60â€™s Life Read about the 60â€™s funky fashion styles and trends on page 7!
Find the latest hits of this great decade on page 4!
Go to page 10 for nostalgic treats!
Table of Contents Music Culture Film & Theater Fashion Education Government & Politics Food Domestic Affairs Law & Justice Sports Way We Lived Foreign Affairs Celebrity Gossip Game Book Review
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Culture Cars The 60’s brought about the era of the muscle cars manufactured by companies such as Ford and Holden. Also there was a Mini car revival in 1961 with the BMC Mini being released, In 1966 models brought the first front two wheel drive since the 1937. Electric cars were also being worked on durings the sixties and many lab models were created
Toys A large percentage of toys that were introduced in the 1960s stuck around for several years. A 70’s era toy catalog looks a whole lot like a 60’s catalog. Some of these toys are still around. Toys like G.I. Joe, Twister and Operation can still be found on toy shelves around the world and they all came from the 60’s.
Technology Much of the technology we use today were created in the 1960;s. For example a computer mouse and the internet. Also in 1969 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were landed on the moon and returned safely back to earth
Film & Theater By: Max Morris
The 1960’s had 2 very different styles, for the 2 halves of the Decade. The early sixties was very classic and boring, grey and plaid, things of that sort. The women showed little to no skin, often looking very professional. These wore clothes known as the Jackie O’ Style. This was Jackie Kennedy’s style, John F. Kennedy’s wife , clean, well fitted, and all accessories matched colors. Her dresses had no collars, and her jackets only buttoned with one top button. She was the center of attention and every woman copied her style with enthusiasm. But sadly, once her husband passed away, she lost most if not all of her popularity. The next role model for fashion in the 60’s was Brigitte Bardot. Her style was very different from Jackie’s, Brigette’s style was described as being cheap, bold, tacky and even silly. She popularized the “Gingham and Lace” dress trend. The last role model for women’s fashion in the 60’s was Mary Quant. Her motto was “Fashion is Fun” and wore very colorful clothes along with very very short shift dresses. As far as Men’s fashion goes, it was just as wild as women’s. Like the women, in the early 60’s they wore the same thing they did in the 50’s, but in 1964, a trend was popularized, where pants became much TIGHTER. The beatles were the inspiration for this, longer hair and tighter pants. In the late 60’s men were almost always seen sporting scarfs and their pants were flared at the bottom like women’s. To some it seemed the men’s fashion wa becoming more effeminate while women’s was becoming more masculine.
Education By: Catherine Ehrling
In the 1960’s the U.S. was in the middle of the Civil Rights Movement. This movement affected education all across the country, as in people were fighting for equality in schools. Although, schools were supposed to be “separate but equal” as of 1954 when Brown v. Board of Education was passed. But schools in the South were still segregated and unequal. White children attended their own school, and African-Americans went to their separate school, which did not provide the same quality education as the whites. The classrooms and facilities of the schools were nowhere near as nice. And the all black schools ran short on employees, and were extremely low budget. While school for whites, were held in large, clean classrooms, and sufficiently funded. Also, the curriculum in schools began to change. The hardships and struggles of Native Americans and African-Americans began to be taught in history classes. And more bilingual education options were offered as the immigrant population increased. As well, during the 60’s many students began protests on college campuses. This was called the Free Speech Movement. It began on Berkeley College, California. And soon after campuses across the country followed, and most commonly protested racism in the U.S, and the Vietnam War.
Government & Politics By: Max Morris
Food By: Catherine Ehrling The 60’s were a crazy, funky time with fashion and protest outbreaks, but these weren’t the only crazy things of the decade. These were the years your favorite cereals were brought to the shelves of every grocery store across America. Everyone woke up to a bowl of Lucky Charms. Fruit Loops, or Captain Crunch. These sugary cereals filled everyone’s cupboard along with Ruffles, Pop Tarts, Funyuns, and Cheez-Its . And nobody would dare eat their Ruffles without a classic Lipton French Onion Soup Dip. Not only did everyone munch on these high sugar snacks, and savory treats but Sprite, Fanta, and 7Up filled the aisles. And the fridges were packed full of Yoplait Yogurt and freezers with TV Dinners. And a stop to your favorite fast food joint, McDonald’s to pick up a Fried Apple Pie, was pretty common. While all these sugar filled items were released, those interested in dieting in the 60’s most commonly resorted to Weight Watchers Point System. This was a system where instead of counting calories you count points of food items. Each person is given a certain amount of points per day and they are not to exceed the number. This way people can indulge, guilt-free. Fruits and vegetables were typically one point, while more indulgent items such as burgers and sweets were around five points. And the average point allotment per day was twenty to twenty-five but varied per person. Along with the diet fad and delicious snacks the 60’s had some pretty weird foods. Jello salads were extremely common, which was fruit encased in flavored gelatin in a cake mold, served with whipped cream.
Domestic Affairs By: Catherine Ehrling
The 60’s was a time of the rising counterculture and a divided country. Most prominently caused by the Vietnam War, and the country was split between doves and hawks. Doves did not support the war but wanted peace, and they were part of the counterculture which meant they did everything against the general population. In addition to doves, there was an uproar of hippies. Hippies refused to conform, freely took drugs, and believed in Flower Power, instead of war. Hippies were commonly young people who demanded peace. While the hawks encourage the war and wanted an advancement of the United State’s role. An individual fell in either category, typically no in between. Along with the divided country, many protests arose across the U.S. They protested the Vietnam War, the still very much alive racism in the country, and part of the Free Speech Movement college students fought for student rights, that the Johnson team had restricted. Such as dorm rules and strict dress codes. As well, during the 1960’s the U.S. went through three different presidents. In 1961 Kennedy was elected but then assassinated in 1963. This was a major event in the U.S. as JFK’s plans were to extract the U.S. from the war. But, Vice President Johnson, took over and increased involvement. And Johnson remained president until 1969, as he won a re-election. And in 1969, Nixon became president.
Domestic Affairs By: Catherine Ehrling
Along with the uprising counterculture and presidential elections, the U.S. was also in the midst of the Cold War with the Soviet Union. President Kennedy hoped to beat the USSR to space but they failed to when Russia sent Sputnik into space in 1957. However, the U.S. did not give up hope, but initiated NASA. And sent Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Buzz Aldrin to the moon in Apollo 11 in 1969. The Apollo 11 caused quite the controversy with many conspiracy theories stating that the U.S. did not actually send men to the moon, but staged it in a studio and just took photographs. Many said that there should be no shadow or breeze in space but the photo contains both. As well, in President Johnsonâ€™s State of Union Address in 1964, stated the countryâ€™s massive poverty population and began the Economic Opportunity Act. Which launched many new programs to help poorer Americans. Such as the Job Corps, Medicaid, and Head Start. The Job Corps, trained people with useful skills that money could be made off. Medicaid, offered health care to low income Americans, and Head Start encouraged kids to start schools, by offering affordable child care.
Law & Justice By: Catherine Ehrling
During the 1960â€™s the Civil Rights Movement was effective in and out of courts. In the Bailey v Patterson case, the Court said that states cannot segregate state crossing transportation and on airfare. And in 1964 in the Heart of Atlanta Motel Inc. v. U.S. and Katzenbach v. McClung, Congress banned any discrimination in public areas such as restaurants or shops. Also, in 1967 during the Loving v Virginia case, biracial marriage was legalized. And lastly of the Civil Rights cases, discrimination in government and private housing was banned. These are all a result of the Civil Rights Movement. But there were also other popular court cases. Such as Reynolds v Sims, this stated that legislative districts must be redone so that they are all of equal numbers and components. Making the government more democratic as everyone was equally represented. And lastly, in 1966 the landmark case of Gideon v Wainwright this was a unanimous court ruling stating that all states must provide an attorney in criminal cases for the defendant if they cannot afford one of their own.
Sports In the 1960’s all american sports gained popularity. The first super bowl took place, which today is now the most popular annual american sporting event. Bill Russell and the celtics dominated the NBA, winning 9 of the 10 possible championships of the decade. Baseball had a huge expansion going from 16 teams to 24 by 1969. Let’s start with the NFL, during this time the “super bowl” of that ears was just called the NFL championship, and it was nowhere near as popular as it is today, Back then, there were people who hated football intensely because of the toughness of the sport and how dangerous it was. As for the NBA, it was swollen but surely growing in popularity, and its icon was Bill Russell who dominated the league as a defensive center winning 9 of his total 11 championships in this decade. To this day it is still the most amount of championships one person has. Baseball was a amazing decade, for pitchers at least. The 60’s were known as the deadball era, and offensive levels were the lowest in history, which means teams weren’t scoring as much, and since pitchers are considered as defense, they had a great time in the 60’s. The winner of the best average for a batter was only .301, which is the lowest ever in MLB history. It got so bad the rules had to be changed to lower the pitching mound and restrict the size of the strike zone so batters would do good again.
Way we lived The 1960â€™s was dominated by politics and social activism and brought many changes to the way we lived. The dominant movement lf first half of the decade was the civil rights movement, led by Martin Luther King Jr. If you were Black, you most often took place in peaceful protests with sit-ins in restaurants and such, and you also had the white minority that supported the civil rights movement, coming to the speeches and rallyâ€™s. These people lost a lot of hope when JFK was assassinated, and then MLK soon after. Another huge way people were protesting was the vietnam war, a lot of people wanted to stop the war in Vietnam, as they felt it had nothing to do with us and split the nation into 2, hawks, for the war, doves, against the war. As for everyday life, things considered extravagant, such as cars, tv and large estates, were now a commonplace. New homes went up everywhere but since they were going up so fast, caused some very bad architectural disasters. So many cars were on the road, that the need for new motorways and highways was very very important. In home, families were expected to own a T.V. set and a stereo, and whether you TV had color, model and size represented your status and wealth. Ads in TV were becoming more manipulative, causing trends and styles to change very quickly, overall, life in the 60â€™s all over the place
Foreign Affairs By: Kamar Meza The first major foreign policy that occured was the Laos Crisis. This was one of the first attempts to stop the spread of communism in the Far East, since Laos just became independent and had not the military to defend themselves. Sadly, this did not work out as Laos is still communist till this day. While the huge Cold War was still going on, another huge war erupted, the Vietnam War, probably the most controversial war in history because, nobody ever declared war on each other. The U.S. was trying to fight for South Vietnamâ€™s freedom and stop them from becoming communist, sadly, the hit and run attacks and the chemicals and everything just being so controversial, the U.S, decided to retreat and South Vietnam was taken over soon after, and citizens were mad because we still had Americans over in Vietnam. Also the gulf of Tonkin and the Tet Offensive caused even more controversy. The Gulf of Tonkin, nobody really knew what happened, but U.S. ships were attacked, and the Tet offensive was when the US and south Vietnam were caught off-guard because it was supposed to be a day of peace.
Foreign Affairs By: Kamar Meza Another large Foreign Affair was the Bay of Pigs invasion. This was a huge embarrassment to the President. The Government sent Cuban Exiles to try and take over Communist Cuba under the rule f Fidel Castro, sadly, it didnâ€™t work out at all, and the US was embarrassed. The next large Foreign Affair was the Nuclear Non-Proliferation which was an agreement between the 2 major Nuclear powers, the US and the USSR, to stop all nuclear construction. This was great because other countries were terrified of a Nuclear War because they were not as developed as the USSR and the US. But this did slow down the cold War, in a way, but at least people knew that would not have to worry about a deadly Nuclear war. This also helped stop creating nuclear weapons in Proliferation, which means in an excess amount.
Celebrity Gossip By: Catherine Ehrling
During the 60’s the glamorous Jackie O was fashionable admired by everyone across the country. She kept her poised appearance throughout her years as First Lady, but after the tragic death of her husband, JFK, Jackie remarried just five years later to Aristotle Onassis. At the time, he was one of the wealthiest men in the world, which didn’t benefit Jackie’s reputation. As some some saw the beloved widow to be a gold digger and thought Aristotle was too old and different from Jackie. As well, the infamous girl group, rose to fame in the early 60’s but broke up in 1966. This girl group was loved by everyone in America, with their great personalities and awesome music, their songs blew the charts. But as all good things die out, the end of their music group caused a stir. On their tour, opening for the Beatles in 1966, Phil Spector manager and husband to Ronnie Bennett, forced her to stay home out of jealousy of the girl group. He was very harsh with his wife and prohibited her from starting a solo career, and threatened to kill her. All in which made headlines in the 60’s. 21
Game By: Kamar Meza Marvel vs DC WordSearch
Book Review By: Max Morris
Citations “Kellog's Corn Flakes .” Flickr, www.flickr.com/photos/sa_steve/3368141322. Guyer, Karla. “Print Ads From the 1960's.” Pinterest, www.pinterest.com/karlaguyer/print-ads-from-the-1960s/. “Coca-Cola Ad.” The Atlantic, www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2013/01/brief-history-racist-soft-drinks/318929/ Joó, Szabolcs. “Advertisement.” Pinterest, 13 Mar. 2012, www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/33284484716068419/."The 1960s Education: Overview." U*X*L American Decades. . Encyclopedia.com. 6 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>. The 1960s Education: Overview - Dictionary definition of The 1960s Education: Overview | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary “Jello Salad.” Nostalgia, startsat60.com/opinion/nostalgia-flashback/do-you-remember-the-strange-and-crazy-food-of-the-50s-and-60s. “1960s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures & History.” RetroWaste, www.retrowaste.com/1960s/fashion-in-the-1960s/ “Sprite.” PicClick, picclick.com/60s-SPRITE-soda-pop-can-by-Coca-Cola-132160330086.html. “Poptarts.” Jeff's 60's , www.jeffs60s.com/images/60spop_tarts.jpg. “Lucky Charms .” Mr. Breakfast, www.mrbreakfast.com/cereal_detail.asp?id=222. “Free Speech Movement.” Socialist Worker, socialistworker.org/2014/12/02/spark-that-lit-the-1960s-campus-revolt “Free Speech Movement Pt 2.” KFPA , www.kpfahistory.info/fsm_home.html “Segregation Schools .” Lifestyle 1960s, lifestyle1960s.wikispaces.com/1960%27s+Public+Education. . http://www.pophistorydig.com/topics/tag/louis-armstrong-1960s/ Google Search, Google, www.google.com/search?safe=active&rlz=1C1GGRV_enUS758US758&biw=1280&bih=903&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=by37 WsG7G6_y5gLN5ZSIBA&q=elvis&oq=elvis&gs_l=img.3..0i67k1l5j0l2j0i67k1j0l2.219305.221017.0.221246.6.6.0.0.0.0.1 93.618.0j4.4.0....0...1c.1.64.img..2.4.618.0...0.WFgL4pQin3g#imgrc=cOH17yt6rhEBZM: “1960s Music: What Songs Were The Most Popular?” RetroWaste, www.retrowaste.com/1960s/1960s-music/.
Citations Pt. 2
Armstrong, Lisa. “Style Lessons We Can Still Learn from Jackie Kennedy Today.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 21 Jan. 2017, www.telegraph.co.uk/fashion/style/style-lessons-can-still-learn-jackie-kennedy-today/. “JFK.” The Black Vault, www.theblackvault.com/documentarchive/j-f-k-assassination-records/ “Hippies.” Collective Evolution , www.collective-evolution.com/2017/12/05/why-the-hatin-on-hippies-lets-take-a-closer-look-at-the-socially-oppressive-im plications-of-this-word/. Manual, Byline. “Apollo Moon Landing Hoax Theories That Won't Die.” Space.com, Space.com, 25 July 2017, www.space.com/12814-top-10-apollo-moon-landing-hoax-theories.html. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_Corps “1960s Domestic Affairs.” Quizlet, quizlet.com/79824868/1960s-domestic-affairs-flash-cards/. Lawrence, Greg. “Jackie O, Working Girl.” The Hive, Vanity Fair, 3 Sept. 2015, www.vanityfair.com/culture/2011/01/jackie-o-working-girl-201101. Bobb, Brooke. “A Look Back at the Island Wedding of Jackie Kennedy and Aristotle Onassis.” Vogue, Vogue, 12 Oct. 2017, www.vogue.com/article/weddings-jackie-kennedy-aristotle-onassis-katie-holmes
“1960s Pop History.” Fifties Web, fiftiesweb.com/pop/1960s-pop/. “The Ronettes Biography.” Rolling Stone, Rolling Stone, www.rollingstone.com/music/artists/the-ronettes/biography Huey, Steve. “The Ronettes | Biography & History.” AllMusic, www.allmusic.com/artist/the-ronettes-mn0000491220/biography. “The Ronettes.” Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Ronettes. “Important Supreme Court Cases for Civil Rights.” The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, civilrights.org/judiciary/federal-court-system/important-supreme-court-cases-civil-rights/.
“Law & Justice Protest.” American Studios , iams.pbworks.com/w/page/26407019/B2%201960s%20Majask.
Citations pt 3
â€œLoving v Virginia.â€? American Foundation for Equal Rights, afer.org/blog/45th-anniversary-of-loving-v-virginia-a-case-for-marriage-equality/