light roof, Timber sub-floor, Wind zone is high, Loaded dimension acting on lintel is 3.0 m and the Lintel span is 2.4m. (Refer to GIB Bracing Systems, Sept. 2009.)
NOTCHES AND HOLES Investigate the requirements of NZS3604 as to the number, spacing and placement of notches and holes allowed in timber framing. 1.5.1. Describe the rules as they relate to notches and holes in top and bottom plates, lintels, understuds and trimmer studs (use drawings and include plumbing and wiring requirements). 1.5.2. Show by labelled photographs or A4 sized drawings the notch and hole details of a stud and top plate. 1.5.3. Show examples of multiple notches and holes and show whether they are correct or not. (remember a cut out for a diagonal steel brace counts as a notch) (Refer to the appropriate sections in NZS 3604: 1999)
STRAIGHTENING WALLS 9
The illustration below shows a load-bearing wall frame which contains three bowed studs (marked with crosses). The bows in each stud are greater than that allowed by NZS 3604. 1.6.1. What is the tolerance allowed for bowed studs in NZS 3604 1.6.2. Describe how you would straighten the three studs in this wall to comply with the relevant clauses in NZS 3604. (Reference the relevant clauses). STUD 1
1.7. TIMBER TREATMENT AND GRADES. Research and then explain (in your own words); 1.7.1. The types of treated timber and where they are used. 1.7.2. What is timber grading and how is this shown on the timber. 1.8 PRE-LINE INSPECTION. Design a checklist that you can use to make sure that all the essentials of the wall framing are totally complete before lining (in the form of a table). (Refer to NZS 3604:1999, The New Zealand Building Code, and GIBď›š system specifications.)
1.9. HEALTH AND SAFETY 10
Identify the hazards associated with wall framing and describe how they can be eliminated, isolated and minimised. (Include personal and site safety equipment appropriate to this task, lifting techniques, etc.)
PART 2: ROOF FRAMING 2.1.
SET OUT and CONSTRUCTION Describe the process, in sequence, of how to set out and construct a conventional equal pitched gable roof to comply with NZS 3604. (Roof cladding is corrugated Zincalume and the house is in a high wind zone).
Draw a labelled end elevation and a plan view (or a 3D view) of a gable end roof showing all the components to construct the verge (sloping soffit) on the gable end.
Investigate NZS 3604 for the fixing the requirements of trusses to the top plate in a: 2.3.1. Low wind zone 2.3.2. Medium wind zone 2.3.3. High wind zone
Drawing with detailed and labelled illustrations the following soffit details:2.4.1. raking 2.4.2. boxed 2.4.3. flush
TRUSSED ROOF. 3.1
Explain the principles of a trussed roof. 3.1.1. How does a Truss work? 3.1.2. What are the benefits of a trussed roof?
Types of trusses; 3.2.1. Name two types of Truss design? 3.2.2. Describe the differences between them. 3.2.3. Illustrate them with labelled drawings.
Using NZS 3604 investigate purlin sizes, spacing and fixing requirements for a lightweight roof in the different wind zones.
3.4. Describe in detail the bracing requirements for a lightweight roof in a high wind zone. 3.5. Draw a detailed and labelled diagram of how to trim out for a roof or ceiling opening.
HEALTH and SAFETY 4.1. Design a Health and Safety plan to be implemented when the construction of the roof framing begins. 4.2. Explain the requirements for scaffolding, roof edge protection and other safety issues when construction starts on the roof frame.
5. CALCULATIONS. AS PER WORK BOOK
6. PATTERN STUD EXERCISE Using the Unitec House plans calculate, the lengths of the individual vertical wall framing members. Record the exact length of each of the vertical wall framing members.
Full size wall with 45mm top and bottom plates. Jack stud length
Practical exercise is to prepare a full size and accurate drawing of these vertical wall components with a standard stud height of 2.4 m (actual stud height 2420 mm). Label all the components. Your pattern stud must include all lintel sizes and all window dimensions (depths) used in the building. It must also include internal door opening details.