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Epigraphica Sarasvati (Corpus of Indus Script Inscriptions) Site names (where epigraphs were found) and abbreviations used: Major sites M Mohenjodaro H Harappa L Lothal K Kalibangan C Chanhujo-daro B Banawali Rhd Rahman-dheri Pk Pirak

Jk Jhukar Krs Khirsara (Khera-shara, Netra) Lh Lohumjodaro Msk Maski Mehi Mehi Pbm Pabumath Pbs Prabhas Patan Minor sites (Somnath) Agr Alamgirpur Rgr Rakhigarhi Amri Amri Rgp Rangpur Ch Chandigarh Rhr Rohirah Dmd Daimabad Rjd Rojdi Dlp Desalpur Rpr Rupar (Ropar) Dlv Dholavira Sht Shahi-tump (Kotadi, Kotda-Timba) Sktd Surkotada Hls Hulas Tkwd Tarkhanewala-dera

Ad Allahdino (Nel Bazaar) Ai Amri Blk Bala-kot Grb Gharo Bhiro (Nuhato) G Gumla Hd Hissamdheri Kl Kalako-deray Kd Kotdiji Lwn Lewan-dheri (Dar Dariz) L III Loenbar III Mr Mehrgarh Nwd Naru-Warodaro Ns Nausharo Nd Nindo-waridamb

Pg Periano-ghundai Skh Sarai Khola Sb Sibri-damb Trq Tarakai Qila Ukn ProvenanceUnknown West Asian sites Djoka (Umma) Kish Susa Telloh Ur Ukn (Prob. from W. Asia)

1


Allahdino (Nel Bazaar)04 Alamgirpur Late Harappan pottery, a three-legged chakala_(After YD Sharma)

Amri06

Banawali1 Amri07

Allahdino (Nel Bazaar)05

Ba lakot01

Alamgirpur Agr-1 a(2) graffiti 9062

Banawali10 9204

Allahdino (Nel Bazaar)06 B Balakot 02 Balakot 03

9063 Alamgirpur: Late Harappan pottery (After YD Sharma) Alamgirpur2

anawali11

Allahdino (Nel Bazaar)07 Ba nawali12 Balakot 04

Allahdino (Nel Bazaar)08

Ba

All Allahdino (Nel Bazaar)01

ahdino (Nel Bazaar)09

nawali13a Balakot 05 Banawali14 Ba

Allahdino (Nel Bazaar)11 Allahdino (Nel Bazaar)02

lakot 06 bangle Banawali15

9061 Amri 9084

Balakot 06bangle 9203 Banawali16

Amri Allahdino (Nel Bazaar)03

9085

Balakot 06C Banawali 17 9201

2


Chanhudaro10 6129 Banawali 8 Banawali 26A Banawali 18a

Banawali 9C

Chanhudaro 11 6220

Banawali19

Banawali0026a

Banawali2

Banawali 28A 9221

Banawali 20

Banawali 3

Ba nawali 21a

Bet Dwaraka 1 S’ankha seal. One-horned bull, shorthorned bull looking down and an antelope looking backward.

Chanhudaro12 a 6231

Chanhudaro13 6221

Banawali 30 Chanhudaro14a

9205 Banawali 4

Ch andigarh01

610 8

9101

Banawali 23A Banawali 5 9203

Chandigarh02

Chanhudaro15a 6213

9102 Chandigarh

Banawali 23B Banawali 6

9103 Chandigarh

Banawali 24t

Chanhudaro16a 622 2

9104

9211 Banawali 7

3


Chanhudaro17a

Chanhudaro21a 6209

6122

Chanhudaro29 Chanhudaro22a

Chanhudaro18a 62 16

6403

6115

Chanhudaro23

Chanhudaro3 6230

sometimes with a fish held in its jaw and/or surrounded by a school of fish. 6303 6304 6301 6305

Chanhudaro1a

6109 6125

Chanhudaro2 6128

Chanhudaro20 6210

Chanhudaro Seal obverse and reverse. The oval sign of this Jhukar culture seal is comparable to other inscriptions. Fig. 1 and 1a of Plate L. After Mackay, 1943.

6402 Goatantelope with a short tail. The object in front of the goat-antelope is a doubleaxe. Chanhudaro24a

Chanhudaro30 6111

6112 6113 Pict-98

Chanhudaro32a 6123

611 6 Chanhudaro33a 6104 Chanhudaro25

Chanhudaro26 6405

Chanhudaro27

Chanhudaro. Tablet. Obverse and reverse. Alligator and Fish. Fig. 33 and 33a. of Plate LII. After Mackay, 1943. 62

Chanhudaro28

33 Pict-67: Gharial,

It is seen from an enlargement of the bottom portion of the seal impression that the ‘prostrate person’ may not be a person but a ligature of the neck of an antelope with rings on its necks or of a post with ringstones. The head of the ‘person’ is not

4


shown. So, I would surmise that this is an artist's representatio n of an act of copulation (by an animal) + a ligatured neck of another bovine or alternatively, a pillar with ring-stones ligatured to the bottom portion of a body (perhaps of a cow, why not?). It is not uncommon in the artistic tradition to ligature bodies to the rump of, for example, a bull's posterior ligatured to a horned woman (Pict. 103 Mahadevan) or standing person with horns and bovine features (hoofed legs and/or tail) -Pict. 86-88 Mahadevan. Bison (gaur) trampling a prostrate person (?)

underneath. Impression of a seal from Chanhujodaro (Mackay 1943: pl. 51: 13). The prostrate ‘person’ is seen to have a very long neck, possibly with neckrings, reminiscent of the rings depicted on the neck of the onehorned bull normally depicted in front of a standard device. 6114 Pict-108

Person kneeling under a tree facing a tiger. [Chanhudaro Excavations, Pl. LI, 18] 6118

so-called Jhukar culture seal are comparable to other inscriptions. Fig. 3 and 3a of Plate L. After Mackay, 1943. 6120 40

6203

6204 6208 6211 6214

Pict6215 6217

Ox-antelope with a long tail; a trough in front. 6121

6218 6219 6223 6224 6225

Chanhudaro. Seal impression. Fig. 35 of Plate LII. After Mackay, 1943.

6226 6228 6 229 6232

6124 6126 6130 6131

Chanhudaro Seal obverse and reverse. The ‘watercarrier’ and X signs of this

6202

6133

Chanhudaro. Tablet. Fig. 34 of Plate LII. After Mackay, 1943. 6234

6201

5


Chanhudaro. Seal impression. Fig. 35 of Plate LII. After Mackay, 1943.

Chanhudaro40A 6227 6306

Chanhudaro49 A Chanhudaro 9

6235 Chanhudaro40B

Chanhudaro38

Chanhudaro49 B

6127

Daimabad1

Chanhudaro41a Chanhudaro 5

Sign342

6132 Chanhudaro42 Daimabad 2a A Chanhujodaro 39A1

Chanhudaro50 A Chanhudaro43 Daimabad 3A

Chanhudaro46a

Chanhudaro50 B Daimabad 3B Da

Chanhudaro 6 Chanhudaro 39A2

imabad 4

Chanhudaro46b 6205

Da imabad 5A

Chanhudaro47 Chanhudaro4

Chanhudaro 7 Daimabad 5B

6206

6207 Chanhudaro 48

D esalpur1a 9071 Chanhudaro 8

6


De

9073

salpur2 D esalpur3

Dholavira Sign-board mounted on a gateway.

Dholavira (Kotda) on Kadir island, Kutch, Gujarat; 10 signs inscription found near the western chamber of the northern gate of the citadel high mound (Bisht, 1991: 81, Pl. IX).

Dholavira: Seals (Courtesy ASI)

7


4038

h004

h021

D

4693

holavira1a

h012

4022

4005 9121 h005 4004 Dholavira 2a

h022 h013 4023 5055

h006a

Gharo Bhiro (Nuhato) 01

h014 4006 4106

h023 4047

Gu mla10a

h024

h007 4008

h015 4053

Gumla8a

4013

h008 h001a

4001

h025

h017 4052

4081

4010 h018 h009 4009

4071

h026

h002 h019

4012

4016

4694 h010a h027

4003 h003

h020

4002 h011a

4017

4019

8


h028 4040

4030

h038 h029 4042

h055 4029

h048

4091

4107

h039 h049 4133

h030

h056 4110

h040

4049 4072

h050

h031 h041 4178

4103

h057 4086

4131

h042 h032

h058

4018 4057

4105

h051 4090 h043 4077

h033 5059

h059 5120

h052 h044 h035 5083

4109

4028 h060 h045 4043

h053 5089

h036 4113

5119 h046 4076 h037 4031

h054 4085

h061 4118

h047

9


h062

h070 4122

h077 h0

4128

86 4233 h078 4244

h063

h071

4142

5054

h087 4240 h079 h

5060

h064 4

072 120

h0 h080 4245

88 4253

h073

h065

4617 [An orthographic representatio n of a watercarrier].

4094

h0 89

h081 5063

h066 4130

h082a Text 4238

h074 4135 h067

090 227

4115 h0 h

h075 4161

83

4236

h0 91

068 4230

4141

h084 h076

h069

4146

4241

h085 4232

h 092

10


4229

h 093a 4231

4256 Pict-122 Standard device which is normally in front of a onehorned bull.

h 1011cone 5103 h102B h102D h1012cone

h0

h 094

99 4223

4246

5056 h1017ivorystick h 4561

103

h

h095

4254

100 4258 Onehorned bull. h

h104

096 h1002 4249 h 097 Pict-95: Seven robed figures (with pigtails, twigs)

h 1007

h 1018copperob ject Head of one-horned bull ligatured with a fourpointed starfish (Gangetic octopus?)

h 105

h1 h

4251 101 5069

h1 02A

06 h107

h1 h

010bangle

098

11


h108

h109

h118 h119

h110

h120 h121

h111

h122

h112

h123 h113 h124

h114

h125

h126 h115 h127

h116 h117

12


h130 h131

5096 4271

13


h139

h1 49

4267

h128 h129A 4268

h129E

h150 h1

4269 h1 32

h159 4633

4275

h140

h 160A

4283

41 h1

4274

5052

h1 h

133

51 5057

h160C

4276

42 h152

4272

h

4261

161

5016 h

4262

143a h134 h153

5101 4264

4627 h

162

h144

135

h h1

4280

54

4270

4294

4282 h145 h

136

h1 63

5067

h155 4630

4288 h h

h h156

146

137a

4628

5051

5058

h147

h157 4284

4629

164 5046

h165 h148

h138a 5072

4285

h158 4297

14


h1 74A

h170B h166A

h174B

4701

4338 h166B

h1

h1

71A

h171B tablet h167A

4312 Buffalo. 75A h175B Pict-

h167A2 5225

h172A

h172B

87

5305 Pict-66: Gharial, sometimes with a fish held in its jaw and/or surrounded by a school of fish.

4319 Standing person with horns and bovine features (hoofed legs and/or tail).

h1 68

h1 69A

h1 73A h169B 5298

h170A

4333

h177A

h177B h176A h176B h

h173B

standing at the centrebetwee n a two-tiered structure at R., and a shorthorned bull (bison) standing near a tridentheaded post at L. h176b From R.—a tiger (?); a seated, pigtailed person on a platform; flanked on either side by a person seated on a tree with a tiger, below, looking back. A hare (or goat?) is seen near the platform.

176bb 4303 Tablet in basrelief h176a Person

4316 Pict-115: From R.—a person standing under an ornamental arch; a kneeling adorant; a ram

15


with long curving horns. h

two stars on either side, at the bottom of the arch. h1

178A

h185B

80A h181B 5279

h

h180B 182A

h178B 4318 Pict-84: Person wearing a diadem or tall head-dress (with twig?) standing within an arch or two pillars? h1

79A

h

179B 4307 Pict-83: Person wearing a diadem or tall head-dress standing within an ornamented arch; there are

4304 Tablet in bas-relief h180a Pict106: Nude female figure upside down with thighs drawn apart and crab (?) issuing from her womb; two tigers standing face to face rearing on their hindlegs at L. h180b Pict-92: Man armed with a sickle-shaped weapon on his right hand and a cakra (?) on his left hand, facing a seated woman with disheveled hair and upraised arms.

h1

h182B 4306Tablet in bas-relief h182a Pict107: Drummer and a tiger. h182b Five svastika signs alternating rig ht- and lefthanded.

86A

h1

86B 4329 h187A

h183A h187B

5282 Pict-75: Tree, generally within a railing or on a platform.

h183B 4327 h 184A

h 188A

h184B h188B h185A

h

4325

181A

16


h1

h200A 5340

4309 Tablet in basrelief h196b

h200B 4321

h193A h2 89A 189B

h h193B 5332

4341 Pict-126: Anchor?

h1

Pict91: Person carrying the standard. h196a The standard.

01A

h201B 5289

h197A

h1

h202A h197B

94A h194B

90A h190B

h202B

5333 4323

5334

h1 h195A

h 203A

h 191A

5226 h195B

98A h198B 5331

5236

h191B

h204A h1

4332

99A h204B

h196A h1 h199B

h196B

5252

5211

h205A h205B

92A h192B

17


h

5254

h221B

h216A

211A

5265

h 206A

h211B

h216B

h206B

5274

5335

4345

h212A

h222A

h222B

h217A

5339

h212B h207A

h217B 4357

5297

5336

h h213A h213B

208A

h223A

h223B h218A 5221

h208B

5270 h218B 5296 5293

h225A

h214A h209A h209B

h226A

h219A h214B

h226B 4684

4348

h210A

h210B

h219B 5269

h215A

h215B

5243 Standard. h2

20A 5267

h 227A

h227B 5271 4355

h221A 4322

18


Standard. Pict123 h231B Standard device which is normally in front of a onehorned bull. The device is flanked by columns of dotted circles. h 228A

h235A 4673 h235B

h232A

h

5244 Standard.

h232B tablet in bas relief

h2 33A

h2 29A

h233B 4387 Tablet in basrelief. Sickleshaped. Pict131: Inscribed object in the shape of a crescent?

h229B

4674

4386

236A

4368 Inscribed object in the shape of a double-axe.

h228B

h239B Tablet in bas relief

h236B

h2 40 465

8 Incised miniature tablet. Object shaped like fish or sickle? h825A h825B

h 237A

4657 h241A h241B

4663 Pict-69: Tortoise.

h242A h237B h242B 5337 Pict-84

h 230A

h234A

h 238A

4317

h234B h230B

28 63 h

231A

4717

h 239A

19


h246B

in bas-relief

h243A h243B Tablet in basrelief Pict-78: Rosette of seven pipal (?) leaves.

4374

h253B

5283

5219 h250A h 254A h

247A

h250B 5250

h254B

4664 h For See inscription: 4466

h247B Tablet in bas-relief

251A

5214

h255A h251B h244A

4372

h244B

h255B 5208

h251C h248A

4665 h245A

h2

h248B Tablet in bas-relief

h245B

4702

56A

4342 Tablet in basrelief. Prism. Bison (shorthorned bull).

h256B 5213

4371 See 3354.

h257A

h252A

h257B h252B h

h246A

5216

249A 5215 h258A h 253A h249B Tablet

20


h258B 5217 h2 59A

h259B 5218 h2 60A

h260B

around a pillar with ring-stones. One-horned bull. h252, h253, h255, h256, h257, h258, h259, h260,h261, h262, h263, h264, h265, h276, h277, h859, h860, h861, h862,h863, h864, h865, h866,h867, h868, 869, 870

h261 5212

h269

h 266 4011

h262 5220 h263 5262 h264 4315 5207, 5208, 5209, 5210, 5212, 5213, 5214,5215, 5216, 5217, 5218,5219, 5220, 5262 Tablets in bas relief. The first sign looks like an arch

h267 4007

h2 68 4020

21


h270

4014

22


5229

h278B

h288B 5463

h 271

h289A

h278C 4069 h285A

5205

h289B h2

h279A

5467

72 h279B

4619

h285B h 290A

5256 h2 73 4176

h h280A

286A h290B

h280B h2

h286B

4335

74

h 281A h281B h2

75

4336 h

h2 76A

5462

4429 Incised miniature tablet Goat-antelope with a short tail

282A h2

h282B

91A h291B 4440 Standard.

87A h292A

h h276B

h2

283A h287B

h277A

h283B

4430

h292B

5253 h277B

h 284A

5207

h288A

4443 Standard.

h284B h278A

23


h 293A

h302B

h297B

h307B 5460

5497

h308A h293B

03A

298A 4441 Standard.

h3

h

h298B

h303B 5473

h

h308B 5427

h309A 4444

294A

h309B

h299A h304A h299B h294B

4478

h304B 5401

4442 h300A h295A

h 305A

h295B

h300B 4454

4505 h h

h305B Text 5460 h310A

301A h3

296A

06A h301B

h310B 5475 h306B

h296B 4457

5474

4450 h 297A

4403 4405, 4509, 4543, 5419, 5421, 5422, 5423, 5425, 5442, 5449 Incised miniature tablets h309, h311, h317, h932, h959, h935, h960

h3 02A

h 311A

h3 07A

24


h311B

h316A

h321A

5421

h326A

h316B

h321B 5402

h312B h317A

h322A h322

h312Ac h317B 5426

5442

B 5498

h326B 4564 Doubleaxe?

h327A h

h313A

323A h327B h318A

h313B 5432

h318B 5451

h323B 4497

5472 5483 Shape of object: Blade of a weapon?

5433 h319A

h324A

h328a

h324B 4484

h314A h319B 4544

h314B

h325A 5447 h320A

h328B 4415 Shape of object: Bladeof weapon?

h325B h315A

h320B 5450

h315B 5464

4416 Pict130: Inscribed object in the shape of a writing tablet (?)

h329A

h329B 5496 Pict68: Inscribed

25


object in the shape of a fish.

h335a h335B 4425

h 339A

h330A

h343A h336A

h343B 4549

h339B 4559

h330B 4560 h336B h 331A Incised miniature tablet.

4424

h344A h340A

h337A

4421, 4422, 4423

h332C

4885

h337B 4417 Pict-79: shape of a leaf. Dotted circle on obverse.

h344B 4410

h340B

4420

h345A h341A

h333A h333B 4421

h345B 4550

h338A

h341B h3 34A

h334B 4423

h338B 4426 Pict-39: Inscribed object in the shape of a tortoise (?) or leaf (?). Dotted circles on obverse.

h346A 4419

h342A

h342B

4413

h346B Incised miniature tablet. 4412

26


h351B

h354C h 360A

h351C

h347A 4414

5499 h360B h3 55A

4581

h360C

h352A

h355B

4584

h348A

h352B

h355C

h

h348B 4552

h352C

361A 5413 4575 Pict-120: One or more dotted circles.

h349A

h361B

h356 h361C

h3

h357

53A

h349B h

5476 h358A

h353B

h362A

350A h358B

h353C

h362B

h350B 5416

h358C 4579

h350C

h362C

h 354A 4576 h354B h

5466 h359a

h3

h359B

351A h359C

63A

27


h363B h369E 4718

h363C h363E

Picth366C

h370A

86 h366E Pict-85 Standing person with horns and bovine features (hoofed legs and/or tail).

4590

h370A2

h371A

h380 4902 Bronze dagger

h367A h371A2 h367B

h367C

h372A

5471 h372A2 h364A h364B

h367E 4401 h3

h374

4815

h364C h 68a

375

h368E 4409

4812

h3 82 4818

h364E 4635 h365A

h381 4901 Bronze dagger

h383 (Not shown).

h3 h 69a

377

4021

h365B h365C

h369C h378

h365E

28


h

h3 h384

h3 85

90 4024 [The second sign from right appears like a weaver’s loom with three looped strings].

h396

403 h4

4027 04

h397

h405

4045 5091 h h3 86

398

h391 5064

h

4025

399 406 h3 392a

87

h 4207

h 5034

h 400 h407 4126

h3

h393

88

h401

5062

h 4168

h394a 5003

408 4079

h3 89 5090

h 395a

h402

h409

29


h417

h410

h422

4051

4080

4185 h429 h418 h423

h411 4078

h4 30

4056 h412 h

4036 h

424 h431

419 5092

5068 [ h413 4032

The first sign may be a squirrel as in Nindowarida mb 01 Seal].

h4 32 h

h414

426 h4

h415 4204

h4 25

4616

4153

20 4614

h433 h427 4217

h416 4059

h421

h434

4026 h428

30


h461 h435 h436

4037

h446 h454 4132

4034 h4

h462

37 4620

h447 4089

h438

h455 4055 h448 4054

h439

h463 h464a

h440 4615

h456 4100 h4

4083

49 4082

h457 5080

h441 4074

h465

4181

h466 h450 4111 h458

4084

4050

h442 4095 h451 4137

h467 4624

h4 59

h443 4121

h468

4092 4087 452a

h444

h 4124 h460 h4

h469 4138

53 4061 h445

5110

31


h479

h470 4186

h489 4099

h502 4143

4189 h471 4145

h490

h503 4129

4180

h480

h492

h472 h4

4152

82

h493

h504 4183

4208

h473

h494

h4 83

4096

h505

h474

5094

h495

h484 4154

4188

h497

h506 4097

h

h485 h475

498 h507

4093 h499

h4

4159

h508

5093

86 h476 4102

h509 h500 4206

h477 h488 4198 h478

h501 4112

h510 4139

4088

32


h519 4147 h511

h529

4165

h5 h520

4127

h512a 4618 h5 21

4155

h513 4163

h530 4148 [May have to be arranged from right to left?]

36 537 4170

h5 h514

h

h538

22 h531

4116 4172 h539 h523 5071

h515

h532

4162 h541

4166 Text h516a h524 4150

h542 h533 4625

h 517 h525 h518

4149

h534

h543 4177

4160 h535 h526 h527

h544 4144

h528

33


h554

h545 4622

h575 h555

h566 4277

h556 h576

h546 4697

h5 67 h577

h557 h5 h547

4243

68

h558 4220

h548

h

h578

569 4263 h5

h549

h579

59 4290

h570 4212

5109

h550 4211 h561

h 571

h580

h 562 5066

h551 4197

h563 5065

h552

h581

h572 4695

h574 4696

h582

h583 h553

h565 4621

34


4250 [Composite animal]. h584 4235 Bison.

may be Sign 54

] h602a 4169

h 594 [Composite animal].

h585 h595 h5 86 4237

h603 4224

4623 h596a 4382 [Onehorned bull].

h 604

h587 h588

h599A h599D

h597A

h605 h

5076

597D h589 4239

h606

4075

4167 h

h598A

h590 h591 4228

600 4156 [The last sign may be a variant of Sign 608

h598D

51

h 4225

]

h592 5081

5073 [The ligature infixed on the last sign of the second line

h601 h6 4044

09 4060

h593

35


h642 h610 h616

h629

4266

4098 h630 h631

h6 43 4273

h617 h611 h632 h618

4260 Onehorned bull.

h644 h633

4299

h645

h619

4265 h612A h612B

h634

h620 h621

h635 h612D

h622

h646 5108

h636 h647 4291

4123

h637

h623

h h624

h6

h 613A

h625

h613C

h6

39

49

5061

4281

h626

4259 Endless-knot motif? h6 14

648

h638

h640

h650A

h627

h628

h641A h641C

h650C

4698

36


h651

h685

4295 h6 h670

61 4279

h652

h686

h 653

4301

h662a

h671 h6 4302

h663A

h654

88A h688F

h663C 5035

5006

h679

h664A

4298 h689A

h664E

h655AC 4300

5010 h665 5100

h680 h689B 4222

5099

h656 4286

h6 66 h6

57 4287

4631

h681a 5105

h667A h690si 5304

h682 h658 4293

h667C 4634

5078

h6

h691A1si

59

h683 h668 5266

5074 h6

h691A2si h684

60 h669 5114

4632

4289

37


h692A1si h713At h698Bt 4659

h704At

h699At

h704Bt

h713Bt

h692A2si

h714At h6 93t 4707

h699Bt

5288

h694t

h705At

h705Bt 4337

h700At h706At h700Bt h706Bt 4340

h695t

h696At

h696Bt 4677

h701At h701Bt

h707At

5329

h707 4339

h702At

h714Bt Standing person with horns and bovine features (hoof ed legs and/or a tail) Icon of a person has bull's legs and a raised club.

h715At h715Bt

h708At

5299

h716At

h697At

h697Bt

h702Bt 4601

h716Bt h708Bt 5280 h709 Text 5260

4314

h717At

h703At h710 Text 5249 h711

h698At h703Bt 4595

Text 4715

h717Bt

h718At

38


h730Bt h718Bt

h736Bt

h724Bt h731At h737At

4328

5255 h731Bt

h725At

h719At

h737Bt

h732At h738At h725Bt h719B

h732Bt h738Bt

h726At h726Bt

t 4326

h733At

h727At

h720At

h733Bt 5222 h727Bt

h720Bt h728At

h739At

h734At h734Bt

h739Bt

h722At h

5286 h728Bt h735At

h722Bt h729At

h735Bt

h723At

740At h740Bt h

h729Bt

h723Bt

h724At

5310

4331 h736At

741At

h730At

39


h741Bt h747Bt 4656

5263

h766Bt

h758At h759At

4359

h7 h742At

48At

h767At

4654 h760At h760Bt

h767Bt 4352

h749At h742Bt

h761At h761Bt

h750At

h768At

4320 h768Bt

h 751At

h743At

h743Bt

h752At

h762At h762Bt Tablet in bas-relief.

5275

4354

4358 h769At h769Bt

h

h744At h744Bt

753At h763At

4667

h763Bt 4661

h770At

5231

h754At

h745At

h764At

4716

h745Bt 5257

h764Bt

h770Bt 4353

h755At h765At

h746At h746Bt

h771At

5287

h756At 4669

h747At

h765Bt 4653 h766At

h757At 4655

h771Bt 4678 [The second sign on line 1 is a squirrel

].

40


h793At h772At

h786At h786Bt

h779At

h772Bt 5320

h779Bt 4660

h787At

h780At

h794At

h773At h773Bt

h787Bt

h780Bt

h794Bt

4361 4351

h774At

h774Bt

h793Bt 4680

5323 h788At h788Bt 4683

h781At

h795At h795Bt

h789At

h781Bt 4670

h796At h796Bt

4672

h789Bt h782At

5327

4604 h797At

h775At h782Bt h776At h776Bt

4350

5328

h790At

h783At

h790Bt 4605

h797Bt 5281 h798At h798Bt 4607

h783Bt

h799At

h784At h777At h777Bt

h784Bt 4364 h785At

h778At

h785Bt 4681

h778Bt 5322

h799Bt

h791At h791Bt

4603

4676 h792At

h800At

h792Bt 4692

h800Bt 4689

41


h801At

h811Bt 4349

h801Bt

axe.One or more dotted circles.

5319

h823At h802At

h812At h812Bt

h802Bt 4679

4686

h8

h818At h818Bt Inscribed object in the shape of a double-axe. 4376

h813At

h824At

04At 5233 h806At

h824Bt 5278

h813Bt 4682

h819At

h814At h806Bt 5237 h807At

h819Bt Shape of object: Blade of a weapon? h814Bt 4606

h808At

h815At h815Bt

h825At h825Bt Shape of object: sickle? 5324

5302 h8

h807Bt 4343 Onehorned bull.

h823Bt 4346

h827At

20At h820Bt

h816At

h827Bt Shape of object: axe? h829At

h821At

h829Bt

h808Bt

5238 h810At 4366

h811At

h816Bt 4602

h817At h817Bt Inscribed object in the shape of a double-

h821Bt Shape of object: axe.

h822At

5303

h830At

h822Bt Shape of object: axe.

42


h830Bt Tablet in bas-relief.

h848Bt h843At h837A

Bovid. 4311

h848Ct h843Ct

t h837Bt

5326

4597

4381 h832At h832Bt Tablet in bas-relief Pict-121: Lozenge within a circle with a dot in the centre.

h844At

h849At h849Bt

h838At h844Bt

h849Ct h838Bt h845At

4377

4645

4375 h839At

h845Bt h845Ct

h850At

h846At h846Bt

h850Bt

h839Bt h833At h833Bt

4378

4370

h850Ct 4642

h834At

h834B

h846Ct 4641

h851At

h840At 4380

h851Bt h851Ct

h847At t 4666

h852At h841At 4379

h847Bt h847Ct

h835Bt h848At h836At

h852Bt h852Ct

h842At 4596

43


h853At

4433

5234 h8

h853Bt h853Ct 5277

72Bt h858Ct

4434 5230 h882Abit

h859At h873At

h854At

h854Bt

h859Bt h859Ct

4436

h873Bt 5227

h883Ait h883Bit

h860At h854Ct 4647

h881Abit

h874At

h

h860Bt

884Abit

h855At

h874Bt 4362

h861At

4437

h855Bt h861Bt h875At h855Ct h856At

h885Ait h862At h862Bt h8

h856Bt

63ABt h8 64ABt

h856Ct

66ABt

h877At h877Bt

h8

4594

67ABt

69ABt

h878Bt

h8 88Abit

h8

4466 h8

4687 89Abit

70ABt 71Bt

h887Bit

h878At h8 h8

h858Bt

h876Bt 4675

h8

68ABt

h858At

h876At

h887Ait h8

h857At

h857Ct 5276

h885Bit 4530 Fish.

h8 65ABt

h857Bt

h875Bt 4651

h879Abit 5477 h880ABit

44


h8

h907Bit

90ABit h900Ait 4446 h 891ABit

h916Ait

h900Bit 4455 h901Ait

h 892ABit 4451

h901Bit

h902Ait

h 909ABit

h8 h903Ait

h895Ait

h903Bit 4485

h910ABit

h918Bit 4481

4470 h911Ait

h8

h918Ait

5325

94ABit 4487

h895Bit

h917Ait

h917Bit 4472

4488

h902Bit 4535

4522

h916Bit 4456

h908Abit

4460

h893Ait h893Bit

4537 The second sign on h907Ait may be a ligatured fish?

h904Ait h904Bit

h919Ait h919Bit h920Ait

h911Bit

96ABit 4480 h8

4477 h

98ABit 4506

4527

905ABit h912Abit

97ABit h8

h920Bit 4486

4449

h9

h913Ai

h906Ait

h899Ait

21ABit 4514

5461

h906Bit

h9

t t

h913Bi

22Abit 4518 h9

5494 h914Ait

h899Bit 4471

h907Ait

h914Bit 4483

23Abit 4474 h9 24ABit

45


h939Bit

h9 25Abit 4512

4403 h946Ait

h926Abit 4519

h933Ait

h940Ait

h933Bit

h940Bit 4453

h946Bit 4501

h941Ait

h947Ait

4516 h927Ait h934Ait h927Bit

h941Bit 4464

4502 h934Bit

h942Ait

h928Ait h935Ait

h942Bit

h928Bit

h947Bit 4493 h948Abit

h935Bit

4489

4490

h9

4509

h929Ait h929Bit

h936Ait

h943Ait

49Abit 4479 h9

h930Ait h936Bit 5405

h943Bit 4461

50ABit 4463

h930Bit 4520

h944Ait h951Ait

h931Ait h931Bit

h937Ait h937Bit 5458

h944Bit 4475

4511 h945Ait h932Ait

h932Bit

h938Ait h938Bit

h939Ait

h951Bit 4498

h952Ait h952Bit 4469

h945Bit 4503

h953Ait h953Bit

46


h963Bit 5420

h954Ait

h970Ait h974Cit 4592

h970Bit 4553

4467 h955Bit

h9

h964Ait 75Ait h971Ait

h975Bi

5429 h971Bit

h964Bit 5456

h959Ait

h965Ait

h959Bit 4405

4557 Shape of object: double-axe?

t

h975Cit 4402 h976Ait h976Bit

h972Ait h965Bit 4562

h960Ait

h976Cit

h972Bit 4588

h960Bit

h966Ait

4543 h961Ait h961Bit

h966Bit 5479

5449

4418 Pict-128: Inscribed object in the shape of a leaf? Dotted circles on obverse.

h977Ait

h977Bit

h967Ait 4563 h977Cit 4591

h962Ait h968Ait h973Ait h962Bit

h978Ait h968Bit

4548

h973Bit 4411

h978Bit h978Cit

h969Ait h974Ait 5412 h963Ait

h969Bit 4555

h974Bit h979Ait

47


objects not illustrated)

h979Bit h979Cit

4324

h985Ait h980Ait

4330

4015 h985Bit 4577

h980Bit

4033

4334

4035 h987Ait

h980Cit

4046 h981Ait

h987Bit 4067

h981Bit

4073 4101 h987Cit h981Cit 5415 h982Ait

h982Bit

4586

4108 4114

h988Ait h988Bit 88B2it

Pict-63: Gharial, sometimes with a fish held in its jaw and/or surrounded by a school of fish.

4117

h9 4119

h988Cit

4134 4136

h988Eit

4140

h982Cit m4574

4158

4343 Tablet in bas-relief One-horned bull

4344

4164 4573

h983Ait h h983Bit h983Cit 4582

4347

4292 4296 4356

990 h

4305

4360

992 4363

h984Ait

h994

h984Bit

h984Cit 4587

Harappa Texts (Either unmatched with inscribed objects or

Pict-90: Standing person with horns and bovine features holding a staff or mace on his shoulder.

4369

4373

48


4458

4459

4508

4554

4384 4510

4556

4404

4406 4407

4566

4462 4465

4517

4468 4473

4521 4523

4571

4572 Pict129: Inscribed object in the shape of a double-axe or double-shield? 4408

4476

4525

Incised miniature tablet.

4528

4422 4427

4529

4491 4492 Incised miniature tablet.

4578

4580 4532 Incised miniature 4583 tablet

4428 4432 4435

4494 Incised miniature tablet. 4499

4585

4533 4534 Incised miniature tablet 4536

4589

4593 4599

4438 4439

4500

4538 4540

4610 4613

4447

4448

4504 Incised miniature tablet. 4507

4452

4545 4546

4633 4636

4547 4637 4551

4639

49


4824

4713

4643

4878 4826

4644

4646

4648

4649 4650

Pict134: Motif on a pottery graffiti showing a rectangular enclosure with four marks within; the marks looks like X and V. 4714

4827

4832

4833

4838 4839 4840

4844

4845

5023

5070 5077 5084 5085

4848

5086

4671

4849

4805 4685

5001 5017

5031

4846 4803 4804

4905

4841

4658 4668

4884

4834

4801 4802

4880 4881

4835

4843 4652

4879

4852

4806 4807

4853

5087 5088

4690 4854

5102 5104

4810

4856 4857

5107

4811

4861

4808 4691

4809

4699

5115

4864

4700 4813

4814 4816

4703

4865

5123

4868

5124

4817 4704 4709 4710 4712

4819 4820 4821 4823

5201

4871 4873

4874

4875 4876 4877

5203

5204

50


5206 5440

5285 5209

5408 5441

5291 5292

5409

5443

5210 5444

5410 5223

5300

5301 5306

5446

5228 5411

5308

5232

5309

5452

5235

5414 5453 5455

5311

5239

5417

5240 5241

5242

5312

5313

5314

5315

5418

5454

5419

5316

5457 5422

5245

5459

5317 5423

5470

5318

5246

5469

5425 5321

5478 5428

5251

5480 5430

5259

5341

5403 5404

5261 5264 5268

5284

5481

5431

5482 5406

5434 5436

5407

5484

5438

51


5601

Kalibangan010

5485

8006 Kalibangan003

hd06 5486

8030 Kalibangan011

5487 hulas

5488

8034 Kalibangan004

5489

8026

Kalibangan012

jhukar1

Kalibangan005

jhukar2

5490

Kalibangan013 9001

8017 8051

5492 5495

Kalibangan006

jhukar3

5501

8020

8036

5504 5505

8048 8060

5506

Kalibangan014

8009

Kalibangan007

8012

8043 8061

5507

Kalibangan015 8062

5508

5511

8202 5510 5513

Kalibangan008

8214 8215

8056

8041

8217 5514

Kalibangan016 5515

Kalibangan009 Kalibangan002

5516 5517 5518 5519

8044 8021

8019

52


Kalibangan017 8027 Kalibangan026 8071

Kalibangan030 8002

Kalibangan039

Kal ibangan018 8040

8011 Kalibangan027

Kalibangan019 8058

Kalibangan020 8047

Kalibangan021

Kalibangan022 8008

8022 'Unicorn' with two horns! "Bull with two long horns (otherwise resembling the 'unicorn')", generally facing the standard. That it is the typical ‘one-horned bull’ is surmised from two ligatures: the pannier on the shoulder and the ring on the neck.

Kalibangan031a 8007 Kalibangan040 8072 Kalibangan032a Kalibangan041 Kalibangan033 8025

Kalibangan034 8052

Kalibangan035

Kalibangan023 8029 Kalibangan028

Kalibangan036

8038 Kalibangan024 Kalibangan037 Kalibangan025 8037

8042 Kalibangan029

Kalibangan042a

Kalibangan043 8039 Pict59:Composite motif: body of an ox and three heads: of a onehorned bull (looking forward), of antelope (looking backward), and of shorthorned bull (bison) (looking downward).

8018 Kalibangan038

53


Kalibangan044 8045

Kalibangan065A

antelope crowned by a twig. Kalibangan058

6 Kalibangan065E

Kal ibangan045

Kalibangan051 8003

8054

Kalibangan059 8016

Kalibangan060 8059 Kalibangan052 K alibangan046 8053

8015

K alibangan061 8001

Kalibangan062 Kalibangan047

Kalibangan053

8023

Kalibangan063 Kalibangan048

Kalibangan054 8033

8055

Kalibangan055a Kalibangan049 8013

Kalibangan050c 8031 Pict53: Composition: body of a tiger, a human body with bangles on arm, a pig-tail, horns of an

8035

K alibangan064 K alibangan065a

8024 Pict-104: Composition: A tree; a person with a composite body of a human (female?) in the upper half and body of a tiger in the lower half, having horns, and a tridentlike headdress, facing a group of three persons consisting of a woman (?) in the middle flanked by two men on either side throwing a spear at each other (fencing?) over her head.

Kalibangan056 8004 Kalibangan066 8102 Kal ibangan057

54


Kalibangan077B 8108

Kalibangan 084A12

8118 Kalibangan067

8121 Oxantelope with a long tail; sometimes with a trough in front.

K alibangan071 8110

K alibangan078A

K alibangan072

Kalibangan078

8111 Kal ibangan073

K alibangan068A

B 8104

Kalibangan068

8115

B 8117 [Is it a bird or an India River Otter? Could be a scorpion, a model for Signs 51 and

K alibangan075 8113

085A12 Kalibangan085B K alibangan 079AB

Kalibangan080A

8106

Kal ibangan086A1

8120 4 8114

Kal ibangan076A

52 ? See variant in Text 9845 West Asia find]

Kal ibangan081A 8105

Kalibangan076B

Kalibangan082A 8122

Ka libangan069A

Kalibangan087A 12

8116 Kalibangan077A

8109

Kalibangan

8112 K alibangan074

Kalibangan 084A2 8103

Kalibangan 083A12

Kalibangan

K alibangan070A

55


088A14

8210

Kalibangan088 B

8119

Kalibangan093A 821 9

K alibangan094A

Kalibangan089 A14c

Kal ibangan107A Kalibangan100A

Kal ibangan101A

Kalibangan108A 8206

8205 Kalibangan095A Kal ibangan102A

Kalibangan109A

8207 K alibangan096c

8101

Kalibangan110A 8211

8221

Kalibangan103A 8209

Ka libangan090A

Kalibangan111A Kalibangan097A

Kalibangan 090A1

8213

Kalibangan104A 8218 Ka libangan112A

Kal ibangan 090A2 8202

Kalibangan098A

8216

8201 Kal ibangan091A 8212

Kalibangan105A

Kalibangan118 Kalibangan099A 8208

Kalibangan106A 8204 Kalibangan119A

Kalibangan092A

56


9051 Kot-diji

Kalibangan119B

Lewandheri01

Lothal005

Kalibangan122A Kalibangan120A

7044

8220

Loebanr01 Kalibangan 122A2 8301

Kalibangan122B

Lo humjodaro1a

Lothal006a 7038

9011 Kalibangan 122B2

Kalako-deray 01

Lothal007a Lo

Kalako-deray 05

Lothal008a

thal001 7015

Kalako-deray 06 Kal ako-deray 07 Kal ako-deray 08

Lothal009 Lo thal002 7031

L

Lothal003 Kalibangan 121A, B

othal010 7009

Kal akoderay10 Lo

Kh

8302 irsara1a

thal004a 7080

Khirsara2a

7022

Lothal011 7026

57


Lothal028 Lothal019a Lothal012a

7045

7092

7089

Lothal039 7102

Lothal029 Lothal013 7050

Lothal020 7078

7005 Lothal040a Lo thal030a

Lothal021

Lothal041

7047

Lothal014a

7066

Lothal031

7094

7076 Lothal022a Lothal042

7035 Lothal032a L othal015 7086

Lothal023a 7043

Lothal033a

Lothal043 7049

Lot Lothal035

hal024

7101

Lothal044

Lothal016 7002 Lothal036a

Lothal025 7104

7081

Lothal045 7028

Lothal017 Lothal026

7008

Lothal037

7024

7034

Lothal046 7107

Lothal018 7096

Lothal027 7036

Lothal038a 7053

58


Lothal062

Lothal052 7011

Lothal070 7054

Lothal047a

Lothal071 Lothal054a

7074 7099

Lothal063

Lothal072

Lothal048 Lothal055

Lothal075

7025

7106

Lothal049

Lothal050

Lothal064 Lothal076a

7030 Lothal056 7100

Lothal077

Lothal051a 7057 Pict-127: Upper register: a large device with a number of small circles in three rows with another row of short vertical lines below; the device is horned. A seed-drill? [Is this an orthographic model for

Lothal057 7095

Lothal058a

Lothal065

Lothal078

7103

7077

Lo thal066acdef

7029

Lothal059 7097

Lothal079 7063

Lothal080a

7048

Lothal081 Lothal060

7093 7039

Lothal068 7070 Lothal082

Sign 176?]

Lothal061 Lothal069

7105

59


Lothal083

Lothal093

7006 7001

7064

7068

Lo Lothal084 7112

Lothal094a 7073

thal102 7040

Lothal111 7056

Lothal112

Lothal085 Lothal103

Lothal095 Lothal086 7007

7020

7018

7042

Lo thal087

Lo thal096

7021 Lo

Lo

Lothal113a

thal104

7004

7085

7023

Lot hal114a

thal088 7013 7017 Lo

Lothal097 7072

Lothal105

Lot 7016

hal115

thal089 7065 Lo

7090

thal098 7082

Lot hal107

Lothal116 7027

Lo thal090

Lo

7032

thal108

Lothal099

Lothal117 7075

Lo Lothal100a

thal091 7111

Lot hal109a

Lothal100B Lo

7046

Lothal118 7019

thal092 7055 7062

Lothal110 Lo

Lothal119

thal101

60


Lothal127A

Lothal135A

Lothal141A1

7220

7221 Lothal120

Lothal141A2 Lothal128A

Lothal121

7280 Lothal136A

7239

7225 Lothal142A

Lothal122 7069

Lothal142B Lothal137A

Lothal129A

7257

7204

Lo

Lothal123A

Lothal143A

thal130A Lothal138A Lothal123B

Lothal131A

Lothal143B

7255 7243 Lothal138B Lothal124A

Lothal132A 7213

7214

7224 Lothal144A Lothal139A Lothal125A

Lothal133A 7245

7241

7274

7223 Lothal145A

Lothal126A 7242

Lothal134A 7252

Lothal140A 7244 Lothal146AB 7279

61


Lothal153A 7271 Lothal163A Lothal147A Lothal154A

Lothal163C 7228

7260

Lothal171A

Lothal155A

Lothal148A 7270

Lothal164A Lothal156A

Lothal149A

Lothal170A 7229

Lothal172A

7230

Lothal157A Lo

7272

Lothal173A

thal165A 7203 Lothal174A

Lothal158A Lothal150A

Lothal166A

7268

Lot hal159A

7206

Lo thal175A

Lothal167A Lo thal151A

7231 Lothal160A

7266

Lothal176A Lothal168A 7216 7234 Lothal161A

Lothal152A 7222

7205

Lothal177A Lothal169A 7211

Lothal162A

7235

Lothal162B

62


Lothal179A

Lothal197A12 Lothal188A

7237

7227

Lothal180A Lothal193A12 7240

Lothal198A12

Lothal189A12 Lothal193A3

7215

Lothal181A 7273 7253

Lothal189A34

Lo thal199A12 Lothal194A1

Lothal182A

7247 7217

7238

Lothal194A2 Lo thal200A1

Lothal183A

7251 Lot hal190A13

Lothal184A Lothal195A12 7236

Lothal200A2 7219

7258 Lothal185A Lo Lo Lothal186A

thal191A12

thal201A12 Lothal196A12 7263

7259 7249

7248 Lot

Lothal187A 7209

hal202A12 Lo thal192A12

63


Lothal209A12 L

7267

othal216D12 7262

Lo thal222A

Lot hal203A12 7246

Lothal216E Lothal210A12

Lothal223A 7283

7201 Lothal204A

Lot

Lo hal224A

thal217A

Lothal204F 7275

Lo

Lothal217B Lothal225A

thal211A13

Lot Lothal205A12

hal227A

Lothal218A 7277 7202

7218

Lothal229A L othal212A12

Lo

Lothal206A12

thal219A

7261 7265

Lothal230A

7282 L othal213A2

Lothal233A

Lothal207A12 7207

Lothal220A Lothal246A

7281

7278 Lothal269A Lo

Lothal214A12 thal221A Lothal208A12

Lothal270A

64


Lothal272A

Lot Mehrgarh16

hal273A

m 0006a

7301

Mehrgarh01 2422 Mehrgarh17

Lothal277A Mehrgarh04

Mehrgarh18

Lothal280A

m 0007 1011

Mehrgarh05 Lo thal281A

m0001a 1067

Mehrgarh08

m

7088 Mehrgarh10

7098

0008a 1038 m0002a

7212 7232 7233

Mehrgarh11

m

7269

m Mehrgarh12

0003a 2225

Mehrgarh13

m0004a

0009a 2616

Maski m 0010

Mehi 3109 Mehrgarh14 Mehrgarh zebu

m 0005

Mehrgarh15

1006

m0 011

2247

65


m0 012

m 0018Ac

m

2396

1548

3031

m0030a

0024 2694

m m 0013 1069

m

0019a 1085

0025

m 0031 2576

1056

m m 0014

m0

0020a m 1054

0026a

1022

032a 2180

2074

m m0 015

0021a 2103

m m0027a 2084

0033a 1042

2177

m0022a m0

1023

m0028a 2178

016a

m0034a 1058

1037 m0023a m0029a m0017 1035

2398

2033

m 0035a 2333

66


m0036a 2455

m0037a 3103

67


m0038a

1087

68


m0045a 1552

m0053a 2128

m0061

m 0039a 1544

m0046a 3089

m0040

m0047a 1098

m0054

m0062

2307

3112

m0055a

m0063 3068

2511

1051

m0064 m0048a m0056

2524

1186 2406

m0041

m0065

2271

2440

m0049a 1047

2340

m0042a 1096

m0066AC m0050a 1557

m0058a

1052

2680

m0043 2584

m0057a

m0067

m0051a 1555 m0059a

m0044a 3110

2264

1029 m0052a m0068

1540 m0060a 2124

3108

69


m0092 m0084a m0076

1108

m0069 1095

m0093 m0077 3111

m0085a

2305

2365

m0070 1048

m0094

m0078 m0071a 3083 [The second sign from left is an orthographic representatio n of the thigh of a bovid, perhaps a bull].

3118

2594

m0086 2208

m0079a

2083

m0095 2657 m0087 2148 m0096 2698

m0080

m0088 1075

2635

m0097

m0072a 2085

2407

2549

m0089 m0081a

3116 m0098 2012

1180 m0073 1046

m0090 m0082

m0099 3039

m0074 2353 m0075

2451 m0083a 2267

2475 m0091 2429 m0100

1019 1115

70


m0122a 2015 m0115

m0101

m0 108

1537

3087 m0123a 2702

1110

m0102

m0116

1129

m0109

m0124 1120

2481

1151 m0125 m0117

m0103 1076

m0110 1105 2031

m0126 2311

m0104

m0111

2574

2029

m0118 1104 m0127 1119 m0119a

m0105

m0112

2337

2099

2018 m0128a m0120a

m0113 m0106 2459

1099

2115

m0129 m0121a

m0107 2593

m0114 2166

2284

2193

1188 m0130a 2285

71


m0139

m0147

2185

3097

1187

m0131 m0156 2263

m0140

m0148 1245

2563

m0157

m0132 2082

m0149 m0141 2543

2022

1233

m0133a 2052

m0158

m0142 2630

m0150 1236

2198

m0134 2187

m0159 m0143

m0135 1168

2355

m0151 2323

2002

m0160 m0144 m0136 2048 2233

m0152

2286

2102 m0161

m0145 2088

m0153

m0137 2261

1118

2361 m0162

m0146 m0138 2381

1100

m0154 2373

2486

m0163 m0155

1543

72


m0170

2382

2237 m0179

m0164

m0188 1287

2403 m0171 m0180

1149

2014

m0165 m0189 2687

m0172

1195 m0181 2490

1071 m0166 1080

m0190 1205

m0173 m0182 2154

1161 m0167. 1297

m0191 1288

m0174 1114

m0168a [The second sign may be an orthographic variant for a thigh of a bovid?] 2442

m0169

m0183 3113 m0192

m0175

1206 1291

m0184 2634 m0193

m0176

2113 1193

m0185 m0194 2254

m0177

1113

m0186 2161 m0195

m0178 2354 m0187

2415

73


m0212

m0220a

2577 m0196

m0204

2474

2623 m0221a

m0213

m0197 2371

1150

m0205

3164

1221 m0214

m0198

3093

2571

m0222 1194

m0206

2363

m0199

m0215 3081

m0207 2458

2647

m0200 1148

m0201

m0208 2047

m0216 3036

m0223 1167 [The sign in front of the onehorned bull may be Sign 162

m0217 2087

m0209 2375

2678

m0224 2215

m0210 m0202

2656

m0218 2175

m0225 2199

2625

m0211 m0203

]

1214

m0219 2433

m0226 2152

1556

74


m0227

2226

two ligatures: the pannier on the shoulder and the ring on the neck.

m0240. 1324 m0248. m0241

m0228 2502

1310

1536

m0233

m0249 m0242 m0229

m0234.

2378

2216

3075 1321

m0250. 1308 m0243

m0230. 1295

2390

m0235

m0251

2689 m0231

2370 m0244

2444 m0236

2399 m0252

2123 m0232 2234 'Unicorn' with two horns! "Bull with two long horns (otherwise resembling the 'unicorn')", generally facing the standard. That it is the typical ‘one-horned bull’ is surmised from

m0245 m0237

2423

2290 m0253

m0238AC 2534

m0246. 1317

m0239 2238

2701

m0247 2298

m0254 2090

75


m0255 2409 [The second sign is diamondshaped?]

2314

m0258a.

3122

m0277 2309

m0264 2607

m0265 2155

m0266.

m0270 m0271 Goatantelope with horns turned backwards an d a short tail

m0272 Goatantelope with horns bending backwards and neck turned backwards

m0278 2648

m0279 3060

m0280

2554 1373

1306 m0273

m0260

m0276AC 2663

2249

1336

m0257

m0259 2132

m0262 Zebu

m0263

m0256 1332

1340

m0269

2673 m0281

m0267 Waterbuffalo

3115

2567 2257

m0274 1342

m0261

m0282 2304

m0268 Waterbuffalo

2535 2445

m0275 2131

m0283

76


2127

m0291 Tiger 3069

m0284 2195

m0292 Gharial

end to end (to a standard device with two rings coming out of the top part?), under a stylized pipal tree with nine leaves.

1361 m0285

1387

1367

m0293 Gharial 1360

m0286 2517

m0287

m0294 Onehorned bull?; elephant

m0297a Head of a one-horned bull attached to an undentified five-point symbol (octopus-like?)

1376

m 0300 Pict51: Composite animal: human face, zebu's horns, elephant tusks and trunk, ram's forepart, unicorn's trunk and feet, tiger's hindpart and serpent-like tail. 2521

2641 m

m0288 m0295 Pict-61: Composite motif of three tigers joined together.

2518

1386 m0289 3121 m m0290 2527

0296 Two heads of onehorned bulls with neckrings, joined

m0298

m0299 Composite animal with the body of a ram, horns of a bull, trunk of an elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraise serpent-like tail.

0301 Composite motif: human face, body or forepart of a ram, body and front legs of a unicorn, horns of a zebul, trunk of an elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraised serpent-like tail. 2258

1381

77


m0302 Composite animal with the body of a ram, horns of a bull, trunk of an elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraise serpent-like tail. 1380

m0303 Composite animal. 2411

m0304B

m0304AC Pict81: Person (with three visible faces) wearing bangles and armlets seated on a platform (with an antelope looking backwards) and surrounded by

five animals: rhinoceros, buffalo, antelope, tiger and elephant.

rearing on their hindlegs. 2122

2420

m0305AC 2235 Pict-80: Three-faced, horned person (with a three-leaved pipal branch on the crown with two stars on either side), wearing bangles and armlets.

m0306 Person grappling with two tigers standing on either side of him and rearing on their hindlegs.

m0308AC Pict105: Person grappling with two tigers standing on either side of him and rearing on their hindlegs. 2075 [The third sign from left may be a stylized ‘standard device’?]

m0309 Pict-109: Person with hair-bun seated on a tree branch; a tiger looks at the person with its head turned backwards.

m0311 Pict-52: Composite motif: body of a tiger, a human body with bangles on arms, antelope horns, treebranch and long pigtail. 2347

m0312colour Persons vaulting over a water-buffalo.

m0313 2637

m0314

1400

2086 2522 m0315 m0307 Person grappling with two tigers standing on either side of him and

1395

m0310AC 1355

78


m0326D

m0316 2408

m0323D

m0318

m326E 1277

m0317silver 2016

m0318B 2626

m0326F m0324A

m0319 Mohenjodaro FEM, Pl. LXXXVIII, 316 2316

m0319C

m0324B 2405

2260

m0324D 1252

m0320

m0327

Mohenjodaro MIC, Pl. CVI,93 m0320D 1093

2631

m0325A

2449 m0328 m0325B

Mohenjodaro. Copper seal. National Museum, New Delhi. [Source: Page 18, Fig. 8A in: Deo Prakash Sharma, 2000, Harappan seals, sealings and copper tablets, Delhi, National Museum].

m0321

m0325F

m0328B 2108

3106

m0321D 2173

m0329 m0322

m0322D 1192

m0323

m0326A

m0326B

1477

m0330A

m0326C

79


m0330B Perforated through the narrow edge of a two-sided seal

m0352A

m0337

m0352C m0338

1475 m0339

m0352D

m0340

m0331A

m0341 m0331B m0342

m0352E m0352F

m0331D m0343 m0353

m0331F Cube seal

m0344 m0345

m0 354 1403 m

1471

m034 6

m0332AC

0356 1406

m0347 m0348

m0357 1401 m

m0349 m0333 m0334

0358

m0350

m0335 m0351 m0336

80


m0355 m0359 m0369 m0391

2654 2325 2537 3107

81


2297

2159

m

m0370 m 0360 3102 m0

m0

2138

380

m0371

2470

0389 2397

m0390

2461

1444

m0381

361

m

2101

2162

m0372 m

0392

1438

2046

0362

m382AC

m

m 1466

0373

393AC 1437 2120

2043

m

m0363 1469

m0374

0383 2240

2097

m0384

m0364 1465

m0394 2213

m

m 0395

2302

0375

2183

m0365

m m375AC

2273

m0396 2387

m0 366

0385

1421

m0376 1426

2077

m0386

m0397 1449

m

1415

0377 m m0367 2044

m0368 2336

3120

0387

m0378

2041

1402

0398 2308 m399AC

m 0379

m

m0388 2200

1414

82


m0421A1si m 0400 3088

m0401

m0 410 Pict-64: Gharial snatching, with its snout, the fin of a fish 2133

2346 m0402

m0411

2395

1431 m 0412

m0403 1410

1450

m404AC 1422

m0413 m

m417AC Pict-62: Composition: six heads of animals: of unicorn, of short-horned bull (bison), of antelope, of tiger, and of two other uncertain animals) radiating outward from a hatched ring (or 'heart' design). 1383

m0421A2si 3237

m0422A1si m0422A2si

m0423A1si

m0423A2si 3221

m

2319

0418acyl

m0424A1si

0405 2221 m0414A m0419acyl

m0424A2si

m0406 m0414B Seal with incision on obverse 2004

1399

m0407

m0419dcyl

m0425A1si

m0419fcyl

2643

m0425A2si m0415a Bison 2500

m0408

m0420A1si

2100 m 0409 2699

m0416 Bison .

m0420A2si 3236

m0426Asi

1309

83


m445Bt m445AC

m0426Bsi 2809

m0438atcopp er

m0432At m0432Bt 1624

m0427t

2821

m446At

1630

m 0439t

m446Bt

m0433At m0433Bt

m0428At

2854 3233

m440AC m447At

m0428Bt 1607 Pict- 132: Radiating solar symbol.

m0434At

m447Bt

m0441At

m 448t m0434Bt

m0441Bt

m 449Bt

3248 m0429 Text 2862

m449AC

m0442At m0435t

2836 m0442Bt

m0430At

m450At

m0436At

m450Bt

m0430Bt 2862

m0436Bt

m443At m443Bt

2864

2804 m0451At m0431At m0431Bt 3239

m4 m0437t

44At 3223

2867

84


m0456At m

3228 3219 m

m0451Bt m

0461At

3235

0463At m0463Bt

m0452At m0461Bt

0457At m0457Bt

m0452Bt

m0457Et 2855 m0458At m0 453At m 453BC

1629 Pict-82 Person seated on a pedestal flanked on either side by a kneeling adorant and a hooded serpent rearing up.

m0458Bt 3227 m

2806 Pict73: Alternative 1. Serpent (?) entwined around a pillar with capital (?); motif carvd in highrelief. Alternative 2. Ring-stones around a pillar with coping stones in a buildingstructure as at Dholavira?

2813 m0464At m0464Bt

3216

m0465At

m0465Bt

3220

m0466At 0459At m0459Bt

m0466Bt m

3225

0467At

m0455At

m0467Bt m0462At m0462Bt

1619 m0460At m0460Bt

3209

3215

85


m 0475Atcopper 3247

m0468At m0468Bt

m0476At 3249

m0476Ct m0

m0469At

477At

m0469Bt

m0477Bt 2830

m0477Ct

m0470At

2844 2810

m0471At

Two rhinoceroses, one at either end of the text (Pict-29).

m0471Bt

m0478At

3232

m0478Bt m m

0479At

0472At m0479Bt

1615

3224 m

with outstretched arms flanked by two men holding uprooted trees in their hands; a person seated on a tree with a tiger below with its head turned backwards; a tall jar with a lid. Is the pictorial of a tall jar the Sign 342 with a lid? Sign

m0481Ct

m0481Et

2846 Pict-41: Serpent, partly reclining on a low platform under a tree m0482At m0482Bt

45 seems to be a kneeling adorant offering a pot

1620 Pict65: Gharial, sometimes with a fish held in its jaw and/or surrounded by a school of fish.

(Sign 328

m0483At

)

2815 Pict-77: Tree, generally within a railing or on a platform.

m0483Bt m0483Ct m0483Et

m

0473At 0480At

3230

2848 m 0474At 3243

m0480Bt Tablet in basrelief. Side a: Tree Side b: Pict-111: From R.: A woman

2866 m0481At m0481Bt

Pict-145: Geometrical pattern.

86


m 0484At m0484Bt

2861 m 0486at

m0486bt

m0486ct

1625 m0 487At m0487Bt

m0487Ct

2852 m0 488At m 0488Bt m 0488Ct

Text +Onehorned bull + standard. Side a: From R.: a composite animal; a person seated on a tree with a tiger below looking up at the person; a svastika within a square border; an elephant (Composite animal has the body of a ram, horns of a zebu, trunk of an elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraised serpent-like tail). Side c: From R.: a horned person standing between two branches of a pipal tree; a ram; a horned person kneeling in adoration; a low pedestal with some offerings. m

m 0489Ct m 0490At m0490BCt

throwing a spear at a bison and placing one foot on the head of the bison; a hooded serpent at left. m

1605

0493At m

m0491At

0493Bt Pict93: Three dancing figures in a row.

m0491BCt

1608 Pict-94: Four persons in a procession, each carrying a standard, one of which has the figure of a onehorned bull on top. m0492At m0492Bt Pict14: Two bisons standing face to face.

m 0493Ct

2843 m 0494At m 0494BGt Prism Tablet in basrelief.

1623 m 0495At

m0 492Ct

m0495Bt

0489At 2802 Prism: Tablet in basrelief. Side b:

m0495gt

m 0489Bt

2835 Pict-99: Person

87


2847b

within a railing or on a platform.

m0511Bt 2905

m0507At m0501At m0512At

m0507Bt m0496At m0496Bt

m0501Bt

3350 m0512Bt

1412 m0496Dt

m0508At

2906

m0502At m0508Bt

m0497At m0497Bt

m0513At 3352

m0502Bt 3345 m0503 Text m0498At

m0498Bt m0498Dt

m0499At

m0513Bt

3346

m0509At m0509Bt

3364 m0514At

3320

m0504At

m0504Bt

m0510At

m0514Bt 3302 m0515 Text

3323 3335

m0510Bt

m0500at

3319

m0505At

m0516At

m0500bt m0511At m0505Bt 2604 Pict-76: Tree, generally

1702

88


m0534At

m0523At m0516Bt m0528At m0523Bt 3398 m0517At

m0534Bt 1714

m0528Bt 3304 3368

m0517Bt

m0524At m0529At

3334

m0535At

m0524Bt m0519At

m0529Bt 3392

3391

m0535Bt

3355 m0525At m0519Bt

m0530At m0525Bt

m0536At

1710 1713 Buffalo

m0530Bt 3356

m0526At

m0531At

m0520 At, Bt

3312

2916 m0521

m0537At m0531Bt

m0526Bt

3407

3329 Buffalo

m0537Bt m0532At

m0522At

1705

m m0522Bt

m0536Bt

0527At m0532Bt 3349

3378

m0538At

m0527Bt m0538Bt 3336

89


m0553At

This is comparable to 3384

3305 ]

Sign 323

m0553Bt m0539At

m0539Bt

m540t

m0541At

m0544At

m0544Bt

m0549At

m0549Bt

3353

m0554At

3373

3357

m0545At

m0550At

m0555At

m0545Bt m0541Bt

m0550Bt 3351

3301

m0554Bt 1712

m0555Bt

3331 3314 m0546At

m0551At

m0542At m0551Bt m0542Bt

m0556At

m0546Bt 3383

3326 Hare?

1708 Oxantelope with long tail.

m0556Bt 3404

m0547At m0552At

m0543At

m0557At

m0547Bt m0543Bt

m0552Bt

m0557Bt

3303 3341 3306

3363 [Note the ‘heart’ orthograph on the body of the antelope.

m0548At

m0548Bt

90


m0567Bt m0558At

m0563At

serpent-like tail

3322 Bison. m0572At

m0558Bt

m0563Bt

m0568At

3342

m0572Bt 3317

3379 m0568Bt

m0559At m0564At

m0573At 3332 Tiger.

m0559Bt 2909

m0573Bt

m0564Bt m0569At

3415

3371 m0560At

m0560Bt

m0569Bt m0574At

m0565At

3372 m0574Bt

m0565Bt

3386

m0571At 3318

m0561At

3403 m0571Bt

m0561Bt

m0566At

3339 m0566Bt m0562At

m0562Bt

3361

3359

m0567At

2913 Horned elephant. Almost similar to the composition: Body of a ram (with inlaid ‘heart’ sign), horns of a bull, trunk of an elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraised

m0575At

m0575Bt

3316

m0576At

91


m0576Bt

m0588Bt Horned archer.

29 3344

m0584Bt

m 0592At

m0577At

m0577Bt

3347

m0578At

14 Pict-89: Standing person with horns and bovine features, holding a bow in one hand and an arrow or an uncertain object in the other.

m0585At m0592Bt

m0585Bt

3369

m0586At m0578Bt

m0582At

2908

m0586Bt

m0580At

m0582Bt

3413 Pict-133: Double-axe (?) without shaft. [The sign is comparable to the sign which appears on the text of a Chanhudaro seal: Text 6402, Chanhudaro Seal 23]. m

3406 0593At

3358 m0587At

m0580Bt

m0593Bt 3337

m0583At

3321

m0587Bt m0581At m0583Bt

3365 Horned Archer?

m 0594At

m0594Bt

m0581Bt

3387 m0588At

3340 m0584At

m0595A

92


m0602Bt m 0618 3414

m0595B

m0627 m

1010 0604At

1004

m0619 2939

m0596At m0604Bt m

m0596Bt 3315

0620

m0628 1033

3313 m0598 Text

m0605At m0621

3410 m0605Bt

m0629

2367

m0599At 2902 m0599Bt

3360

m0606At

m0630A m0622

m0606Bt m0631 m0623 2918

1008

m0600At m0608At m0600Bt

m0624 1015

m0608Bt

m0632 1017

3375 m0601At

m0625 m0614 1904

m0633

1027

m0601Bt

1016 m0626

m0602At

m0615 1012

m0634

93


2069

m0644

m0650

m0658

1553

1032

1039

m0635a

m0636 2019

m 0659

m0645

m0651 2578

m0637 1034

m0661

m0646A1

2207

m0652 m 0638 Onehorned bull

m0646a12 m0653

1404 m0646A2

m 0662

1057

m0

1061

2653

639

m0640

m0654 2561

m0647 m0641

m0663 2597

1024 m0655 m0664

2098 m0642

m 2628

0648 m0656 3104

m0665 m0657 2026 m0643

1139

m 0649 2530

m0666

94


2243 m0687 m m0667

0673 1025

m0688

m0681 2182

1111

m0689 m0 682

m0690

m0674 m0668 m0682A2

1068

2032

m0691

2690 m

m0675 m0669

0683a

m0692 1031

2197

2686

m0683A1 m 0676 m0683A2 m

2174

0670

m0693 m0

1030

677

m0694 m 0684 m0695

m 0671

m0678

1021

1066

m 0685 1276

m0679

m0696 m 0672 1040

m0680A1 m0686 2324

m0697

95


m0698 m 0705 2272 m 0699 1050

m0706 1097 m0707

this may be a logonym (i.e. two hieroglyphs – rings and spoked circle - representing the same lexeme) for the rings on the neck?

m0713 2432

m0700 m0708

m0715

2666

2681

m0 701 m0709 1059 2071

m0716 m0710 3159 m0702 2206 m0711

2076 [Are there signs following these two signs?]

1166 m0703 m0717

2438 m0712

1078

1091 Note Sign391 m0704 2351

ligatured on the animal’s neck;

96


m0714

2446

97


m0740

m0733

m0725 m0718

2519

1090

2209 m0726 m0741 2421

m0734 m0719 1539

m0727a

2137

m0742 2595 m0727A1

m0720

m0735 1060

m0743

1082 m0727A2 2168

m0744

m m0736

0721 m0728

1165

2562

m0745

2691

1175

m

m0737

0722 1014

1112

m0729 1177

m 0746

m

1081

0723

m0730

2054

m0738 2644 m0747 2471

m0732 m0724

m0739 2674 m0748

98


1135

m0764 m0765

m

m0774

0755

m0749 2008

m0766 m0775 m0756a

m0750

m0767 m0776

1028 2065

m0768

1146

1176 m0751 1102

m0757 m0777

2507 m0769

2536

2034 m0758a m0752a 2184 m0770a 1138 m0753a

m0759 Onehorned bull.

m0778 2425

2384 m0753A1

m0760

m0771

m 2676

m0753A2 2589

0779 2622

m0761 One-horned bull. 1417 m0772

m0780

2453

1178

m0754 1145 m0762a 2645 m0763

m0773 m0781 2251

99


m0782

m0789 1185

1122

2570

m0805 3041

m0798

m0790

m0783

m0804 m0797

1084 1127 m0806

m0791 m0799 3015 or

m0784

3147

1128 m0792

m0807

2013

m0800

2669

m0785 1181

m0808

m0793

m0801 2146 2104

m0786

m0794

1107

m0809

2067 m0802

m0787

2548

1182

m0795 1228

2503

m m0803 m0796

m0788

0810 2364

1131

2105 m 0811

100


2211

m0819

m

m0812 2629

2081

0827 2513

m0813

m0820

m0828

m0835 2179

m0836 2114 m0837

m0814

m0821 1238

2426

m 0815

m0822 1249

m0829

3085

m0830 2274

m0838 2368

m0831 2546

m0839

2555

m0823

2476 1086

m0816 m0832 2424

m0824 1164

m0840 2617 m0833

m 0817 2435

m0825 1239

2281 m0841 m

0826 m0818 1089

m0834 2569b

m0842 2704

101


m0859 m0851

m0843

m0866

2063

2646

2660 m0844 1290 m0860

m0852a

m0867

2413

m0845

m0861

2202

1123

3160

m0853 m0846 1005

m0868

2255 m0862 2253

m0869

m0854 2501

m0847 1156 m0855 m0848 2241

2473

m0863

m0870

2621 Is the ‘stubble’ ligatured glyph a variant of Sign 162

1160 m0871

m0856 ?] m0849

m0872

1211

1121

m0864 1240 m0857 2091

m0850 2533

m0873 1170

m0865 m0858a 2189

1109 m0874

102


3092 2312 m 0890 m0875 1189

m0883

m0897 2545

2117

m0891 1073

m0876

m0898 2167

m0884 3158 m0877

m0899 2242

m0892 m0885

1247

m

m0878

0900

1092

m0886 3072

m0893 2659 One-horned bull.

1169

m 0901 2276

m0879 2121

m0887a

2335

m0902a

m0894 2393

m0880 m0903a. m0895 m0888

1294 2262

m0881

1155

1242

m0904 m0889

m0882

1126

m0896 2134

m0905

103


m 0906

m0934 m0917 1224

m0926 1158 2219

m0907 2192

m0935 2144

m0918

m0908

m0927 1171

m0919 2343

m0936 1197

m0928 1202

m0920 1219 m0909

m0937 m0929a 1144

2066

3028 m0938 2158

m m0910

0921

m0911

m0922

m0930

1282

m0939a 2652

3020 m0931 3091

m0923 m0914

m0940a 2060

m0932

2143 m0924

3022 m0941

2591 m0915 m0933

1218

2256

2160 m0916 1204

m0925 1292

m0942. 1296

104


m0943

m0951 1263

2282

2460

1147

m0968

m0960

m0952 2265

m0944

m0967

m0959

2300

1388

2419

m0969 m0945 1208

m0953 2582

2239

m0961 1163

m0946 2358

m0970a 2116

m0954 1262

m0962 3074

m0947 m 2404

m0955

m0963

2547

0971 1234

1232

m0948 2250 m0964

m0956 1251

m0972a 2557

2010

m0949A m0957 m0949C 1271 Also, Sign 141

1026

m0965

m0973a 2585

1222 m0958 2348

m0974a m0966

2650

m0950a 1013

2070

105


m1002 m0975 2295

m0976

m0984 1143

m0993a 1267

m0985

m0994a

m1003 1275 m1004 2165

1203

m0995

m0986a 2341 m0977 3152

m0978

m0979

m m0987a 1007

m0996 2299 Onehorned bull.

m0988

m0997 a 3105

2564

m1006 1499 Bovid.

m0989 m0980

1005 1001

m0998 2176

2317 m0990 2472 One-horned bull. m0981

m0991 2203 m0982a 2021

m1007 m0999 2452

m1000a 1487 Onehorned bull.

m1008

m1009 2627

m1010 m0992 2464

m1001a 1283

2672 Bovid.

m0983

106


m1011 m1020

m1038

m1012

m1029

2496

1265

m1013

m1039

m1014 Onehorned bull?

m1040

m1030

m1021a.

3145 1299

1397

m1041

m1022

m1015

m1031

m1042

2053

m1043

m102 3

m1016. 1348

m1032 m1024

m1017.

m1025a

2217

m1044a 1551 Bovid.

m1033

1300

m1045 m1026a. 1307

m1018a

2447 Bovid. m1034 2467 m1046

2483 Bovid.

3058

m 1027 m1036

m1019. 1298

m1028 2671 Bovid.

m1047 1281 m1037

107


m1048

m1066 1547

m1058a 1392

m1049

m1075a 1479

m1067a 1496

3032

m1076 m1059 m1068

m1050 1196

m1060 m1077a 1497 2359

m1069 m1051 m1 m 1052

1390

061a 1379

m1078

3100

m1070 2040

m

m1079

1062 2089

m1053

2655

2163

m1071 1488 m1063 2357

m1054 2448

1542 m1072a

m1064 1492

m1055

m1080

1443 m1081a

2529

2129 m1065 2151

m1073 1489

m1057 2566

m1082. m1074 1349

108


m1102 m1083 m1092 1312

m1110

m1084

m1

1316 Bison. m1093 m1085.

1334

103colour. 1337 m1111.

m1094

1322

1333

m1104 1335

m1086a 3070

m1095

m1112

2495 Bison

m1105

2366 Zebu.

m1096 2410 m1087a. m1097 2313

1319

m1088 2268

m1106 2331 Zebu

m1098 1301

m1113 2441

m1114. 1331 m1107a 2306

m1089a.

m1115

m1099 1313

1328 Zebu 1315

m1100 2201 Bison

m1108 1339

m1090

m1116.

2675

1329

m

m1091

1101 2431 Zebu.

m1109 1327 Zebu

109


1302 Markhor. m1117a 2615

m1118 3157

m1130

m1136

m1145

m1131

m1137 2531 Rhinoceros.

m146a 1374 Elephant

m1119

m1147 m1132 1545 Rhinoceros.

2463

m1138. 1344

m1120 2362

m1148 2590 m1133

m1122 2610

1343

m1139. 1341

m1149 1368 Elephant.

m1140a m1134 m1126

2651

2188 Rhinoceros.

m1150

2332 1534 m1127 2696

m1128a 3163

m1129a

m1135 m1141 2140 Pict-50 Composite animal: features of an ox and a rhinoceros facing the standard device.

2169

m1151 1535 m1142

m1143

m1152 1369

m1144

.

110


dotted circles on its body.

2058 m1154

1626 m1163 2640 Tiger.

1362 Elephant.

m1164

m1155

m1171 Composite animal

Pict-47 Row of uncertain animals in file.

m1172

2665 Tiger. 2573

m1173 m1169a

1191

m1165a m1156 2064 1370

m1166. m1157a

1351

2110 m1167 2484

m158 Tiger.

m1159 2171

m1168

m1160 2057

2360 Tiger with long (zebu’s) horns? 1385

m1161 2504

m1162

2024 Pict-58: Composite motif: body of an ox and three heads: of a onehorned bull (looking forward), of antelope (looking backward), and of shorthorned bull (bison) (looking downward).

m1175a 2493 Composite animal: human face, zebu's horns, elephant tusks and trunk, ram's forepart, unicorn's trunk and feet, tiger's hindpart and serpent-like tail.

m1176 m1170a 1382 Composi te animal m1177

Pict-49 Uncertain animal with

2450 Composite animal:

111


human face, zebu's horns, elephant tusks and trunk, ram's forepart, unicorn's trunk and feet, tiger's hindpart and serpent-like tail.

m1178 2559

m1179 2606 Human-faced markhor with long wavy horns, with neck-bands and a short tail.

m1180a 1303 . Human-faced markhor

m1181Acolour 2222 Pict-80: Threefaced, horned person (with a three-leaved

pipal branch on the crown), wearing bangles and armlets and seated on a hoofed platform

m1183a

m1184

Pa dri . Head painted on storage jar from Padri, Gujarat (c. 2800 BCE). Details of body with multiple hands (?) Similar horned-heads painted on jars are found at Kot Diji, Burzhom and Kunal (c. 3rd millennium BCE). [Source: Page 21, Figs. 10A and B in: Deo Prakash Sharma, 2000, Harappan seals, sealings and copper tablets, Delhi, National Museum].

m1182a

m1185

Pict-103 Horned (female with breasts hanging down?) person with a tail and bovine legs standing near a tree fisting a horned tiger rearing on its hindlegs.

of a pipal tree; a low pedestal with offerings (? or human head?); a horned person kneeling in adoration; a ram with short tail and curling horns; a row of seven robed figures, with twigs on their pigtails.

m1187

m1 188

2228

m1189

1357

1396

m1186Acolour

2430 Composition: horned person with a pigtail standing between the branches

m1190

2558

m1191 1389

112


m1192 1495

2045

m1202A m

m1193a

1206AE

m1202C.

2401 1325 Space on the side of the seal was used to inscribe a third line

m1194a 3066

m1195 2181

m1203A

m1196

m1203B 1018

m1197

m1204 2095

m1198 1482

m1206e1

Pict-40: Frog.

m1206F

2565 Pict-37 Goatantelope with a short tail

2229 Seal with a projecting knob containing the top three signs; m1206e is inscribed on the top edge of the lower indented frame which depicts the bison.

m1224A

m1224B 1224

m1224e

Pict-88 Silver m1199Acolour 2520

m1205a

m1205c m1200A m1 200C 3078

m1205f 1293 + Two signs on the sides of the seal.

m1208

m1221

m1222 1268

1227 Standing person with horns and bovine features (hoofed legs and/or tail).

m1223 m1225A

m1201

113


m1225B. 1311 Cube seal with perforation through the breadth of the seal Pict-118: svastika_ , generally within a square or rectangular border.

2497 Unfinished seal

1483 Unfinished seal?

m1254 m1255

m1233A

m1239 m1256 m1240

m1233B

m1257 m1241 m1258

m1233cd

m1242 m1259 m1243

2352

m1226A.

m1260 m1244

1326 Unfinish ed seal. m1234a

m1245

m

m1227

m1246 m1234b

m1228a 1394

m1261

m1247

m1248

m1234d

1262 2301 m1263 1391

m1234e

m1249 m1264a

m1230a 1358

m1235a

m1250

1405

m1251 m1231 2321 Unfinished seal?

m1265

m1235bc 2394 Unfinished seal

m1252

2227 m1266

m1253

1470

m1232a m1236

114


m1267

1462 m1301

1494 m1268

m1291a 2688

m1281 2266

m1302a 1432

m1292

2288 m1282

1461

m1269 m1283 m1270

m1303a 1398

m1293a

m

2388

m1284a

1304

1464 2477 m1271colour 2603

1423 m1294 2291

m1285a

m1305 2289

2204 m1295

m1272

1430

m1273 2679

m1296a 3144

m1287 m1274 2106 m1275 3161 m1276 2428 m1277colour

m1306

1458

m1286 1455

m1307 m1308

1454 m1297

2697 1445

m1288 3086

m1309 2579

m1298 3037

m1310

m1289 m1299a

1452

1418

1456 m1278 2028 m1280a

m1290 1463

m

m1311 2485

1300 2350

m1312 2318

115


m1313

m

m1336a 2515

m1325

2093

1350 2599

2118 m1326

m1314a 1439

3143

m1337 2055

m1351 2142

m1315

m1327 1408

2345 m1316a

m1338a 2020

m1353

m1339 2025

m1328

1459

2392

m1317 3095

m1354a

m1340 m1329A m1329C

m1318 1416

2439

m1319

m1330 1409

1498

2369 m1355a m1341 2092

2568

m1356

m1342a

m1320 1393 1447

m1331a 2303

m1321 1446

m1343

m1357 2356

1433

m1358

m1332

m1322a 3079

m1333 1434

m1344 2315

m1359 2575

m1334a

m1346a

m1360

m 1323

2170 m1 2006 m1324

1442

349B m1335a

2682 2072

m1349Acolour

m1361a 1474

116


m1362A

m1375A1

m1382A1

m1375A2

m1382A2 Seal impression on a potsherd 3244

m1369 1478

m1362C 2230

m 1370a 2509 Cylinder seal; tree branch

m1363 2372

1560 Seal impression on pot

m

m1376A1

1383

m1364A m1371A1

m1364C

m1376A2 m

2542

1384si m1371A2 m1378A1

m1365A m1372A1 m1385A14

m1378A2 m1365B m1372A2 2658 Cricket, spider or prawn?

m

m1379A2

1385A2

m1373A1 m m1380A2

1366 2094

m1385A3 m1373A2 m 1381A1

m1367a 2661 Two bisons standing faceto-face

m1386si m1374A1 m1381A2 1559 m1374A2

m1368 1460

Seal Impression on a pot

m1387t

m1388t 2856

117


m1395At

m1403At

m1389t

m1403Bt m1395Bt

m1390At m1396t m 1397At m1390Bt

m 1397Bt

2868 Pict74: Bird in flight.

m 1398t 2807

m1391t 2826

m1392t 2837

m1 405At Pict-97: Person standing at the center pointing with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand pointing

m1400At

to the sign Obverse: A tiger and a rhinoceros in file. m 1405Bt Pict-48 A tiger and a rhinoceros in file

m1400Bcolour

2851

2841 m1393t

vaulting over? An adorant? m1407At

m1407Bt m1408At m1409At

m1409Bt Serpent (?) entwined around a pillar with capital (?) or ringstones stacked on a pillar?; the motif is carved in high relief on the reverse side of the inscribed object. m1410At

m1401t m1410Bt

2822 m1406At m

m1394t

m1411At

1402At m 1402Bt

m1406Bcolour

m1411Bt

2827 Pict102: Drummer and people

118


m1419Bt

m1427Bt 2812

m1412At m1412Bt

2860 m1428At

m1420At 2865

m1413At m1413Bt

m1428Bt m1428Ct

m1421At m1414At

m1421Bt

m1414Bt

m1422At

2842

2845

m1415At m1423At m1415Bt m1423Bt Elephant shown on both sides of the tablet.

2825 m1416At

m 1424Atc

m1416Bt

m1424Btc 2818 3234

m1417t 3242

m1 m

425At m

1418At 1425Bt m1418Bt m1427At m1419At

119


m1426 1621

120


m1429At m1429Bt Pict125: Boat. m1429Ct

3246 Gharial holding a fish in its jaws. Pict-100

Person throwing a spear at a buffalo and placing one foot on the head of the buffalo.

2819 Pict60: Composite animal with the body of an ox and three heads [one each of onehorned bull (looking forward), antelope (looking backward) and bison (looking downwards)] at right; a goat standing on its hindlegs and browsing from a tree at the center.

(?) at right. Pict-116: From R.—a person holding a vessel; a woman with a platter (?); a kneeling person with a staff in his hands facing the woman; a goat with its forelegs on a platform under a tree. [Or, two antelopes flanking a tree on a platform, with one antelope looking backwards?]

m1431A colour 2279 m1430Bt

m1436it

m1438it

m1439it 3132 m1440 it 2374

m1441it

m1442it

m1443it 3213

m1444Ait m1432At

m1431B colour

m1444Bit

m1431C colour

2339

m1432Bt m1430C

m1431E colour m1445Ait

m1430At Pict101: Person throwing a spear at a buffalo and placing one foot on its head; three persons standing near a tree at the centre.

2805 Row of animals in file (a one-horned bull, an elephant and a rhinoceros from right); a gharial with a fish held in its jaw above the animals; a bird

m1432Ct m1445Bit m1433At

2505

m1447Ait

m1433Bt m1433Ct

121


m1448Act

m1483Act m1463ABct 2919 m1452Act

m1448Bct

m1449Act

m1465Act 2921

m1452Bct 2912

m1449Bct (obverse of inscription) Incised copper tablet (two sides) Markhor with head turned backwards

m1483Bct

m1453Act

m1470Act

m1484Act

m1484Bct

m1472Bct m1485Bct

m1453Bct m1456Act

m1474Act m1486Act

1805

m1474Bct

1801 m1475Act m1457Act m1450Act

m1475Bct

m1457Bct

m1486Bct 1711 Incised copper tablets.Elepha nt

m1476Bct

m1450Bct 1701

2904 Pict-124: Endless knot motif.

m1477Act

m1477Bct

m1451Act

m1488Bct

m1491Act

m1458Act m1482Act m1451Bct

m1491Bct m1461Act m1482Bct m1462Act

122


m1492Act

m1508Bct 1804

m1517Act 1708

m1492Bct

m 1493Bct m1494

Pict-39 Oxantelope with a long tail; a trough in front.

m1517Bct m1518 m1511Act 1709 m1511Bct

m 1520Act

m1501Bct

1706 Hare

m1512Act

m 1520Bct

m1502Bct

2907

m1512Bct

Pict-42 m1503Act m1497Act m1503Bct

m1513 1712 m1514

m1521Act

1715

m1521Bct

m 1498Act

m

m1505Act

m1522Act

1515Act

m1498Bct

m1522Bct

m1505Bct m1515Bct

2917

m1523Act

m1506Act 2910

1803

m1506Bct m1516Act

Pict-30

m1523Bct m1524 3396

m1508Act m1516Bct m1528Act

123


m1529Act 2920

a combination of two rhinoceroses with heads of two bulls attached on either end of the composite body.

m1549Act

m1598

m1549Bct m1601 3252

m 1563Act

m1529Bct m1535Act

m1563Bct

m1603 m1609

m1532Act m1566Bct m1532Bct

m1535Bct

m1534Act m1540Act

m1568Act

m1611

m1568Bct m1569 3333

m1626 3245 m1

m1534Bct

575

colour 1703 Composition: Two horned heads one at either end of the body. Note the dottings on the thighs which is a unique artistic feature of depicting a rhinoceros (the legs are like those of a rhinoceros?). The body apparently is

1576

m1629bangle

m m1540colour

m1630bangle m1

m1547Act

1547Bct

578 3251

m1631bangle

m1632bangle m1591 m1633bangle

m1548Acolour 1592 m1548Bct

m1634bangle m

1597

m1635bangle

m1636bangle

124


Geometrical pattern. m1637bangle

m1658colour P

m 1638bangle

ict-141: Geometrical pattern. 2942

m1639bangle

m1640bangle

m1653 ivory plaque 1905 m1654A ivory cube

Pict-142: Geometrical pattern. 2943 Ivory or bone rod

m1654B ivory cube

2952 Etched Bead

m1659bangle Mohenjodaro Texts either not illustrated or not linked with inscribed objects:

m1641bangle

m1643bangle

Pict-143: Geometrical pattern.Ivory stick

m1645bangle 2948

m1654D ivory cube

1003 1020 m1655faience ornament

m1646bangle

m1647bangle

m1648shell m1649Acone m1649Bcone 3253 m1 650ivory stick 3505 Pict-144:

Ivory rod, ivory plaque with dotted circles. Mohenjodaro. [Musee National De Arts Asiatiques Guimet, 19881989, Les cites oubliees de l’Indus Archeologie du Pakistan.] m 1652A ivory stick

1002

m1656colour steatite ornament

1036 1041 1043 1044 1045 1049 1053 1055 1065 1070 1072

m1657A steatite 1074 1077 m1657B steatite m 1658AB etched bead

1079 1083 1088 1094

125


1101 1103 1106 1116 1117 1125 1130

126


1429 m1651Aivory stick m1651D

m1651F

2947

127


1132 1134 1136 1137

1133

1141 1142 1154 1157 1159 1162 1172 1173 1174 1179 1183 1190 1198 1199 1200 1201 1207 1213 1217 1220 1229 1231

1209 1215 1225

1226

1527 1530 1532 1533

1436 1451 1467

1441 1453

1486

1529 1531 1538 1549

1235 1550 1561

1244

1541

1554

1558 1563

1248

1253 1254 1255 1257 1260 1266 1269 1270 1272 1273 1274 1279 1285

1435 1448 1457 1468 1480 1484 1490 1491

1212

1237 1243 1246

1345 1346 1347 1350 1365 1366 1372 1407 1411 1419 1420 1424 1425 1427

1602 1604 1261

1609

1610

1611

1613 1616 1628

1278 1286

1289 1305 1314 1318 1320 1323 1330 zebu bull 1338

1622 1704

1707

1802 1806 1813 1902 1903 2005 2007 2023 2027 2035 2038 2039 2042 2049 2050

128


2051 2061

2056

2436 2443

2437

2068 2073 2080

2456 2465

2079 2107 2109

2111

2112

2466

2119 2125 2130 2141

2126 2139 2145

2457

2468 2136

2469

2478 2480

2482

2489 2491 2498

2147 2153 2154 2157 2164 2186 2190 2191 2205

2499 2506 2512 2514

2196

2214 2224

2232 2244

2246 2269

2270 2275 2278 2280 2292 2293 2310 2322

2277 2283

2294

2296

2328 2338

2342 2344 2379 2380 2402 2414 2417 2427

2349 2385

2389 2402 2418 2434

2523 2526 2528 2532 2538 2539 2540 2541 2551 2552 2556 2560 2572 2580 2581 2583 2587 2588 2592

2326

2327 2334

2508

2516 2525

2220

2231 2236 2252

2492

2377

2598 2602 2609 2612 2613 2618 2632 2633 2639

2596 2600 2605

2601 2608 2611 2614

2620

2636

2638

129


2662 2677 2684

2664 2683

2667

2685 2693 2695

2692 2700

2705

2706

2808

2925 Inscribed bronze implement (MIC Plate CXXVI-5) 2926 Inscribed bronze implement (MIC Plate CXXVII-1) 2928 Inscribed bronze implement (MIC Plate CXXXIII-1)

2814 2929 Incised on pottery 2820 2930 Graffiti on pottery

2824 2831

2839

2849

2931 Graffiti on pottery 2934 Graffiti on pottery 2935 Graffiti on pottery 2936 Graffiti on pottery 2937 Seal impression on pot

2857 2858 2901 Incised copper tablet 2903 Incised copper tablet

2911 Incised copper tablets. Markhor.

2938Mohenjodaro, Pottery graffiti. Boat. 2940 Ivory or bone rod 2941 Ivory or bone rod Geometrical patterns followed by inscription. 2944 Ivory or bone rod 2945 Ivory or bone rod 2947

2915 2923 Inscribed bronze implement (MIC Plate CXXVI-2) 2924 Inscribed bronze implement (MIC Plate CXXVI-3)

2949 Dotted circles

2950

2951 3001

3002

130


3010

3390 3395

3016

3393 3401

3019 3405 3021

3502 3023

3024 3508 3511

3035 3038 3044

3501 3503 3504 3506 3507 3509 3510 3512 3513

3042

3051 3056

3052 3063 3064 3067

Nindowari3069 damb01colour

3080 3090

Squirrel sign

3094 3096

3098

3099

3114

3123 3153

Nindowari-damb02

3151 3154 Nindowari-damb03 3155

3156 3162 3202

3203 3207

3165 Nausharo01

3206 3217 3222

3226 3309

3238

3218

Nausharo02

3307 Nausharo03

3310

Nausharo04

3318

3325

3326 3343

3328 3354

3362 3374 3385

3367

Nausharo05 Nausharo06

3376 3388

Nausharo07

Nausharo08

131


Rakhigarhi: Cylinder Seal (ASI), Lizard or gharial?

Pirak16 Pirak17

Nausharo09

Pirak18 Pirak18A

Nausharo10 Pirak19

Naro-Waro-dharo01

Pirak2

Naro-Waro-dharo02

Pirak20

Naro-Waro-dharo03

Pirak24 Pabumath

Prabhas Patan (Somnath) 1A

Prabhas Patan (Somnath)1B

Pirak26Ac

Pirak27

Pirak28

Pirak1 Pirak35 Pirak12

Pirak13 Pirak38

Pirak15

132


Pirak3postharappan Rahman-dheri150

Pirak40

Rahman-dheri153 Pirak44 Rahman-dheri156 Rangpur Rahman-dheri158

Rakhigarhi1 Rakhigarhi 2 9111

Rahman-dheri216

Rakhigarhi 65

Rahman-dheri241

Rahman-dheri01Acolour Rahman-dheri242

Rahman-dheri01B Rahman-dheri243 Rahman-dheri120

Rahman-dheri126 Rahman-dheri254

Rahman-dheri127 Rahman-dheri255

133


9021 Rahman-dheri257 9022

Shahi-tumpt Rahman-dheri258

Rahman-dheri259

Sibri-damb01A Sibri-damb01B

Rahman-dheri260 Sibri-damb02a Sibri-damb02E Rahman-dheri90

Sibri-damb03a sibricylindersealzebu

Rahman-dheri92

Rohira1

Rohira2 Rojdi 9041 9042

Rupar1A Rupar1B

Surkotada1

9091

Surkotada 2

9092

Surkotada3c 9093

Surkotada 4

9094

134


Surkotada 6

9095

unkn02

Surkotada 7 unkn03 Tarkhanewala-dera1AB unkn04

Tarkhanewala-dera 3

unkn05A unkn05B

9031

Tarakai Qila01A colour

unkn06

Tarakai Qila01B Seau l’nde. Musee des Arts Asiatique, Guimet, France Tarakai Qila02

Tarakai Qila03

Tarakai Qila04

Tarakai Qila06

(provenance) unkn01

135


Inscribed objects found during exactions in 1993, 1994, 1995 at Harappa

har601 Steatite seal

har614 Pottery, seal impression

har615 Terracotta tag, impressed. 7.01 Cast tablet, copper alloy

har602 Steatite seal 7.02 Cast tablet, copper alloy har603 Steatite seal har604 Steatite tablet, incised 7.03 Seal har605 Steatite tablet, incised har606 Steatite tablet, incised

7.04 Seal

har607 Steatite tablet, incised 7.05 Seal har608 terracotta tablet, bas-relief har609 terracotta tablet, bas-relief 7.06 Seal har610 faience tablet, bas-relief har611 faience tablet, bas-relief 7.07 Moulded tablet 2 sides

har612 faience tablet, bas-relief

7.08 Moulded tablet 2 sides

har613 faience tablet, bas-relief

7.09 Moulded tablet 2 sides

136


9.03 Moulded tablet 3 sides 7.10 Moulded tablet 2 sides 9.04 Moulded tablet 3 sides

9.05 Moulded tablet 4 sides 8.01 Moulded tablet 3 sides

8.02 Moulded tablet 2 sides 9.06 Moulded tablet 2 sides 9.07 Moulded tablet 2 sides

8.03 Moulded tablet 2 sides

9.08 Moulded tablet 2 sides

9.09 Moulded tablet 2 sides 8.04 Moulded tablet 3 sides

8.05Moulded tablet 2 sides

9.10 Moulded tablet 2 sides 9.01 Moulded tablet 2 sides 9.11 Moulded tablet 2 sides

9.02 Moulded tablet 3 sides

10.01 Incised tablet 2 sides

137


10.01 Incised tablet 2 sides 10.14 Incised tablet 2 sides 10.03 Incised tablet 2 sides

10.15 Incised tablet 2 sides

10.16 Incised tablet 2 sides 10.04 Incised tablet 2 sides 10.17 Incised tablet 2 sides 10.05 Incised tablet 3 sides

10.18 Incised tablet 2 sides 10.19 Incised tablet 2 sides

10.06 Incised tablet 3 sides 10.20 Incised tablet 2 sides

10.07 Incised tablet 3 sides

10.21 Incised tablet 1 side 11.1 to 11.3 terracotta moulded tablets 2 sides 11.01

10.08 Incised tablet 3 sides 10.09 Incised tablet 2 sides

11.02

1

1.03 10.10 Incised tablet 2 sides 11.4 to 11.12 faience moulded tablets 2 sides 11.04

10.11 Incised tablet 2 sides 10.12 Incised tablet 2 sides 11.05 1013 Incised tablet 2 sides

138


11.06

12.05 11.07 11.08

12.06

12

.07 12.08 12.09 Chuck mould fragment with incised signs

11.09

11.10 11.11

11.12 Inscribed ceramic vessels

12.1 black-slipped jar

12.2 black-slipped jar 12.3 vessel fragment (stone)

12.4 pointed base goblet with seal impression 12.5 to 12.8 pointed base goblet sherds with seal impressions

139


Mountain topped by a leaf gets stylized as an important motif. Pro-elamite glyptics. Leaf motif. 1-c, After Legrain,L., 1921, Empreintes de cachets elamites, Mem. Mission Arch. De Perse 16, Paris: 62-654; d. After Amiet, P., 1961, La glyptique mesopotamienne archaique, Paris: 497; Mundigak IV.3; 3. After Casal, J.M., 1961, Fouilles de Mundigak I-II. Mem. Delegation Arch. Franaise en Afthanistan 17, Paris: fig. 102: 485; f. Early Harappan. Kalibangan. After Sankalia, 1974: 346, fig. 88d, A. H-L; cf. Fig. 23.45 Asko Parpola, 1996, fig. 23.45. Two goats eating from a tree on a mountain top in proto-Elamite seals from Susa [After Amiet, P., 1972, Glyptique susienne I-II, Mem. Delegation Arch. En Iran 43, Paris: 978 and Legrain, L., 1921, Emprientes de cachets elamites, Mem. Mission Arch. De Perse 16, Paris: 316]. Cylinder seal and modern impression: hunting scene, 2250–2150 B.C.; late Akkadian period Mesopotamia Chert; H. 1 1/16 in. (2.8 cm) This seal, depicting a man hunting an ibex in a mountain forest, is an early attempt to represent a landscape in Mesopotamian art. It was made during the Akkadian period (ca. 2350–2150 B.C.), during which the iconographic repertory of the seal engraver expanded to include a variety of new mythological and narrative subjects. The owner of the seal was Balu-ili, a high court official whose title was Cupbearer. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/02/wam/hod_41.160.192.htm Three caprids. Tepe Yahya. Cylinder seal reconstructed from seven fragments. To the left of this pair is a third caprid rampant with head turned back whose horns are viewed frontally rather than in profile. Beneath the belly of each animal is a four-sided cross. There are 9 fragments of clay slab wall sealings. Wall plaster is preserved on the reverse of most fragments. Seal is carefully roled along horizontal axis of sealing. LambergKarlovsky 1971: pls. 4, 5; cf. Fig. 10.27 in Pittman, 2001, opcit. Two caprids with heads turned back rampant against a stepped platform (mountain) surmounted by a tree.

Griffin, Baluchistan (Provenance unknown); ficus leaves, tiger, with a wing, ligatured to an eagle. eru_, aru = eagle (Akkadian/Assyrian) eruvai = a kind of kite whose head is white and whose body is brown; eagle (Ta.); eruva = eagle, kite (Ma.)(DEDR 819). aru_ = lion (As god of devastation, Nergal is called A-ri-a) (Akkadian)

140


aba_ru = lead; antimony (annaku is most unlikely to be lead rather than tin).(cf. CAD A (II): 126; AHw 49) (Akkadian/Assyrian). abru = wing (Akkadian/Assyrian) Glyph: kama_t.hiyo = archer; ka_mat.hum = a bow; ka_mad.i_, ka_mad.um = a chip of bamboo (G.) ka_mat.hiyo a bowman; an archer (Skt.lex.) Copper tablets (15)Field Symbol 52

Sign 326 (35) occurs on copper tablets. Sign 327 (42) kamar.kom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.) kamarmar.a_ (Has.), kamar.kom (Nag.); the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.) Rebus: kamat.ha_yo = a learned carpenter or mason, working on scientific principles (G.) kammat.i_d.u = a goldsmith, a silversmith (Te.) kamat.amu, kammat.amu = a portable furnace for melting precious metals (Te.) The leaf glyph can also be ligatured with summit of mountains glyph. (smith’s workshop: kamat.a ku_t.am: fig leaf + summit) Sign 230 (54) ku_t.amu = summit of a mountain (Te.lex.) Rebus: ku_t.akamu = mixture (Te.lex.) ku_t.am = workshop (Ta.) Mohenjo-daro. Copper tablet DK 11307 (SC 63.10/262).

Mohenjodaro; limestone; Mackay, 1938, p. 344, Pl. LXXXIX:376.

Mohenjodaro; Pale yellow enstatite; Mackay 1938, pp. 344-5; Pl. XCVI:488; Collon, 1987, Fig. 607.

Texts related to West Asian inscriptions (either not illustrated or not linked): 9801Susa 9811Djoka (Umma) 9821 Kish 9822 Kish

141


9834 Ur 9842 Ur [Pierre de talc. Louvre, AO 9036. P. Amiet, Bas-relliefs imaginaries de l’Orient ancien, Paris, 1973, p. 94, no. 274…ils proviendrait de Tello, l’ancienne Girsu, une des cites de l’Etat sumerien de Lagash. Musee National De Arts Asiatiques Guimet, 1988-1989, Les cites oubliees de l’Indus Archeologie du Pakistan.] 9851 Telloh 9852 Telloh 9903 Prob. West Asian find 9904 Prob. West Asian find Susa, Iran; steatite cylinder seal . A bison with head lowered, feeding from a basin. A second bison figure is seen. Inscription on top. Louvre Sb 2425, Delaporte, 1920, s.299 and cf. T.24 from Tello, Iraq; Collon, 1987, Fig. 608.Musee du Louvre and Pierre and Maurice Chuzeville; Legend: Indus script; bone. Many scholars have noted the contacts between the Mesopotamian and Sarasvati Sindhu (Indus) Civilizations, in terms of cultural history, chronology, artefacts (beads, jewellery), pottery and seals found from archaeological sites in the two areas. Cylinder seal impression. British Museum (Reg. No. OA 1960.7-18.1). Found in Seistan. Called the MacMahon cylinder seal. The end of the cylinder shows a combination of triangles (like a range of mountains) reminiscent of a Mohenjo-daro seal (M-443B). The inscription has six signs: a human figures ligatured to three rows of four vertical lines (total count of 12).. Next is a human figure holding in his left hand a rectangular device filled with single hatching (see Marshall 1931, II: 446, no. 196b). "...the four examples of round seals found in Mohenjodaro show well-supported sequences, whereas the three from Mesopotamia show sequences of signs not paralleled elsewhere in the Indus Script. But the ordinary square seals found in Mesopotamia show the normal Mohenjodaro sequences. In other words, the square seals are in the Indian language, and were probably imported in the course of trade; while the circular seals, although in the Indus script, are in a different language, and were probably manufactured in Mesopotamia for a Sumerian- or Semitic-speaking person of Indian descent..." [G.R. Hunter,1932. Mohenjodaro--Indus Epigraphy, JRAS: 466-503] The acculturation of Meluhhans (probably, Indus people) residing in Mesopotamia in the late third and early second millennium BC, is noted by their adoption of Sumerian

142


names (Parpola, Parpola and Brunswig 1977: 155-159). "The adaptation of Harappan motifs and script to the Dilmun seal form may be a further indication of the acculturative phenomenon, one indicated in Mesopotamia by the adaptation of Harappan traits to the cylinder seal." (Brunswig et al, 1983, p. 110). [Robert H. Brunswig, Jr. et al, New Indus Type and Related Seals from the Near East, 101115 in: Daniel T. Potts (ed.), Dilmun: New Studies in the Archaeology and Early History of Bahrain, Berlin, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1983.] Louvre Museum; Luristan; unglazed, gray steatite; short-honed and 4 pictograms

bull

Iraq museum; glazed steatite; perhaps from an Iraqi site; the one-horned bull, the standard are below a six-sign inscription. 4 Foroughi collection; Luristan; medium gray steatite; bull, crescent, star and net square; of the Dilmun seal type. TextFailaka; unglazed steatite; an arc of four pictograms above the hindquarter of a bull. Textseal, impression, inscription; Failaka; brownish-grey unglazed steatite; pictograms above a short-horned bull.

Indus

seal, impression; Qala'at al-Bahrain; green steatite; short-horned bull and five pictograms. Found in association with an Isin-Larsa type tablet bearing three Amorite names. Qala'at al-Bahrain; ca. 2050-1900 BC; tablet, found in the same level where 8 Dilmun seals and six Harappan type weights were found. Three Amorite names are: Obverse. Janbi-naim; Ilamilkum; Reverse. Jis.itambu (son of Janbinaim). The script is dated to c. 2050-1900 BCE.

143


Qala'at al-Bahrain; light-grey steatite; hindquarters of a bull and two pictograms. urseal2 9832 Ur Seal; BM 122187; dia. 2.55; ht. 1.55 cm. Gadd PBA 18 (1932), pp. 6-7, pl. 1, no. 2 urseal3 9833 Ur Seal; BM 122946; Dia. 2.6; ht. 1.2cm.; Gadd PBA 18 (1932), p. 7, pl. I, no.3; Legrain, Ur Excavations, X (1951), no. 629. urseal8Seal; BM 118704; U. 6020; Gadd PBA 18 (1932), pp. 9-10, pl. II, no.8; two figures carry between them a vase, and one presents a goat-like animal (not an antelope) which he holds by the neck. Human figures wear early Sumerian garments of fleece. urseal9Seal; BM 122945; U. 16181; dia. 2.25, ht. 1.05 cm; Gadd PBA 18 (1932), p. 10, pl. II, no. o; each of four quadrants terminates at the edge of the seal in a vase; each quadrant is occupied by a naked figure, sitting so that, following round the circle, the head of one is placed nearest to the feet of the preceding; two figures clasp their hands upon their breasts; the other two spread out the arms, beckoning with one hand. urseal10 Seal; BM 120576; U. 9265; Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), p. 10, pl. II, no. 10; bull with long horns below an uncertain object, possibly a quadruped and rider, at right angles to the ox (counter clockwise); "...there is, below, a bull with long horns roughly depicted, but above is a rather uncertain addition, which is perhaps an attempt to show one (possibly two) more, in a couching position, as viewed by turning the seal round until the face of the standing bull is downwards. If this is intended, the head of the second bull is turned back, and it is not, perhaps, quite impossible that the remaining part of the design is meant for a bird, such as is fairly often seen perched upon the back of a bull in Sumerian art, a device which has not yet been certainly explained." (C.J. Gadd, Seals of Ancient Indian Style Found at Ur', in: G.L. Possehl, ed., 1979, Ancient Cities of the Indus, Delhi, Vikas Publishing House, p. 118). urseal11Seal; UPenn; a scorpion and an elipse [an eye (?)]; U. 16397; Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), pp. 10-11, pl. II, no. 11 [Note: Is the ‘eye’ an oval representation of a bun ingot made from bica_, sand ore?] Rectangular stamp seal of dark steatite; U. 11181; B.IM. 7854; ht. 1.4, width 1.1 cm.; Woolley, Ur Excavations, IV (1956), p. 50, n.3. Scorpion. Seal impression, Ur (Upenn; U.16747); dia. 2.6, ht. 0.9 cm.; Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), pp. 11-12, pl. II, no. 12; Porada 1971: pl.9, fig.5; Parpola, 1994, p. 183; water carrier with a skin (or pot?) hung on each end of the yoke across his shoulders and another one below the crook of his

144


left arm; the vessel on the right end of his yoke is over a receptacle for the water; a star on either side of the head (denoting supernatural?). The whole object is enclosed by 'parenthesis' marks. The parenthesis is perhaps a way of splitting of the ellipse (Hunter, G.R., JRAS, 1932, 476). An unmistakable example of an 'hieroglyphic' seal. urseal13Seal; BM 122841; dia. 2.35; ht. 1 cm.; Gadd PBA 18 (1932), p. 12, pl. II, no. 13; circle with centre-spot in each of four spaces formed by four forked branches springing from the angles of a small square. Alt. four stylised bulls' heads (bucrania) in the quadrants of an elaborate quartering device which has a cross-hatched rectangle in the centre. urseal14Seal; UPenn; cf. Philadelphia Museum Journal, 1929; ithyphallic bull-men; the so-called 'Enkidu' figure common upon Babylonian cylinders of the early period; all have horned head-dresses; moonsymbols upon poles seem to represent the door-posts that the pair of 'twin' genii are commonly seen supporting on either side of a god; material and shape make it the 'Indus' type while the device is Babylonian. urseal15 9845 Ur [The first sign looks like an animal with a long tail – as seen from the back and may have been the model for the orthography of Sign 51 as noted in Mahadevan corpus]. Variants of Sign 51. Seal impression; UPenn; steatite; bull below a scorpion; dia. 2.4cm.; Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), p. 13, Pl. III, no. 15; Legrain, MJ (1929), p. 306, pl. XLI, no. 119; found at Ur in the cemetery area, in a ruined grave .9 metres from the surface, together with a pair of gold ear-rings of the doublecrescent type and long beads of steatite and carnelian, two of gilt copper, and others of lapis-lazuli, carnelian, and banded sard. The first sign to the left has the form of a flower or perhaps an animal's skin with curly tail; there is a round spot upon the bull's back. urseal16 9846 UrSeal impression; BM 123208; found in the filling of a tomb-shaft (Second Dynasty of Ur). Dia. 2.3; ht. 1.5 cm.; Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), pp. 13-14, pl. III, no. 16; Buchanan, JAOS 74 (1954), p. 149. urseal17 9901 Prob. West Asian find Seal impression, Mesopotamia (?) (BM 120228); cf. Gadd 1932: no.17; cf. Parpola, 1994, p. 132. Note the doubling of the common sign, 'jar'.

145


urseal18 9902 Prob. West Asian find Pictorial motif: Pict-45 Bull mating a cow. Seal and impression (BM 123059), from an antique dealer, Baghdad; script and motif of a bull mating with a cow; the tuft at the end of the tail of the cow is summarily shaped like an arrow-head; inscription is of five characters, most prominent among them the two 'men' standing side by side. To the right of these is a damaged 'fish' sign.cf. Gadd 1932: no.18; Parpola, 1994, p.219. urseal6 Cylinder seal; BM 122947; U. 16220 (cut down into Ur III mausolea from Larsa level; U. 16220), enstatite; Legrain, 1951, No. 632; Collon, 1987, Fig. 611.Humped bull stands before a palm-tree, feeding from a round manger or a bundle of fodder (or, probably, a cactus); behind the bull is a scorpion and two snakes; above the whole a human figure, placed horizontally, with fantastically long arms and legs, and rays about his head. A symbolism of a woman spreading her legs apart, which recurs on an SSVC

inscribed object. Cylinder-seal impression from Ur showing a squatting female. L. Legrain, 1936, Ur excavations, Vol. 3, Archaic Seal Impressions. [cf. Nausharo seal with two scorpions flanking a similar glyph with legs apart – also looks like a frog]. Mohenjo-daro. Sealing. Surrounded by fishes, gharials and snakes, a horned person sits in 'yoga' on a throne with hoofed legs. One side of a triangular terracotta amulet (Md 013); surface find at Mohenjo-daro in 1936. Dept. of Eastern Art, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. A zebu bull tied to a post; a bird above. Large painted storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca. 2600 to 2500 BCE. Cf. Fig. 2.18, J.M. Kenoyer, 1998, Cat. No. 8. Tell Suleimeh (level IV), Iraq; IM 87798; (al-Gailani Werr, 1983, p. 49 No. 7). A fish over a short-horned bull and a bird over a one-horned bull; cylinder seal impression, (Akkadian to early Old Babylonian). Gypsum. 2.6 cm. Long 1.6 cm. Dia. [Drawing by Larnia Al-Gailani Werr. Cf. Dominique Collon 1987, First impressions: cylinder seals in the ancient Near East, London: 143, no. 609]

146


Cylinder-seal impression; a griffin and a tiger attack an antelope with its head turned back. The upper register shows two scorpions and a frog; the lower register shows a scorpion and two fishes.Syro-Mitannian, fifteenth to fourteenth centuries BCE, Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. [After Fig. 9 in: Jack M. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, p.2705]. Rhinoceros elephant lizard.Tell Asmar (Eshnunna), Iraq. IM 14674; glazed steatite; Frankfort, 1955, No. 642; Collon, 1987, Fig. 610. Ur, Iraq; BM 123195; clay, half missing; Collon, 1987, Fig. 613. Probably originated in the east (exact location unknown). A person with a vase with overflowing water; sun sign. C. 18th cent. BCE. [E. Porada,1971, Remarks on seals found in the Gulf states, Artibus Asiae, 33, 31-7]. Early Harappan bowl. Fish. [After Fig. 23.35 in, Asko Parpola, New correspondences between Harappan and near Eastern glyptic art, in: in B. Allchin, ed., South Asian Archaeology, 1981, Cambridge]. Seal impression; Dept. of Antiquities, Bahrain; three Harapan-style bulls Nippur; ca. 13th cent. BC; white stone; zebu bull and two pictograms

Tree in front. Fish in front of and above a one-horned bull. Cylinder seal impression (IM 8028), Ur, Mesopotamia. White shell. 1.7 cm. High, dia. 0.9 cm. [Cf. Mitchell 1986 Indus and Gulf type seals from Ur: 280-1, no.8 and fig. 112; Shaikha Haya Ali Al Khalifa and Michael Rice, 1986, Bahrain through the ages: the archaeology, London: 280-1, no.8 and fig. 112]. cf. Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), pp. 7-8, pl. I, no.7;; Parpola, 1994, p. 181; fish vertically in front of and horizontally above a unicorn; trefoil design

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Terracotta sealing depicting an inscription, 2600 BCE, Western UP, Saharanpur (After Manoj Kumar Sharma). [Source: Page 32 in: Deo Prakash Sharma, 2000, Harappan seals, sealings and copper tablets, Delhi, National Museum]. Stamp seals in Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 49.40.1 to 3. All three samples show a bull. “Rendered in strict profile, standing before what might be an altar, the bull is by far the most popular motif in the Indus Valley glyptic art; there is virtually nov ariation in either the style or the iconographic details among the individual examples. The shoulder of the bull is emphasized by an upside-down doubly outlined heart shape that has been interpreted as painted decoration on the body of the bull, but is more likely an artistic convention for representing the muscles of the bull’s shoulder.”[After Fig. 38 in Holly Pittman, 1984, p. 84]. Harappa. Inscribed objects ca. 2600-1900 BCE. Clockwise from top left: steatite seal, terracotta sealing, two incised steatite tablets, four different types of molded faience tablets, earliest Harappan seal fragment (H90-1600; dating to around 2600 BCE). “The bold, angular carving on the seal shows only a single sign and the rear end of a large animal, possibly a buffalo or a short-horned humpless bull…Most examples (around 3,700) of Indus writing come from the excavations of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, but some 60 different sites throughout the Indus Valley have contributed one or more objects with script.” [Dales and Kenoyer 1991: fig. 13.44; After Fig. 4.1 in: JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 70]. Meaningful set of signs to keep track of goods or merely cultural icons? Early potters’ marks from Rehman Dheri ca. 3500-2600 BCE [After Durrani et al. 1995]. Early script from Harappa, ca. 3300-2600 BCE. [After Fig. 4.3 in JM Kenoyer, 1998].

Line drawing of a black-slipped jar with both pre-firing and postfiring inscriptions. [After Fig. 4.8b in JM Kenoyer, 1998]. “The invention of a writing system is very different from the use of abstract symbols in rituals or for identification. Neolithic and chalcolithic artisans painted and incised symbols on pottery and other material goods. Some symbols are simplified pictures of

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plants, animals or sacred mountains; otheres are abstract geometric shapes, lines, circles and triangles…On the basis of recent excavations of the Period 2 occupation levels at Harappa (2800-2600 BCE), along with discoveries at other such early sites as Nausharo, it appears that there may have been one or more Early Indus scripts. Nausharo. Terracotta mold. Script incised prior to firing the exterior of the mold used to make large globular (10 cm ht. NS III 87 (32) 153, Department of Archaeology, EBK 5996). [After Fig. 4.7 in JM Kenoyer, 1998].

on jars

“At Harappa, we find increasing evidence for the use of multiple abstract symbols that were inscribed on pottery prior to or after firing. Some of these symbols are identical to characters used in the later Indus script and even occur in the same sequence, suggesting that they represented the same sounds or meanings. The Early Indus script was probably distinct from the more widespread use of poters’ marks, because such marks continued to be used even after the invention of the script. This pattern of use suggests that their function was different and to some extent, independent of writing itself…The invention, acceptance and eventual adoption of the Indus script by all of the regional settlements should be seen as a process stimulated primarily by local needs and fulfilled using a culturally meaningful set of signs. “Many inscriptions consist of only one sign: in these cases, the grapheme must represent a word or an idea. The most common sign ‘horned U’ is often used alone, but it also can be combined into other sign sequences. This sign may be a pictograph of a bull with horns, or a handled container, but it undoubtedly represents a very important word or idea…Although it is generally agreed that the Indus script is not an alphabetic form of writing, it does not have enough different signs to be a logographic script…The Indus script was carved, incised, chiseled, inlaid, painted, molded, and embossed on terracotta and glazed ceramic, shell, bone and ivory, sandstone, steatite and gypsum, copper and bronze, silver and gold… Mohenjo-daro. Silver seal (After Mackay 1938, vol. 2, Pl. XC,1; XCVI, 520). Two silver seals at Mohenjo-daro, two copper seals at Lothal and at Ras al-Junayz in Oman are rare uses of metal for making seals. Ras-al-Junayz. Copper seal. Harappa. Raised script. H94-2198. [After Fig. 4.14 in JM Kenoyer, 1998]. Eight inscribed copper tablets were found at Harappa and all were made with raised script, a technique quite different from the

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one used at Mohenjo-daro for flat copper tablets with many duplicates. The duplicates occur on steatite and faience tablets at Harappa; these may have represented a commodity or a value. [cf. JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 74]. “The wide variety of materials and techniques involving the Indus script is unparalleled in the mid-third millennium BCE….It is interesting to note that no seal has ever been found with a human burial in the Indus Valley, whereas in Egypt and Mesopotamia the person’s seal was usually included with the burial offerings…Incised and molded tablets…In one area two groups of identical incised steatite tablets (nine with one set of inscriptions and four with another set) were found along with seals, weights and pendants. (Madho Sarup Vats, Excavations at Harappa, Delhi, Govt. of India Press, 1940, 58-59). In area G, south of the recently discovered gateway on Mound ET, Vats found a concentration of thirty-one identical cylindrical terracotta tablets of unknown use…The Indus tablets may have been used as tokens, made up in advance and distributed when goods were brought into the city as tribute or for sale.“ [JM Kenoyer, 1998, pp. 69-74]. In Mesopotamia, cuneiform writing was used for two different languages: Akkadian and Sumerian. The rebus principle was used in Mesopotamian writing systems, i.e. to represent concrete objects using symbols which sound phonetically similar to the concrete object intended to be represented. It is likely that the symbols used on inscribed objects of SSVC were based on such a rebus principle. In addition to the languages of North India, South India and of Munda family of languages, there is an unknown, language X which is not associated with any of the known language families. (Walter A. Fairservis, Jr. and Franklin C. Southworth, Linguistic Archaeology and the Indus Valley Culture, in: Old problems and new perspectives in the archaeology of South Asia, ed., J. Mark Kenoyer, Madison, Wis., UW-Madison Department of Anthropology, 1989, 133-41). “In addition to the presence of different language families, there were undoubtedly many different dialects spoken throughout the Indus Valley. During the Early Historic period in South Asia many people spoke more than one dialect. For example, Sanskrit was spoken in the ritual and administrative contexts whereas regional Prakrit dialects were spoken at home. (AK Ramanujan, Toward an Anthology of City Images, in: Urban India: Society, Space and Image, ed., Richard G. Fox, Durham, Duke University, 1971, 224-44). Although it is possible that the Indus script represents the formal language spoken by elites, some names and words could reflect local dialects that varied from region to region. Consequently, if the writing on the seals does represent more than one language or dialect, we cannot decipher it until a bilingual text or a dictionary has been discovered.” (JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 78). Mohenjo-daro. A procession depicted on a terracotta tablet. [After Marshall 1931, Pl. CXVIII,9; cf. Fig. 5.6 in JM Kenoyer, 1998]. Is this a representation of a public ceremony which included carrying standards topped by objects representing important motifs of the civilization? Not all animals with which the people of SSVC were

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familiare are used as pictorial motifs; for example, they were familiar with peacocks, hooded cobras, monkeys, squirrels, mongooses and onagers (wild asses); the pictorial representations of these animals are not found on the square stamp seals. Harappa. Standard device shown on faience tablets (left: H90-1687, right, H93-2051) and carved in ivory (centre, H93-2092). [After Fig. 5.12 in JM Kenoyer, 1998]. The miniature replica object has been recovered in 1993 from excavations at Harappa. This may be an ivory replica of a device made of basketry and wood. This replica shows a hemispherical lower basin with dotted circles and a cylindrical top portion with cross-hatching. The shaft extending from the base seems to be broken on this replica. Is this a yu_pa carried in processions? Harappa. Steatite seal. H88-1201 [After Fig. 5.7 in JM Kenoyer, 1998] The two signs inscribed on the seal also occur with other pictorial motifs and hence not related to the zebu bull motif. Speculations on the functions of the script The association of the find spots in Harappa of inscribed objects with other objects such as seals, weights and pendants is to be noted as a pointer to the possible functions performed by the writing system. On the golden pendant described below, “all inscriptions appear to have been made by the same sharp, pointed tool by the same hand. These inscriptions are extremely important because they are clearly different from the types of inscriptions found on the large copper celts and chisels which also have been found in large hoards. On copper or bronze tools, the writing appears formal, carefully chiseled in a vertical line down the center of the ax or chisel. Other examples are oriented along the butt end of the celts, but in most instances the script would have been partially or totally obscured by hafting. One hoard found at Harappa contained fifty-six copper/bronze tools and weapons. Two of these objects, a dagger and an ax, both were inscribed with a sign that Parpola interprets as meaning ‘leader’ or ‘king’. Such inscriptions are uncommon and may represent the name of the owner or the deity to whom the valuable objects were dedicated. Beyond the commercial and personal uses of writing, the Indus script appears to have had protective or magical powers. Single and multiple signs were carved or painted on objects that were a part of daily life: shell and terracotta bangles, beads, pottery and tools. The repetition of specific signs at many different sites suggests that some signs were probably not personal names, but may have had some ritual significance. Painted on the inside of a plate or the interior of a terracotta bangle, thes signs may have blessed the food of protected the wearer…Short inscriptions associated with these (narrative) scenes (of probably rituals) may represent the names of deities, constellations or supernatural events. The script is also found carved on ivory and bone rods, possibly used in divining the future or perhaps part of a ritual game.” (JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 76).

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Objects with inscriptions have been found in many sites and throughout the localities of larger sites such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa – in the streets and in houses. “Many earlier excavators did not record the contexts in which seals were found, so we cannot assess whether they were in foundation fill (secondary deposits) or actual floor and street levels (primary deposits). Recent excavations at Harappa have defined these different contexts, and we can beging sorting out the complex problem of identifying where seals and inscribed objects were used in the city: the major streets leading into and out of city gateway, the craft workshop areas and near the houses in the high walled areas. Some houses have lots of seals and inscribed objects, and others have very few or none at all. In one pottery manufacturing area at the northwest edge of Mound E there are no seals or tablets, while in the bead and shellworking area of Mound ET there are a number of inscribed objects. After reviewing the different ways in which the script was used, we see several patterns emerge. First, only certain people owned seals and few people were literate. Nevertheless, the script was generally used in a manner that was openly visible to the general public. For example seals were probably worn and used in public, and graffiti was openly visible on trade vessels. Writing was used in everyday contexts as well as for religious purposes, but the presence of script on gold jewelry, copper tools and stoneware bangles suggests that only the very rich and powerful wrote their names or attributions on personal objects. Objects with writing were scattered in all parts of the city, and almost every settlement of the Indus Valley has produced one or more seals or inscribed objects. A large signboard from Dholavira shows large writing, but most inscriptions are small or miniature. Perhaps the most important recent discovery is that the style of writing and carving of seals changed over time; small tablets without animal motifs but with script, come from the middle to late part of the Harappan phase.These patterns indicate that writing was not static but a dynamic invention that had permeated every aspect of urban life. Landowners, merchants, religious leaders, administrators and professional artisans were probably the only people who owned or used inscribed seals, but many of them may not have been able to read or write. Nevertheless, everyone in the society understood the power and authority reflected in writing, and its use throughout the Indus and Sarasvati regions reveals a period of cultural and economic integration. The writing would have reinforced this integration and validated the power of the ruling classes. In combination with religious symbols and narratives the writing would have legitimized the power of the people who used it by associating them with supernatural powers. The writing on the seals is associated with symbolic animals representing clans or possibly trading communities. The most common animal, the unicorn, is mythical and the other animals must have had some important symbolic meaning. On the small tablets, writing and occasional narrative scenes are on a miniature scale, but they probably illustrate public rituals or events that were viewed by the entire community or city. Some tablets may have functioned as ritual tokens or souvenirs, not unlike the molded or inscribed amulets available at the tombs of saints or at important shrines in Pakistan and India today. It is closely associated with cities, trade and ritual. Writing and seals remained important to the politial and ritual elites as long as the trade networks and cities continued to exist. The script disappeared when the elites who used this means of communication in trade and ritual were no longer dominant. More than any other fact, the rapid disappearance of the seals and writing by 1700 BCE (based on recent dates from Harappa) demonstrates that writing was used exclusively by a small

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but powerful segment of the population and did not play a critical role in the lives of the common people. The seal carvers lost their jobs, and eventually, when new elites emerged, writing was not important. Molds used to make terracotta and faience tablets wee destroyed or discarded when they no longer had economic or ritual significance. Traders no longer stamped bundles with seals or scribbled names and messages on storage jars. And although many of the crafts continued to be practiced, the artisans had no need to inscribe copper tools or pottery vessels with the script…When Emperor Ashoka set up pillars and massive boulders inscribed with royal edicts around 250 BCE, he became the first ruler in ancient India to use writing to communicate to the masses…The important thing was that these edicts, placed throughout the imperial realm, from Afghanistan to southern India, were not written in Sanskrit, the language of the Brahmanical elites, but were in the major local dialects. Two new scripts were invented: Kharoshthi in the northwest was based on Aramaic, the language of the Achaemenid Persian Empire and was written from right to left; the Brahmi script in peninsular India was written from left to right and is thought to have been derived from a Western Semitic script. No one knows who invented these scripts, but they may have been commissioned by rulers and developed by Brahmans well versed in literature and phonetics. The recent discovery of Brahmi script on potsherds from Sri Lanka dates to around 500 BCE (Frank Raymond Allchin, ed., The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia, Cambridge University Press, 1995, 176-79), but the use of both Kharoshthi and Brahmi on stone edicts in the peninsular subcontinent dates somewhat later, around 250 BCE. Whey they first appeared, these newly invented scripts represent fully developed writing systems with no direct connection to the earlier Indus script. [Mohammad A. Halim and Massimo Vidale, Kilns, Bangles and coated vesssels: ceramic production in closed containers at Mohenjodaro, Interim Reports Vol. 1: Reports on Field Work carried out at Mohenjo-daro, Pakistain 1982-83 by IsMEO-Aachen University Mission, ed., Michael Jansen and Gunter Urban (Aachen: RWTH-IsMEO, 1984), 63-97]” (JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 77). Any number of reasonable speculations may be made, given the object types such as tablets which may have had many duplicates and objects such as seals and bangles which could have been carried on the person possessing the object, perhaps worn on the wrist. If the script was intended to serve a personal marker in a disciplined cultural group, there is a possibility that the script was used not to record personal names but to record personal items of property, or OTHER items of value entrusted to the person by the collective cultural group. The script could thus be hypothesized to have served the purpose of recording the name of a commodity or product and the quantities or VALUE of such products.

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‘Fish’ glyph on gold pendant A fish sign, preceded by seven short numeral strokes, also appears on a gold pendant: Golden pendant with inscription from jewelry hoard at Mohenjo-daro. Drawing of inscription that encircles the gold ornament. Needle-like pendant with cylindrical body. Two other examples, one with a different series of incised signs were found together. The pendant is made from a hollow cylinder with soldered ends and perforated point. Museum No. MM 1374.50.271; Marshall 1931: 521, pl. CLI, B3. [After Fig. 4.17a, b in: JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 196]. The man:gal.asu_tra worn by many married women in Bharat carry glyphs on the pendants, not unlike the glyphs on the Sarasvati epigraphs. The gold pendant discovered at Mohenjodaro could be such a man:gal.asu_tra (ta_li) conveying stri_dhana or possessions of the bride as she came into the bride’s household. Harappa. Cylindrical and twisted rectangular terracotta

tablets. [After Fig. 4.13 in JM Kenoyer, 1998]. Column 1: Grapheme horned U ‘fish’; Allograph variants of a single sign; circumgraph enclosure signs; ligature papal leaf and box; Column 2: ideograph ‘hunting’; logograph adze. [After Fig. 4.6 in JM Kenoyer, 1998]. Gold fillet depicting the standard device, Mohenjo-daro, 2600 BCE. [Source: Page 32 in: Deo Prakash Sharma, 2000, Harappan seals, sealings and copper tablets, Delhi, National Museum]. At a Marshall, MIC, Pl. CLI are specimens of fillets consisting of thin bands of beaten gold with holes for cords at their ends. Fillet on the fore-head of the priest statuette, 2700 BCE. Stone. Mohenjo-daro. Karachi Museum. The priest wears a fillet similar to the two fillets of gold which bears the standard device embossed on them. The fillets of gold were discovered at Mohenjodaro. Similar gold ornaments with embossed standard devices were also reported from an Akkadian burial site in West Asia. [Source: Page 22, Fig. 12 in: Deo Prakash Sharma, 2000, Harappan seals, sealings and copper tablets, Delhi, National Museum].

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The central ornament worn on the forehead of the famous "priest-king" sculpture from Mohenjo-daro appears to represent an eye bead, possibly made of gold with steatite inlay in the center Mohenjo-daro. Female figurine adorned with six strands of necklaces, chokers and pendant bead [After Fig. 6.16 in JM Kenoyer, 1998].

See a woman's head in diorite found in Nin-Gal temple at Ur, ca. 2150 B.C.; note the engraved modulations of the hair, elaborate bun at the back of the head and the fillet around the forehead.

A sinuous tablet. in JM with 2600 – Fig. 29.4, 1998]

tree with short leaves. Terracotta Harappa H95-2523 (After Fig. 6.3 Kenoyer, 1998]. Nausharo. Jar three papal leaves. Period 1D, 2550 BCE [After Samzun, 1992, no.2; cf. Fig. 6.4 in JM Kenoyer,

Harappa. Two tablets. Seated figure or deity with reed house or shrine at one side. Left: H95-2524; Right: H95-2487.

Harappa. Planoconvex molded tablet found on Mound ET. A. Reverse. a female deity battling two tigers and standing above an elephant and below a six-spoked wheel; b. Obverse. A person spearing with a barbed spear a buffalo in front of a seated horned deity wearing bangles and with a plumed headdress. The person presses his foot down the buffalo’s head. An alligator with a narrow snout is on the top register. “We have found two other broken tablets at Harappa that appear to have been made from the same mold that was used to create the scene of a deity battling two tigers and standing above an elephant. One was found in a room located on the southern slope of Mount ET in 1996 and another example comes from excavations on Mound F in the 1930s. However, the flat obverse of both of these broken tablets does not show the spearing of a buffalo, rather it depicts the more well-known scene showing a tiger looking back over its shoulder at a person sitting on the branch of a tree. Several other flat or twisted rectangular terracotta tablets found at Harappa combine these two narrative scenes of a figure strangling two tigers on one side of a tablet, and the tiger looking back over its shoulder at a figure in a tree on the other side.” [JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 115].

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Harappa. A series of small tablets. A. man fighting a short-horned bull; a small plant with six branches; b. seated figure in yogic posture with arms resting on knees; both arms covered with bangles; traces of a horned headdress and long hair are visible on some impressions; a second individual, also with long hair and wearing bangles, sits on a short stool; ; c. standing deity with horned headdress with a curved branch with three projecting leaves; bangles visible on both arms; d. inscription with six signs; the first sign appears to be some form of an animal; the last shows a person. Many of the finds during 1995-1998 excavations at Harappa have been exquisitely photographed. The following are samples. Slide 124 The origins of Indus writing can now be traced to the Ravi Phase (c. 3300-2800 BC) at Harappa. Some inscriptions were made on the bottom of the pottery before firing. Other inscriptions such as this one were made after firing. This inscription (c. 3300 BC) appears to be three plant symbols arranged to appear almost anthropomorphic. Slide 133. A steatite unicorn seal from Harappa with Indus script. This seal was found in the central area of Mound E and dates to Period 3B or early 3C, around 24502200 BC. When pressed into clay the impression will be reversed. Since the Indus script may have been read from right to left, the last two signs visible at the top right hand edge of the seal would in fact be the last two signs of the inscription. Slide 135 Many large storage jars of the Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) have writing inscribed along the upper portion of the vessel. This inscription includes a figure of a man with the bow and arrow sign in each hand. It is impossible to shoot two bows and arrows at the same time so this is clearly not a pictograph, but rather a combined symbol used as part of a Indus writing system. Slide 137. This Early Harappan seal impression or sealing of a square seal has several script signs and two ladder like motifs (Kot Diji Phase, c. 2800 BC). The wet clay was probably placed on a bundle of goods to seal it and then was broken off when the bundle was opened. Since this sealing was found in a hearth area, it is probable that the raw clay was hardened accidentally when it was swept into the fire along with other trash, possibly even the rope or reeds used to bundle the goods. Slide 146. Sixteen three sided tablets (c. 2300 BC) with incised inscription on each face were found all together in the debris that had been dumped over the curtain wall. On one of the three sides is an inscription that is

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identical to the last two signs on the seal (145). Slide 154. Unicorn seal from Trench 37, which lies to the east of the "Granary." This type of seal comes from levels dating to Harappa Phase Period 3B. Similar seals were found near the "granary" in 1997. Slide 156. This type of seal is only found in the last part of the Harappan Phase, Period 3C. A similar rectangular seal was found on Mound F in the 1998 excavations of the circular platforms (Trench 43). Seal 160. Seal fragment of a man with double bun and three fingered hand or trident. Trench 39 North, upper levels, Harappa Phase.. Sign 134. Three signs are inscribed on this rim sherd of the Early Harappan Period (Kot Dijian Phase), dating to around 2800 BC. Two of the signs appear to be pictographs for a bow and arrow, but they probably had some other meaning that was defined by the diagonal slash at the end of the sequence of symbols. The bow and arrow sign is quite common in the later Indus script (see 135). Slide 138. Three clay sealings from the Harappa Phase levels (2600-1900 BC) that may have come from large bundles of goods shipped to the site from a distant region. The clay does not appear to be the same type of clay as found near Harappa and each sealing has the impression of two different seals. Slide 142. Molded tablets from Trench 11 sometimes have impressions on one, two, three or four sides. This group of molded tablets shows the complete set of motifs. One side is comprised entirely of script and has six characters, the first of which (on the very top) appears to be some sort of animal. A second side shows a human figure grappling with a short horned bull. A small plant with at least six branches is discernible behind the individual. The third panel portrays a figure seated on a charpoy or throne in a yogic position, with arms resting on the knees. Both arms are covered with bangles, and traces of a horned headdress and long hair are visible on some of the impressions. A second individual, also with long hair and wearing bangles, is seated on a short stool to the proper left of the individual on the "throne." The fourth panel shows a deity standing with both feet on the ground and wearing a horned headdress. A branch with three pipal leaves projects from the center of the headdress. Bangles on seen on both arms.

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Seal 145. A square steatite unicorn seal with a unique inscription was found in the street debris on the inside of the city wall. The two sets of signs on the right hand side of the seal would appear in reverse, i.e. be on the left, when it was pressed into clay. Harappan Period, c. 2300 BC. (More unicorn seals at 133, 154.) Slide 151. These two inscribed tablets (c. 2300 BC) have the same inscription, but it was written in opposite directions. What is even more interesting is that the top tablet is incised with the same "handwriting" as the Group 2 tablets described in (149). The bottom tablet belongs to the handwriting of Group 1 of the inscribed tablets (149).

Inscribed objects from Harappa 2000-2001 (Jonathan Mark Kenoyer and Richard H. Meadow) Slide 185 Molded terracotta tablet (H2001-5075/2922-01) with a narrative scene of a man in a tree with a tiger looking back over its shoulder. The tablet, found in the Trench 54 area on the west side of Mound E, is broken, but was made with the same mold as ones found on the eastern side of Mound E and also in other parts of the site (see slide 89 for the right hand portion of the same scene). The reverse of the same molded terra cotta tablet shows a deity grappling with two tigers and standing above an elephant (see slide 90 for a clearer example from the same mold). Slide 90 Slide 191 In one of the rooms uncovered in Trench 54, a pottery fragment with a sunburst painted decoration was discovered that could be dated to the the beginning of the Harappan Period, perhaps as early as 2600 BC. Slide 187 A faience button seal with geometric motif (H2000-4491/9999-34) was found on the surface of Mound AB at Harappa by one of the workmen. Slide 203. Steatite button seal Fired steatite button seal with four concentric circle designs from the Trench 54 area (H2000-4432/2174-3). Slide 204 sealing. Low fired sealing in terra cotta of a unicorn seal from the Trench 54 area (H2000-4453/2174-192). This type of clay sealing was used to seal bundles of goods for transport. Slide 205 Faience tablet or standard. This unique mold-made faience tablet or standard (H2000-4483/2342-01) was found in the eroded levels west of the tablet workshop in Trench 54. On one side is a short inscription under a rectangular box filled with 24 dots. The reverse has a narrative scene with two bulls fighting under a thorny tree.

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Slide 206 Tablet with script. Mold-made faience tablet with script found in the eroded surface debris of Trench 54 (H2000-4484/222715). Slide 208 Two steatite tablets. Two inscribed and baked steatite tablets from the Trench 54 area. One has the shape of a fish (H2000-4452/2174-191), while the other has a fish sign inscription (H2000-4477/2227-11). Slide 209 Inscribed lead celt. Inscribed lead celt or ingot fragment from the Trench 54 area (H2000-4481/2174-321). The object was apparently chiseled to reduce its size. Lead may have been used as an alloy with copper, for making pigments, or as medicine. Slide 207 Tablet with inscription. Twisted terra cotta tablet (H2000-4441/2102-464) with a mold-made inscription and narrative motif from the Trench 54 area. In the center is the depiction of what is possibly a deity with a horned headdress in so-called yogic position seated on a stool under an arch. Slide 244 Broken steatite mold. Broken steatite mold carved into a unique fan-shape. (H2001-5069/2913-02). This mold was probably used to make a faience tablet that was found on the eroded slope to the south of the workshop in Trench 54 South (Slide 245). Slide 245 Molded faience tablet. Fan-shaped molded faience tablet found on the eroded slope south of the Trench 54 South workshop. It was probably made using the steatite mold found in the workshop (Slide 244). Slide 247 Faience tablet. Faience tablet (H2001-5082/2920-02) made from two colors of faience was found eroding from the Trench 54 South workshop area. Identical tablets made from two colors of faience were recovered in Area J, at the south end of Mound AB, in the excavations of Vats during the 1930s. Slide 248 Unique two-coloured tablet. This uniquely shaped tablet (H20015090/2913-09), also made with two colors of faience, has an inscription similar to that seen on the pervious slide (247). This tablet was found inside the workshop in Trench 54 South. Slide 249 Inscribed steatite tablets. Inscribed steatite tablets made from two different colors of steatite have the same inscription. The sloppy nature of the inscription may be the reason why these tablets were discarded. Both tablets, incised on one side only, were found in the same excavation unit in the Trench 54 South steatite and faience workshop. (H20015084/2913-07 and H2001-5068/2913-01). Stamp seal and a modern impression: unicorn or bull and inscription,, Mature Harappan period,

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ca. 2600–1900 B.C. Indus Valley Burnt steatite; 1 1/2 x 1 1/2 in. (3.8 x 3.8 cm) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/02/ssa/ho_49.40.1.htm “Stamp seals were used in antiquity as marks of ownership and badges of status. In the large urban centers of the Harappan civilization, hundreds of square-shaped stamp seals were found in excavations. They are engraved with images of wild or domestic animals, humans, fantastic creatures, and possibly divinities. The bull is the most popular animal motif on the Indus Valley glyptic art. In this example, the animal is rendered in the typical strict profile, standing before what might be an altar. Its shoulder is covered by a decorated quilt or harness in the shape of an upside-down heart pattern. Most of the square stamp seals have inscriptions along the top edge. The Indus script, invented around 2600 B.C., is yet to be fully deciphered.” Recumbent mouflon, Mature Harappan period, ca. 2600–1900 B.C. Indus Valley Marble; L. 11 in. (28 cm) “This powerful sculpture represents a mouflon, a type of wild sheep native to the highland regions of the Near East. The animal's head, now partially broken away, is held upward and is twisted to the right, creating an impression of alertness. The artist has achieved a realistic rendering of an animal at rest, its weight thrown fully onto its left haunch, and its left hind leg tucked under its body. The bottom of the statue has been worn away, but it is likely that the hidden leg was originally indicated there. The entire body is contained within a single unbroken outline. The horns, ears, tail, and muscles were modeled in relief, although time and secondary use have flattened the contours on the right side. This combination of closed outline with broadly modeled masses and a minimum of incised detail is characteristic of animal sculpture from the Harappan-period levels at the site of Mohenjo Daro in the lower reaches of the Indus River. The function of these animal sculptures is unknown.” http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/02/ssa/hod_1978.58.htm Manuscripts in Schoyen Collection Some manuscripts available in the Schoyen Collection. Located mainly in London and Oslo. URL http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/contentnew3.html “The Schøyen Collection comprises most types of manuscripts from the whole world spanning over 5000 years. It is the largest private manuscript collection formed in the 20th century. The whole collection, MSS 1-5245, comprises 13,010 manuscript items, including 2,172 volumes. 6,510 manuscript items are from the ancient period, 3300 BCE – 500 CE. For scholarly research and access the collection is a unique source, uniting materials usually scattered world wide to two locations only. These MSS are the world's heritage, the memory of the world. They are felt not really to belong to The Schøyen Collection and its owner, who only is the privileged, respectful and humble keeper, neither do they belong to a particular nation, people, religion, culture, but to mankind, being the property of the entire world. In the future The Schøyen Collection will have to be placed in a public context that can fulfil these visions…The Schøyen Collection is located mainly in Oslo and London. Scholars are always welcome, and are strongly encouraged to do research and to publish material.”

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Source:http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/intro.html#1.1 Included in the 6,510 manuscript from the ancient period, 3300 BCE - 500 CE are the following epigraphs which are closely associated with the script of the Sarasvati Civilization. MS 249 Unidentified Minoan text. Knossos, Crete, 16th cent. BCE, Linear A script? MS in Minoan on clay, Knossos, Crete, 16th c. BC, 1 black roundel, 3,0x2,7 cm, 4 characters of late Minoan I Linear A script, 2 impressions (1,6x1,0 cm) on opposite edges by an amygdaloid seal with head of papyrus plant. Provenance: 1. Possibly the archive in the West Wing of the Knossos Palace (16th c. BC ca. 1950); 2. Erlenmeyer Collection, Basel, CMS no. 120 (until 1981); 3. Erlenmeyer Foundation, Basel (1981-1988); 4. Christie's 5.6.1989:99. Commentary: The famous Linear B script of the Mycenean kings, consisting of syllabic signs, ideograms and numerals, resisted decipherment for a generation. When Michael Ventris deciphered it in 1952, the achievement was called the "Everest" in classical archaeology. The language was archaic Greek. Linear A, the earliest script of Europe, has so far resisted all attempts of decipherment, partly because the language is unknown, and the material small, ca. 700 copies only, while Linear B is known in 12,000 - 13,000 examples. This roundel is the only one in private ownership. Outside the Greek museums, they are, in fact, represented in 2 Italian museums only. KN Wc 26 in Erik Hallager: The Knossos roundels, BSA 82(1987). This MS has signs which are comparable with the signs on epigraphs of Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization. MS 4625 Cylinder seal with a scene of drinking from a straw, Pakistan ca. 1500-500 BCE Seal of hard red stone, Coast between Indus and the Persian Gulf, Pakistan, ca. 1500-500 BC, 1 cylinder seal matrix, diam. 1,3x3,2 cm, figure sitting left, holding a long straw from his mouth to a pot with bulbous body and narrow neck, resting on a stand; behind him a servant holding up a fan; behind the servant another standing person grasping a small quadruped. Above and below him 3 other quadrupeds. Between the 2 main figures a solar disc with rays and a crescent and a full moon combined. Provenance: 1. Found in Baluchistan?, Pakistan (1965); 2. The Waria Collection, Dadu, Pakistan (ca. 1965-2001). Commentary: Drinking beer from a straw is known from Sumer ca. 2700 BC on, but usually a big pot from which a number of persons are all drinking through their own straws. The fan is known in Iranian seals of ca. 1300-1100 BC. While the scene as a whole is Near Eastern, the dress and anklets of the servant is clearly of Indian type. The iconography combined is thus unique. MS 2645 Indus valley script, and old akkadian illustration. North West Afghanistan, ca. 21st cent. BCE Name of owner or scribe?

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This seal links Indus Valley and Old Akkadian civilizations. The seal is of blue stone, North West Afghanistan, ca. 23rd-21st c. BC, 1 cylinder seal, 3,9x2,7 cm, 5 Indus valley signs, illustration standing archer aiming his bow at a falling boar, in the style of the best Old Akkadian art in Sumer. Provenance: 1. Bronze age site, Kalenao near the Turkmeni frontier, North West Afghanistan. Commentary: While numerous Indus Valley stamp seals are known (cf. MS 2394), this is the only known cylinder seal with the hitherto undeciphered Indus Valley script. Furthermore, this is the only known document linking together over land two of the great civilisations of the Old Akkadian period in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. Seaborne trade has been known for a long time, and documented in practical terms by the Norwegian explorer and scientist, Thor Heyerdahl, in his expedition with the reed boat, Tigris, in 1977. See the next manuscript, MS 2814, a copy of a Sargonic royal inscription mentioning the defeat of Melukham, the Indus Valley civilisation. Exhibited: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from October 1999. MS 2814 Royal inscription commemorating defeat of Magan, Melukham, Elam (?), and Amurru, and establishment of regular offerings to his statue, school text? Sumer, 2100-1800 BCE MS in Neo Sumerian and Old Babylonian on clay, Sumer, 21001800 BC, 1 tablet, 14,8x14,0x3,3 cm (originally ca. 16x14x3 cm), 3+3 columns, 103 lines in cuneiform script. Provenance: 1. Scribal training centre?, Sumer (2100-1800 BC); 2. Private collection, England (ca. 1965-1999). Commentary: The text was copied from a Sargonic royal inscription on a statue in the Ur III or early Old Babylonian period. Magan was at Oman and at the Iranian side of the Gulf. Meluhha or Melukham was the Indus Valley civilisation (ca. 2500-1800 BC). This is one of fairly few references to the Indus civilisation on tablets. The 3 best known references are: 1. Sargon of Akkad (2334-2279 BC) referring to ships from Meluhha, Magan and Dilmun; 2. Naram-Sin (2254-2218 BC) referring to rebels to his rule, listing the rebellious kings, including "(..)ibra, man of Melukha"; and 3. Gudea of Lagash (2144-2124 BC) referring to Meluhhans that came from their country and sold gold dust, carnelian, etc. There are further references in literary texts. After ca. 1760 BC Melukha is not mentioned any more. MS 4602 Indus Valley cylinder seal, ca. 3000 BCE depicting a palm tree and a man between two lions with wings and snakeheads, holding one arm around each, two long fish below, and one fish jumping after one lion’s tail or the tail of a sitting monkey above it Seal matrix on creamy stone or shell, Indus Valley, Pakistan, ca. 3000 BC, 1 cylinder seal, diam. 2,0x3,7 cm, in fine execution influenced by the Jemdet Nasr style of Sumer.

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Context: For the only known cylinder seal with Indus script, see MS 2645. Provenance: 1. Found in Mehrgarh, Pakistan; 2. The Waria Collection, Dadu, Pakistan (2001). Commentary: Similar fish can be found on Indus Valley pottery from the period and later http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/5/5.6/index.html#4602 MS 4617 Pakistan, ca. 2200-2000 BCE White steatite, 1 square seal matrix, 4,3x4,3x1,9 cm, 6 Indus Valley signs in a formal script of high quality, unicorn standing left facing an altar, with loop handle. Provenance: 1. The Waria Collection, Dadu, Pakistan (-2001). Commentary: This seal is among the largest extant. The execution is representing Indus art at its best. The Indus script is still undeciphered, as is the Linear A script from Crete and the Rongo-Rongo script from Easter Island, which has numerous signs in common with the Indus script. MS 4619, Pakistan, ca. 2200-1800 BCE White coated grey steatite, Mohenjo-Daro?, Indus Valley, Pakistan, ca. 2200-1800 BC, 1 round seal matrix, diam. 2,3x1,5 cm, 5 Indus Valley signs, bison left eating from a trough, with double loop handle. Context: Only 2 more round seals with inscriptions are known, both with bison and from Mohenjo-Daro (M-415 and M-416). Provenance: 1. The Waria Collection, Dadu, Pakistan (1960'ies-2001). MS5059 Pakistan, ca. 2200-1800 BCE White steatite, Mohenjo-Daro, Indus Valley, 2200-1800 BC, 1 square stamp seal matrix, 3,4x3,4x1,7 cm, 9 Indus valley signs Provenance: 1. Found in Mohenjo-Daro (ca. 1950-1970); 2. The Waria Collection, Dadu, Pakistan (-2001). MS5061 Pakistan, ca. 2200-1800 BCE White steatite, Mohenjo-Daro, Indus Valley, 2200-1800 BC, 1 square stamp seal matrix, 2,4x2,5x1,2 cm, 3 Indus valley signs Provenance: 1. Found in Mohenjo-Daro (ca. 1950-1970); 2. The Waria Collection, Dadu, Pakistan (-2001). MS5062 Pakistan, ca. 2200-1800 BCE White steatite, Mohenjo-Daro, Indus Valley, 22001800 BC, 1 square stamp seal matrix, 2,7x2,7x1,6 cm, 4 Indus valley signs Provenance: 1. Found in Mohenjo-Daro (ca. 19501970); 2. The Waria Collection, Dadu, Pakistan (-2001). MS5065 Pakistan, ca. 1800 BCE

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MS Indus Valley language on copper, Mohenjo-Daro, Indus Valley, ca. 1800 BC, 1 square stamp seal matrix, 1,3x1,3x0,9 cm, 3 Indus valley signs in script Provenance: 1. Found in Mohenjo-Daro (ca. 1950-1970); 2. The Waria Collection, Dadu, Pakistan (-2001). Commentary: There is only one similar seal known, from Lothal (L-44). Parallels from Mesopotamia (and Anatolia) Administrative tablet with cylinder seal impression of a male figure, hunting dogs, and boars, 3100–2900 B.C.; Jemdet Nasr period (Uruk III script) Mesopotamia Clay; H. 2 in. (5.3 cm) The seal impression depicts a male figure guiding two dogs on a leash and hunting or herding boars in a marsh environment. Headdress with leaf-shaped ornaments, 2600– 2500 B.C.; Early Dynastic period IIIa; Sumerian style Excavated at "King's Grave," Ur, Mesopotamia Gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian; L. 15 3/16 in. (38.5 cm). “This delicate chaplet of gold leaves separated by lapis lazuli and carnelian beads adorned the forehead of one of the female attendants in the so-called King's Grave. In addition, the entombed attendants wore two necklaces of gold and lapis lazuli, gold hair ribbons, and two silver hair rings. Since gold, silver, lapis, and carnelian are not found in Mesopotamia, the presence of these rich adornments in the royal tomb attests to the wealth of the Early Dynastic kings as well as to the existence of a complex system of trade that extended far beyond the Mesopotamian plain.” The source for carnelian was clearly from Sarasvati Civilization, Gujarat region, called Meluhha in Mesopotamian records. Cylinder seal and modern impression: hunting scene, 2250–2150 B.C.; late Akkadian period Mesopotamia Chert; H. 1 1/16 in. (2.8 cm) This seal, depicting a man hunting an ibex in a mountain forest, is an early attempt to represent a landscape in Mesopotamian art. It was made during the Akkadian period (ca. 2350– 2150 B.C.), during which the iconographic repertory of the seal engraver expanded to include a variety of new mythological and narrative subjects. The owner of the seal was Balu-ili, a high court official whose title was Cupbearer. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/02/wam/hod_41.160.192.htm Central and North Asia “The vast expanse of Central and North Asia is rich in mineral resources of many kinds, which are extracted for use by the inhabitants of the area as well as those of lands far away. By the fourth millennium B.C., lapis lazuli from Badakhshan in Afghanistan is imported into Mesopotamia, and jade found in a royal Chinese tomb of the second millennium B.C. comes from Xinjiang. In the second millennium B.C., the people of the Andronovo culture are making their bronzes from copper and tin, which they mine from

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sources from the Urals to Tajikistan. Recently rediscovered tin mines contain pottery from both the Andronovo culture and the Bactrian-Margiana Archaeological Complex, suggesting that trade in ores or metal ingots was wide-ranging in the early centuries of the second millennium B.C. In this period, ceramic traditions generally are relatively local, while, over the whole expanse of North and Central Asia, as well as in bordering areas, various new metal complexes are more widely spread. Agricultural production becomes more extensive over the millennium. • ca. 2000 B.C. The Andronovo culture develops, characterized by weapons and tools made of tin-bronze, with distinctive curved knives and shaft-hole axes. Although there are many regional variations among products of the Andronovo culture, Andronovo metalwork is found as far southeast as Xinjiang, as far southwest as the Kopet Dagh mountains, and as far north as the Minusinsk Basin of Siberia. The people of Andronovo raise cattle, have wagons and horses, and practice agriculture. • ca. 2000/1900 B.C. The Bactrian-Margiana Archaeological Complex develops distinctive bronze stamp seals with geometric designs and stone sculptures, including polished miniature columns of alabaster, marble, and other materials, and composite figurines of several types of stone. Graves containing these distinctive artifacts have been found in Iran and Baluchistan, which are signs of the contact between southwestern Central Asia and areas to the south. • ca. 1500 B.C. In eastern Xinjiang several cemetery sites, including Yanbulaq, contain many copper and bronze artifacts, some of which, such as mirrors, are similar to types also found in southern Siberia. Bronzeworking seems to have been introduced into Xinjiang about 2000 B.C. but little is yet known about the preceding periods there. • ca. 14th–10th century B.C. The Karasuk culture of the Minusinsk Basin, as well as the cultures of the Mongolian plateau north of the Gobi, and in Transbaikalia in Buryatia share some weapon, tool, and ornament types with the peoples of the "northern zone" of China. “The landscape and climate of Central and North Asia is divided into zones that extend east-west across the broad expanse of Eurasia. In the far north is an arctic zone with tundra vegetation, which can support only small numbers of people with hunting and reindeer-herding economies. Next, a forest zone called the taiga has coniferous trees of varying kinds over its extent; the landscape supports hunting, fishing, and the gathering of plants. In most places, the taiga is separated from the next zone—the steppe—by a mixed forest that includes deciduous trees (sometimes called the forest-steppe). The steppe itself is a relatively flat grassland occasionally broken by hills, rivers, lakes, and seas. The southernmost part of Central Asia, both east and west, is desert, edged by mountain ranges. It is in the steppe, the oases of the desert, and the foothills of the mountains that cultures change most rapidly from 8000 to 2000 B.C. “Although in southern Central Asia the relative chronological positions of various cultures are generally clear, the absolute chronological dates remain a matter of scholarly debate. For consistency across timelines, "calibrated" carbon-14 dates are used here, resulting in dates up to 500 years earlier than traditional dates for these periods. “In this timeline, "neolithic" indicates cultures whose food sources are based on hunting, gathering, and fishing, and stone tools and weapons more sophisticated than in the previous "mesolithic"; "eneolithic" denotes cultures with some food production from

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domesticated plants and/or animals; and "bronze age" means cultures with economies producing their food with developed technologies such as irrigation agriculture or systematic stockbreeding of domesticated animals. • ca. 2200 B.C. Irrigation agriculture begins to be used in southwestern Central Asia, allowing the population to move from the foothills into oases along the rivers that flow into the Central Asian desert. The new settlements include large fortified buildings. This new technology, presumably learned from the ancient Near East, permits population growth and fosters the formation of a new culture: the Bactrian-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC), also known as the Oxus civilization, beginning ca. 2000/1900 B.C. • ca. 2200/2100 B.C. Several sites in the Southern Urals and northern Kazakhstan contain graves of warriors who are accompanied in death by burials of vehicles with two spoked wheels (defined either as chariots or light carts) and teams of horses. These burials are associated with the Sintashta-Petrovka culture, which has walled towns, usually located in the bends of rivers. The economic base is a mixture of herding (horses, cattle, and sheep) and agriculture. Whether the chariot originated on the steppe, where horses were first domesticated, remains an open question. It is possible that the idea of the chariot eventually reached Shang China along the route where these burials were found. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/02/nc/ht02nc.htm Shaft-hole axhead with a bird-headed demon, boar,and dragon, late 3rd–early 2nd millennium B.C. Central Asia (Bactria-Margiana) Silver, gold foil; 5 7/8 in. (15 cm) “Western Central Asia, now known as Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and northern Afghanistan, has yielded objects attesting to a highly developed civilization in the late third and early second millennium B.C. Artifacts from the region indicate that there were contacts with Iran to the southwest. Tools and weapons, especially axes, comprise a large portion of the metal objects from this region. This shaft-hole axhead is a masterpiece of three-dimensional and relief sculpture. Expertly cast in silver and gilded with gold foil, it depicts a bird-headed hero grappling with a wild boar and a winged dragon. The idea of the heroic bird-headed creature probably came from western Iran, where it is first documented on a cylinder seal impression. The hero's muscular body is human except for the bird talons that replace the hands and feet. He is represented twice, once on each side of the ax, and consequently appears to have two heads. On one side, he grasps the boar by the belly and on the other, by the tusks. The posture of the boar is contorted so that its bristly back forms the shape of the blade. With his other talon, the bird-headed hero grasps the winged dragon by the neck. The dragon, probably originating in Mesopotamia or Iran, is represented with folded wings, a feline body, and the talons of a bird of prey.” Stamp seal, quatrefoil/maltese cross with infill, whip or snake MS on grey steatite, North Syria/North Iraq/Iran, 5th millennium BC, 1 square stamp seal, 3,0x3,5x0,6 cm, 1 pictographic sign on reverse, pierced through.

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Provenance: 1. Erlenmeyer Collection, Basel (before 1958-1981); 2. The Erlenmeyer Foundation, Basel (1981-1997); 3. Sotheby's 12.6.1997:6. Stamp seal, standing male figure quadrupeds back to back and head to

between two horned end

MS on speckled dark-olive steatite or chlorite, North Syria/Iraq/Iran, 5th-4th millennium BC, 1 circular stamp seal, diam. 8,4x1,3 cm, pierced through. Provenance: 1. Erlenmeyer Collection, Basel (before 1958-1981); 2. The Erlenmeyer Foundation, Basel (1981-1997); 3. Sotheby's 12.6.1997:10. Commentary: The earliest stamp seals of Sumer had various geometric patterns, later more elaborate designs and illustrations like the present seal, as a proof of identity and ownership. These can, together with the counting tokens, possibly be considered forerunners to the pictographic script of ca. 3200 BC. http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/5/5.6/#2411 Stamp seal, large ibex walking left MS on black steatite or chlorite, North Syria or Anatolia, 4th millennium BC, 1 rectangular gabled stamp seal, 4,7x5,1x1,3 cm, pierced through. Provenance: 1. Erlenmeyer Collection, Basel (before 1958-1981); 2. The Erlenmeyer Foundation, Basel (1981-1997); 3. Sotheby's 12.6.1997:8. Anatolia and the Caucasus “Precious metals such as silver, gold, and tin attract merchants to the Anatolian plateau, particularly from the northern Mesopotamian city of Ashur. These merchants establish trading centers (karum)—such as the one at Kanesh (modern Kültepe)—and the details of their transactions are documented in cuneiform tablets, the earliest texts found in the region. During the fourteenth century, the Hittite kingdom, with its capital at Hattusha (modern Bogazköy) and religious center at Yazilikaya, creates an empire extending into northern Syria. By around 1200 B.C., Hattusha is violently destroyed and the Hittite empire collapses. In the Caucasus, the earlier culture of Kura-Araxes gives way to the Trialeti culture, known for its particular form of burial. Large mounds with extensive underground graves contain bronze weapons, tools, and unique artifacts in gold and silver.” http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/03/waa/ht03waa.htm Cuneiform tablet case, 1920–1840 B.C.; Old Assyrian Trading Colony period Central Anatolia, Kültepe (Karum Kanesh) Clay; L. 6 5/8 in. (16.8 cm) “When the merchants from Ashur in Assyria came to Anatolia early in the second millennium B.C., they brought with them the writing techniques invented in Mesopotamia: the script known as cuneiform ("wedge-shaped") and the medium of clay tablets encased in clay envelopes. The merchants also brought their art in the form of cylinder seals, which marked the traded goods, storerooms, and written records. The Assyrian merchants wrote in the Assyrian language, but tablets and cuneiform were later adopted in Anatolia by the Hittites, who wrote their own language with the imported techniques. The records of the Assyrian trading colonies, of which Kültepe

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(ancient Karum Kanesh) was one, provide detailed information about one part of a lively international trade in the early second millennium B.C. that extended from Egypt to the Caucasus to Central Asia and the Indus Valley. The Assyrian tablets describe the exchange of tin and textiles from Ashur for silver from Anatolia as well as detail the specifics of contracts and lawsuits, and about bandits and other misfortunes. The tablet contained in this case (MMA 66.245.5a) is the record of court testimony describing an ownership dispute of a business firm. The case is sealed with two different cylinder seals rolled across the front and back of the envelope in five parallel rows separated by plain clay. Both seals illustrate presentation scenes in which worshippers approach a larger seated figure holding a cup. The obverse, shown here, is also inscribed in cuneiform.� MS 4631 Bulla-envelope with 11 plain and complex tokens inside, representing an account or agreement, tentatively of wages for 4 days’ work, 4 measures of metal, 1 large measure of barley and 2 small measures of some other commodity Bulla in clay, Adab, Sumer, ca. 3700-3200 BC, 1 spherical bulla-envelope (complete), diam. ca. 6,5 cm, cylinder seal impressions of a row of men walking left; and of a predator attacking a deer, inside a complete set of plain and complex tokens: 4 tetrahedrons 0,9x1,0 cm (D.S.-B.5:1), 4 triangles with 2 incised lines 2,0x0,9 (D.S.-B.(:14), 1 sphere diam. 1,7 cm (D.S.-B.2:2), 1 cylinder with 1 grove 2,0x0,3 cm (D.S.-B.4:13), 1 bent paraboloid 1,3xdiam. 0,5 cm (D.S.-B.8:14). Context: MSS 4631-4646 and 5114-5127are from the same archive. Only 25 more bullaenvelopes are known from Sumer, all excavated in Uruk. Total number of bullaenvelopes worldwide is ca. 165 intact and 70 fragmentary. Commentary: While counting for stocktaking purposes started ca. 8000 BC using plain tokens of the type also represented here, more complex accounting and recording of agreements started about 3700 BC using 2 systems: a) a string of complex tokens with the ends locked into a massive rollsealed clay bulla (see MS 4523), and b) the present system with the tokens enclosed inside a hollow bulla-shaped rollsealed envelope, sometimes with marks on the outside representing the hidden contents. The bullaenvelope had to be broken to check the contents hence the very few surviving intact bulla- envelopes. This complicated system was superseded around 3500-3200 BC by counting tablets giving birth to the actual recording in writing, of various number systems (see MSS 3007 and 4647), and around 3300-3200 BC the beginning of pictographic writing. Gonur Tepe View of the palace complex at Gonur North. At the right, diggers shovel loosened earth from the pits to expose the ancient mud-brick walls. Margianan Archeological Expedition, was directed today by the Russian archeologist Victor Sarianidi. Dr. Sarianidi's work focused on the Late Bronze Age sites, dating to the first half of the second millennium BC, located in the ancient delta of the Murgab River, in the southeastern part of present day Turkmenistan. Gonur Tepe was the largest of dozens of scattered Bronze Age sites established here in the early second millennium. Gonur appears to have served as an

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administrative and religious center for the region, and as a hub for long distance trade. Its monumental architecture, and material remains in art and ornament indicate the high culture achieved before a variety of factors led to the movement of its peoples further south. Bronze belt stud, 2200-1800 BC, Northern Afghanistan Bronze Age, depicting a winged female figure poised between two griffins. This may be called a ‘compartmented seal’ perhaps worn on belts. Statuettes with female figurines are interpreted as related to Sarasvati (Bharat) and Anahita (Iran: cf. Yasht 5, Avesta). A pit grave in the necropolis. Ceramic vessels and a bronze mirror lie next to the skull. The skeleton shows knees and elbows flexed. In one grave, a fine, carved alabaster cylinder seal was unearthed; the seal showed a seated figure wearing a Sumerian kaunake garment. In a tomb was found a lamb, a huge scepter and a long pin of silver with a seated female figure at its base wearing a similar garment. In the Gonur Tepe palace, a youth was found buried inside a large ceramic vessel which included rich grave goods. Lapis, talc and a single, inch and a half long carnelian bead carved in chevron patterns were found encircling the neck. A single gold earring was embedded near the ear, and a half-dozen large, finely polished banded agate beads lay in the bottom of the vessel. Graves had only ceramic bowls, large, long-stemmed, undecorated goblets, long spouted vessels, ceramic strainers, bronze mirror. Small Talc stone head of a composite statue, Gonur. Torso is made of dark steatite. In Gonur south were found a religious complex—called fire temples -- which housed sacred fires, storage areas for pure white ash taken from the hearths. Also found were miniature columns made of various marble-like stones. There were many large rooms with walls 8-foot thick. Some small rooms had a large mud brick shelf covered with white plaster and often held a large clay vessel. The vessels seemed to contain the remnants of a drink; chemical analysis of remnants showed a mix of hemp, poppy and ephedra (which may be the precursor of Avestan haoma). Dashli Plan layout of palace at Dashli. (After Sarianidi, V. I., Die Kunst des Alten Afghanistan, Leipzig, 1986, p. 53; Brentjes, B., "Das Ur-Mandala" (?) from Daschly-3, Iranica Antiqua, XVIII / 1983.) According to Asko Parpola, this mandala is related to the Tantric Mahakali Yantra (Parpola, A., Margiana and the Aryan Problem, in, IASCCA Information Bulletin 19, Moscow, 1993.)

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In Dashli, a circular building was found with three concentric walls. The building had many rooms. Three fireplaces on platforms, together with charred remains of animals, were discovered. It is notable that similar charred remains of animals have been found in Kalibangan in the context of fire-altars. Prior to Zarathurstra’s influence, Iranians were fire-worshippers and not unlike the practices of yajn~a mentioned in the Vedic texts. It is, therefore, reasonable to argue that the fire-altars found in BMAC cultures could be related to migrations out of Bharat. Asko Parpola refers to the finds of ephedra as related to ‘haumavarga shaka’ (scythians) referred to in Zoroastrian texts. (Asko Parpola: “The coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the cultural and ethnic identity of the Dasas”, in Studia Orientalia, vol.64 (Helsinki 1988), p. 195-265.) Asko Parpola also notes that the fire-worshippers who used the circular structures are Iranian and that similar structures with three concentric walls survived in Iranian Bactria until Achaemenid times. (Asko Parpola, “The problem of the Aryans and the Soma”, in G. Erdosy: The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia, p.368.) Is it reasonable to correlate these structures with tripura mentioned only in the Brahmanas (and not in the Rigveda)? A vase found in Dashli showed men wearing a kind of upper garment leaving one shoulder uncovered. (Bernard Sergent: Genèse de l’Inde, p.163.) Wearing sacred thread (yajn~opavitam) is a Vedic and a Zoroastrian trait and so is the wearing of a uttariyam leaving the right-shoulder bare. The parallel is found in the statuette of the ‘priest king’ found in Mohenjodaro. Seated male figure with head missing (45, 46). On the back of the figure, the hair style can be partially reconstructed by a wide swath of hair and a braided lock of hair or ribbon hanging along the right side of the back. A cloak is draped over the edge of the left shoulder and covers the folded legs and lower body, leaving the right shoulder and chest bare. The left arm is clasping the left knee and the hand is visible peeking out from underneath the cloak. The right hand is resting on the right knee which is folded beneath the body. Material: limestone Dimensions: 28 cm height, 22 cm width Mohenjo-daro, L 950 Islamabad Museum Marshall 1931:358-9, pl. C, Some vases also depict horned snakes carrying one or more suns inside them. These are interpreted as the Vrtra dragon slayed by Indra (Rigveda RV 1:51:4, 1:54:6) or Azhi Srvara (the horned one) killed by Keresaspa (Avesta). R. Ghirshman notes that proto-Iranians traveled “to the south”. (R. Ghirshman: L’Iran et les Migrations des Indo-Aryans et des Iranians ,1977). It is possible that migrants from Bharat moved through the Amu Darya (Oxus) valley to the Aral Lake and proceeded south. This is however only a conjecture unattested by archaeological proof for any types of migrations through Central Asia or from Bharat via Amu Darya to Caspian

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region and Iran. Dasa and Pani are referred to as Iranian and Paktha – referred to in the battles on Parushni or Ravi river -- as Pathan. [This may attest to the early north-west movement of people from Sarasvati River basin before they moved further west through Bactria to the Aral Lake!] In Alexander’s time, Parnoi and Dahai (Pani? and Dasa?) are located south of Aral Lake. (Bernard Sergent: Genèse de l’Inde, p.241-244.) Painted Grey Ware pottery types which evolved in the Ganga doab circa 1500 to 800 BCE are not found in Central Asia, thus negating any archaeological evidence for migrations from Central Asia into Bharat. There is also no archaeological evidence to assert that Indo-Europeans emigrated out of Bharat sometime between circa 6000 and 2000 BCE. Even the theories of elite dominance to explain the Indo-Aryan languages as branch of Indo-European family have to conjecture that “[This] episode of elite dominance which brought the indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family to India (…) may have been as early as the floruit of the Indus civilization” (C. Renfrew: “Before Babel: Speculations on the Origins of Linguistic Diversity”, Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 1 (1), p.3-23, spec. p.14.) Sergent points to Indo-Aryans as responsible for the disruption of Mesopotamia caused by Hurrian and Kassite invasions and for the disruption of Indus Valley civilization, coming from Bactria, as disrupters of trade. Sergent notes that Indo-Aryan names were common in Syria and Palestine in 15th-13th century BCE (e.g. Birishena (Virasena) ruled Sichem, the Palestine town and Suardata (gift of heaven) ruled Qiltu near Jerusalem. Bernard Sergent: Genèse de l’Inde, p. 198-199, p.206 ff.). This is seen by Sergent, as evidence of separate Indo-Aryan presence outside the Mitannic kingdom until at least the 13th century BC. The thesis is that once the long-distance trade was disrupted and disappeared, the cities of Indus Valley had no reason to exist and hence, declined cities into unplanned settlements. Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex

Amulets and seals made of soft stone and pierced lengthwise often have a swastika engraved on one side. (Sarianidi, V. I., Die Kunst des Alten Afghanistan, Leipzig, 1986, Abb. 100; Fig. 1 after Sarianidi, V. I., Bactrian Centre of Ancient Art, Mesopotamia, 12 / 1977, Fig. 59 / 18; Fig. Of inter-locked snakes after Sarianidi, V. I., Seal-Amulets of the Murghab Style, in: Kohl, Ph. L., ed., The Bronze Age Civilization of Central Asia, New York, 1981, Fig. 7.). The endless knot motif is a feature also found on seals of Sarasvati-Sindhu valleys. Compartmented seal: a female figure seated on a feline. (After Sarianidi, V. I., Reperti ineditti da tombe battriane depredate, Mesopotamia, 28 / 1993, Fig. 7.) The detail of the bronze center piece of a shield found in Luristan and dated to the 7th or 8th century BC (Fig. 7) shows a human

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figure, again with raised arms, riding on a lion. (After: 7000 Ans d'Art en Iran, Paris, 1961, Pl. XX). BMAC Compartment seal; double-headed eagles. Two seals of Susa; two opposed animal-/bird-heads on each end. Some animals may be seen between the arms of the cross. (After Le Brenton, Louis, A propos de cachets archaïques susiens, Revue d'Assyriologie et d'Archeologie orientale, 50 / 1956, Fig. 11, 2) Megalithic graves had weapons and ancient poetry in Tamil provides evidence for adoration of warriors. (Asko Parpola: Deciphering the Indus Script, Cambridge University Press 1994, p. 171.) Harappans had weapons and had fortified settlements. (Shereen Ratnagar: Enquiries into the Political Organization of Harappan Society, Ravish Publ., Pune 1991.) Bactria is the basin of Oxus or Amu Darya river, in southern Uzbekistan. This could be the region of Balkh associated with Zarathushtra or Bahlika of Vedic texts. Balkh was the historical heartland and Iranians were moving westward towards the south-Caspian area as evidenced by Namazga culture in Turkenistan getting influenced by BMAC. (Bernard Sergent: Genèse de l’Inde, p.179.) Margiana is eastern Turkmenistan. Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) has produced ceramics (for e.g., at Shortugai) which resemble the ceramics of Chanhujo-daro. BMAC sites are in present-day Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Iran. Shortugai (circa 1800 BCE) is located on a tributary of Amu Darya close to Badakshan hills and close to gold, lapis lazuli, silver, copper and lead mines. Many BMAC settlements also produce evidence of metal weapons. Settlements such as those of Shortugai are temporary settlements, with short-lived occupations, hastily constructed following the plan layouts of Harappan cities. Akhmadali A. Askarov notes that BMAC similarities to Harappan town layouts evidence: “influence of northwestern India on Bactria by means of a migration of Indus people to Central Asia after the end of their civilization.” (A.A. Askarov: “Traditions et innovations dans la culture du nord de la Bactriane à l’age du bronze”, Colloque Archèologie, CNRS, Paris 1985, p.119-124.) The Bronze Age displays of the museum in Mary, Turkmenistan, include several small imported south-east Iranian carved softstone bowls and bottles (Gonur, Togolok 21), a 172


curious metre-long softstone sceptre with a hollow bronze head (Gonur), a square bronze stamp seal and several clay figurines showing two-humped camels, local ceramic copies of Iranian sheet-metal spouted jars (Gonur), a lapis bead necklace found around the neck of an eighteen-year-old girl (Togolok 21), an Indus etched carnelian bead (Altyn-depe) and Victor Sarianidi's excavations at the Bronze Age sites of Gonur-depe and Togolok 21. Ephedra was discovered in Togolok. (Harri Nyberg: “The problem of the Aryans and the Soma: the botanical evidence”, in G. Erdosy: The Indo-Aryans in Ancient South Asia, p.382-406.) The Altyn Depe ('Golden Hill') fortress dates back to the the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE. During the excavations a monumental cult complex with ziggurat dedicated to the God of Moon was opened. In its structural relation "the town" consisted of living quarters of handicraftsmen with narrow (1-1.5 m) lanes between the close many-room houses, quarters of townspeople, with lanes of 1.7-2.1 m and the quarters for citadel with strict distinct planning, wide and straight streets (up to 2.5 m). Anau Anau (means: ‘new water’) seal (black stone 1.3 X 1.4 cm.) belonged where it was found, by Dr. Fredrik T. Hiebert of the University of Pennsylvania, in a layer of the ruins dated at 2300 B.C., in excavations of ruins of a settlement near Ashgabat, Turkmenistan's capital. The inscription was emphasized with a reddish pigment. Was the seal used for marking trade goods? Anau, southern Turkmenistan, near Iran. The fortress-like buildings in Anau outsize the biggest structures of ancient Mesopotamia, some are equivalent to the base of the pyramids. Bronze ax in form of bird's head with clear eye and feather going back, circa 2,000 B. C. "Bone tube" carved with stylized head, circa 2,000 B. C. What was the tube used for? Hiebert makes a guess: “We're not exactly sure, but it was found in piles of dirt we have analyzed that had a tremendous amount of ephedra. Ephedra is a type of plant that ancient Zorastrians used to create a ritual drink that allowed them to hallucinate and get closer to God. It may well be that the tube was used in some pre- Zorastrial ritual involving ephedra. Ephedra has medicinal factors. The decongestant Sudafed is made from the same ephedra chemical. But if you take it in some quantity and mix it with a poppy or

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opium, it would have the effect of giving you visions or hallucinations.” (Archaeologists Find Central Asia Civilization As Old As Sumeria http://www.crystalinks.com/firstasians.html) Many objects with epigraphs and other artifacts of the civilization are collected outside Pakistan and Bharat as may be seen from examples of collections: D. T. Potts, A "Lost" Seal from Harappa in the Nicholson Museum (Sydney) in: Klaus Karttunen and Petteri Koskikallio ed., 2001, Vidyarnavavandanam. Essays in Honour of Asko Parpola, Studia Orientalia 94, Suomen Itämainen Seura Glyhs on Epigraphs “The earliest archaeological evidence for the use of cylinder seals comes from the trash pits of a small site in southwestern Iran called Sharafabad, where impressions of engraved cylinder seals were found mixed with Middle Uruk pottery dated to around 3700 BCE. From slightly later, both at the large site of Uruk (modern Warka in southern Mesopotamia and at Susa (biblical Shushan, modern Shush) in Iranian Khuzestan, we find preserved the full range of administrative documents and tools, including abundant evidence for seals. While locks for the doors of storage rooms and sealings over the cords securing the contents of vessels and other containers continued to be marked with seals, the Uruk and Susa evidence clearly indicates a need to record information that would soon lead to the invention of writing. Cylinder seals are closely associated with that process. By the Late Uruk period (end of fourth millennium), a complex system of recording was devised that used ‘tokens’ enclosed in hollow clay balls (figure), tablets marked with tally signs, or biconical tags that were probably suspended from containers. All of these devices were impressed on the outside with one, two, or three different cylinder seals. During the more than three thousand years in which clay was used as the primary medium for cuneiform writing, the cylinder was the predominant shape for seals…Although cylinders tended to dominate throughout the millennia, stamp seals are always used, particularly in the regions surrounding Mesopotamia. Among the Hittites, stamp seals were carved for private, but most notably for royal use…The Sumerian term for seal cutter is BUR.GUL; the Akkadian is purkullu…In a second millennium text from Alalakh (modern Tell Atchana) in Syria, seal cutters are listed among other artisans, such as carpenters, stonemasons, carpet weavers, leather workers, and metal smiths…At Shahr-I-Sokhte (Shah-I-Sokhta) in eastern Iran, a place through which large quantities of lapis lazuli from the Hindu Kush must have passed, worn stone drills and masses of chips of worked stone were found over large areas of the site…

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[cf.A word cognate with Akkadian purkullu is: por-kollan- = kamma_l.an-, goldsmith (Tamil.lex.)] Indian archer shown on a coin (provenance unknown).

Unicorn seal ROM 996.74.5 Royal Ontario Museum, Canada

Seal impression. Royal Ontario Museum, Canada (No ROM number)

2645 valley old akkadian illustration. North West Afghanistan, ca. 21st cent.

MS Indus script, and

This seal links Indus Valley and Old Akkadian civilizations. The seal is of blue stone, North West Afghanistan, ca. 23rd-21st c. BC, 1 cylinder seal, 3,9x2,7 cm, 5 Indus valley signs, illustration standing archer aiming his bow at a falling boar, in the style of the best Old Akkadian art in Sumer. Harappa, potsherd.

Experts believe that this seal may have been used by a merchant from the Indus Valley who was living in Bahrein or Babylon. This seal was found in the Mesopotamian city of Babylon. The seal shows a bull and has a short inscription in the Indus Valley script. However, it is not square like seals from the Indus Valley. It is round with a knob on the back, which is more like seals from the Gulf island of Bahrein which date from about 2000 B.C. Other seals like this were found in the Sumerian city of Ur. A copy of a square, Indus-type seal with a picture of a bull was also found at Ur. However, this seal had an inscription in cuneiform script rather than in the Indus Valley script.

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Harappa, seals, sealings and other miscellaneous objects of faience, stone, etc. selected for the Burdin Fine Arts Exhibition http://www.photocentralasia.com/specialex/specialexphotos06.html

A group of six steatite seals, each with a depiction of an ox before an altar beneath a row of pictographic symbols; the reverse with a pierced boss.

http://www.asianartresource.co.uk/mall/asianartresourcecouk/products/product823937.stm Steatite seals in the British Museum

(British Museum1892-1210, 1) Ganweriwala. Surface find on a mound (2007). Hieroglyphs on one side: Gummat.a, kummat.a ‘arch,

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canopy, roof’ (Te.Ta.H.); rebus: kumpat.i ‘chafing dish’ (Te.) kamad.ha ‘penance’ (Pkt.); rebus, kampat.t.am ‘mint’ (Ta.); ko_lemmu ‘backbone’ (Te.); rebus, kolimi ‘furnace’ (Te.)

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Slide 278 broken steatite seal

seal

Slide 350 Unicorn

Slide 351 Copper tablet

Slide 326 Large unicorn seal Clay tablet with a

poem in Sumerian, dated to circa 1500 BCE. God Enki describes Meluhha. Discovered in 1898 by Herman Hilprecht and John Peters – Universityh of Pennsylvania -at Nippur..(After Louvre/Art Resource) Button seal (circa 2800 to 2600 BCE). Harappa. (After JM Kenoyer/Courtesy Dept. of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Pakistan). Seal showing a horned tiger. Mohenjodaro. (After Scala/Art Resource).

Signboard on the North Gate leading to the

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walled citadel. Dholavira. Courtesy ASI. There is a glyph common to the Dholavira sign board, to the epigraph on the horned-tiger seal and the glyph on the button seal of Harappa. The glyph is a ‘lid, cover’ for a pot: ^ Lexemes: ad.aren, d.aren lid, cover (Santali) Rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.). It is possible to unravel many substratum lexemes of Mleccha (Meluhhan) and at the same time, decode the epigraphs; the key is to unravel the dialectical continuum of the linguistic area circa 5500 years Before Present. Since the cultural traits of the civilization which evolved about 5500 years Before Present are present even today in Bharat, the languages of Bharat constitute the data set for decoding lexemes of such a dialectical continuum. A remarkable cultural trait which continues into the historical periods of Bharat is the use of copper plates to record epigraphs as property transactions. The epigraphs are the artifacts created by artisans of the Sarasvati civilization, the metal workers who recorded the ownership of the furnaces and trade in a civilizational resource: stones, metals and minerals. This hypothesis on language, writing system and function served by the epigraphs, will be tested further in a separate volume of the Saptathi Sarasvati, the septet of 7 volumes on Sarasvati.

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Impression of an Akkadian cylinder seal (ca. 2350-2100 BCE) variously interpreted as potting or cheese-making (after Boehmer 1965: no.693). Another interpretation could be that a man is offering a sword to the eagle-person. The three animals following this man could denote some metallurgical objects. The brazier is inscribing a vessel at the top-left.

Metal artifacts of the Bronze Age from southern Turkmenia. a,c.d Altin-depe; b Anau; e Ashkhabad; f Daina (After fig. 30 in: V.M. Masson and V.I. Sarianidi, 972, Central Asia: Turkmenia before the Achaemen**ids, New York, Praeger Publishers) Lead and arsenic was often added to the bronze. Some objects from Namazga-depe contained as much as 80 lead and in one case the artifact was even made of brass (an alloy of copper and zinc). Twin moulds were used for casting; precious metals including gold and silver were also used. There are analogies of metal artifacts in the Harappan assemblages; for example, flag daggers without a midrib which were quite atypical for Hissar, were very widespread both in southern Turkmenia and in the Indus Valley. Artifacts including golden head of bull. Southern Turkmenia, Margiana, Bactria: 4-7 golden head of bull and seals from Altyn depe (Developed Bronze Age); 8-21 seals and amulets of Bactria and Margiana (After Fig.4 in L.P'yankova, Central Asia in the Bronze Age: sedentary and nomadic cultures, in: Antiquity 68 (1994): 355372).4.4 golden head of a bull with a turquoise sickle inlaid in the forehead; 4.5: steatite plate with an image of cross and half-moon. Procession of animals Bronze dish found by Layard at Nimrud: circular objects are decorated by consecutive chains of animals following each other round in a circle. A similar theme occurs on the famous silver vase of Entemena. In the innermost circle, a troop of gazelles (similar to the ones depicted on cylinder seals) march along in file; the middle register has a variety of animals, all marching in the same direction as the gazelles. A one-horned bull, a winged griffin, an ibex and a gazelle, are followed by two bulls who are being attacked by lions, and a griffin, a onehorned bull, and a gazelle, who are all respectively being attacked by leopards. In the outermost zone there is a stately procession of realistically conceived one-horned bulls

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marching in the opposite direction to the animals parading in the two inner circles. The dish has a handle. (Percy S.P.Handcock, 1912, Mesopotamian Archaeology, London, Macmillan and Co., p. 256). Cf. pasaramu, pasalamu = quadrupeds (Telugu); rebus: pasra = smithy ! (Santali) Smithy for varieties of minerals and metals, indeed. “Of lasting

significance were attempts to lighten the disk wheels, as first seen on a third-millennium seal from Hissar IIIB (fig.2). On it, the central plank, through which the axle passes, is narrowed to a diametral bar; the flanking planks of the Hissar. Depiction of a wheel on a seal from Hissar IIIB. 3rd millennium BCE (After Figure 2, Littauer and Crouwel, 979). tripartite wheel are eliminated, and the former bonding slats are turned into sturdy transverse bars between the diametral bar and the felloe. This crossbar wheel is also clearly illustrated in the second millennium BCE, fixed on a revolving axle; it has remained in use with simple carts in various parts of the world. Pirak, Baluchistan, ca. 1000 BCE. Geometric seals in terracotta and bronze. [After Fig. 9.12 in JM Kenoyer, 1998]. The second millennium cylinder seals of Mitanni, both from east and west of the Mitanni empire, i.e. from Nuzi and Alalakh, show glyptic art motifs of Babylonia, either directly or through what is called Syrian glyptic. Cylinder seal impressions: (a) Nuzi (D. Stein); (b) Ugarit (Schaeffer-Forrer 1983); (c) Alalakh (Collon 1982); (d) Alalakh (Collon 1982); (e) Nuzi (D. Stein); (f) Nuzi (D.Stein); (g) Ugarit (Schaeffer-Forrer 1983); (h) Alalakh (Collon 1982). The styles are: juxtaposed antelope, humans and trees framed by geometric patters. The styles have prehistoric roots in Mesopotamia and glyphs such as an antelope with its head turned, jointed animal heads are also seen in Harappan inscription motifs.

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+Cylinder seal impression of Idrimi of Alalakh (Collon 1975); Legend: Idrimi, servant of IM; the seal was used by Idrimi's son, Niqmepa. Secondary scenes of opposing animals and dimunitive motifs with wings are on superimposed registers divided by a spiral (guilloche) pattern. Cylinder seal impression of Niqmepa or Ilimilimma (Collon 975); Legend: ...(?), Niqmepa. The heraldic composition of Saus'tatar's seal occurs at Alalakh on this seal of Niqmepa or his son, Ilimilimma.

Seal of the 'Ruler of Susa' (Source: Dahl, 2007

http://compling.ai.uiuc.edu/2007Workshop/Slides/dahl.pdf ) Chaldean seal showing a goat, tabernae Montana, tree. Tabernae Montana is a motif also seen on Sarasvati hieroglyphs. Cylinder seal impression of Ithiason of Kipi-tes's'up (Drawn by D. Stein); Legend: Ithia king of Arrapha son of Kipites's'up; this is noted as early eastern court style: full-scale figures interspersed with filler motifs.

Urkesh norther Mesopotamian city; bronze lion protome; New York Meropolitan Museum of Art; two bronze lion protomes protected the foundation tablets of the temple dedicated to Nerigal by the Hurrian king Tis'ata end of third millennium BC; inspiration seems to be from the Mesopotamian tradition of lion representation particularly in Akkadian art. Cylinder seal of Tehes'-atal the scribe (British Museum); Legend: Zabazuna strong king: Tehes'-atal the scribe is your servant). The seal is modelled on Ur III presentation scenes of the 'Arad-zu' type, in which a worshipper stands before the

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seated king. On this seal, the king is seated on a throne rather tan the usual padded stool, one of the worshippers is not bareheaded and neither raises his right hand, as on the metropolitan prototypes. (Diana L. Stein, 'Art and Architecture', in: Gernot Wilhelm, 1989, The Hurrians, trans. by Jennifer Barnes, Warminster, Aris and Phillips Ltd.). Lapis lazuli Cylinder seal of Zardamu King of Karahar (British Museum); Karhar is on upper Diya_la near the Zagros foothills; Legend: Zardamu, Sun-God of his land; beloved of Nergal, his god; Annunitum, his mother; S'ul-pae, his...; [of DN], his...; En-sig-nun, who walks on his right; ...of S'amas', his? Tammuz; strong king, king of Karahar and king of the Four Parts, spouse of Is'tar. The iconography harks back to the famous victory stele of Naram-suen in the Louvre. "In the tradition set by this Akkadian king and revived by the rulers of the Ur III Dynasty, Zardamu describes himself as divine king of the Four Quarters of the Earth (Sollberger 1980) and depicts himself in ascending posture, trampling on his fallen enemy.

Cylinder seal impression of S'uttarna, son of Kirta (Collon, 975); Tell Atchana (Alalakh IV), Turkey. Impressions on tablets AT 13,14. Legend: Suttarna, son of Kirta, King of Maittani; two lions are defeated by a central single human-headed liondemon in bird costume; worn and recut, the seal is used as a dynastic emblem by Saus'tatar in mid second millennium BC; two tablets found in Alalakh which record judicial decisions taken by Saushtatar are authenticated with the 'dynastic seal', which bears the legend' S'uttarna, son of Kirta, king of Maitani'. The seal reflects the style of Post Akkadian and Ur III periods (Collon 1975). "The contest scene, first introduced as a frieze of overlapping figures during the Early Dynastic period, is epitomized at the height of the Akkadian period as a symmetrically composed conflict between balanced pairs of protagonists. Long associated with kingship, this theme developed into the three-figured struggle depicted on the seal of S'uttarna, in which an animal victim is pitted against two human assailants (Collon 1982: 111). The seal was used as a dynastic seal by Saushtatar of Mitanni in about 1450 BCE; it was probably originally cut in the late 3rd millennium BCE but was subsequently recut along the lines of the original design and a new inscription was added. Antakya and BM; Collon, 1975, No. 230. Towards the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE, a new material for seals arrived. This was sintered quartz, also known as composition (or, less accurately, as faience, frit or paste). This composition is often used in the beads and seals of the Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization. This opaque material, which was easy to cut and could be fired and glazed, made it possible to mass-produce seals. Cylinder seal impression: Nuzi (Drawn by D. Stein); Alalakh (Collon, 1982). Hunting scenes with the motifs scattered freely in the field.

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BM 89315; haematite; Frankfort, 1939, Pl. XXXIa. This is an Old Babylonian seal depicting the king with a mace between two suppliant godesses, to which Mitannian figures have been added, together with a two-register scene based on Syrian iconography (Collon, 1987, Fig. 268).

Cylinder

seal

impression: Ugarit (Schaeffer1983)--contest, hunting scenes. Alalakh (Collon a register of in a row above a row of worshippers; two antelopes in opposition, a standing lion. Nuzi--person seated on a throne in front of a standing row of animals on top register, antelope? (Drawn by D.

Forrer

1982)-animals

lion, a Stein).

Cylinder seal impression of Ithi-tes's'up son of Kipites's'up; Nuzi Iraq. Impression on property decree. Legend: IthiTeshub son of Kip-Teshub king of Arrapha (Kirkuk) rolls out this seal on (a tablet concerning) a legal decision about fields and houses. For evermore let no-one break (the tablet). 5.1 cm.; (D. Stein; Collon, 1987, Fig. 269). The second seal of Ithi-Tes's'up displays many demons and deities which typify the late court style at Nuzi. Divided here on two levels, the demonic figures composed of lion, fish, bird, scorpion, snake and hina elements, have been interpreted as creatures of the netherworld (Porada 1979). The design is comparable to the design on Saushtatar's seal. Nuzi lay in the territory of Arappha. A similar design appears on the seal found near Khorsabad (Dur Sharrukin), Iraq. BM 89819 (Badger Coll. 1853); pink and white jasper; Wiseman, 1959, Pl. 51; Collon, 1987, Fig. 270.

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A corpus of Sarasvati Epigraphs (Indus Script) – Epigraphica Sarasvati This is a comprehensive corpus of inscribed objects and corresponding texts of inscriptions, a compilation based mostly on published photographs in archaeological reports right from the days of Alexander Cunningham who discovered a seal at Harappa in 1875, of Langdon at Mohenjodaro (1931) and of Madhu Swarup Vats at Harappa (1940).. The corpus includes objects collected in Bha_rata, Pakistan, other countries and the finds of the excavations at Harappa by Kenoyer and Meadow during the season 1994-1995 and 1999-2000. Based on these resources and from the collections of inscribed objects held in many museums of the world, such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the corpus of Sarasvati epigraphs includig lists of Sarasvati heiroglyphs, has been made comprehensive to include almost all facets of glyptic art of Sarasvati Civilization. For comparing the pictorial or glyptic motifs, a selected number of Mesopotamian/Akkadian / Elamite cylinder seal impressions and pictures of artifacts from Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex have also been included. Duplicate epigraphs Though the corpus is limited, it is surprising that there is a substantial number of duplicate inscriptions; this has become apparent from the recent report of excavations at Harappa (1993 to 1995 seasons). Obviously, the inscriptions do not represent not ‘names’ of owners. The inscriptions could simply be ‘functions’ performed by or the ‘professional title’ of the person who carried the inscribed object on his wrist (or as a pendant attached to a necklace) or the list of objects he/she was invoicing for trade (as bill of lading) or to list possessions of property items listed). This hypothesis gets re-inforced by (1) the finds of inscriptions on copper tablets (again, with many duplicates – all apparently made by a metal-worker and hence may relate to metal objects produced, say, in an armoury); and (2) the presence of over 200 inscribed objects with no sign (only pictorial motif) or just one or two signs. [The signs could hardly have been alphabets or syllables since there are not many ‘names’ attested in the historical periods with just one or two syllables.] In the Bharatiya tradition, the use of copper plate inscriptions served the purpose of recording property transactions, listing possessions of property items. Direction of writing did not matter much “Although it seems established that the Indus script was read from right to left (summarized in Mahadevan, 1977, pp. 10-14; Parpola, 1994, pp. 64-67), seal cutters must have engraved it from left to right. This can be shown in some cases by inverting the logic used to establish directionality of reading…Mahadevan (1977, p. 14) has noted that over 6% of the written items he documented have the script running from left to right…Directionality, in at least some instances, perhaps did not matter much, leading one to suspect that it may have been

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what the piece represented and not what it literally said that was important. “ [Richard Meadow and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, 1997, Excavations at Harappa 1994-1995: new perspectives on the Indus script, craft activities, and city organization, in: Raymond Allchin and Bridget Allchin, 1997, South Asian Archaeology 1995, Oxford and IBH Publishing, pp. 157-163]. The use of the rebus methodology is justified on the following evidence and analysis: The pictographs to which 'sound-bites' need to be tagged, as keys to the process of decoding the inscriptions, cover a wide range and number of inscribed objects as shown by the following frequencies (out of 13,372 occurrences of signs and 100 pictorial motifs (the frequencies are only indicative numbers, hence, approximate and are subject to change as the orthography of many pictographs and signs get more precisely identified):

Frequency range 1000 or more 999-500 499-100 99-50 49-10 9-2 Only once

No. of signs 1 1 31 34 86 152 112

Total sign occurrences 1395 649 6344 2381 1833 658 112

Percentage 10.43 4.85 47.44 17.81 13.71 4.92 .84

Cumulative percentags 10.43 15.28 62.72 80.53 94.24 99.16 100.00

Thus, only 67 signs account for a total of 80.53 percent of all occurrences of signs on inscribed objects.[After Mahadevan, 1977: 17].

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Over 45 sites where objects with epigraphs have been discovered – dated circa 3300 BCE to 1500 BCE. The sites extend from Tepe Gawra on Tigris river on the west to Alamgirpur on Yamuna river on the east; from Altin Tepe in the north -- east of Caspian Sea (south of Turkmenistan) to Maski on Krishna river on the south. The expanse across the Persian Gulf and along the coastline of the Arabian Sea is matched by the riverine sites on the banks of Rivers Sindhu and Sarasvati. The rivers and the coastline were a veritable waterway enabling an extraordinary reach of the civilization exemplified by about 4,000 objects with epigraphs over this vast region stretching over 5000 kms from east to west and 2000 kms. from north to south and over a time horizon of nearly two millennia. (Map after Asko Parpola and Jagatpati Joshi, 1988, Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions, Volume 1, Helsinki, Academia Scientiarum Fennica and Map 8 in: Jane R. McIntosh, 2002, A Peaceful Realm – the Rise and Fall of the Indus Civilization, New York, Westview Press). The clustering of the find sites around the Sarasvati Sindhu river basins and the coasts of Gulf of Khambat and Kutch point to Meluhha (mleccha) as the language underlying the epigraphs. The key to identifying the linguistic area lies in the fact that out of the discovery sites many are on Sarasvati Basin wherefrom the Bharatiya cultural identity emerged. The clue is apparent. The present-day languages of Bharat are to be traced to the language lineage of this basin which nurtured a riverine, maritime civilization. These languages hold the rebus key to the Sarasvati heiroglyphs. Epigraph Discovery Sites and Epigraphs held in Museums The epigraphs of Sarasvati (Bharatiya) Civilization contained in over 3000 objects present a remarkably uniform writing system over an expansive area and from over 45 sites ranging from Rakhigarhi on the east to Shahitump on the west, from Ropar on the north to Daimabad in the south. Epigraphs have also been found in neighbouring civilization sites such as: Ur, Tepe Yahya, in areas now called Iran, Iraq and Persian Gulf States.

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Alamgirpur Allahdino Amri Balakot Banawali Bet Dwaraka Chandigarh Chanhudaro Daimabad Desalpur Dholavira Gharo Bhiro (Nuhato) Gumla Harappa Hissam-dheri Hulas Jhukar Kalibangan Kalako-deray Khirsara Kot-diji Lewandheri Loebanr Lohumjodaro Lothal Maski Mehi Mehrgarh Mohenjodaro Nindowari-damb Nausharo Naro-Waro-dharo Pabumath Prabhas Patan (Somnath) Pirak Rangpur Rakhigarhi Rahman-dheri Rohira Rojdi Rupar Shahi-tump Sibri-damb Surkotada Tarkhanewala-dera

Tarakai Qila Unknown Provenance Museum Guimet, France Harappa 1993-95 excavations Proto-elamite glyptics Mohenjodaro: other objects West Asia Near East Ashmolean Museum, Oxford Tell Suleimah, Iraq Pierport Morgan Library, New York Tell Asmar (Eshnunna), Iraq Gulf states Early Harappan bowl with ‘fish’ glyph Nippur Ur Saharanpur, Western Uttar Pradesh Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Nausharo and other sites Inscribed objects from Harappa 2000-2001 Manuscripts in Schoyen Collection Parallels from Mesopotamia (and Anatolia) Shaft-hole axhead (Bactria-Margiana) Anatolia and the Caucasus Bulla-envelope, Adab, Sumer Royal Ontario Museum Burdin Fine Arts Exhibition Steatite seals in the British Museum

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Heiroglyphs and frequencies of occurrence on epigraphs One-horned bull with a pannier Shor-horned bull Zebu or Bra_hman.i bull Buffalo Elephant Tiger (including tiger looking back) Boar Goat-antelope Ox-antelope Hare Ligatured animal Alligator Fish Frog Serpent

Tree

1159 + 5 (with two horns) 95 +2 (in opposition) 54 14 55 + 1 (horned) 16 + 5 (horned) 39 + 1 (in opposition) 36 + 1 (flanking a tree) 26 10 +1 (object shaped like hare) 41 49 14 (objects shaped like fish); fish also a sign 1 10 34 + 1 (leaves); leaf also a sign tebr.a, tebor. = thrice (Santali) ta(m)bra = copper (Pkt.); tibira = copper merchant (Akkadian)

67 Dotted circle ghan:ghar ghon:ghor ‘full of holes’ (Santali); rebus: kan:gar ‘portable furnace (K.) 23 rebus: satthiya_ ‘dagger, knife’ Svastika (Pkt.) satva 'zinc' (Ka.) 4 Endless-knot Double-axe 14 (inscribed objects shaped like axe) Standard device (lathe, portable 19 furnace) Rimmed narrow-necked jar 1395 Fish signs 1241 Leaf signs 100 Spoked wheel 203 Cart frame + wheels 26 Sprout (or, tree stylized) 800 Water-carrier 220 Scorpion 106 Claws (of crab) 130 + 90 (shaped like pincers) Arrow (spear) 227 Rimless, wide-mouthed pot 350

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Dagger and axes found in an Ur grave

Sumerian double-bladed axe, Ur [V. Gordon Childe, 1929, The Most Ancient East: the oriental prelude to European prehistory, London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co. Ltd., Fig. 72 b.]

Copper tablet (Double-edged battle-axe): Mohenjodaro M 0592B kud.i sakam the blade of the kudali (Santali.lex.) [Note the pictorial of 'leaf'; it may be read as 'sakam' or leaf, i.e. the metal blade of a weapon].guji kud.i = a kod.ali or hoe worked by taking hold of both ends of the handle (Santali.lex.) kat.a kud.i = pronged hoe; kat.a kat.i = cutting; to slash, kill (Santali.lex.).

m0592At m0592Bt 3413 Pict-133: Double-axe (?) without shaft. [The sign is comparable to the sign which appears on the text of a

Chanhudaro

seal:

Text

6422,

Chanhudaro

Seal

23].

Chanhudaro23

6402 Goat-antelope with a short tail. The object in front of the goat-antelope is a double-axe.

Unit of analysis: inscribed object We have to be very cautious in interpreting the individual signs and individual pictorials; because, given the small size of the corpus, virtually ANY lexemic or phonemic or even artistic (cultural) value may be assigned and ANY language may be read into the inscriptions, if inscriptions they are, ‘readable’ in a language and do not merely represent artistic extravaganzas. Total objects presented in Parpola pictorial corpuses and Mahadevan concordance are a statistically small population, further fragmented due to the 400 to 500 signs (including variants and ligatures of basic signs) and over 100 (including variants and pictorial ligatures yielding the so-called 'fabulous' animals categories). Thus, statistical stratification techniques assuming a normal distribution of population cannot provide statistically verifiable results. Hence, an inscribed object is the unit of analysis. Considering that as many as 273 (111 + 42 + 120) inscriptions are communicated using two signs or less (with or without a pictorial motif or 'field symbol'), it may not be appropriate to

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assign syllabic or alphabetic values to each sign or each pictorial. Each pictorial or each sign may contain a 'word' or 'lexeme'.(Unless, of course, the entire messaging system is cryptographic using 'syllabic' or 'alphabetic' codes; this we think, is unlikely considering the nature of the cylinder seals in Mesopotamia mainly with pictorials used to convey movable property items.) One clue emerges from the fact that there are inscribed object with only pictorials (i.e. without any sign constituting a ‘text’): the pictorials are as important as signs and must be 'deciphered' to understand the message conveyed by the inscription on an object. Another clue may be surmised considering that there are inscribed objects with just a single sign: a sign by itself may constitute a message and hence may be a lexeme. Nature of objects with epigraphs Possessions and objects made could be described on epigraphs on many types of objects, such as: seals, tablets, copper plates, bangles and even on a monumental display-board (like an advertisement hoarding). The frequencies in parenthesis are based on Mahadevan conordance (which excludes objects that do not contain a 'sign'); the actual numbers will be higher based on the more comprehensive Parpola photo corpus which includes inscriptions containing only pictorials. Seals (1814) Tablets (in bas-relief or inscribed) (511)*[including Seal Impressions] Miniature tablets (of stone, terracotta or faience) (272) Copper tablets (plates) (135) Bronze implements/weapons (11) Seal Impressions* Pottery graffitii (119) Ivory or bone rods (29) Inscribed on stone, bracelets (or, bangles), Ivory plaque, Ivory dice, Carnelian tablet, Terracotta ball, Brick (15) Display-board (Dholavira or Kotda with 10 signs, possibly atop a gateway) (1) Almost all the miniature tablets are from Harappa; almost all copper tablets are from Mohenjodaro. An inference is that the miniature tablets served the same function as the copper tablets which evidence repetitive messages or sign sequences. Many epigraphs could have been recorded only by metal-smith-fire-workers This classification provides a clue as to the function served by many inscriptions: inscriptions on bronze implements/weapons (11) and copper tablets (135) could perhaps have been done only by a metal-smith-fire-worker. There is a reasonable inference here: many messages may relate to the 'economic activity' of metal-smiths. This inference is consistent with the emergence of the Bronze Age in neighbouring civilizations which have also attested

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to contacts with the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization sites (witness, for e.g. the finds of cylinder seals in Bha_rati_ya sites and the finds of 'Indus' seals and artefacts in Mesopotamian sites.) Framework for decoding the inscriptions of Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization This is also intended to serve as a pictorial and text index to Mahadevan Concordance and to the two volumes published so far of pictorial corpus of Parpola et al. Texts are indexed to the text numbers of Mahadevan concordance. The choice of this concordance is based on four factors: (a) the concordance is priced at a reasonable cost; (b) it is a true concordance for every sign of the corpus to facilitate an analysis of the frequency of occurrence of a sign and the context of other sign clusters/sequences in relation to a sign and for researchers to cross-check on the basic references for the inscribed objects; (c) the exquisite nature of orthography is notable and ‘readings’ are authentic, even for very difficult to read inscriptions; and (d) signs and variants of signs have been delineated with cross-references to selected text readings. Mahadevan concordance excludes inscribed objects which do not contain ‘texts’; for example, this concordance excludes about 50 seals inscribed with the ‘svastika_’ pictorial motif and a pectoral which contains the pictorial motif of a one-horned bull with a device in front and an over-flowing pot. Parpola concordance has been used to present such objects which also contain valuable orthographic data which may assist in decoding the inscriptions. Many broken objects are also contained in Parpola concordance which are useful, in many cases, to count the number of objects with specific ‘field symbols’, a count which also provides some valuable clues to support the decoding of the messages conveyed by the ‘field symbols’ which dominate the object space. Cross-references to excavation numbers, publications, photographs and the museum numbers based on which these texts have been compiled are provided in Appendix V: List of Inscribed Objects (pages 818 to 829) in Iravatham Mahadevan, 1977, The Indus Script: Texts, Concordance and Tables, Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India No. 77, New Delhi, Archaeological Survey of India, Rs. 250. In most cases, these text numbers are matched with the inscribed objects after Asko Parpola concordance [Two volumes: Rs. 21,000: 1. Jagat Pati Joshi and Asko Parpola, eds., 1987, Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions: 1. Collections in India, Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India No. 86, Helsinki, Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia; 2. Sayid Ghulam Mustafa Shah and Asko Parpola, eds., 1991, Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions: 2. Collections in Pakistan, Memoirs of the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Pakistan, Vol. 5, Helsinki, Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia]. Memoir of ASI No. 96 Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions, Vol. II by Asko Parpola, B.M. Pande and Petterikoskikallio (containing copper tablets) is in press (December 2001). The debt owed to Shri Iravatham Mahadevan, Dr. Asko Parpola, Archaeological Survey of India, Department of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Pakistan and Finnish Academy for making this presentation possible is gratefully acknowledged. I am grateful to Iravatham Mahadevan who made available to me his annotated personal copy of a

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document which helped in collating the texts with the pictures of inscribed objects. [Kimmo Koskenniemi and Asko Parpola, 1980, Cross references to Mahadevan 1977 in: Documentation and Duplicates of the Texts in the Indus Script, Helsinki, pp. 26-32]. Abbreviations and references to images and texts of inscriptions m-Mohenjodaro h-Harappa ABCDE at the end of a reference number indicate side numbers of an inscribed object. Multiple seal impressions on the same object are numbered 1 to 4. At the end of the reference number: ‘a’ sealing; ‘bangle’ inscription on bangle or bangle fragment; other objects: shell, ivory stick, ivory plaque, ivory cube, faience ornament, steatite ornament; ‘ct’ copper tablet; ‘Pict-‘ Pictorial motifs ( 0 to 145) described as illustrations of field-symbols in Appendix III of Mahadevan corpus (pp. 793 to 813); ‘it’ inscribed tablet; ‘si’ seal impression; ‘t’ tablet Illegible inscribed objects are excluded in the following tabulations. Many potsherds Rahmandheri and Nausharo are excluded since the ‘signs’ are considered to be potters’ marks; only those inscriptions which appear to have parallels of field symbols or ‘signs’ in the corpus are included. Pitfalls of normalising orthography of some glyphs Parpola (1994) identifies 386 (+12?) signs (or graphemes) and their variant forms. Mahadevan (1977) identifies 419 graphemes; out of these 179 graphemes have variants totalling 641 forms. [See Sign List and Variants]. Parpola observes: "…the grapheme count might be as low as 350…The total range of signs once present in the Indus script is certain to have been greater than is observable now, for new signs have kept turning up in new inscriptions. The rate of discovery has been fairly low, though, and the new signs have more often been ligatures of two or more signs already known as separate graphemes than entirely new signs." (Parpola, 1994, p. 79) As earlier discussed, many ‘signs’ are ligatures of two or more ‘signs’. In the process of normalizing the orthography of some glyphs to identify the core ‘signs’ of the script, some information is lost and at times, the process itself impedes the possibility of decoding the writing system. This can be demonstrated by (1) the ‘identification’ of a ‘squirrel’ glyph and (2) the failure to identify ‘dotted circle’ or ‘stars’ as glyphs. It is, therefore, necessary to view the inscribed object as a composite message composed of glyphs: pictorial motifs and signs alike

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A note on ligaturing as an artistic tradition Ligatured sculpture: tiger, bull (or buffalo) and elephant. Nausharo. NS 92.02.70.04. 6.76 cm. High. Dept. of Archaeology, Karachi. EBK 7712. C. Jarrige, 1982: 132-5. “Hollow threeheaded animal figurine. This complex figurine depicts a tiger with bared teeth, a bull or buffalo head with punctuated hair spots on the forehead, and possibly an elephant with multiple lines outlining the eyes. The tiger’s face is finely modeled, but the other animals’ features are less refined. This is the second such object found at Nausharo, and although comparable figurines have not been reported from other sites, multiple-headed animals are depicted on seals. Nausharo. Period III, Harappan 2300-2200 BCE.” [JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 219]. Ligatured statuette: elephant, buffalo and feline. Nausharo. NS 91.02.32.01.LXXXII. C. Jarrige, 1992: 132-5. “Hollow three-headed animal figurine. The most complete figure is of an elephant with a hollow trunk. Two horns of a water buffalo curve along the cheeks of the elephant, and the bottom jaw of a feline with bared teeth appears at the back of the elephant’s head. This complex figure is finely modeled and incised with delicate strokes to portray the character of the elephant. Such multiple-headed animals are depicted on seals and must represent important myths. This object may have been used as a puppet or sacred figure in a cult ritual. Ca. 2300-2200 BCE.” (JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 219). Kot Diji. Bovine (buffalo) depicted with long horns has a face. Harappan period. Islamabad [Photo and drawing after Dept. of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of ko_la = woman (Nahali); ko_l. = (Ta.) Rebus: kol ‘metal’ (Ta.) kod.u = Rebus: kod. = artisan’s workshop

human Museum. Pakistan]. planet horn. (Kuwi)

Three-headed S'iva. Gandhara. 2nd Grey schist 18.6 X 10.5 cm. (MIK I

cent. 5888).

The multi-headed sculpture of S'iva is a remarkable evidence of the continuity of the 'ligaturing' traditon evident in the inscriptions of the civilization (with three-headed animals, 'fabulous' animal and so on). In this sculpture of S'iva, the head is ligatured with: a human face, a lion's head and an antelope's head. Cf. Doris Meth Srinivasan, 1997, Many heads, arms and eyes: origin, meaning and form of multiplicity in Indian art, Leiden, Brill. "Originally the figure had four arms; now only two remain. He holds the trident (tris'u_la) in the right hand, and a small receptacle (kaman.d.alu) containing the elixir of life (amr.ta) or holy water in his left. The long hair is piled high on the top of the head in the ascetic style with the help of a hair-band (kes'abandha) and is stylized in the shape of flames. In the centre of the forehead, is a horizontal third eye...The figure wears no ornaments apart from the sacred threwad (upavi_ta) which passes from the left shoulder across the naked torso, and a piece of cloth draped over the left upper arm. The figure is clothed only in a striped (tiger-skin) loin-cloth

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out of which protrudes an erect phallus... The very complex iconography of S'iva, which is difficult to interpret, is further complicated by two animal heads emerging literally from behind his human head. The head on the right is that of a lion while the other seems to be of an antelope. According to Lobo, the heads of animals are meant to portray S'iva as the lord of animals, Pas'upati (Palast der Goetter 1992: 176), whether, this is indeed so remains an open question..." (Raffael Dedo Gadebuch, Exhibit 19 in: Saryu Doshi, ed., 1998, Treasures of Indian Art: Germany's tribute to India's cultural heritage, Delhi, National Museum, p.29).

If the ligatured heads and conical cap are heiroglyphic, they may connote aru 'lion' (Akkadian); rebus: ara = copper; mr..eka 'goat' (Te.); rebus: mleccha mukha = ingot of copper (Skt.); mu~ha = quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace (Santali) cu_d.e = face (Ka.); s'u_la = trident (Skt.); culha = furnace, fireplace (Santali.) kulla = cap (Ta.) kol = alloy of five metals (Ta.) mu~h metal ingot (Santali) mu~ha~ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mu_ha_ me~r.he~t = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each end; kolhe tehen me~r.he~tko mu_ha_ akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali.lex.) muh face (Skt.) mu~he~ = face (Santali); mu~h (H.); mu_ha_ mu_hi_ adj. adv. face to face, facing one another (Santali.lex.Bodding) Rebus: mleccha-mukha = copper (Skt.) mlekh = goat (Br.); mr..eka = goat (Te.) sodo [Persian. soda_, dealing] trade; traffic; merchandise; marketing; a bargain; the purchase or sale of goods; buying and selling; mercantile dealings (G.lex.) sodagor = a merchant, trader; soda_gor (P.B.) (Santali.lex.) sadgal = a moneylender (Santali.lex.) soda_gar [Persian. fr. sodo + gar = Skt. kar, a doer fr. kr. to do] a merchant who deals in valuable things, or with large sums; soda_giri = dealing in valuable things or with large sums; adj. Mercantile, commercial (G.) sod.ra = a rolled up document, authority (Santali.lex.)[Note: use of cylinder seals to roll up and authenticate a transaction document on clay]. sodo bodo, sodro bodro adj. adv. rough, hairy, shoggy, hirsute, uneven; sodgo =adj. shaggy, having a large beard (Santali.lex.Bodding) sodo bodgo = hairy, hirsute, rough (Santali.lex.) [Note the bristly hair on the face]. Sadga badga = rough, surface uneven (Santali.lex.) sodro = a beard, a man with a beard (Santali) sodro = adj. bearded, large and rough (beard)(Santali) Bibliography

Concordance lists for epigraphs

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A number of concordances and sign lists have been compiled, by many scholars, for the 'Indus' script: Langdon, Mohenjodaro and the Indus Civilization, London, 1931, vol. II, pp. 434-55 Gadd and Smith, Mohenjodaro and the Indus Civilization, London,1931,, vol. III, Pls. CXIXCXXIX Vats, Excavations at Harappa, Calcutta, 1940, vol. II, Pls. CV-CXVI Hunter, G.R., Scripts of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, 1934, pp. 203-10 Hunter, G.R., JRAS, 1932, pp. 491-503 Dani, A.H., Indian Palaeography, 1963, Pls. I-II Parpola et al., Materials for the study of the Indus script, I: A concordance to the Indus Inscriptions, 1973, pp. xxii-xxvi Mahadevan, I., The Indus Script: Texts, concordance and tables, Delhi, 1977, pp. 32-35 Koskenniemi, Kimmo and Asko Parpola, Corpus of texts in the Indus script, Helsinki, 1979; A concordance to the texts in the Indus script, Helsinki, 1982 Parpola, Asko, Deciphering the Indus Script, London, 1994, pp.70-78

Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions Volumes 1 and 2 An outstanding contribution to the study of the script problem is the publication of the Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions (CISI) Two volumes have been published so far: Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions, 1. Collections in India, Helsinki, 1987 (eds. Jagat Pati Joshi and Asko Parpola) Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions, 2. Collections in Pakistan, Helsinki, 1991 (eds. Sayid Ghulam Mustafa Shah and Asko Parpola) [A third volume containing other collections outside India and Pakistan is yet to appear (2003).] These volumes co-authored by Asko Parpola constitute the photographic corpus. The CISI contains all the seals including those without any inscriptions, for e.g. those with the geometrical motif called the ‘svastika’. Parpola’s initial corpus (1973) included a total number of 3204 texts. After compiling the pictorial corpus, Parpola notes that there are approximately 3700 legible inscriptions (including 1400 duplicate inscriptions, i.e. with repeated texts). Both the concordances of Parpola and Mahadevan complement each other because of the sort sequence adopted. Parpola’s concordance was sorted according to the sign following the indexed sign. Mahadevan’s concordance was sorted according to the sign preceding the indexed sign. The latter sort ordering helps in delineating signs which occur in final position A comprehensive bibliography appears in Asko Parpola, Deciphering the Indus Script, London, 1994, pp. 303-348. Compendia of the efforts made since the discovery by Gen. Alexander Cunningham, in 1875, of the first known Indus seal (British Museum 1892-12-10, 1), to decipher the script appear in the following references:

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Kalyanaraman, S., Indus Script: A bibliography, Manila, 1988 Kenoyer, J. M. 1997 Trade and technology of the Indus Valley: new insights from Harappa, Pakistan. World Archaeology 29(2): 262-280. Kenoyer, J. M. and R. H. Meadow 1999 Harappa: New Discoveries on its origins and growth. Lahore Museum Bulletin XII(1): 1-12. Mahadevan, I., What do we know about the Indus Script? Neti neti (‘Not this nor that’), Presidential Address, section 5, Indian History Congress, 49th Session, Dharwar, 2-4 Nvember 1988, Madras. Meadow, R. H. and J. M. Kenoyer 2001 Harappa Excavations 1998-1999: New evidence for the development and manifestation of the Harappan phenomenon. In South Asian Archaeology 1999, edited by K. R. van Kooij and E. M. Raven, pp. in press. Leiden. Richard Meadow and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, 1997, Excavations at Harappa 1994-1995: new perspectives on the Indus script, craft activities, and city organization, in: Raymond Allchin and Bridget Allchin, 1997, South Asian Archaeology 1995, Oxford and IBH Publishing, pp. 157-163. Meadow, R. H., J. M. Kenoyer and R. P. Wright 1997 Harappa Archaeological Research Project: Harappa Excavations 1997, Report submitted to the Director General of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan, Karachi. Meadow, R. H., J. M. Kenoyer and R. P. Wright 1998 Harappa Archaeological Research Project: Harappa Excavations 1998, Report submitted to the Director General of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan, Karachi. Meadow, R. H., J. M. Kenoyer and R. P. Wright 1999 Harappa Archaeological Research Project: Harappa Excavations 1999, Report submitted to the Director General of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan, Karachi. Meadow, R. H., J. M. Kenoyer and R. P. Wright 2000 Harappa Archaeological Research Project: Harappa Excavations 2000, Report submitted to the Director General of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan, Karachi. Mughal, M. R. 1990 Further Evidence of the Early Harappan Culture in the Greater Indus Valley: 1971-90. South Asian Studies 6: 175-200. Mughal, M. R., F. Iqbal, M. A. K. Khan and M. Hassan 1996 Archaeological Sites and Monuments in Punjab: Preliminary report of Explorations: 1992-1996. Pakistan Archaeology 29: 1-474. Possehl, Gregory, Indus Age: the writing system, Delhi, 1996 Vats, M. S. 1940 Excavations at Harappa. Delhi, Government of India Press

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Wheeler, R. E. M. 1947 Harappa 1946: The Defenses and Cemetery R-37. Ancient India no. 3: 58-130.

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Index abstract symbols, 151, 152 agriculture, 170, 171 Akkadian, 142, 143, 149, 153, 159, 166, 167, 169, 180, 181, 186, 188, 189, 192, 197, 203 Allahdino, 1, 2, 196 Amri, 1, 2, 196 antelope, 3, 4, 5, 24, 55, 56, 77, 79, 80, 85, 92, 113, 116, 123, 125, 146, 149, 187, 190, 197, 198, 203 arch, 17, 22, 163, 183 Archaeological Survey of India, 201 archer, 94, 143, 166, 180, 181 architecture, 174 arrow, 94, 148, 160, 161 arsenic, 186 Avestan, 175 axe, 4, 20, 26, 43, 44, 48, 50, 94, 197, 198 Bactria, 171, 175, 176, 177, 178, 186, 192, 196 Badakhshan, 170 Bahrain, 145, 146, 150 Balakot, 2, 196 Baluchistan, 142, 166, 170, 187 Banawali, 1, 3, 196 barbed spear, 159 barley, 173 bead, 127, 155, 159, 175, 178 beads, 144, 148, 154, 169, 175, 189 belt, 174 Bha_rata, 192 blade, 172, 198 BMAC, 171, 175, 177, 178 boar, 166, 169, 171, 181 boat, 167 bone, 127, 132, 144, 152, 155, 199 boss, 182 bow, 94, 143, 160, 161, 166, 181 Brahmi, 156 brass, 186 brazier, 186 brick, 175 bronze, 132, 152, 154, 170, 171, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 186, 187, 188, 200 buffalo, 77, 79, 123, 151, 159, 202, 203

buildings, 171, 179 bull, 3, 5, 12, 16, 20, 21, 22, 36, 37, 39, 43, 50, 54, 55, 71, 75, 76, 78, 79, 85, 89, 93, 96, 101, 105, 108, 109, 113, 123, 130, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154, 160, 162, 164, 181, 186, 197, 200, 202 bun, 79, 147, 159, 161 burial, 153, 159, 173 carnelian, 148, 167, 169, 175, 178 carpenter, 143 cattle, 170, 171 cemetery, 147, 170 Central Asia, 170, 171, 173, 176, 177, 178, 179, 186 ceramic, 141, 152, 156, 170, 174, 178 Chanhudaro, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 95, 196, 198 chisel, 154 citadel, 8, 179, 185 cities, 156, 177, 178 city, 153, 155, 162, 172, 181, 188, 193, 206 clay, 142, 149, 160, 161, 162, 163, 165, 167, 173, 174, 175, 178, 180, 204 cloak, 176 cloth, 203 conflict, 189 copper, 80, 114, 124, 125, 132, 138, 143, 148, 150, 152, 154, 155, 158, 159, 163, 169, 170, 178, 185, 186, 192, 197, 199, 200, 201, 203, 204 crown, 79, 114 cuneiform, 153, 167, 173, 180, 181 cylinder seal, 144, 145, 149, 166, 167, 168, 169, 172, 173, 174, 180, 181, 186, 187, 192, 199, 200, 204 dagger, 29, 30, 154, 197 deer, 173 deity, 154, 159, 160, 162, 163 Dholavira, 1, 7, 8, 9, 87, 155, 185, 196, 199 dice, 199 Dilmun, 145, 146, 167 domestic animals, 164 dotted circle, 20, 28, 43, 113, 127, 154, 202

199


drill, 60 Early Harappan, 142, 150, 161, 196, 206 Egypt, 153, 173 Elam, 167 elephant, 78, 79, 89, 93, 114, 123, 149, 159, 162, 202 engraver, 142, 169 etched, 127, 178 faience, 138, 141, 151, 152, 154, 156, 163, 164, 182, 189, 199, 201 Fairservis, 153 figurine, 159, 202 fillet, 158, 159 fish, 5, 12, 16, 20, 27, 46, 49, 85, 88, 123, 148, 149, 150, 158, 163, 167, 168, 190, 196, 197 Ganga, 176 Ganweriwala, 182 gateway, 7, 153, 155, 199 gazelle, 187 gharial, 123, 134 goat, 4, 16, 123, 146, 188, 198, 203, 204 gold, 148, 152, 155, 158, 159, 167, 169, 171, 172, 175, 178, 186 goldsmith, 143, 180 graffiti, 2, 51, 132, 155 granary, 161 grapheme, 152, 202 Gujarat, 8, 114, 169 Gulf of Khambat, 194 gypsum, 152 Harappa, 1, 49, 138, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 180, 181, 182, 184, 185, 192, 193, 196, 200, 201, 204, 205, 206, 207 hare, 16, 197 headdress, 159, 160, 162, 163 hearth, 161 Hindu, 180 hoard, 154, 158 horned, 3, 5, 12, 16, 21, 22, 36, 37, 43, 50, 55, 60, 78, 79, 85, 89, 96, 101, 105, 108, 109, 113, 114, 115, 126, 145, 147, 149, 151, 152, 158, 159, 160, 162, 163, 172, 176, 184, 185, 187, 197 incised, 138, 141, 151, 152, 153, 158, 161, 162, 164, 165, 173, 202

Indo-Aryan, 176, 177, 178 ingot, 147, 163, 203, 204 inlaid, 93, 152, 186 inscription, 8, 21, 124, 132, 144, 145, 148, 150, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 167, 179, 181, 188, 189, 199, 201 ivory, 127, 152, 154, 155, 201 Jarrige, 202 jasper, 190 jewelry, 155, 158 Jhukar, 1, 4, 5, 196 Kalibangan, 1, 56, 57, 58, 142, 175, 196 Kalyanaraman, 205 Kenoyer, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 160, 162, 184, 187, 192, 193, 202, 203, 205, 206 Kish, 1, 144 kneeling, 5, 17, 87, 88, 89, 115, 123 Kot Diji, 114, 161, 203 Kunal, 114 Kutch, 8, 194 language, 145, 153, 156, 166, 169, 173, 185, 194, 198 languages, 153, 176, 185, 194 lapis lazuli, 169, 170, 178, 180 lead, 143, 163, 178, 180, 186 lizard, 149 Lothal, 1, 65, 152, 169, 196 Mackay, 4, 5, 6, 143, 152 Magan, 167 Mahadevan, 5, 147, 192, 193, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 205, 206 Markhor, 112, 124, 132 Marshall, 144, 153, 158, 176 Meadow, 162, 192, 193, 206 Mehrgarh, 1, 66, 168, 196 Meluhha, 167, 169, 184, 194 Meluhhan, 185 merchants, 155, 172, 173 Mesopotamia, 142, 144, 145, 148, 150, 153, 167, 169, 170, 172, 173, 177, 179, 180, 188, 196, 199 metal, 152, 170, 172, 173, 178, 180, 185, 186, 192, 198, 200, 203, 204 metals, 143, 172, 185, 186, 187, 203 Mleccha, 185

200


Mohenjodaro, 1, 80, 127, 128, 143, 144, 156, 158, 176, 184, 192, 196, 198, 200, 201, 204 molded, 151, 152, 153, 156, 159, 162, 164 monkey, 167 mould, 141 mud-brick, 174 Mundari, 143 Nausharo, 1, 149, 151, 159, 196, 201, 202 necklace, 178, 192 Neolithic, 151 one-horned, 5, 12, 20, 54, 55, 75, 76, 78, 89, 113, 123, 145, 149, 150, 186, 200 ore, 147 organization, 193, 206 ornaments, 159, 169, 203 Oxus, 171, 176, 178 Pakistan, 127, 144, 156, 166, 167, 168, 169, 180, 184, 192, 201, 203, 205, 206 Parpola, 142, 145, 147, 148, 150, 154, 175, 178, 180, 192, 194, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 205 pectoral, 200 pendant, 154, 158, 159, 192 perforated, 158 Persian Gulf, 166, 194, 195 phallus, 203 pictographic, 172, 174, 182 pipal, 21, 78, 79, 89, 114, 115, 162 Pirak, 1, 187, 196 plant, 160, 162, 165, 179 plants, 151, 171 platform, 16, 17, 79, 88, 90, 114, 123, 142 Possehl, 147, 206 pottery, 2, 51, 132, 144, 151, 152, 154, 155, 160, 163, 168, 170, 176, 180 Procession, 186 Punjab, 206 quartz, 189 Rakhigarhi, 1, 134, 135, 195, 196 ram, 17, 78, 79, 89, 93, 114, 115 Ravi, 160, 176 rebus, 153, 183, 187, 193, 194, 197, 203 rhinoceros, 79, 112, 120, 123, 126 Rojdi, 1, 136, 196 Ropar, 1, 195 Sanskrit, 153, 156

Santali, 143, 185, 187, 197, 198, 203, 204 Sarasvati, 1, 144, 155, 158, 165, 166, 169, 174, 176, 177, 185, 188, 189, 192, 194, 195, 200 sealing, 142, 150, 151, 161, 162, 163, 201 seated figure, 160, 173, 174 serpent, 78, 79, 87, 89, 93, 114 sheep, 165, 171 shell, 150, 152, 154, 167, 201 Sickle, 20 Signboard, 185 Silver, 115, 152, 171 Sindh, 200 snake, 172, 190 spear, 56, 89, 123, 198 spearing, 159 squirrel, 31, 41, 202 standing person, 5, 166 steatite, 127, 144, 145, 146, 147, 149, 151, 152, 153, 159, 160, 162, 163, 164, 168, 172, 175, 182, 184, 186, 201 stone sculptures, 170 stoneware, 155 stoneware bangle, 155 stool, 160, 162, 163, 189 storage jar, 114, 149, 156, 160 Sumerian, 145, 146, 153, 167, 169, 174, 180, 181, 184, 198 Susa, 1, 142, 144, 177, 180, 188 svastika_, 116, 200 symbols, 147, 151, 152, 153, 155, 160, 161, 182, 200, 201 tablets, 25, 80, 114, 125, 132, 141, 143, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 167, 173, 174, 180, 188, 189, 192, 199, 200, 201 Tamil, 178, 180 Telugu, 187 temple, 159, 188 Tepe Yahya, 142, 195 terracotta, 138, 141, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 158, 160, 162, 187, 199 terracotta tablet, 138, 153, 158, 160, 162 throne, 149, 162, 189, 190 tiger, 5, 16, 17, 55, 56, 78, 79, 80, 85, 88, 89, 93, 114, 120, 142, 149, 160, 162, 184, 185, 197, 202, 203

201


Tigris, 167, 194 tin, 143, 170, 172, 173 tokens, 153, 156, 172, 173, 174, 180 tools, 154, 155, 170, 171, 173, 180 tortoise, 27 transport, 163 tree, 5, 16, 55, 78, 79, 80, 88, 89, 114, 115, 119, 123, 142, 148, 159, 160, 162, 163, 167, 188, 197, 198 trefoil, 150 Turkmenistan, 171, 174, 178, 179, 194 turquoise, 186 Unicorn, 54, 76, 161, 181, 184 Ur, 1, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 159, 167, 169, 175, 181, 189, 195, 196, 198 Vats, 153, 164, 192, 204, 207

vessels, 141, 155, 174, 175, 180 war, 1 water-buffalo, 80 weapons, 154, 170, 171, 172, 173, 178, 199, 200 weights, 146, 153, 154 Wheeler, 207 workshop, 143, 155, 163, 164, 203 writing, 26, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 160, 173, 174, 180, 185, 192, 195, 202, 206 writing system, 151, 153, 154, 156, 160, 185, 195, 202, 206 yajn~a, 175 Yamuna, 194 yogic, 160, 162, 163 Zebu, 77, 111, 112, 197

202

Epigraphica Sarasvati  

Comprehensive corpus of inscriptions containing Sarasvati hieroglyphs (also called Corpus of Indus script inscriptions). Tags both photograp...

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