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 ก ก         

ก 


  

lo  !"

li !" !" load Pi # $ Ao %& !"' (   Ai %& !"' ( !")*ภ!" !" load + Pi


li − lo ∈= lo

li

li dl ε =∫ = ln l lo lo


  


σ ACT =

σc D  4R    1 +  ln1 +  D   4 R  

AO − Ai ∈= Ai


ก

 ! "#ก

σ = σoε

 

m

σ

=  

ε

= " %) (ก

m

= " -ก).ก!#'.*.+&

σ o = .,. .( 


σ = Eε log

σ = log E+ log

log σ = log σ o+ m log

ε

ε


 % /0')*ภ." )0' + ' " 1 2,#'   ภ    "&

+0 

li − lo li ∈= = −1 lo lo

li =∈ +1 lo


 % /!")ก

"&' ก  ก  !ก % 0 ก# ก# 0#'

σ =   )0 S =  !ก

)

F1 σ = AI

) σ

)0

F1 S = AO

0 

lo Ai = AO li

F1 li = =S = S (∈ +1 ) AO (l o l i ) lo

( ∈ +1 = ln −1 ε = e ε

S = σe

−ε

 & σ = Se

'ก ก

ε

S = σoε e m

−ε


( )0 *

∈=∈p + ∈e

∈e =

σi E


AO − Af Af R = =1− AO AO

AO − Ai′ AO − Ai ≈ W = AO AO


$ ( ! . !"0,3ก ก!)+ก'." .    

 4 (ก0!ก

5). 4'62(ก0!ก


5). 4'62


% &  (Numbering Systems) G10  /  G46 ภภ)-) "  G11 ')*ภภ) ภ(  0 G48 ภภ)-) " ภภ01 )0= = !"ภภ G13 ภ " G50 " G23 ภภ) G51 " G25 ภภ) G52 " G31 ภภ) - " G61 " -   " G33 ภภ) - ภภ) G86 "- ภภ)-) "  G40 ) "  G87 "- ภภ)-) "  G41 "-) "  G92 ภ " -)ภ

G43 ภภ)-"-) "  G94 ภภ)-"-) " 


ก &#)  1 ' ( !&' 0 #'"'    2 ก')0 ก5)(#' $ ) !")0' ( +",C

3 ก% (.' ( ก#'" '" ! ก

4 &  !"" 0 #'"&  $ & 'กก ),0ก #


Shell Molding ภ') Investment ภ0 ภ)'05! ภ0 ภ 


ก0 ก *

2, ,ก(!"#/"ก"   


ก0 ก! .')*กก)


ก   ก  $)*


')*กก)5  ( ! ก5 ก .')*กก)

&$กก + ,- ),-/



&$กก*/

- ก


0ก &$ก&#

&$ก&# (White Cast Iron)

&$ก&## (Malleable Cast Iron)

&$ก&#/!#% -),

&$ก&#* (Alloy Cast Iron)


)'0!" #')*ภ!  (Alumimium) ภ 1 (Magnesium)

ŕ¸


-  ก Kf −1 q = Kt − 1

-  ก2&  &$กก% UNS A92024-T 2&  /&& /&


ก)ก.ก)&(


 # (ก

)'05  2h, ก 2b "!" ก+ก) 2a, +

K I = 1.32σ πa


' "ภ) (Fracture Toughness)

5 )'0!""!" 2 ภ)ภ')

+


7%  (Fracture Conditions)

ภ,)" ,)2, 2,3 ,C E


 %ภ     (Stress- Intensity Factors)



ภ ภ+ภ)# 5 )'0!"  +(    !",) A )0  !",) B


 ))2"& ภ   *ภ# (stress - corrosion cracking)



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