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 Vic  Davies      John  Hathaway                                                                                                                            

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

Buckinghamshire  New  University   Faculty  of  Design,  Media  and  Management   School  of  Applied  Business  Management         B.A.  (Advertising  Management  with  Digital  communications)  

What  is  the  role  of  second  screen  in  relation  to  TV  viewing,  and  what  are  the   implications  for  Advertising?   Final  Dissertation   May  2013      

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Please  mark  according  to  Guidelines     http://bucks.ac.uk/registrydocs/   aq_GDMarkSpLD_Oct07.pdf       I  certify  that  this  submission  is  my  own  work  and  understand  Buckinghamshire  New  Universities   regulations  about,  and  the  consequences  of  plagiarism  and  cheating.     Signed:  …………………….     Date:  ……09/05/13    

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Abstract     Objectives   The  purpose  of  this  study  is  to  explore  the  uses  of  second  screen  and  the  potential  Advertising   value.  In  order  to  explore  these  potentials,  the  following  objectives  are  to  be  met:   •

To  evaluate  how  people  view  main  stream  TV  and  its  role  in  their  lives  

To  critically  evaluate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to  TV  viewing    

To  critically  assess  the  integration  of  social  media  and  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to  TV   viewing  and  its  impact  on  Advertisers  

To  examine  and  consider  the  possible  advertising  opportunities  in  relation  to  the  above   objectives,  drawing  conclusion  on  the  best  methods  for  advertisers  

Methodology   •

The  methodology  of  this  study  followed  a  Pragmatic  and  Interpretative  Paradigm   philosophical  approach  as  it  allows  the  researcher  to  both  interview  industry  professionals  as   well  as  survey  a  sample  of  the  population,  thus  answering  the  objectives.    

The  approach  will  follow  an  Inductive  Approach  as  it  enables  the  researcher  to  make  informed   decisions  regarding  the  research  design,  and  understand  the  research  approaches  that  will  and   won’t  work.  

The  research  strategy  will  be  that  of  a  Case  Study  as  it  allows  the  researcher  to  interoperate   consumers  second  screen  user  patterns  in  real  life  context.  

The  research  choice  will  be  that  of  a  Mixed-­‐Approach  as  this  approach  relates  back  to  the   previous  paragraphs  on  philosophy,  approach  and  strategies,  as  well  as  the  overall  objective  by   using  both  qualitative  and  quantitative  research  methods.    

Due  to  the  time  frame  allocated  to  the  researcher,  the  research  will  be  that  of  a  cross  sectional   approach.    

The  techniques  and  procedures  used  for  primary  research  were;  4  Semi-­‐Structured  interviews   and  a  Questionnaire  carried  out  to  151  respondents  both  online  and  in-­‐person.  The  sample  was   chosen  on  a  purposeful  sampling  approach.    

Findings,  Conclusion  and  Recommendations     Questionnaire     •

82%  of  people  asked  watch  TV  with  a  smartphone/tablet  

28%  of  people  who  watch  TV  with  a  smartphone/tablet  do  so  several  times  a  day  

Only  21%  of  respondents  find  out  more  about  a  brand/advert  when  ‘multi-­‐screening’  

Much  of  the  activity  undertaken  is  that  with  no  relation  to  the  content  being  viewed  

28%  of  respondents  have  used  a  companion  app   2    

 

 


 

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Respondents  who  do  use  such  apps  find  it  more  engaging   Interviews    

The  industry  knows  consumers  are  using  the  second  screen,  however  no  real  breakthrough   campaigns  have  come  through  yet  so  are  not  willing  to  spend  budget.    

Second  Screen  campaigns  do  drive  very  good  engagement  with  consumers,  building  stronger   relationships.    

The  relevance  of  context  of  ad  to  activity  and  environment  is  known,  yet  budgets  mean  that   agencies  cannot  tailor  adverts  as  they  should,  resulting  in  poor  metrics.    

The  content  put  onto  the  second  screen  needs  to  be  engaging,  otherwise  it  is  only  a  distraction   from  the  first  screen  

Companion  Apps  are  seen  more  as  gimmicks  rather  than  providing  real  advertising  value   Conclusion    

The  industry  understands  the  relevance  and  opportunities  from  second  screen  however  are   sceptical  to  use  such  a  medium  until  real  breakthrough  campaigns  show  how  it  can  be  used.    

Context  needs  to  be  understood;  in  relation  to  the  device  used,  context  of  the  ad,  context  of  the   first  screen,  activity  consumer  is  doing.    

The  content  on  the  second  screen  must  create  an  engaging  experience  and  value  to  the   consumer,  otherwise  it  is  a  distraction,  and  can  a  cause  negative  affect  to  a  brand.     Recommendations  

Research  into  consumer  behaviours,  both  on  device,  time  of  day,  content  consumed  etc.  IPA   Touchpoints  (2013)  and  comScore  (2013)  offer  a  lot  of  data  on  this.  This  will  enable  the  element   of  context  to  be  truly  explored  as  an  option.    

Ad-­‐Sync  offers  great  opportunities  for  synchronised  ad  placements  for  Direct  Response  led   campaigns,  with  Twitter  soon  to  release  similar  opportunities  with  their  Twitter  Music  App.   (AOL  Inc,  2013)  

When  running  a  TV  ad,  incorporate  a  #Hashtag,  this  can  increase  tweet  volume  by  up  to  4  times   (Creative  Review  ,  2013),  a  campaign  for  3  named  #danceponydance  offers  light  on  how  to  well   incorporate  social  interaction  using  the  second  screen  (Njodi,  2013)       Endnote   “Tell  your  story,  as  powerfully  and  effectively  as  you  can,  via  the  first  screen,  and  only  attempt   to  use  second  screen  if  you  have  something  truly  valuable  to  offer”  Brennan,  Media  Native  2013  

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Table  of  Contents    

Abstract  ............................................................................................................................................................................  2   Objectives  ...............................................................................................................................................................................  2   Methodology  .........................................................................................................................................................................  2   Findings,  Conclusion  and  Recommendations  .........................................................................................................  2  

Introduction  ................................................................................................................................................................  7   Aim  of  Dissertation  ............................................................................................................................................................  7   Background  to  Research  Issue  ......................................................................................................................................  7   Issues  ........................................................................................................................................................................................  7   Objectives  ...............................................................................................................................................................................  8  

Critical  Literature  Review  ...........................................................................................................................  9   How  do  we  watch  TV?  .......................................................................................................................................................  9   Second  Screen  ....................................................................................................................................................................  11   Demographic  of  ‘Second  Screeners’  .........................................................................................................................  11   Second  Screen  –  Where  it  is  Used  .............................................................................................................................  12   The  Uses  of  Second  Screen  ...........................................................................................................................................  13   Social  TV  -­‐  Social  Media  Driving  Second  Screen  .................................................................................................  16   Second  Screen  –  How  Advertisers  Can  Use  Second  Screen  ...........................................................................  17  

Related  Models  and  Theories  Applied  to  Second  Screen  .....................................................................  18   Gordon  and  Valentine  ....................................................................................................................................................  18   Models  of  Communication  ...........................................................................................................................................  20   Buying  Behaviour  ............................................................................................................................................................  21   AIDA  .......................................................................................................................................................................................  21   DAGMAR  ..............................................................................................................................................................................  21  

Evaluation  and  Conclusion  of  Literature  Review  ......................................................................................  22  

Methodology  ............................................................................................................................................................  24   Philosophies  .......................................................................................................................................................................  24   Approach  .............................................................................................................................................................................  25   Strategies  .............................................................................................................................................................................  25   Research  Choice  ................................................................................................................................................................  25   Time  Horizons  ...................................................................................................................................................................  26   Techniques  and  Procedures  ........................................................................................................................................  26   1.  

Qualitative  –  semi-­‐structured  interview  ............................................................................................  27   4  

 

 

 


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2.  Quantitative  –  Questionnaire  .................................................................................................................................  27  

Critique  of  Methodology  ...........................................................................................................................................  28  

Primary  Research  ..............................................................................................................................................  29   Foreword  .............................................................................................................................................................................  29  

Objective  1:  To  evaluate  how  people  view  main  stream  TV  and  its  role  in  their  lives  ....................  30   Objective  2:  To  critically  evaluate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to  TV  viewing  33   User  behaviour  ..................................................................................................................................................................  33   Companion  Apps  ..............................................................................................................................................................  36   Context  of  activity/content  ..........................................................................................................................................  38  

Objective  3:  To  critically  assess  the  integration  of  social  media  and  second  screen  in  relation  to   TV  viewing  and  its  impact  on  Advertisers  ............................................................................................................  40  

Objective  4:  To  examine  and  consider  the  possible  advertising  opportunities  in  relation  to  the   above  objectives,  drawing  conclusion  on  the  best  methods  for  advertisers  .........................................  43   How  Second-­‐Screen  is  being  used  ............................................................................................................................  43   The  Benefits  ........................................................................................................................................................................  45   What’s  been  done  .............................................................................................................................................................  46   Considerations  ..................................................................................................................................................................  47   Should  you  consider  Transmedia  Storytelling/Companion  Apps?  ............................................................  48   Companion  Apps  ..............................................................................................................................................................  49   Transmedia-­‐Storytelling  ...............................................................................................................................................  50   The  progression  of  Second-­‐Screen  ...........................................................................................................................  51  

Conclusion  ..................................................................................................................................................................  54   Recommendations  ............................................................................................................................................  56   Works  Cited  ...............................................................................................................................................................  59   Appendices  ................................................................................................................................................................  63   Figure  1:  Interviewee  Consent  Form  .......................................................................................................................  63   Figure  2:  Interview  Cover  Letter  ...............................................................................................................................  64   Figure  3:  Interview  Candidate  and  Timings  .........................................................................................................  65   Figure  4:  Draft  Semi-­‐Structured  Interview  Questions  .....................................................................................  65   Figure  5:  Draft  Questionnaire  .....................................................................................................................................  66   Appendix  Figure  6:  Ethical  Statement  and  Consideration  .............................................................................  68   Appendix  7:  Online  Survey  Response  Results  (Survey  Monkey)  ................................................................  69   Appendix  8:  Street  Survey  Response  Results  Westfield  (Google  Docs)  ...................................................  69   Appendix  9:  Questionnaire  ..........................................................................................................................................  70   5    

 

 


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Appendix  10:  Questionnaire  Data  Analysis  Results  ..........................................................................................  72   Appendix  11:  Questionnaire  Data  Analysis  Graphs  and  Data  Representation  .....................................  75   Appendix  12:  Semi-­‐Structured  Interview  David  Brennan  .............................................................................  80   Appendix  13  Semi-­‐Structured  Interview  Francesca  Seeley  ..........................................................................  84   Appendix  14:  Thomas  Hebditch  Interview  Notes  ..............................................................................................  87    

               

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Please  mark  according  to  Guidelines     http://bucks.ac.uk/registrydocs/   aq_GDMarkSpLD_Oct07.pdf  

     

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Introduction     Aim  of  Dissertation   The  purpose  of  this  dissertation  is  to  investigate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to   TV  viewing.  Mindshare  (2012)  state,  “A  connected  TV  opens  the  door  to  many  opportunities,  but   the  fundamental  role  of  TV  remains  the  same.  Most  of  the  opportunities  that  connectivity  creates   are  better  suited  on  second  screen.”  This  dissertation  will  use  the  following  areas,  which  are   important  to  the  evolution  of  TV  viewing  to  explore  whether  this  statement  is  true:  Social  TV   and  Second  Screen  devices.      

Background  to  Research  Issue   According  to  comsCore  (2012)  smartphone  ownership  has  risen  40.4%  on  previous  year  to   55.8%  of  phone  owners.  Of  said  smartphone  owners,  15%  of  these  also  own  a  tablet,  this  tablet   ownership  up  151%  on  previous  year.  (ComScore  Mobile,  2012)  These  figures  still  in  their   infancy  do  show  massive  growth  in  this  sector,  highlighting  the  benefits  to  Advertisers  and   reasons  to  look  further  into  second  screen  as  a  potential  avenue  to  reach  consumers  in  new  and   exciting  ways.     In  order  to  understand  the  aim  of  this  dissertation,  the  Issue,  and  intentions  of  this  study  must   also  be  understood.    

Issues     The  way  in  which  TV  is  consumed  is  changing.  According  to  BARB,  the  average  Britain  watches   4  hours  and  3  minutes  of  TV  a  day.  (BARB,  2012)  However,  whilst  consumers  spend  this  time   watching  TV,  they  are  also  using  other  devices.  Sky/YouGov  (2012)  conducted  a  survey  to  4400   respondents,  with  the  finding  that  75%  of  people  asked  watch  the  TV  with  a  second  device.   (Sky/YouGov,  2012)  What  this  does  not  tell  us  is  what  they  are  doing  with  their  second  device.   Devices  such  as  mobiles,  tablets,  computers,  and  connected  TV’s  have  meant  that  TV  can  now  be   viewed  anywhere  and  everywhere.  Add  in  social  media  to  amplify  the  talk  around  TV.  Resulting   in  second  screen  devices  playing  a  big  role  in  TV  now,  but  what  are  the  opportunities  out  there   for  advertisers,  and  what  does  this  mean  to  the  consumers?   This  dissertation  will  explore  what  is  mean  by  the  figures  and  stats  on  this  topic  area.  For   example,  YouGov/Sky  survey  (2012):  “75%  of  people  watch  TV  with  a  second  screen”     Are  they  using  this  in  conjunction  with  that  is  being  shown  on  the  TV?  Are  they  using  it  to  tweet   about  what  they  just  saw?  Or  are  they  using  it  for  something  irrelevant  to  what  is  being  shown?    

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Objectives   With  the  background  behind  the  issue  described,  In  order  to  address  the  central  question  posed   the  dissertation  shall  address  the  following  objectives:   •

To  evaluate  how  people  view  main  stream  TV  and  its  role  in  their  lives  

To  critically  evaluate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to  TV  viewing    

To  critically  assess  the  integration  of  social  media  and  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to  TV   viewing  and  its  impact  on  Advertisers  

To  examine  and  consider  the  possible  advertising  opportunities  in  relation  to  the  above   objectives,  drawing  conclusion  on  the  best  methods  for  advertisers  

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Critical  Literature  Review     With  the  background  behind  the  issue  at  hand,  and  the  objectives  set  for  what  this  dissertation   is  to  achieve.  It  would  now  seem  prevalent  to  critically  evaluate  the  sources  and  reading  around   the  topic  area,  in  order  to  understand  the  researchers  view  point,  and  to  formulate  a   synthesised  theory.    

How  do  we  watch  TV?   Morley  (1986)  cites  TV  viewing  plays  a  constitutive  part  of  a  family’s  life,  lending  to  this  that   gender  plays  a  great  role  in  how  TV  content  is  chosen.  TV  to  this  day  still  acts  as  a  social   gatherer,  much  like  in  the  1950’s  when  TV  resembled  a  ‘fireplace’  -­‐  bringing  everyone  together  -­‐   whilst  being  mesmerised  by  a  magical  box.  (New  Media  Knowledge,  2012)   Yet,  as  previously  mentioned  this  is  changing.  TV  is  still  viewed  in  the  living  room,  with  other   people.  However,  now  people  live  ever  more  demanding  lifestyles.  So  as  a  result,  TV  also  has   had  to  become  an  adaptive  medium,  allowing  viewers  to  view  anytime,  anywhere.  (New  Media   Knowledge,  2012)     According  to  Thinkbox  (2012)  Linear  TV  is  still  the  predominant  method  of  watching  TV,  with   On-­‐Demand  and  online  streaming  only  amounting  to  a  small  percentage  of  TV  viewing.  Diagram   1  demonstrates  this:    

  Source:  (Thinkbox,  2012)  Diagram  1  

 

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Even  though  Figure  1  comes  from  BARB,  the  figures  do  not  yet  include  TV  viewed  on  devices   other  than  TV  sets.  It  could  be  perceived  that  with  data  regarding  other  devices,  the  time  spent   watching  On-­‐Demand  and  Online  Streaming  might  increase  accordingly.     As  a  result  of  people’s  lifestyles,  TV  is  now  viewed  on  a  plethora  of  devices;  ranging  from  games   consoles,  smartphones,  tablets,  PC/laptops,  and  TV’s  themselves.  WA  TV  History  (2011)  state   the  significant  change  between  1992  and  2010  from  a  breakdown  of  the  content  broadcasters   and  the  devices  enabled  to  watch.  (WA  TV  History,  2011)  

  Diagram  2:  1992  (Source  WA    TV  History)  

  Diagram  3:  2010  (Source  WA  TV  History)  

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Both  diagrams  2/3  are  however  relating  to  Australian  TV.  Yet,  this  would  be  very  much  the  case   in  the  UK.  Adding  to  this,  scheduled  TV  is  not  the  only  mode  of  choosing  the  content,  on-­‐demand   allows  viewers  to  choose  the  shows  they  want  to  watch,  the  time,  and  the  place  to  watch  it.  This,   in  turn  leads  on  to  Second  Screen.      

Second  Screen   According  to  Createaspere  (2012),  Second  Screen  devices  are  “Internet  connected  devices”  such   as  mobile  phones  (Smartphones),  tablets  and  laptops.  What  gives  ‘second  screen’  devices  their   value  is  that  they  do  not  “interfere  or  muddle  the  content  on  the  first  screen,  but  allows  viewers   to  interact  with  whatever  is  displayed  on  the  first  screen.”  (Purse,  2012)     Createasphere  is  an  American  company;  in  some  cases  this  may  have  affected  the  viewpoint.  Yet   this  description  is  backed  up  by  TCS  (2012),  whom  argue  that  second  screen  gives  a  better   viewing  experience  as  viewers  can  engage  with  what  they  are  watching.  (TCS,  2012)     Putting  this  into  context  –  when  watching  a  TV  show,  a  viewer  is  using  their  smartphone/tablet   simultaneously  whilst  watching  the  show.  Purse  (2012)  argues,  that  a  second  screen  device   “enables  individual  experience,  without  interference  to  the  other  viewers  of  the  first  screen.”   (Purse,  2012)       Jeremy  Pounder  (2012)  of  Mindshare  states  connected  behavior  such  as  a  smartphone,  tablet  or   laptop  “sits  more  naturally  on  a  second  screen”,  “where  they  do  not  interrupt  TV  viewing.”  In   contrast  Deloitte  (2013)  argues  that  second  screen  does  interrupt  the  viewing  of  the  first   screen,  as  most  online  activity  whilst  multi-­‐screening  has  no  relevance  to  the  programme  on  the   first  screen.    This  statement  generated  through  a  study  conducted  to  4,000  respondents,  carried   out  by  Deloitte  in  June  2012.     Technological  advancements  will  mean  there  will  be  a  plethora  of  devices  able  to  enhance  the   augmented  viewing  experience.  This  next  section  will  explain  who  uses  ‘second-­‐screen’  and   where  it  is  used.    

Demographic  of  ‘Second  Screeners’   Second  Screen  as  described  in  this  dissertation  is  the  use  of  an  internet  connected  device  whilst   watching  TV,  thus  ruling  out  any  other  use  for  said  device.  86%  of  smart  device  owners  use   their  device  whilst  watching  TV.  (Red  Bee  Media,  2012)   According  to  comScore  (2012)  the  largest  age  group  of  smartphone  owners  is  25-­‐34,  and  35-­‐44   close  behind.  The  ratio  is  swayed  slightly  towards  males  with  52.9%  owning  a  smartphone,  and   47.1%  being  female,  with  the  average  income  of  £15k-­‐<£30k.  (ComScore  Mobile,  2012)  

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comsCore  (2012)  also  highlight  that  15%  of  all  UK  smartphone  owners  also  owned  a  tablet   device,  with  a  151%  increase  from  the  previous  year.  59%  males  and  41%  females  owning  a   tablet,  not  surprisingly  25-­‐34  and  35-­‐44  age  groups  are  reporting  the  largest  tablet  ownership.   (ComScore  Mobile,  2012)  Baring  in  mind,  only  15%  own  a  tablet  and  smartphone,  leaving  85%   not  owning  both.     This  data  released  in  April  2012  is  also  fast  becoming  out  of  date  as  with  the  rate  of  growth,   151%  growth  within  tablet  from  previous  year  and  smartphone  40.4%  increase  on  previous   year.  

Second  Screen  –  Where  it  is  Used   A  Nielsen  study  (2012)  shows  how  often  smart  devices  are  used  in  conjunction  with  the  TV,  this   study  is  also  good  as  it  highlights  several  markets  rather  than  just  focusing  on  one.  However,   this  study  does  not  indicate  what  age  groups  were  asked,  or  which  age  groups  are  more  likely  to   use  a  device  several  times  a  day.    

  Diagram  4  Source:  (Nielsen,  2012)   Diagram  4  shows  that  24%  of  the  UK  tablet  owners  use  their  tablet  in  front  of  the  TV  several   times  a  day.  This  statistic  highlights  that  the  use  of  smart  devices  in  conjunction  with  a  TV  is  a   recurring  theme,  with  only  20%  not  using  their  tablet  in  front  of  the  TV.      

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It  would  be  good  to  point  out  that  when  using  a  second  screen  device,  as  highlighted  by  Deloitte   (2013),  consumers  are  not  necessarily  doing  any  activity  in  relation  to  what  is  being  viewed  on   the  TV  (the  first  screen).  As  a  result  the  next  section  will  discuss  what  uses  second  screen  has   and  what  consumers  use  second  screen  for.    

The  Uses  of  Second  Screen   A  study  by  Red  Bee  Media  conducted  to  2,011  respondents  who  own  smart  devices  helped  to   highlight  answers  to  questions.  Questions  such  as,  what  are  consumers  doing  on  their  smart   device  while  watching  TV?  Is  this  activity  relevant  to  the  content  being  viewed?  

 

 

Diagram  5  Source:  (Red  Bee  Media,  2012)   According  to  Diagram  5  only  52%  of  respondents  are  finding  out  more  about  the  TV  show  they   are  watching,  with  44%  researching  more  about  that  advert  they  are  viewing.  However  these   figures  are  contradicted  by  Google  (2012).    

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    Diagram  6  Source:  (Google  Inc,  2012)     In  August  2012  Google  conducted  a  study  to  1,611  participants  similar  to  Red  Bee  Media’s,   aimed  at  understanding  cross-­‐platform  consumer  behavior.  This  study  conducted  by  Google  has   a  smaller  participant  base;  however  in  contrast  to  Red  Bee  Media,  there  is  a  clear  framework   used  for  capturing  the  data  as  seen  in  Diagram  7.    

    Diagram  7  Source:  (Google  Inc,  2012)     Google’s  study  helps  to  highlight  the  fact  that  the  context  of  the  media,  as  well  as  the  context  in   which  media  is  consumed  helps  to  drive  the  choice  of  device  to  use.  An  article  released  in  the   Observer  (2013)  talks  on  how  Google’s  ‘Knowledge  Graph’  will  work.  In  this  talk,  Singhal  states   that  Google’s  search  engine  has  adopted  the  theory  of  Wittgenstein  (1965)  on  Language  Games  -­‐   relaying  that  the  context  in  which  messages  are  used  defines  the  meaning  behind  the  message   14    

 


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and  how  the  message  will  be  interpreted.  The  renowned  Philosopher  Wittgenstein’s  work  into   context  can  be  related  to  all  forms  of  communication,  including  Digital.  Although  Wittgenstein   did  not  explicitly  relate  it  to  digital,  Google  used  his  work  to  highlight  the  relevance  of  context.   This  relevance  explained  in  an  article  from  Admap  stating  “The  Setting  of  a  marketing   communication  greatly  impacts  on  how  the  message  is  received,  so  understanding  the  context   of  the  media  consumption  is  vital  in  maximizing  brand  movement.”  (Bloxham  and  Sylvester,   2013)  So  depending  on  the  content  that  is  to  be  viewed,  the  broadcaster  or  advertiser  must   utilise  the  fact  that  different  forms  of  content  fit  better  on  different  devices.  For  instance,  Google   (2012)  stated  that  a  smartphone  is  most  often  used  for  starting  an  online  activity  (Search  68%).   PC/Laptop  is  most  used  for  more  complex  activities,  whereas  Tables  are  most  used  for  online   shopping  (11%),  or  Trip  planning  (15%).  (Google  Inc,  2012)       From  looking  at  the  uses  of  second  screen  in  terms  of  the  activities  undertaken,  Google  indicate   some  fresh  thinking  as  to  the  different  ways  in  which  to  ‘multi-­‐screen’.   In  this  study  Google  (2012)  synthesized  the  fact  that  there  are  two  main  modes  of  ‘multi-­‐ screening’,  Sequential  Screening  and  Simultaneous  Screening.  (Google  Inc,  2012)    

  Diagram  8  Source:  (Google  Inc,  2012)      

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This  research  highlights  new  terms  not  found  in  other  studies;  however  the  thinking  behind  it  is   backed  up  by  other  studies  by  Red  Bee  Media,  Mindshare  alike,  helping  to  break  down  specific   uses  for  second  screen  devices.  In  relation  to  the  topic  question  a  closer  look  must  be  mate  at   ‘Simultaneous  Usage’  more  importantly,  ‘Complementary  Usage’.     Simultaneous  Usage     •

Complementary  usage  relates  to  using  the  ‘second  screen’  in  relation  to  what  is  on  the  ‘first   screen’.  For  example  this  could  be  related  search,  or  even  companion  apps  creating  the  added   dimension  to  TV  viewing     Red  Bee  Media  (2012)  state  a  Companion  App  is  an  application  that  “syncs  with  the  show  to   deepen  engagement”.  (Red  Bee  Media,  2012)  Wallenstein  (2011)  expands  this  statement  by   explaining  that  anything  from  “insta-­‐polls  to  exclusive  photos  and  videos  are  used  to  appeal  to   viewers  already  using  the  second  screen  to  engage  in  social  media.”  (Wallenstein,  2011)     The  social  interaction  around  a  TV  show  is  known  as  Social  TV,  the  next  section  will  highlight   how  Social  TV  is  a  big  driving  force  behind  second  scree’s  scope.    

Social  TV  -­‐  Social  Media  Driving  Second  Screen   One  thing  Google  (2012)  and  Red  Bee  Media  (2012)  study’s  identify  is  the  use  of  social  media   whist  watching  TV.  With  Google  (2012)  stating  42%  access  social  networking  sites,  whilst  Red   Bee  Media  (2012)  quoting  74%  accessing  Facebook  and  only  36%  accessing  Twitter.     Proulx  (2012)  describe  Social  TV  as  “the  convergence  of  TV  and  Social  Media.”  (Proulx  and   Shepatin,  2012)  This  statement  is  true,  however  it  is  slightly  lacking  in  depth.  Bry  (2012)   describes  the  term  ‘Social  TV’  as  “live  digital  interaction  between  people  about  TV,  and   interaction  with  that  content.”  Nicolas  Bry  as  the  senior  VP  at  Orange  Innovation  Group  would   in  fact  be  part  of  the  team  who  help  to  develop  ‘companion  apps’,  which  has  emerged  as  a  result   of  Social  TV.  (TV  Everywhere  Enablers  #4:  Social  TV,  2012)     Through  the  use  of  companion  apps  such  as  Zeebox  users  are  able  to  choose  a  show  to  watch   through  user  generated  content  regarding  the  show,  and  share  or  tweet  about  whatever  is  on.   (Zeebox,  2013)  This  style  of  social  network  integration  into  TV  guides  created  an  augmented  TV   experience  for  viewers,  as  they  feel  as  if  they  are  watching  with  their  friends.  (TV  Everywhere   Enablers  #4:  Social  TV,  2012)   Zeebox  is  one  of  many  applications,  Twitter  (2012)  argue  the  benefit  of  linking  Twitter  with  TV   shows  such  as  MTV  Music  Awards  as  it  allows  viewers  to  tweet  live  about  celebrities,  participate   in  live  polls  etc.  Both  Twitter  and  MTV  Music  Awards  saw  largest  audiences  ever,  with  12.4   16    

 


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million  viewers  watching  the  show  and  2.7  million  views  on  Twitter.  This  kind  of  interaction  is   beneficial  to  the  viewer  as  it  adds  into  the  augmented  viewing  experience,  yet  also  feeding  live   data  to  media  owners  and  Advertisers  alike.  (Twitter,  2012)   “Developing  Twitter  engagement  during  a  show  is  just  as  important  as  pre-­‐show  promotional   activities.”  (Twitter,  2012)  This  quote  highlights  the  importance  of  a  cross-­‐platform  strategy,   and  the  benefits  of  using  second  screen  as  well  as  TV  simultaneously.  This  leads  onto  the  next   topic  regarding  how  advertisers  can  use  second  screen.  

Second  Screen  –  How  Advertisers  Can  Use  Second  Screen     When  at  home  59%  of  people  asked  in  the  Google  (2012)  paper  use  a  smartphone  to  shop  at   home,  whilst  84%  use  a  PC  or  laptop.  While  these  figures  may  not  be  alarming,  81%  of  these   purchases  on  a  smartphone  are  in  fact  spur  of  the  moment,  whilst  only  58%  on  laptop  or  PC.     Baring  in  mind  this  was  data  compiled  from  a  study  under  2000,  comScore  (2012)  state  that   15.4%  of  the  UK  smartphone  ownership  made  a  purchase  using  their  device.  With  25-­‐34  and   35-­‐44  being  the  strongest  age  groups.  This  data  holds  a  lot  more  weight  as  comScore  get  their   data  from  the  whole  UK,  not  just  a  sample.  The  problem  with  the  data  from  comScore  is  it  is  out   of  date;  it  is  a  year  since  those  figures  were  published.  However,  the  figures  combined  with   Google  (2012)  do  highlight  the  potential  of  consumers  to  target  using  the  second  screen.     Purse  (2012)  argues  that  “Manufacturers  are  building  second  screen  applications  into  products,   and  content  holders  are  designing  apps  and  portals  to  facilitate  the  second  screen  experience.”   (Purse,  2012)  Purse,  a  resident  of  the  US,  meaning  this  statement  might  not  be  applicable  to  the   UK.  However,  this  would  be  the  case  of  in  the  future  this  statement  being  true.  Adding  to  Purse’s   statement,  Mindshare  (2012)  highlight  methods  of  utilizing  second  screen  for  Advertising   purposes.  Such  methods  as;  Programme  prompted  transactions  -­‐    i.e.  through  the  use  of  a   companion  app,  with  click  to  buy  features  added  into  the  app  (Diagram  9)  -­‐  As  well  as   synchronized  second  screen  brand  ads,  allowing  more  engaging  advert  content  with  click  to  buy   features  or  ‘Direct  Response’  for  data  collection.  (Diagram  10)      

    Diagram  9      

 

 

 

                 Diagram  10  Source:  (Mindshare,  2012)  

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This  paper  by  Mindshare  (2012)  helps  to  highlight  avenues  advertisers  could  go  down  in  terms   of  utilizing  second  screen.  This  paper  does  however  not  include  any  stats  on  return  on   investment  for  such  methods;  this  may  be  as  it  is  such  a  new  means  of  advertising  not  much   work  has  been  done  on  this.     One  avenue  that  can  be  seen  for  advertisers  and  content  providers  to  explore  is  Transmedia   Storytelling.  Weinreich  (2012)  describes  how  we  now  live  in  a  transmedia  world  –  meaning   consumers  now  move  seamlessly  from  mobile  phone  to  computer  to  television  –  often   simultaneously.  Looney  (2012)  adds  to  Weinreich’s  argument  by  suggesting  Transmedia   Storytelling  takes  advantage  of  the  way  media  is  consumed  by  “dividing  chunks  of  a  story  across   multiple  platforms  to  form  one  cohesive  narrative.”  (Looney,  2012)  As  of  the  newness  of  this   topic,  there  is  not  much  written  on  it;  however  Brennan  (2012)  the  author  of  ‘Connected  TV’   book,  highlighted  how  utilising  such  a  form  of  content  marketing  will  help  to  drive  audiences’   engagement.     It  would  however  benefit  to  mention  a  negative  of  second  screen  in  relation  to  TV.  Yes  it  can   create  better  engagement,  but  for  the  84%  from  Red  Bee  Media  (2012)  paper  or  44%  in  Google   (2012)  paper  are  general  browsing,  or  gaming.  These  are  un-­‐related  tasks,  and  fundamentally   mean  that  the  second  screen  is  drawing  attention  away  from  the  first.   The  term  second  screen  has  now  been  defined,  the  demographic  of  users,  its  use  and  the   possibilities  to  advertisers  and  consumers.  This  next  section  of  this  critical  literature  review  will   dissect  applicable  models  and  theories  to  the  topic    

Related  Models  and  Theories  Applied  to  Second  Screen     Gordon  and  Valentine     Gordon  &  Valentine  is  useful  to  business  when  trying  to  understand  the  consumer  an  advertiser   is  trying  to  reach.     Gordon  and  Valentine’s  (2000)  paper  on  the  21st  century  consumer  discusses  the  definition  of  a   consumer,  and  how  this  consumer  has  changed  over  time.  In  this  paper,  6  main  models  of   consumers  are  highlighted;  the  marginalized  consumer,  the  statistical  consumer,  the  secretive   consumer,  the  sophisticated  consumer,  the  satellite  consumer,  and  the  multi-­‐headed  consumer.   The  sophisticated  consumer  and  multi-­‐headed  consumer  stand  out  in  relation  to  the  topic  as   they  best  describe  the  consumer.   Ackerman  (1997)  talks  of  a  consumer  who  has  perfect  knowledge  of  all  that  is  available  to  them,   lending  to  the  presence  of  a  ‘sophisticated  consumer’.  Looking  closer  at  the  ‘sophisticated   18    

 


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consumer’;  this  consumer  is  quoted  as  “someone  who  consumes  advertising  as  well  as  goods  or   services.”  (Gordon  and  Valentine  ,  2000)  Research  later  shows  these  consumers  even  enjoy   advertising,  sometimes  more  than  the  program  itself.  When  looking  at  the  consumers  who  use   second  screen,  according  to  Red  Bee  Media  (2012)  they  engage  with  brands  through  the  means   of  companion  apps,  social  media  and  many  other  forms.  Consumers  enjoy  well  executed   advertising,  and  with  second  screen,  the  experience  consumers  are  able  to  achieve  with  adverts   and  brands,  creates  a  stronger  connection  with  the  consumer.       This  then  leads  to  the  multi-­‐headed  consumer  concept  also  highlighted  in  this  paper.   “Consumers  choose  brands  to  fit  a  particular  context  that  can  be  described  in  terms  of   environment  (design,  aesthetics,  location,  atmosphere,  facilities,  services,  products).”  (Gordon   and  Valentine  ,  2000)  This  ‘multi-­‐headed’  concept  lends  to  the  Google  (2012)  paper  with  ideas   that  the  context  of  the  activity  (Both  content  and  environment),  relates  to  the  device  chosen.                            

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Models  of  Communication       Schramm’s  (1954)  model  is  an  early  linear  model  expressing  how  a  message  is  communicated.   This  model  is  not  realistic  in  the  sense  that  it  assumes  the  sender  of  the  message  is  active;  the   message  is  received  and  comprehended  properly  by  the  receiver.      

  Diagram  11   In  reality,  the  sender  codes  an  appropriate  massage,  sent  through  the  right  medium,  this   message  encountering  ‘noise’,  finally  reaching  the  receiver  whom  decodes  the  message  correctly   or  incorrectly.     Shannon  &  Weaver’s  (1948)  model  of  communication  define  ‘noise’  encountered  during  a   message  as  “Any  additional  signal  that  interferes  with  the  reception  of  information."    (Shannon   and  Weaver  ,  1948)    Januszewski  (2001)  argues  that  noise  in  fact  reduces  the  certainty  and   control  of  the  message  that  was  intended.  This  applied  to  the  topic  relates  to  the  fact  that  when   you  watch  TV,  it  is  not  the  only  thing  in  the  room,  there  could  be  music  playing,  other  devices   distracting  you  from  the  intended  TV  message.       A  flaw  with  the  Shannon  and  weaver  model  is  that  it  does  however  not  include  a  feedback  loop;   however  Schramm  (1954)  model  does  include  a  feedback  loop.  This  being  important  to   understand  how  the  message  has  been  received;  as  in  relation  to  today’s  communication,  on  a   digital  device,  once  a  user  opens,  clicks  on  a  message,  instant  feedback  is  given.  In  terms  of   advertising  messages,  instant  response  is  possible  through  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to   the  ‘call  to  action’.  This  thinking  could  imply  that  TV  advertising  still  suits  such  models  as   discussed,  with  second  screen  requiring  a  more  complex  model  as  to  encompass  the  cross-­‐ platform  strategy  needed  to  achieve  a  well-­‐executed  message.    

 

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Buying  Behaviour   In  order  to  understand  the  processes  consumers  go  through  in  relation  to  watching  an  Ad  and   completing  the  call  to  action,  AIDA,  DAGMAR  and  Wittgenstein  describe  these  processes.      

AIDA   Strong  (1925)  attributes  the  authorship  of  AIDA  model  to  Elmo  Lewis.  This  was  an  early  model   depicting  the  stages  a  consumer  goes  through  on  the  way  to  consumption.  These  stages  are   Awareness,  Interest,  Desire  and  Action.  This  model  being  somewhat  brief  in  the  explanation  of   the  stages  a  consumer  faces,  which  is  why  the  researcher  is  to  look  closely  at  the  DAGMAR   model.    

DAGMAR     DAGMAR  adds  to  Strong’s  (1925)  model  by  relating  it  to  the  objective  to  be  achieved.  Colley   (1961)  describes  the  acronym  DAGMAR  as  Defining  –  Advertising  –  Goals  –  And  –  Measuring  –   Advertising  –  Results.  This  model  describes  four  stages;  Awareness,  Comprehension,  Conviction,   and  Action.  Pickton  (2001)  suggests  the  difference  between  Colley  and  Strong’s  models  is  that   Colley  proposes  that  “any  stage  could  achieve  the  marketing  communication  objectives   independent  of  the  rest.”  (Pickton  and  Broderick,  2001)   When  relating  DAGMAR  to  the  topic  area,  it  could  suggest  that  second  screen  helps  to  achieve  all   four  stages  in  comparison  to  TV.  Yet,  in  order  to  successfully  deliver  a  message  it  would  help  to   take  into  account  Wittgenstein  (1965)’s  theory  regarding  context,  as  in  order  to  deliver  a   successful  message,  the  context  in  which  it  is  to  be  viewed  will  help  to  achieve  the  desired   result.  The  thinking  behind  this  is  that  advertising  through  a  TV  helps  to  create  awareness  and   comprehension.  However,  by  using  cross-­‐platform  strategies,  the  use  of  a  second  screen  can  in   fact  achieve  conviction  and  action,  as  the  consumer  is  able  to  purchase,  or  participate   appropriately  with  the  intention  of  the  message,  this  as  a  result  of  applying  the  right  content  in   the  right  context.          

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Evaluation  and  Conclusion  of  Literature  Review     In  conclusion  to  the  literature  review,  the  works  and  studies  looked  at  have  argued  the   importance  of  second  screen  and  the  role  it  plays  within  watching  TV,  these  arguments  backed   up  by  authoritative  voices  within  the  industry.  The  literature  indicates  the  possibilities  for   second  screen  as  a  medium  to  reach  consumers  via  a  more  engaging  and  relevant  means.   However,  conflicting  arguments  made  regarding  second  screen  have  highlighted  areas  primary   research  will  need  to  either  validate  or  discredit  the  arguments  made.     The  secondary  research  cited  within  this  study  has  been  able  to  answer  the  topic  question,  and   in  turn  the  objectives  set.  Yet,  in  answering  the  objectives,  questions  are  raised,  as  well  as  the   need  to  validate  theories  in  order  to  synthesise  sound  recommendations  for  the  reader  to  take   away  from  this  study.     Objective  1  regarding  the  way  in  which  TV  is  watched:  From  secondary  research  it  is  implied   that  TV  is  still  watched  together  as  a  family,  and  done  so  in  the  living  room,  however,  does  this   reflect  in  real  life?  Also,  the  kind  of  TV  watched  needs  to  be  highlighted,  as  in  Linear  TV,  On-­‐ Demand,  online  etc.  The  researcher  believes  in  order  to  understand  this  question,  primary   research  must  be  conducted.     Objective  2  regarding  the  role  second  screen  plays  when  watching  TV:  Secondary  research   helped  to  highlight,  from  both  Google  and  Red  Bee  Media,  what  consumers  are  using  their   second-­‐screen  for.  However,  conflicting  results  has  lead  the  researcher  to  believe  this  area   needs  to  be  looked  into  further  using  primary  research,  as  to  validate/discredit  results  from   secondary  research.     Objective  3  regarding  the  integration  of  social  media  and  second  screen:  Secondary  research   indicated  social  media’s  force  at  supercharging  chatter  in  and  around  bands/products,  and   helping  to  gain  insights  into  consumer’s  thoughts.  The  researcher  believes  this  look  into   consumer’s  thoughts  may  add  value  to  second  screen  in  terms  of  brands/advertisers;  as  a  result,   the  researcher  will  need  to  ask  industry  professionals  their  views  via  primary  research.     Objective  4  regarding  the  potential  advertising  avenues  for  second  screen:  Secondary  research   helped  to  understand  what  is  out  there  to  use.  However,  are  any  of  these  opportunities  valuable   to  advertisers,  have  they  used  them  before?  The  researcher  believes  that  in  order  to  generate   sound  recommendations  in  finishing  this  study,  questions  must  be  asked  to  industry   professionals  regarding  their  views  on  what  the  uses  are,  and  then  tie  up  any  correlations  with   secondary  research.       22    

 


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The  following  areas  stand  out  as  areas  the  primary  research  needs  to  cover:     •

How  is  TV  watched?  

Who  owns  a  smart  device?    

Where  is  it  used?  

If  used  in  front  of  the  TV,  how  often  is  it  used  in  front  of  the  TV?  

What  is  the  smart-­‐device’s  used  for  while  watching  TV?  

Do  you,  or  have  you  used  a  companion  app?  

Have  you  purchased  as  a  result  of  an  advert/companion  application?  

What  are  the  advertising  possibilities  currently  used?   As  second  screen  is  a  new  topic  area,  the  future  possibilities  can  only  be  speculated,  hence  why   primary  research  into  the  minds  of  industry  heads  must  be  undertaken,  in  order  to  synthesise  a   clear  picture  of  the  future  possibilities  for  advertising.  Literatures  regarding  models  and   theories  have  indicated  how  Schramm’s  model  applies  to  the  topic  area,  as  well  as  how   Wittgenstein’s  theory  ties  into  DAGMAR.  These  models  underpin  the  topic  area,  and  as  a  result,   will  do  so  in  this  dissertation.  Furthermore,  these  literatures  help  to  achieve  the  objectives  set;   identifying  how  main  stream  TV  is  watched,  the  role  second  screen  plays,  the  role  social  media   has  played  within  second  screen  and  the  advertising  opportunities.  The  literature  review  has   allowed  the  foundation  to  be  laid  on  the  topic  of  second-­‐screen’s  role  in  TV  viewing,  thus  acting   as  a  guideline  for  the  research  methodology,  and  the  next  stage  of  this  dissertation.    

             

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Methodology     The  Literature  Review  has  helped  to  identify  the  writings  regarding  the  topic  question.   However,  in  order  to  answer  the  topic  question,  primary  research  must  be  conducted  and  thus   collecting  data.  This  next  section  of  the  dissertation  will  explain  the  methodology  behind  the   primary  research,  calling  on  works  from  a  range  of  academic  sources,  and  applying  all  relevant   works  relating  to  the  methods  needed  for  this  dissertation.  This  methodology  will  follow  the   research  process  or  ‘onion’  addressing  6  key  issues,  as  defined  by  Sunders  et  al.  (2012)  in   Diagram  12.    

  Diagram  12      Source:  (Saunders  et  al.,  2012)  

Philosophies   Johnson  and  Clark  (2006)  argue  the  importance  of  understanding  the  research  philosophy  as  in   a  sense  it  relates  to  the  development  of  knowledge,  and  the  way  in  which  this  knowledge  is   interpreted.  Creswell  (2003)  describes  a  Pragmatist  as  linking  the  choice  of  approach  to  the   purpose  and  nature  of  the  research  question  postured.  This  research  approach  chosen  rather   than  any  other  approach  as  it  enables  the  researcher  to  adopt  a  mixed-­‐method  approach   (Tashakkori  and  Teddlie,  2003).  The  use  of  a  mixed-­‐method  approach  allowing  the  researcher   to  use  both  qualitative  and  quantitative  research  within  the  study,  and  subsequently  answer  the   topic  question.  This  approach  as  cited  by  Dhillon  and  Backhouse  (2001)  enables  the  researcher   to  interpret  ‘what’  consumers  are  doing  on  (the  phenomena),  in  this  case  their  smart-­‐devices,   the  meaning  behind  this  conduct,  and  the  possibilities  for  advertisers  (Interpretative).  The   researcher  will  use  the  results  from  the  primary  research  to  compare  to  the  issues  raised  in  the   Literature  review  to  what  consumers  are  doing  on  their  smart-­‐device,  as  well  as  the  importance   24    

 


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of  context  when  planning  a  campaign  as  well  as  achieve  the  objectives.  The  researcher   concluded  for  the  purpose  of  this  dissertation,  the  study  will  adopt  a  Pragmatic  and   Interpretative  Paradigm  approach  as  it  allows  the  researcher  to  both  interview  industry   professionals  as  well  as  survey  a  sample  of  the  population,  thus  answering  the  objectives.    

Approach     Following  on  from  philosophies,  Saunders  et  al.  (2012)  state  an  inductive  approach  owes  more   towards  ‘Interpretative  philosophy’.  Gill  and  Johnson  (1997)  put  forward  that  “induction   involves…  the  construction  of  explanation  and  theories  about  that  what  have  been  observed.”   This  relates  to  the  philosophy  chosen  as  the  researcher  will  be  able  to  critique  the  results  from   the  primary  research  by  applying  it  to  theories  from  Wittgenstein  (1965)  and  Colley  (1961).  As   a  result,  it  is  evident  that  an  Inductive  Approach  to  the  primary  research  to  be  conducted  has   been  adopted.  Easterby-­‐Smith  et  al.  (2008)  argue  the  importance  of  understanding  the   approach  of  the  research  project,  as  it  enables  the  researcher  to  make  informed  decisions   regarding  the  research  design,  and  understand  the  research  approaches  that  will  and  won’t   work.    

Strategies     Research  strategy  helps  to  essentially  set  out  the  general  plan  of  how  to  go  about  answering  the   research  question  (Saunders  et  al.,  2012).  According  to  Robson  (2002,  P.178)  a  case  study  is  a   strategy  involving  an  empirical  investigation  of  a  particular  phenomenon  within  its  real  life   context.  Yin  (2003)  explains  the  importance  of  context,  as  within  a  case  study,  there  are  no  clear   boundaries  between  the  phenomenon  being  studied  and  the  context.  Saunders  et  al.  (2012)  add   to  this  statement,  implying  a  case  study  helps  to  answer  ‘what?’  questions,  and  the  use  of   multiple  data  collection  methods  can  be  used.  Case  study  strategy  relates  back  to  the  approach   strategy  as  Saunders  et  al.  (2012)  argue  a  case  study  can  be  used  to  explore  existing  theories,   relating  to  the  choice  of  an  inductive  approach.  Following  on  from  this  a  case  study  enables  the   research  objectives  to  be  achieved  due  to  the  use  of  multiple  data  collection  methods,  both   qualitative  and  quantitative.  A  case  study  in  turn  relates  to  the  chosen  philosophy  of  Pragmatic   Interpretative  paradigm.  For  this  reason,  the  researcher  has  chosen  a  Case  Study  as  it  allows   the  researcher  to  interoperate  consumers  second  screen  user  patterns  in  real  life  context.    

Research  Choice   Tashakkori  and  Teddlie  (2003)  refer  to  research  choice  as  ‘Research  Design’,  this  term  leaning   to  the  use  of  multiple  methods  i.e.  both  qualitative  and  quantitative  methods.  In  order  to  fully   answer  the  research  question,  the  researcher  must  use  multiple  research  methods.  This  multi-­‐ method  approach  advocated  by  Curran  and  Blackburn  (2001),  whereby  a  single  research  study  

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may  include  both  qualitative  and  quantitative  techniques  as  well  as  use  both  primary  and   secondary  data.  Saunders  et  al.  (2012)  break  down  the  term  Multi-­‐Method  approach  down,   leading  to  the  assumption,  that  in  fact  a  Mixed-­‐Method  approach  will  be  the  most  appropriate   approach  to  take.  Tashakkori  and  Teddlie  (2003)  argue  this  approach  also  helps  to  provide   better  opportunities  to  answer  the  research  question,  and  evaluate  how  well  the  results  can  be   trusted.  This  approach  relates  back  to  the  previous  paragraphs  on  philosophy,  approach  and   strategies,  as  well  as  the  overall  objective  by  using  both  qualitative  and  quantitative  research   methods.      

Time  Horizons     When  planning  research,  it  is  important  to  take  into  account  the  amount  of  time  available  to   conduct  research.  As  conducting  a  dissertation,  the  researcher  does  not  have  the  luxury  of  a  lot   of  time.  Saunders  et  al.  (2012)  argues  for  this  reason,  the  researcher  can  only  take  a  ‘snap  shot’   approach,  more  formally  cited  as  a  ‘Cross-­‐sectional’  approach.  The  research  question  intends  to   find  out  second-­‐screen  in  relation  to  TV  viewing,  but  at  this  present  time,  and  for  this  reason  a   ‘Cross-­‐Sectional’  approach  will  be  used  for  this  dissertation.      

Techniques  and  Procedures     Within  this  dissertation,  as  explained  previously,  both  qualitative  and  quantitative  methods  are   needed  in  order  to  answer  the  topic  question  and  achieve  the  overall  objectives.     In  conclusion  to  the  methodology  research,  the  following  research  methods  will  be  undertaken   within  the  primary  research,  thus  enabling  the  research  question  to  be  answered  and  the   objectives  to  be  achieved:            

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1. Qualitative  –  semi-­‐structured  interview   The  qualitative  method  to  be  used  within  this  dissertation  will  be  semi-­‐structured  interviews   with  industry  heads;  given  they  are  industry  heads,  and  given  their  availability,  5  interviews   would  be  desired,  however  a  minimum  of  three  interviews  will  be  given.  Easterby-­‐Smith  et  al.   (1991)  suggest  the  use  of  a  semi-­‐structured  interview  helps  to  develop  an  understanding  of  the   construct  an  interviewee  uses  as  a  base  for  his/her  opinions  about  a  phenomena.  Waters  (1997)   adds  to  this  statement  citing  “Personal  interviews  are  the  most  reliable  way  of  getting   information.”  These  interviews  will  help  to  gain  valuable  insight  into  the  uses  for  second  screen   in  relation  to  Advertisers,  both  now  and  future.  The  structure  for  the  interview  will  follow  on   from  questions  that  arise  from  the  literature  review.     *  See  Appendix  3  for  breakdown  of  chosen  interviewee  candidate  and  timings   *  See  Appendix  4  for  Draft  Semi-­‐Structured  interview  questions   *  See  Appendix  2  for  Sample  Cover  Letter    

2.  Quantitative  –  Questionnaire     The  quantitative  method  to  be  used  will  be  a  questionnaire;  Berger  (2000)  argues  the  need  to   include  a  cover  letter  with  a  questionnaire  in  order  to  explain  the  purpose  of  the  questionnaire.   This  questionnaire  based  on  a  sample  size  of  preferably  200,  yet  given  the  availability  of   reaching  the  target  audience;  a  sample  size  of  100  will  be  accepted.  The  target  audience  as   identified  by  comScore  (2012)  “27.6  million  people  from  the  United  Kingdom  age  13  and  older   owned  a  Smartphone,  representing  55.8%  of  the  mobile  population”.  (ComScore  Mobile,  2012)   The  sample  will  be  chosen  using  a  ‘Purposeful  Sampling’  approach.  This  approach  as  defined   by  Jankowicz  (2007)  chooses  the  sample  based  on  people  whose  views  are  relevant  to  the  topic   question,  as  the  views  are  deemed  worth  obtaining  and  add  important  verities  of  viewpoints.   The  researcher  will  visit  Bucks  New  University,  High  Wycombe  and  Westfield  (Stratford)  to   reach  sample.  The  structure  for  the  questionnaire  will  follow  the  questions  that  arise  from  the   Literature  Review.     *See  Appendix  5  for  Draft  Questionnaire   In  order  to  ensure  the  research  conducted  is  ethical,  consideration  must  be  made  as  to  ensure   this.     *Please  refer  to  Appendix  6  for  Ethical  Statement  and  Considerations  and  Appendix  1  for   Interviewee  Consent  Form    

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Critique  of  Methodology   As  to  critique  the  methodology,  due  to  time  constraints,  the  researcher  was  unable  to  achieve   the  goal  of  conducting  5  semi-­‐structured  interviews  to  industry  heads.  As  a  result,  4  semi-­‐ structured  interviews  were  carried  out.  The  following  table  represents  the  4  semi-­‐structured   interviews  carried  out,  detailing  who  the  interviewee  was,  where  they  work  for,  and  the  date   conducted.     Thomas  Hebditch  –  ZenithOptimedia  

February  15th  

Role:  Works  a  head  of  mobile  within  the  Newcast  team  at  Zenith.  His  role  includes   education  of  mobile  and  its  potentials.  Zenith  is  within  the  top  4  Ad  agencies  in  the   UK,  operating  globally  with  many  big  clients  including  O2,  RBS,  and  NatWest.  

2013  

J.March/J.Micklethwait  -­‐  Digital  Team  at  ITV  

February  13th  

Role:  Head  of  digital  team  at  ITV,  in  charge  of  all  online/mobile  strategy’s  

2013  

Francesca  Seeley  –  Maxus  Global    

March  5th  2013  

Media  Planner/Buyer  at  Maxus,  Maxus  is  a  global  Ad  agency,  with  many  top  clients   including  BT,  Barclays,  and  Mercedes-­‐Benz.     March  6th  2013  

David  Brennan  –  Author  of  Connected  TV   David  an  industry  expert  who  has  worked  and  researched  TV  for  some  time,  working   for  the  likes  of  Thinkbox  (Cited  within  this  study),  as  well  as  currently  Media  Native   who  he  is  the  Founder  of.    

The  approach  when  conducting  the  semi-­‐structured  interviews,  due  to  convenience  of  both   parties  left  2  interviews  being  conducted  via  email  (Brennan,  and  Seeley),  with  full  copy  of  their   answers  within  Appendix  12/13.  Sadly  Hebditch  and  J.March/J.Micklethwait  did  not  allow  the   researcher  to  record  the  interviews  conducted,  as  a  result,  the  findings  are  taken  from  notes   taken.  Again,  notes  can  be  found  in  Appendix  14/15.     In  critiquing  the  approach  taken  for  the  questionnaire,  again  time  constraints  led  to  151   respondents  taking  part  in  the  study.  With  100  results  taking  place  online  via  Survey  Monkey   survey  tool,  and  51  responses  collected  at  Westfield’s  shopping  centre  on  the  researcher’s  iPad,   with  the  results  collected  via  Google  Docs.     If  the  research  was  to  be  conducted  again,  more  time  would  be  allocated  in  approaching   interviewee  candidates,  as  well  as  more  information  regarding  the  process  of  gathering  the   data,  be  it  via  sound  recording.  The  researcher  would  also  allow  more  time  in  carrying  out   questionnaires,  as  to  receive  more  respondents.  However,  the  way  in  which  a  sample  was   chosen  would  be  less  purposeful,  and  more  representative  of  the  UK  population  as  a  whole,  thus   certifying  better  the  data  retrieved.  

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Primary  Research   Foreword   Following  on  from  the  detailed  analysis  of  secondary  research  on  the  topic  area  (second-­‐ screen),  and  its  impact  on  the  industry.  The  author  carried  out  primary  research  in  order  to   highlight  key  trends  and  areas  that  conflict  with  the  insights  highlighted  in  the  literature  review.     The  primary  research  carried  out  comprised  of  four  interviews  to  industry  heads  and  a   questionnaire  carried  out  to  a  sample  size  of  151.  As  previously  mentioned  the  methodology   regarding  the  research  ensured  the  results  were  not  bias,  and  add  value  to  the  purpose  of  the   report.     The  reader  of  this  report  should  expect  in  the  next  section  to  see  a  breakdown  of  the  answers   from  the  interviews,  stating  how  it  relates  to  the  objectives  and  which  research/theory  it  links   to.  The  findings  will  be  broken  down  into  sections  for  each  objective.  This  will  then  give  clear   indication  as  to  the  findings  and  the  conclusions  to  be  made.  The  next  section  will  also  highlight   the  key  findings  from  the  questionnaires  and  how  they  impact  the  secondary  research   conducted.     The  full  findings  from  the  interviews  will  be  displayed  in  a  table  (As  found  in  Appendix  16/17);  the   first  table  related  to  the  3  interviewee’s  who  work  in  the  industry  (ZenithOptimedia,  Maxus,  and   ITV).  The  following  table  will  display  the  findings  from  the  industry  expert,  whom  possesses   previous  experience  at  Thinkbox,  ITV  and  author  of  Connected  TV;  David  Brennan.     The  reasons  for  two  separate  tables  are  that  two  separate  approaches  were  taken  towards  the   industry  workers  and  the  industry  expert.  The  motives  for  this  as  the  interviews  to  the  industry   workers  were  to  understand  how  the  industry  utilises  the  second  screen,  I.E.  running   campaigns.  Secondly  the  interview  to  Brennan  was  to  gain  valuable  insight  from  someone  who   knows  a  great  deal  of  wealth  regarding  the  potentials  of  the  second  screen,  after  working  in  the   industry  for  a  number  of  years,  including  Thinkbox  a  company  cited  within  this  study  in  the   secondary  research,  not  to  mention  writing  a  book  with  much  detail  on  the  topic.     The  findings  from  the  questionnaires  will  be  displayed  in  graphs,  with  detailed  links  to   objectives  and  explanation  of  their  meanings.  The  full  breakdown  of  questionnaire  results  can   be  found  in  Appendix  10/11.

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Objective  1:  To  evaluate  how  people  view  main  stream  TV  and  its  role   in  their  lives   In  order  to  answer  this  objective  the  researcher  drafted  up  questions,  both  in  a   questionnaire  and  within  an  interview.  These  questions  help  to  identify  the  kind  of  TV   watched  (On-­‐Demand,  Scheduled  etc.),  where  TV  is  watched,  and  who  with.     The  following  table  helps  to  breakdown  the  answers  generated  from  the  interview  with   David  Brennan.     Research   Objective  

Theory   Links  

Question’s   generated  

Answer  Generated    

Researchers   Comments    

To  evaluate   how  people   view  main   stream  TV   and  its  role  in   their  lives  

Morley   (1986)  

How  do   you  watch   TV?  

David  Brennan:    

David’s  statement  “I   like  watching   scheduled  TV,  on  the   sofa,  mainly  with  my   family  around  me”   backs  up  both   Morely’s  (1986)   theory  regarding  TV   being  a  social   pastime,  as  well  as  a   Thinkbox  (2012)   study  stating  Linear   TV  still  remains  the   dominant  method  of   watching  TV.    

 

“I  like  watching  scheduled   TV,  on  the  sofa,  mainly   with  my  family  around  me   and  sometimes  alone  as  a   treat”   “I’m  watching  more  on   demand  now  that  Sky  is   making  it  available,  so   around  25%  of  our   viewing  is  via  catch-­‐up.”   “I  watch  lots  of  clips   online  and  am   increasingly  loading  up   my  i-­‐pad  for  frequent   journeys  overseas,  but  the   bulk  of  our  household   viewing  is  still  to   programmes  on   channels.”  

However,  David’s   statement  does  also   highlight  watching   content  on  the  move   “loading  up  my  i-­‐pad   for  frequent  journeys   overseas.”      

The  answers  generated  from  the  interview  are  furthermore  backed  up  from  questions   asked  within  the  questionnaire,  namely  “Where  do  you  watch  TV?”  “Who  do  you  watch   TV  with?”  with  the  following  graphs  demonstrating  the  correlation  between  primary   and  secondary  research.      

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Where  do  you  watch   TV?  

Who  do  you  watch   TV  with?   150  

91%  

2%  

Other   With  Family  

63%  

With  Friends  

63%   0  

20  

40  

(Appendix  11,  Figure  5)    

60  

 

7%  

7%  

At  Desk  

Other  

0   On  the   Sofa  

80   100  

 

49%  

50  

42%  

Alone  

100  

In  Bed  

 

               (Appendix  11,  Figure  4)  

Both  graphs  relate  to  Morely’s  (1986)  theory  regarding  TV  viewing  being  a  constitutive   part  of  a  family’s  life,  as  91%  of  respondents  view  TV  on  the  sofa,  and  adding  to  this  63%   watch  TV  with  family.  These  figures  show  how  TV  still  acts  as  a  social  gatherer.   However,  when  looking  at  how  TV  is  viewed,  the  results  from  the  questionnaire  do  differ   greatly ��from  the  Thinkbox  (2012)  survey,  as  well  as  Brennan’s  answer.  As  mentioned  “3   minutes  of  TV  viewed  is  On-­‐Demand/Online  Streaming”  Thinkbox  (2012),  and  Brennan   stated  “25%  of  our  viewing  is  catch-­‐up.”  This  would  allude  to  Scheduled  TV  being  this   predominant  form  of  TV  viewing.  Adding  to  this  as  consumers  become  more   sophisticated,  highlighted  by  Gordon  and  Valentine  (2012),  in  turn  the  way  in  which  TV   is  consumed  will  change  to.  This  highlighted  as  consumers  are  turning  to  other  devices   to  view  TV.  However,  the  results  from  the  questionnaire  state  67%  of  the  respondents   asked  watched  TV  On-­‐Demand,  whilst  56%  watched  scheduled  TV.  

How  do  you  watch  TV?   100  

56%  

50   0  

 

67%   35%   4%  

 

(Appendix  11,  Figure  3)   31    

 


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These  figures  could  be  a  result  as  the  device  used  is  not  questioned,  or  more  likely,  the   results  are  skewed  as  a  result  of  56%  of  the  respondents  being  between  the  ages  of  21-­‐ 29.  If  the  questionnaire  was  carried  out  better  to  suit  a  sample  of  the  UK  population,   then  the  results  would  be  more  viable.  As  a  result,  the  researcher  does  not  credit  the   results  for  this  question.     In  conclusion,  the  researcher  believes,  to  quote  Brennan.  The  majority  of  TV  is  viewed   via  “scheduled  TV,  on  the  sofa,  mainly  with  my  family  around  me.”  Brennan  (2013)                  However,  as  time  moves  on,  people  become  ever  more  demanding  and  there  will  be   a  shift  towards  more  TV  being  viewed  On-­‐Demand  and  Online,  possibly  even  showing   figures  much  like  those  retrieved  from  the  questionnaire.  In  relation  to  the  role  TV  plays   in  people’s  lives...    as  highlighted  by  BARB  (2012),  4  hours  and  3  minutes  of  TV  a  day   represents  a  sizable  chunk  on  dedication  to  1  medium,  this  is  itself  shows  TV’s  role  in   people’s  lives.                                      

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Objective  2:  To  critically  evaluate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in   relation  to  TV  viewing   Following  on  from  how  TV  is  watched,  the  researcher  must  highlight  second  screen’s   role  in  how  TV  is  watched.  The  following  section  will  highlight  smart-­‐device  penetration,   as  well  as  user  behaviour  with  cross-­‐reference  to  secondary  research.     The  following  sections  will  be  covered:     • • •

User  Behaviour   Companion  Apps   Context  of  content/activity    

User  behaviour   The  following  table  highlights  the  relevant  answers  generated  from  Brennan’s   interview.     Research   Objective  

Theory   Links  

Question’s   generated  

Answer  Generated    

Researchers  Comments    

To  critically   evaluate  the   role  of  second   screen   devices  in   relation  to  TV   viewing  

Deloitte   (2013)  

David  Brennan:    

Red  Bee   Media   (2012)    

Do  you   yourself   multi-­‐ screen?   (David   Brennan)    

 David’s  comment  regarding  the   frequency  of  ‘multi-­‐screening’   links  to  Red  Bee  Media  (2012);   stating  86%  of  people  use  a   smart  device  in  front  of  the  TV.    

 

   

“Frequently  –  and  have   been  doing  for  some   time”   “It  all  started  with   texting  but  tablets  and   smartphones  have   created  a  revolution.”   “Don’t  get  me  wrong  –   we’ve  always  done  other   stuff  when  we’re   watching  TV,  switching   in  and  out  of  activities,   it’s  nothing  new1.”   “but  my  ipad  and  iphone   and  the  three  Kindle   Fires  we  own  between   us  are  starting  to  get   picked  up  more   regularly.  We’re  seeing   that  in  all  the  research.2”  

David’s  comment  “we’ve  always   done  other  stuff  when  we’re   watching  TV.”  Illuminates  the   fact  that  smartphones  and   tablets  are  just  another  thing   we  now  do  whilst  watching  TV.     Lending  to  the  thinking  of   Deloitte  (2013)  that  viewers  are   not  necessarily  doing  anything   in  relation  to  the  TV  show  on   their  device.      

  Secondary  research  into  Second-­‐screen  and  user  behaviour  around  it  lend  to  the  belief   that  of  the  people  who  owned  a  smart  device,  86%  used  it  whilst  watching  TV.  (Red  Bee                                                                                                                             1  See  www.thinkbox.tv  –  Engagement  Study   2  See  www.thinkbox.tv  –  Tellyporting    

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Media,  2012)  The  figure  is  indirectly  backed  up  through  Brennan’s  comment  regarding   frequency  of  use.  Furthermore,  results  from  the  questionnaire,  namely  “Do  you,  or  have   you  used  your  Smartphone/Tablet  whilst  watching  TV?”  stated  that  82%  of  respondents   asked  used  their  device  in  front  of  their  TV.  Both  secondary  and  primary  researches   indicate  that  people  do  ‘multi-­‐screen’  and  also  a  great  deal  of  smart-­‐device  owners  do.     So  now  we  know  people  ‘multi-­‐screen’,  but  how  often  do  they  do  so?  A  report  by  Nielsen   (2012)  stated  that  24%  of  tablet  owners  ‘multi-­‐screened’  several  times  a  day.  In   comparison  the  researchers  study  indicated,  28%  did  so  several  times  a  day.    

If  you  do  use  a  Smartphone/Tablet  whilst   watching  TV,  how  often  do  you  do  so?   Never   28%  

17%   3%   12%  

10%   30%  

Once  A  Month  Or  Less   Several  Times  A  Month   Several  Times  A  Week     Once  A  Day     Several  Times  A  Day  

  (Appendix  11,  Figure  8)   The  results  from  this  question  do  correlate  with  that  of  the  Nielsen  (2012)  study,   indicating  the  facts  that  not  only  do  people  ‘multi-­‐screen’,  it  is  done  often.   It  is  not  enough  to  know  that  people  use  their  phones  in  front  of  the  TV,  as  Deloitte   (2013)  highlights  the  fact  that  the  activities  carried  out  do  not  necessarily  have  any   relation  to  what  is  being  watched.     Red  Bee  Media  as  well  as  Google  released  reports  stating  what  people  do  on  their   devices,  however,  both  parties  showed  discrepancies  in  their  results.  In  order  to   understand  which  party  better  resembled  the  truth,  the  researcher  asked  respondents   the  question  “When  using  your  Smartphone/Tablet  in  front  of  the  TV,  what  are  you   doing  on  the  device?”  The  answer  criteria  included  activities  from  both  studies  in  order   to  fairly  understand  user  behaviour.     According  to  Red  Bee  Media  (2012),  86%  of  respondents  where  emailing,  whilst  Google   (2012)  stating  60%.  The  researcher’s  results  indicated  58%  of  respondents  were   emailing,  now  this  does  not  mean  indefinitely  that  Google  resembled  better  the  truth,  as   the  researchers  survey  was  only  carried  out  to  151  respondents.     34    

 

 


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When  using  your  Smartphone/Tablet  in  front   of  the  TV,  what  are  you  doing  on  the  Device?   13%  

Other  

4%  

Gambling    

40%  

Accessing  Twitter  

15%  

Working    

21%  

Find  Out  More  About  A  Brand/Advert  

18%  

Catching  Up  On  Sports  News/  Results    

32%  

Find  Out  More  About  A  TV  Show  

33%  

Looking  At  The  News    

31%  

Playing  Games  

25%  

Banking  

73%  

Accessing  Facebook  

38%  

Shopping  

75%  

General  Browsing  

58%  

Emailing     0  

20  

40  

60  

80  

100  

120  

  (Appendix  11,  Figure  9)   In  relation  to  Advertisers,  this  graph  shows,  coupled  with  secondary  research  findings   that  depending  who  their  client  is,  and  the  desired  action,  second  screen  can  be  used  as   a  tool  to  finish  the  buying  process.  This  thinking  relates  to  Colley’s  (1961)  model  of   DAGMAR.  Second  Screen  allows  consumers  to  buy  products  38%  of  people  asked  in  the   survey  said  they  use  their  smart-­‐device  to  shop.  While  the  study  by  Red  Bee  Media   (2012)  states  79%  shop.  What  this  shows  is  that  second-­‐screen  has  the  potential  to  help   achieve  all  four  stages  of  Strong’s  theory  (Awareness,  Comprehension,  Conviction  and   Action).  This  theory  relates  to  all  manors  of  advertising  goals,  not  just  purchasing.  This   means  that  many  actions  can  be  undertaken,  as  highlighted  by  activities  carried  out  on   the  device;  Finding  out  more  about  a  brand,  Access  Facebook/Twitter,  Access  Emails,   Shopping,  Gaming,  Accessing  Apps.  By  targeting  users  who  are  watching  TV,  and   applying  the  conviction  to  the  ‘Second  –Screen’  it  helps  track  results  better,  and  achieve   more  results,  thus  adhering  to  all  elements  of  DAGMAR.      

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Interestingly,  the  results  from  this  question  show  a  far  smaller  percentage  of   respondents  finding  more  about  a  brand/advert.  Red  Bee  media’s  (2012)  study   indicated  44%  of  respondents  were  finding  out  more  about  an  advert  being  viewed,  in   comparison  to  21%  from  the  researcher’s  survey.     Viewer’s  user  activity  led  to  the  understanding  that  some  activity  is  undertaken  in   relation  to  the  content  being  viewed.  This  understanding  leaves  questions  regarding,  do   the  viewer’s  use  ‘Companion  Apps’  as  an  activity  whilst  watching  TV,  and  if  so,  why?  The   following  section  with  highlight  research  carried  out  both  from  the  questionnaire  as   well  as  interview  questions  to  the  4  industry  candidates.    

Companion  Apps   An  area  which  offers  potential  to  both  consumer  and  Advertisers  alike  as  found  in  the   secondary  research  is  the  use  of  Companion  Applications.  As  discussed  by  Red  Bee   Media  (2012)  in  the  literature  review  this  involves  the  use  of  applications  designed   specifically  to  be  used  in  conjunction  with  the  content  being  viewed  on  the  first  screen.     The  researcher  posed  the  question  “When  using  your  Smartphone/Tablet  in  front  of  the   TV,  have  you  ever  used  an  application  for  a  specific  TV  show?”  This  question  to  gain  an   understanding  of  how  many  people  might  use  ‘Companion  Apps’.  The  following  graph   highlights  the  percentage  of  those  who  answered  the  question  who  have  used  a   ‘Companion  App.’  

When  using  your  Smartphone/Tablet  in  front   of  the  TV,  have  you  ever  used  an  application   for  a  specidic  TV  show?   72%  

No  

28%  

Yes   0  

10  

20  

30  

40  

50  

60  

70  

80  

(Appendix  11,  Figure  10)   Now  this  indicates  that  many  people  have  not  used  such  an  app,  in  fact  72%  haven’t.   This  figure  could  be  as  a  result  that  there  are  not  any  apps  worth  using,  or  that  people �� do  not  know  about  such  a  feature.  For  the  28%  who  do  use  ‘Companion  Apps’,  the   36    

 

 


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researcher  wants  to  gain  an  understanding  of  why  the  respondents  use  these  apps,  and   if  they  find  it  useful/engaging.  As  a  result,  the  following  question  was  asked  to   respondents  “If  you  have  used  an  application  specifically  for  a  TV  show,  do  you  feel  this   gives  you  a  better  viewing  experience?”  This  question  was  an  open  question,  as  to  gain   valuable  insight.     Of  the  151  respondents  asked  only  43  answered,  with  only  15  in  useful  in-­‐depth   answers.    

(Appendix  11,  Figure  11)   This  image  representing  qualitative  data  given,  drawing  on  the  most  valuable  answers.   As  can  be  seen,  a  running  theme  is  that  it  makes  the  viewing  experience  more  engaging.   However,  one  answer  stands  out  the  most  “Not  really  –  it  distracts  me  from  what  you   are  watching.”  This  quote  directly  relates  back  to  the  thinking  of  Shannon  &  Weaver’s   (1948)  model  of  communication  as  the  ‘second-­‐screen’  is  acting  as  the  ‘noise’  and  thus   distracting  the  viewer  away  from  the  intended  message.  However,  the  researcher   believes  that  this  comes  down  to  the  context  of  the  activity/content,  which  leads  onto   the  next  section  regarding  the  relevance  of  context  in  regards  to  the  activity/device   chosen.     37    

 

 


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Context  of  activity/content   Secondary  research,  as  well  as  primary  has  not  shown  what  consumers  do  and  don’t  do   on  their  devices,  but  what  factors  play  a  part  in  choosing  the  device  to  consume  content?   As  highlighted  within  the  secondary  research  from  Google  (2012),  context  plays  a  big   part  in  relation  to  the  device  chosen  to  consume  media  or  the  activity  to  be  taken.  Thus,   context  relating  to  the  role  second  screen  plays  in  relation  to  TV  viewing.  This   understanding  of  context  stems  from  the  work  of  Wittgenstein  (1965)  on  Language   Games.  The  researcher  understood  from  the  secondary  research  that  context  is  very   important  to  both  advertisers  and  consumers;  as  a  result,  all  4  interview  candidates   were  asked  “Do  you  believe  context  plays  a  big  part  in  relation  to  choosing  which   content  suits  which  device,  and  why?”  The  Following  table  highlights  the  Industry  heads   beliefs  on  the  subject.     Research  Objective  

To  critically  evaluate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to   TV  viewing  

Theory  Link  

Wittgenstein  (1965)   Gordon  &  Valentine  (2000)  

Question  Generated    

Do  you  believe  context  plays  a  big  part  in  relation  to  choosing   which  content  suits  which  device,  and  why?”    

Answer  Generated  No.  

 “In  an  ideal  world  it  would  be  wonderful  to  create  content  to  suit  each   device.  As  an  agency,  No.”  

1:  

“All  ads  are  pushed  onto  any  device.  The  cost  ensures  this.”  

Thomas  Hebditch   ZenithOptimedia   Answer  Generated  No.   2:     Francesca  Seeley     Maxus  

“Most  vital  consideration  is  your  audience.  Consider  which  devices  they   are  likely  to  use,  and  what  content  they  consume.  Need  to  marry  up  the   findings  in  order  to  be  successful  in  using  second  screen  advertising.”   “‘Young  digital  natives’  have  very  different  media  consumption  habits  and   technology  uses  to  ‘Practical  mums’.”  

Answer  Generated  No.  

 “Context  is  key  in  determining  what  device  is  used.”  

3:  

“ITV  has  found  that  quality  drama  sits  better  on  a  PC/Laptop,  whilst  shows   like  Towie  sit  better  on  a  smartphone.”  

J.March/J.Micklethwait   ITV  

“ITV  have  found  that  for  more  intense  shows  like  a  drama,  mobile  and   tablet  activity  takes  place  either  side  of  the  show.  However,  for  less  

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intense  shows  like  X-­‐Factor,  the  activity  will  take  place  during  the  show.”  

Answer  Generated  No.   4:   David  Brennan   Author:  Connected  TV  

“I  think  context  is  critical  in  a  number  of  ways.  First  of  all,  totally   functionally,  things  like  screen  size,  connectivity,  device  functionality  etc.”     “People  will  prefer  to  consume  content  on  the  biggest  screen  available  and   there  is  a  strong  correlation  between  length  of  optimum  tine  for  content   and  screen  size  (smaller  screens,  shorter  content!).”   “Secondly,  there  is  the  context  of  the  ‘media  moment’.  Is  it  alone  or  with   others?  At  home,  at  work  or  on  the  move?  What  time  of  day?  What  other   activities  are  occurring?  All  these  contextual  elements  can  have  a  huge   part  to  play  in  both  content  selected  and  device  in  which  it  is  displayed.”  

The  answers  from  the  question  do  show  correlation,  for  instance  Seeley  says  “Consider   which  devices  they  are  likely  to  use,  and  what  content  they  consume.”  This  quote  is  then   backed  up  by  J.March/J.Micklethwait  who  state  that  “ITV  has  found  that  quality  drama   sits  better  on  a  PC/Laptop,  whilst  shows  like  Towie  sit  better  on  a  smartphone.”  These   answers  relay  back  to  the  work  of  Wittgenstein  (1965)  on  Language  games,  as  the   context  in  what  the  message  is  viewed  determines  the  way  in  which  it  is  interpreted.     Seeley’s  comment  “‘Young  digital  natives’  have  very  different  media  consumption  habits   and  technology  uses  to  ‘Practical  mums’”  relates  to  the  theory  of  Gordon  &  Valentine’s   (2000)  on  sophisticated  consumers.  This  sophisticated  consumer  chooses  devices  to  suit   their  needs.  Gone  are  the  days  of  one  TV  for  the  family,  there  is  now  a  plethora  of   devices  to  choose  from.  Brennan  adds  to  this  with  the  comment  that  “People  will  prefer   to  consume  content  on  the  biggest  screen  available  and  there  is  a  strong  correlation   between  length  of  optimum  tine  for  content  and  screen  size  (smaller  screens,  shorter   content!).”  So  not  only  do  the  consumers  choose  content  regarding  what  the  content  is  it   also  depends  on  the  length  of  the  content.     This  understanding  of  context  needs  to  be  relayed  to  advertisers,  which  a  comment  from   Hebditch  illuminates  the  hard  truth  that  “All  ads  are  pushed  onto  any  device.  The  cost   ensures  this.”  What  this  implies  is  that  unless  there  is  budget  to  allow  content  to  be  made   for  every  device,  and  then  a  single  creative  will  be  pushed  to  all  mediums.     In  conclusion  to  this  section,  it  can  be  said  that  ‘Multi-­‐screening’  happens,  and  happens   often.  This  is  only  going  to  become  more  the  case  as  late-­‐adopters  will  start  to  use  their   devices  whilst  watching  TV.  However,  yes,  much  of  the  activity  taken  place  has  no   relation  to  what  is  being  viewed  on  the  ‘first-­‐screen’.  Yet,  to  best  use  the  ‘second-­‐screen’   and  possibly  enhance  the  viewer’s  experience,  advertisers  must  truly  take  in  that  the  

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context  of  the  content/activity  must  be  understood  as  for  the  right  message  to  be   interpreted.    

Objective  3:  To  critically  assess  the  integration  of  social  media  and   second  screen  in  relation  to  TV  viewing  and  its  impact  on  Advertisers     Looking  at  the  role  of  second  screen,  one  of  the  main  influencers  as  found  in  secondary   research  was  regarding  how  social  media  has  impacted  ‘multi-­‐screening’.  This  also   backed  up  from  data  from  the  questionnaire  regarding  activities  on  the  smart-­‐device.   The  questionnaire  implied  that  73%  of  respondents  were  on  Facebook  and  40%  on   Twitter.  These  results  similar  to  the  results  published  by  Red  Bee  Media  (2012)  stating   74%  were  on  Facebook  and  36%  on  twitter.  This  integration  of  TV  and  Social  Media   brought  on  the  term  Social  TV  as  described  by  Proulx  (2012).     To  understand  what  the  industry  thought  of  the  integration  of  both  social  media  and   second  screen,  the  researcher  asked  all  4  respondents  their  view.  The  table  below  will   describe  the  relevant  answers.     Research  Objective  

To  critically  evaluate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to   TV  viewing  

Theory  Link  

Gordon  &  Valentine  (2000)   Schramm  (1954)  

Question  Generated    

How  do  you  perceive  the  role  of  Social  Media  in  relation  to  second   screening,  and  why?  

Answer  Generated  No.  

 “As  a  research  tool  or  a  good  way  of  ad  copying.”  

1:   Thomas  Hebditch   ZenithOptimedia   Answer  Generated  No.   2:     Francesca  Seeley     Maxus  

“Can  be  used  as  a  discussion  tool  in  and  around  adverts.”   “An  outreach  tool,  reaching  out  to  brand  advocates/key   influencers.”   “Offers  opportunity  for  brands  to  facilitate  conversation  around   interesting  content.”   “Advertisers  can  replicate  the  buzz/talkability  TV  shows  for  their   TV  ads.  They  can  track  social  conversations  online  around  their  ad,   and  respond  to  them.  Drives  consumer  engagement  and  starts  two-­‐ way  conversations.”  

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“This  will  be  dependent  on  the  TV  creative  being  exciting  and   shareable.”  

Answer  Generated  No.  

 “Social  Media  is  fast  becoming  the  way  of  searching  for  what  to   watch.”  

3:   J.March/J.Micklethwait   ITV  

 

“40%  of  tweets  during  prime  time  are  about  an  ITV  show.”   “There  are  only  small  amounts  of  Facebook  referrals;  this  might   also  be  because  it  is  hard  to  track  users  between  sites.”   “voting  system  regulators  make  it  harder  for  ITV  to  evidence  how   and  what  is  being  voted.”   “Social  media  acts  as  a  way  to  poll  and  monitor  consumers.”  

Answer  Generated  No.   4:   David  Brennan   Author:  Connected  TV  

“Social  media  has  been  a  terrific  turbo-­‐boost  to  what  has  always   occurred.”   “People  talking  about  what’s  on  TV,  so  it’s  no  coincidence  that  it  is   the  single  (by  far)  biggest  second  screen  activity  people  engage   with.”   “But  I  agree  with  the  statement  that  we  should  think  of  it  as  a  PR   channel,  not  an  advertising  channel.”   “Give  the  social  networks  something  to  share  and  you  can  turbo-­‐ charge  the  word  of  mouth  buzz  behind  TV  programming  or   advertised  brands.”   “But  it’s  also  worth  remembering  that  online  in  total  is  only   responsible  for  7%  of  all  brand  word-­‐of-­‐mouth3”   “We  should  think  of  ‘social  media’  as  all  those  offline  fireside   conversations,  phone  calls  and  water  cooler  moments  as  well.”  

A  running  theme  that  seems  to  stand  out  from  this  interview  question  is  conversation   around  a  brand/product  or  show.  “Social  media  has  been  a  terrific  turbo-­‐boost  to  what   has  always  occurred.”  This  statement  by  Brennan  helps  to  highlight  the  fact  that  People   have  always  talked  about  what’s  on  TV.  However,  now  with  social  media,  this   conversation  can  now  be  tracked.  This  ability  to  track  relates  to  Schramm  (1954)  as  it   provides  an  instant  feedback  loop.  Seeley’s  comment,  “they  can  track  social   conversations  online  around  their  ad,  and  respond  to  them.  Drives  consumer   engagement  and  starts  two-­‐way  conversations.”  Shows  how  advertisers  use  this   feedback  loop  when  using  social  media.    

                                                                                                                          3  Ed  Keller  &  Brad  Fay  –  ‘The  Face  to  Face  Book’  and  their  international  ‘Talktrack’  research.  

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Brennan  adding  that  “it’s  no  coincidence  that  it  is  the  single  (by  far)  biggest  second  screen   activity  people  engage  with.”  Brennan’s  statement  backs  up  the  findings  from  the   questionnaire  regarding  user  activity,  whilst  also  backing  up  findings  from  both  Google   (2012)  and  Red  Bee  Media  (2012)  research  on  user  activity.     Relating  back  to  the  running  theme,  Hebditch  says  social  media  “Can  be  used  as  a   discussion  tool  in  and  around  adverts.”  Whilst  Seeley  believes  social  media  “offers   opportunity  for  brands  to  facilitate  conversation  around  interesting  content.”  These   statements  show  advertisers  understanding  around  the  fact  that  any  Ad/brand,  new   product  that  is  released  is  out  there  for  anyone  to  talk  about,  and  they  will  do  so.  A   comment  from  Seeley  adds  that  “this  will  be  dependent  on  the  TV  creative  being  exciting   and  shareable.”  Whilst  Brennan’s  statement  to  “Give  the  social  networks  something  to   share  and  you  can  turbo-­‐charge  the  word  of  mouth  buzz  behind  TV  programming  or   advertised  brands,”  highlights  the  importance  of  creating  good  content  that  will  evoke   conversation.  ITV  state  that  they  are  up  there  with  crating  content  that  evokes   conversation.  According  to  J.March/J.Micklethwait  “40%  of  tweets  at  prime  time  are   about  and  ITV  show.”     The  social  aspect  of  TV  enables  viewer  to  see  what  other  people  are  watching,   J.March/J.Micklethwait  believe  that  “social  Media  is  fast  becoming  the  way  of  searching   for  what  to  watch.”  This  belief  relates  to  findings  from  secondary  research  regarding  the   use  of  apps  such  as  Zeebox  or  Twitter  to  choose  content  to  watch.  (TV  Everywhere   Enablers  #4:  Social  TV,  2012)     In  conclusion,  Social  media  being  the  second  largest  activity  on  ‘second-­‐screen’  has  been   a  big  influencer  in  the  adoption  of  ‘mutli-­‐screening’.  The  findings  from  the  interviews   have  backed  up  those  found  within  the  secondary  research.  The  findings  have  also   highlighted  Social  Media’s  impact  on  advertisers  and  how  they  might  use  the  ability  to   start  conversation  around  an  advert  I.E.  to  create  a  buzz  or  as  a  way  to  ‘Ad  copy’  as   commented  by  Hebditch.     To  end  this  section  it  would  be  good  to  appreciate  a  comment  by  Brennan  stating  that   “it’s  also  worth  remembering  that  online  in  total  is  only  responsible  for  7%  of  all  brand   word-­‐of-­‐mouth4”  Baring  this  figure  in  mind,  the  social  interaction  whilst  ‘multi-­‐ screening’  can  only  increase  with  time.    

                                                                                                                          4  Ed  Keller  &  Brad  Fay  –  ‘The  Face  to  Face  Book’  and  their  international  ‘Talktrack’  research.    

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Objective  4:  To  examine  and  consider  the  possible  advertising   opportunities  in  relation  to  the  above  objectives,  drawing  conclusion   on  the  best  methods  for  advertisers     The  researcher  understands  that  it  is  all  well  and  good  researching  into  viewer   behaviour  on  the  ‘second-­‐screen’,  and  how  social  media  has  played  a  part  in  this   behaviour.  But,  for  this  study  to  hold  any  value  the  potential  uses  for  advertisers  needs   to  be  looked  at.  Secondary  research  highlighted  many  uses  for  Advertisers.  However,  the   researcher  believed  asking  current  industry  workers  on  how  they  have/do  use  the   ‘second-­‐screen’  in  campaigns.    It  would  give  real  understanding  of  viable  uses  that  any   Agency  or  brand  could  take  away  and  possibly  use  themselves.     In  order  to  fully  analyse  the  potential  uses,  a  number  of  questions  were  presented  all  4   interview  candidates.  The  questions  and  relevant  findings  will  be  presented  in  tables   below,  with  analysis  following.     The  following  areas  will  be  covered:     •

How  Second-­‐Screen  is  being  used  

Should  you  consider  using  Transmedia-­‐storytelling/Companion  Apps?  

The  Future  of  Second-­‐Screen  

How  Second-­‐Screen  is  being  used   Research  Objective  

To  critically  evaluate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to   TV  viewing  

Theory  Link  

Gordon  &  Valentine  (2000)  -­‐  Shannon  &  Weaver  (1948)   Schramm  (1954)  

Question  Generated    

Do  you,  or  have  you  considered   incorporating  a  multi-­‐screen   strategy  when  targeting  TV   viewers,  and  why?  

Do  you  see  any  value  in  using   second  screen  as  an  advertising   medium,  and  why?  

Answer  Generated  No.  

“Yes,  ZenithOptimedia  are  looking   to  use  ITV’s  Ad  Sync,  enabling  ads   to  be  served  on  smart  devices  ‘in   sync’  to  the  Ad  on  TV.  “  

“Yes,  mobiles  are  more  engaging;  it’s   a  device  that  is  always  with  you,   what  better  way  to  reach  your   target  audience.”  

“As  of  yet  ZO  have  not   incorporated  any  Mobile/TV   strategy.”  

“on  a  plus  side  it  is  cost  effective  (£1   per  user)”  

1:   Thomas  Hebditch   ZenithOptimedia  

“It  is  key  when  planning  a  strategy   to  take  into  account  different  times  

“In  the  future  ZO  will  look  to  use   ‘shazam  this  advert’  as  a  starting  

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of  the  day:  Morning  –   Smartphones/Tablet   Work  Hours  –  Laptop/PC   Evening  –  Tablet”  

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point  for  multi-­‐screening.”   “this  space  is  something  we  are   looking  to  do  as  it  gives  the  client   added  value”  

“Different  devices  work  better  with   certain  objectives.  I.E.  Branding   works  well  on  a  tablet,  whilst   Direct  Response  works  best  on  a   Smartphone.”  

Answer  Generated  No.   2:     Francesca  Seeley     Maxus    

“used  in  recent  campaign  for  my   client,  Barclaycard.  In  November/   December  2012  we  ran  a  brand   campaign  called  ‘Toys’”   “Barclaycard  like  to  be  seen  as   leaders  in  innovation”   “We  integrated  a  Shazam  element   into  the  TV  campaign  in  order  to   demonstrate  the  brands  lead  in   innovation”   “Viewer  was  able  to  Shazam  the  ad   with  their  mobile  in  order  to  enter   into  a  competition.”   “Really  nice  idea  but  when  it  went   live  we  had  technical  issues  as  too   many  people  entered  the   competition  and  the  server   couldn’t  handle  the  volume.”  

“Yes,  if  you  are  clever  about  it.”   “Households  increasingly  tech   savvy;  whole  family  will  be  online  at   the  same  time  on  multiple  devices,   whilst  watching  TV  in  the  evening  –   offers  platform  for  reaching  mass   audience  of  engaged  viewers.”   “TV  audience  but  at  the  price  of   digital  media”   “if  run  online  activity  to  correlate   with  particular  TV  programming,   can  reach  your  target  audience  with   relevant  ads  at  much  cheaper  cost.”   “Need  to  present  the  viewer  with  a   strong  call  to  action  –  reward  them   for  interaction”  

“Need  to  ensure  a  quality   consumer  experience  –  if  doesn’t   work  properly  reflects  negatively   on  the  brand,  consumers   dissatisfied  and  client  less  likely  to   use  this  technology  again.”  

Answer  Generated  No.   3:  

“ITV  have  a  three-­‐phase  strategy  in   place  when  creating  a  campaign.  

Phase  1:  PC/Laptop  (Mature   J.March/J.Micklethwait   usage)   Phase  2:  Mobile  (Mature/Growing   usage)     ITV   Phase  3:  Set  top  box”   “ITV  appreciate  that  people   consume  media  across  multiple   devices”  

“Yes,  but  it  has  to  be  used  in  a  way   that  is  not  going  to  annoy  the   consumer”     “No  one  will  use  this  ‘second  screen’   if  all  they  get  is  ads.”      

“In  order  to  reach  the  intended   audience,  they  must  be  intuitive   and  spread  message  across   multiple  devices.”  

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Answer  Generated  No.   4:  

Question  not  asked  interviewee  as   Brennan  does  not  work  in  an   Agency  or  Media  Owner.    

David  Brennan   Author:  Connected  TV  

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“Massive  value  –  it  could  create  a   revolution  in  the  value  of  all  three   screens,  if  they  are  used  sensitively,   innovatively  and  intuitively.”   “The  purchase  journey  –  from  initial   awareness  of  a  brand  to  actual   purchase  –  often  lasts  a  matter  of   minutes  when  it  used  to  be  days,   weeks  or  even  months.”   “The  relationship  between   marketing  activity  and  response  can   be  plotted  more  precisely”   “Apps  are  a  fantastically  enabling   navigation  tool  for  second  screening   (but  getting  them  adopted  in   significant  quantities  is  proving   increasingly  challenging)”   “The  relationship  generally  flows   from  the  TV  set  to  online5”   “The  danger  is  also  on  TV   advertising  becoming  so  response-­‐ led,  it  will  end  up  being   unwatchable.”   “Second  screens  can  be  both  a   distractor  and  an  enhancer,  and  a  lot   of  that  will  depend  what  is  on  (TV)   screen  at  the  time.”   “The  pressure  will  be  on  TV  content   –  especially  advertising  …when  used   as  an  enhancer,  it  can  be  very   effective.”  

These  two  questions  enabled  the  researcher  to  gain  valuable  insight  into  why  the   industry  think  the  second  screen  may  or  may  not  work  well  as  an  advertising  medium,   as  well  as  showing  examples  of  campaigns  they  have  ran.  The  researcher  believes  the   analysis  of  these  two  questions  can  be  broken  down  into  the  following  headings:  The   Benefits,  What’s  been  done,  Considerations  

The  Benefits   In  terms  of  reasons  why  advertisers  use  the  ‘second-­‐screen’  Hebditch  and  Seeley  both   highlight  the  fact  that  targeting  these  ‘engaged’  viewers  is  cost  effective  Hebditch  stating   it  costs  “£1  per  user”.  Seeley  adds  to  this  comment  by  saying  ‘second-­‐screen’  enables   advertisers  to  reach  “TV  audience  but  at  the  price  of  digital  media.”  This  shows  that  the   second  screen  acts  as  an  additive  to  TV  campaigns  and  is  a  cost  effective  way  at  reaching                                                                                                                             5  See  www.thinkbox.tv  –  TV  &  Online:  Better  Together  

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these  already  engaged  viewers  as  “Households  increasingly  tech  savvy;  whole  family  will   be  online  at  the  same  time  on  multiple  devices,  whilst  watching  TV  in  the  evening  –  offers   platform  for  reaching  mass  audience  of  engaged  viewers.”  This  statement  backed  up  from   secondary  and  primary  research  into  viewer  behaviour.     Yes  mobile  is  a  cost  effective  way  in  which  to  reach  viewers  of  the  first  screen,  as   highlighted  by  J.March/J.Micklethwait  “No  one  will  use  this  ‘second  screen’  if  all  they  get  is   ads.”  Seeley  ads  to  this  comment  by  saying  “Need  to  present  the  viewer  with  a  strong  call   to  action  –  reward  them  for  interaction”  When  targeting  consumers,  as  mentioned  they   are  ‘Sophisticated’  Gordon  &  Valentine  (2000)  in  the  sense  that  they  do  enjoy  adverts,   and  will  engage  with  content  that  gives  them  a  better  viewing  experience.  If  there  is  no   gain  for  the  consumer,  then  they  are  not  likely  to  engage.      

What’s  been  done   When  asked,  Seeley  provided  information  on  how  a  client  ‘Barclaycard’  used  the   ‘second-­‐screen’  as  a  way  to  show  innovation  and  utilising  new  technologies.  The   campaign  integrated  Shazam  elements  within  the  Ad,  however  due  to  technical  issues   the  campaign  did  not  run  as  it  should.     This  thought  regarding  giving  the  consumer  something  of  value  leads  to  ‘creating  good   content.’  Seeley  states  “Need  to  ensure  a  quality  consumer  experience  –  if  doesn’t  work   properly  reflects  negatively  on  the  brand.”  This  response  to  ads  can  be  tracked,  and   should  be  during  campaigns,  as  this  allows  advertisers  to  alter  campaigns  depending  on   how  consumers  are  responding.  This  related  to  Schramm’s  (1954)  model  of   communication  regarding  the  feedback  loop.  Brennan  adds  to  this  thinking  that  “The   relationship  between  marketing  activity  and  response  can  be  plotted  more  precisely”  Thus   allowing  campaigns  to  be  altered  live.   Both  media  owners  and  advertisers  appreciate  the  fact  that  people  consume  media   across  multiple  devices,  with  J.March/J.Micklethwait  stating  this  in  their  answer.  For  this   reason,  the  likes  of  ZenithOptimedia  are  set  to  incorporate  Shazam  ‘Second-­‐Screen’   elements  into  new  Mobile/TV  campaign.  One  activity  mentioned  by  Hebditch  relates   back  to  secondary  research  regarding  ‘Synchronised  Ads’.  Hebditch  states   “ZenithOptimedia  are  looking  to  use  ITV’s  Ad  Sync,  enabling  ads  to  be  served  on  smart   devices  ‘in  sync’  to  the  Ad  on  TV.  “  According  to  The  Drum  (2013)  ITV  reported  a   clickthrough  rate  of  8.75%  and  an  engagement  rate  of  38%  during  trials.  However  the  

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researcher  does  not  know  what  the  industry  should  expect  these  figures  to  be.  The   researcher  also  believes  it  would  do  well  to  appreciate  the  fact  that  62%  are  not   engaging.  The  use  of  such  Ad  methods  like  As  Sync  enables  advertisers  to  provide  ‘Direct   Response’  led  responses,  as  users  can  buy/preform  the  action  right  from  their  phone.   This  use  enables  advertisers  to  achieve  all  four  stages  of  DAGMAR  as  described  by  Colley   (1961)    

Considerations   Hebditch  highlighted  the  fact  that  when  planning  a  campaign  “take  into  account  different   times  of  the  day:  Morning  –  Smartphones/Tablet,  Work  Hours  –  Laptop/PC,  Evening  –   Tablet”  This  thinking  relates  to  that  of  Touchpoints  (2013)  who  highlight  users  patterns,   specifying  when  is  best  and  on  what  device  to  target  specific  consumers.  Hebditch  adds   to  this  stating  that  “Different  devices  work  better  with  certain  objectives.  I.E.  Branding   works  well  on  a  tablet,  whilst  Direct  Response  works  best  on  a  Smartphone.”  All  this  is   underpinned  by  Wittgensteins  (1965)  work  on  Language  games,  as  context  plays  a  big   part  in  where  ads  should  be  placed.     The  researcher  believes  that  from  the  interviews  a  running  theme  stands  out  from  the   data,  relating  to  the  content,  and  the  need  for  this  to  be  good.  Brennan  stated  “The   pressure  will  be  on  TV  content  –  especially  advertising  …when  used  as  an  enhancer,  it  can   be  very  effective.”     In  can  now  be  said  that  content  on  the  second  screen  needs  to  be  relevant  to  the  first   screen,  otherwise  it  is  acting  as  a  distractor.  This  content  needs  to  be  good  enough  to   give  the  viewer  an  engaging  experience.  J.March/J.Micklethwait  state  that  “In  order  to   reach  the  intended  audience,  they  must  be  intuitive  and  spread  message  across  multiple   devices.”  This  statement  leads  the  researcher  onto  the  discussion  of  ‘Transmedia-­‐ Storytelling’  and  also  the  discussion  of  ‘Companion  Apps’  as  viable  methods  of  ‘second-­‐ screen’  uses.          

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Should  you  consider  Transmedia  Storytelling/Companion  Apps?   The  following  table  highlights  questions  asked  relating  to  both  potential  value  of  using   ‘Transmedia-­‐storytelling’  and  ‘Companion  Apps’.     Research  Objective  

To  critically  evaluate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to   TV  viewing  

Theory  Link  

Schramm  (1954)  

Question  Generated    

Do  you,  or  have  you  thought  of   creating/utilizing  Companion  Apps   into  your  campaign  strategies,  and   why?  

Answer  Generated  No.  

“Companion  apps  cost  a  great  deal   “Yes!  This  should  be  standard.”   of  money,  and  might  not  have  great   “The  message  should  run   ROI.”   throughout  the  campaign,  across  all   mediums.”   “As  of  yet,  ZO  has  not  seen  much   decent  results  from  it.”   “If  you  miss  them  with  the  TV  ad,   then  you  can  reach  them  on  their   mobile”  

1:   Thomas  Hebditch   ZenithOptimedia  

Answer  Generated  No.   2:    

“Have  considered  but  current   usage  is  not  high  enough  for  my   client  to  buy  in.”  

Francesca  Seeley    

Do  you,  or  have  you  thought  of   Incorporating  Transmeda-­‐ storytelling  into  your  strategies   when  planning  a  campaign,  and   why?  

“Good  example  from  another  client   in  the  agency  was  the  Mercedes   campaign,  ‘#youdrive’.”   “TV  ad  played  half  a  video…  viewer   was  then  prompted  to  go  online  and   vote  for  one  of  two  video  endings.   The  ending,  which  received  the  most   votes,  was  played  live  on  TV.”  

Maxus    

“This  gave  the  viewer  control  –   empowering  them  gains  their  trust   in  the  brand.  Shows  their  opinion  is   valued.”  

Answer  Generated  No.  

“ITV  often  have  clients  who  want   “ITV  do  use  this  strategy  to  help   to  have  Companion  apps.  However,   engage  users  further  with  a  story”   3:   it  is  often  hard  to  give  these  apps   the  content  needed  in  order  to  give     J.March/J.Micklethwait   the  app  value.  “    

ITV  

“ITV  have  apps  for  such  X-­‐Factor,   main  benefit  being  panels  and  Red   or  Black,  used  for  polling  people.”  

Answer  Generated  No.  

“The  value  is  in  the  creativity.  In  

 

“It  focuses  on  storytelling”  

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4:   David  Brennan   Author:  Connected  TV  

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itself,  I’d  say  don’t  bother”  

 

“Tell  your  story,  as  powerfully  and   effectively  as  you  can,  via  the  first   screen,  and  only  attempt  to  use   second  screen  if  you  have   something  truly  valuable  to  offer”  

“I  think  it  is  more  about  developing   the  story  to  be  available  across  all   screens,  but  customized  for  different   contexts.”  

“If  the  TV  creative  is  strong   enough,  people  will  want  to  engage   further  –  and  that  is  why  it  is  called   ‘second  screen’”  

  Companion  Apps   Secondary  research  showed  the  potential  uses  of  companion  apps,  highlighting  the  fact   that,  if  done  well,  it  will  enhance  the  viewer’s  experience.  As  highlighted  previously  from   the  researchers  questionnaire,  the  viewer  usage  of  companion  apps  is  only  28%.This   figure  of  28%  when  compared  to  the  data  retrieved  from  the  interviews  draws  a  picture   that  possibly  ‘companion  apps’  are  too  expensive,  and  do  not  offer  much  value  to   advertisers/brands.  Hebditch  adds  to  this  thinking  that  it  “might  not  have  great  ROI.”   Whilst  Seeley  reveals  that  Maxus  ““Have  considered  but  current  usage  is  not  high  enough   for  my  client  to  buy  in.”  This  shows  the  view  of  advertisers,  that  until  they  see  real   potential,  it  is  no  more  than  an  expensive  gimmick.     The  researcher  believes  that  ‘companion  apps’  do  however  sit  better  as  a  tool  for  media   owners  as  there  is  not  much  value  gained  to  an  advertiser  when  using  such  an   application.  Unsurprisingly  ITV  tends  to  use  such  apps  for  specific  TV  shows.   J.March/J.Micklethwait  state  that  “ITV  often  have  clients  who  want  to  have  Companion   apps.”  They  then  go  on  to  add  that  “ITV  have  apps  for  such  X-­‐Factor,  main  benefit  being   panels  and  Red  or  Black,  used  for  polling  people.”  For  a  content  provider  like  ITV,  these   applications  help  viewers  to  really  engage  with  a  show,  and  can  be  used  to  gain   information  from  these  engaged  viewers.  This  form  of  polling  viewers  gives  ITV   feedback  and  data,  this  relating  to  Schramm  (1954).  However,  when  using  such  an  app   J.March/J.Micklethwait  states  that,  “it  is  often  hard  to  give  these  apps  the  content  needed   in  order  to  give  the  app  value.“     Brennan’s  stance  is  much  like  that  of  Seeley  and  Hebditch.  Brennan’s  answer  “If  the  TV   creative  is  strong  enough,  people  will  want  to  engage  further,”  relates  to  the  fact  that  if  the   creative  is  good,  then  there  is  no  need  for  a  ‘companion  app’  as  the  user  will  engage  with   the  brand.  This ��belief  leads  on  to  the  use  of  ‘Transmedia-­‐storytelling’.     49    

 

 


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Transmedia-­‐Storytelling   As  mentioned  within  the  secondary  research,  this  relates  to  content  being  distributed   via  different  channels,  and  the  viewer  piecing  together  the  content  to  for  a  wider   message.  (Looney,  2012)  Seeley  revealed  how  a  client  ‘Mercedes’  has  used  this  in  the  past.   “TV  ad  played  half  a  video…  viewer  was  then  prompted  to  go  online  and  vote  for  one  of  two   video  endings.  The  ending,  which  received  the  most  votes,  was  played  live  on  TV.”  This   gives  users  a  very  engaging  experience,  and  if  done  right  it  empowers  a  viewer  and   subsequently  it  “gains  their  trust  in  the  brand.  Shows  their  opinion  is  valued.”  Hebditch   adds  to  the  benefits  by  stating  that  “if  you  miss  them  with  the  TV  ad,  then  you  can  reach   them  on  their  mobile”  However  this  may  be  true,  it  might  mean  they  do  not  get  the  whole   understanding  of  a  message.  J.March/J.Micklethwait  states  that  ITV  do  use  this  strategy   to  “help  engage  users  further  with  a  story.”  However,  as  mentioned  by  Brennan  “it  is  more   about  developing  the  story  to  be  available  across  all  screens,  but  customised  for  different   contexts.”  Brennan’s  answer  relating  Wittgenstein’s  (1965)  work  on  context  as   advertisers  need  to  ensure  that  their  message/ad  can  be  viewed  on  all  devices  as  for  the   message  to  be  interpreted  in  the  right  way.       The  researcher  believes  in  conclusion  that  Companion  Apps  and  Transmedia-­‐ Storytelling  as  viable  strategies  are  all  well  and  good  to  get  your  brand  seen,  and  to  use   new  techniques  to  interact  with  consumers.  However,  in  a  practical  term,  unless  the   creative  is  spot  on  and  actually  drives  a  good  user  experience,  then  these  strategies  are   unnecessary,  not  to  mention  the  cost  implications.  Until  more  consumers  adopt  using   such  apps,  there  will  be  no  value  in  such  strategies.                

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The  progression  of  Second-­‐Screen     In  order  for  the  researcher  to  gain  insight  on  how  the  industry  might  see’s  the   progression  of  ‘second-­‐screen’,  the  following  question  was  asked  “What  is  your  view  on   the  progression  of  second  screen  as  a  viable  advertising  medium?”  The  answers  form  all   interviewee  candidates  will  be  provided  in  a  table  below.     Research  Objective  

To  critically  evaluate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to   TV  viewing  

Theory  Link  

Wittgenstein  (1965)   Gordon  &  Valentine  (2000)  

Question  Generated    

Do  you  believe  context  plays  a  big  part  in  relation  to  choosing   which  content  suits  which  device,  and  why?”    

Answer  Generated  No.  

“It  all  depends  how  the  technology  works  in  the  future.”  

1:   Thomas  Hebditch   ZenithOptimedia  

“For  now,  Shazam  works  for  the  audio.  It  is  unclear  who  will  work   for  other  aspects  such  as  visual  as  it  is  too  fragmented  a  market.”   “Until  smart  device  manufacturers  have  a  AR  scanner  inbuilt  into   the  device,  it  will  always  be  hard  to  reach  consumers  this  way.”   “But  saying  this,  Second  Screening  happens;  the  difference  will  be   in  how  to  capture  the  audience.”  

Answer  Generated  No.  

“I  think  its  progression  is  inevitable”  

2:    

“Just  need  a  couple  of  real  success  stories  of  advertisers  doing  it   right  to  get  people  switched  on  to  it.”  

Francesca  Seeley     Maxus  

“Opens  up  opportunity  for  two-­‐way  conversations  between   advertisers  and  their  audiences  –  undeniable  value  in  that.”  

  Answer  Generated  No.   3:   J.March/J.Micklethwait   ITV  

“Social  media  will  continue  to  be  a  driving  force.”   “We  believe  that  click  to  buy  will  become  a  predominant  benefit  of   second  screen.”   “For  many  other  devices,  a  simple  web  based  site  takes  away  the   need  for  an  App.”   “Tracking  across  all  the  devices  will  prove  hard  until  a  unified   method  is  envisioned.”   “Second  screen  will  not  be  as  great  as  everyone  thinks,  as  said  

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before.  No  one  will  use  this  ‘second  screen’  if  all  they  get  is  ads.”   Answer  Generated  No.   4:   David  Brennan   Author:  Connected  TV  

“significant  opportunities  for  advertising  in  terms  of  shortening   routes  to  purchase  and  finding  ways  to  allow  consumers  to   intuitively  engage  with  their  content”   “Content  needs  to  be  synchronised,  so  the  right  content  ends  up  on   the  second  screen  automatically.”   “ITV  are  offering  a  hybrid  version  of  this  with  Shazam,  but  I  believe   the  synchronisation  will  occur  via  connected  TV  sets  sending  an   audio  signal  to  other  devices.”   “Privacy  issues  will  need  to  be  addressed  if  targeting  and   personalisation  are  fully  achieved.”   “The  right  content  needs  to  be  created.  I  still  believe  agencies   haven’t  completely  got  second  screening  and  I  have  seen  relatively   few  really  innovative  second  screening  campaigns.”   “It  might  be  argued  that  most  second  screening  (e.g.  social  media,   finding  out  information)  don’t  need  specific  apps”  

  Secondary  and  primary  research  has  shown  the  uses  of  second-­‐screen,  and  how  it   benefits  Advertisers.  The  research  gathered  from  the  interviewee’s  in  the  table  above   helps  to  gain  insight  into  the  viable  potentials.  Hebditch’s  quote  “it  all  depends  how  the   technology  works  in  the  future,”  Highlights  the  issue  that  technology  could  change  and   second-­‐screen  as  it  is  now,  irrelevant.  The  introduction  of  Google  Glass  could  eradicate   the  need  for  a  smartphone/tablet.  However,  for  the  time  being,  in  order  for  advertisers   to  fully  adopt  second-­‐screen  we  “just  need  a  couple  of  real  success  stories  of  advertisers   doing  it  right  to  get  people  switched  on  to  it,”  as  quotes  by  Seeley.   Hebditch’s  quote  “For  now,  Shazam  works  for  the  audio.  It  is  unclear  who  will  work  for   other  aspects  such  as  visual  as  it  is  too  fragmented  a  market.”  Illuminates  the  fact  that  yes   consumers  are  using  these  devices  and  apps,  however  as  there  are  so  many  different   devices  and  apps,  how  can  you  reach  of  your  target  audience?  Shazam  and  ITV’s   partnership  could  work  well  in  linking  synchronised  ads  in  the  future,  however  yet   again,  case  studies  on  how  it  has  been  used  well  need  to  be  published.  However,   Brennan  believes  that  “the  synchronisation  will  occur  via  connected  TV  sets  sending  an   audio  signal  to  other  devices,”  this  synchronisation  being  the  ad  on  both  TV  and  smart   device.    

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J.March/J.Micklethwait  understand  that  “Social  media  will  continue  to  be  a  driving  force,”   as  communication  and  the  social  aspect  of  second-­‐screen  is  both  valuable  to  the   consumers  and  advertisers.    This  social  element  of  second-­‐screen  allows  feedback  that  is   very  valuable  as  stated  by  Schramm  (1954).  However,  as  highlighted  by   J.March/J.Micklethwait  “Tracking  across  all  the  devices  will  prove  hard  until  a  unified   method  is  envisioned.”  It  is  the  case  with  tracking  many  digital/mobile  campaigns  that   much  of  the  data  retrieved  from  tracking  has  discrepancies,  this  understanding  coming   from  the  researcher’s  time  at  a  digital  platform  agency  (Unruly  Media).       In  terms  of  consumer  response  to  adverts  Brennan  highlights  the  fact  that  second-­‐ screen  offers  “significant  opportunities  for  advertising  in  terms  of  shortening  routes  to   purchase  and  finding  ways  to  allow  consumers  to  intuitively  engage  with  their  content”   This  belief  backed  up  by  a  statement  from  J.March/J.Micklethwait  who  believe  that  “click   to  buy  will  become  a  predominant  benefit  of  second  screen.”  This  backing  up  the  thinking   of  the  researcher  that  second-­‐screen  betters  TV  in  the  thinking  that  it  allows  all  four   stages  of  DAGMAR  as  described  by  Colley  (1961)  to  be  achieved;  as  the  consumer  see’s   the  ad,  understands  the  call  to  action,  carries  out  and  responds  accordingly.       In  conclusion  to  this  objective,  all  throughout  Brennan’s  Interview,  Content  stands  out   as  being  the  most  important  thing  in  getting  the  hang  of  ‘second-­‐screening’.  Until   Advertisers  understand  the  context  in  which  content  is  consumed  affects  how  a  message   is  received,  to  quote  J.March/J.Micklethwait  “Second  screen  will  not  be  as  great  as   everyone  thinks,  as  said  before.  No  one  will  use  this  ‘second  screen’  if  all  they  get  is  ads.”              

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Conclusion     We  live  in  a  digital  world,  as  a  result  advertisers  can  see  real  time  how  a  campaign  is   panning  out.  A  quote  from  the  interview  conducted  to  Brennan  furthers  this  statement   as  the  “Relationship  between  marketing  activity  response  can  be  plotted  more   precisely,”  Brennan.  This  real  time  view  and  feedback  relating  to  Schramm’s  (1954)   model  of  communications,  and  its  feedback  loop.  This  loop  enables  advertisers  to  see  if  a   consumer  clicks  on  an  ad,  how  long  for,  where  they  then  go,  do  they  purchase?  It’s  this   loop  that  gives  ‘second-­‐screen’  more  value  to  advertisers,  as  you  cannot  get  the  same   feedback  through  TV,  which  leads  onto  the  value  advertisers  see  in  ‘Second-­‐Screen’.     So  what  can  you  take  away  from  this  study?  Well  one  thing  at  least,  second-­‐ screen/multi-­‐screening  happens,  and  a  lot  of  the  time  (82%  of  people  asked  in  the   researchers  study  stating  they  do).  However,  as  highlighted  from  research,  this  does  not   mean  it  has  any  relation  to  what  is  being  viewed.  What  this  does  mean  is  that;  those  who   are  engaging  with  relevant  content  to  the  first  screen  are  highly  engaged  consumers.     What  however  needs  to  be  considered  here  is  that;  the  content  provided  needs  to  add   something  of  value  to  the  viewing  experience,  if  not  it  is  distracting  the  viewer  from  the   first  screen  and  subsequently  could  act  as  a  negative  effect  on  a  brand.  Not  only  this,  the   context  in  which  the  content  will  be  viewed  in  needs  to  be  understood,  this  could  be;  the   environment  they  are  in,  the  people  they  are  with,  the  device  they  are  using,  the  activity   they  are  doing,  and  the  relevance  to  the  first  screen.  J.March/J.Micklethwait  state  that  “In   order  to  reach  the  intended  audience,  they  must  be  intuitive  and  spread  message  across   multiple  devices.”  Second-­‐Screen  should  not  just  be  a  strategy  taken  if  there  is  left  over   budget,  it  should  be  used  in  conjunction  with  TV  strategy,  to  create  better  engagement,   stronger  brand  relationships.  Using  second  screen  is  cost  effective  as  you  are  reaching   “TV  audience  at  the  price  of  Digital  media,”  Seeley  taken  from  interview.  If  all  these  are   taken  in,  then  the  second-­‐screen  can  be  amazing  in  empowering  consumers  and  creating   brand  loyalty.  Second-­‐screen  also  when  used  effectively  is  a  very  good  direct-­‐response   tool,  allowing  many  forms  of  DR  to  be  completed.  The  use  of  such  methods  as  Ad-­‐Sync,   in  the  researcher’s  opinion  offers  the  best  method  of  achieving  good  results  for  a  DR   campaign.     It  needs  to  be  understood  that  viewers  will  talk  about  a  brand/show,  so  give  them   something  to  really  talk  about,  and  then  track  this  chatter  and  feed  it  back  into  creative   to  make  adverts  more  relevant.  If  used  right  social  media  can  act  as  a  great  way  to   perform  ‘Ad  Copy’  as  stated  by  Hebditch  within  the  interview  conducted.  This  form  of   54    

 

 


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Ad  copy  can  in  turn  help  to  track  consumer’s  views/reactions  and  then  alter  the  copy   accordingly.     Companion  Apps/Transmedia  Storytelling  can  work,  but  more  often  than  not,  a  simple   micro-­‐site/engaging  ad  is  more  than  enough  to  achieve  engagement  with  a  brand.     As  to  end  the  conclusion  as  quoted  by  Seeley,  “I  think  its  progression  is  inevitable”   however  the  feel  is  that  until  a  great  campaign  comes  out  with  a  case  study  showing  a   real  success  story,  that  many  agencies  will  remain  conservative  on  how  they  use  this   space.                                

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  Recommendations   The  researcher  would  recommend  for  any  brand/advertiser  looking  to  use  the  second-­‐ screen  as  a  way  to  reach  consumers,  to  do  so  with  caution.  Without  taking  note  on  all  the   above  points  on  content/context  the  researcher  believes  the  intended  results  will  not  be   possible.     When  planning  to  use  second  screen  it  would  benefit  to  get  a  complete  understanding  of   the  intended  target  audience.  The  likes  of  IPA’s  Touchpoints  (2013)  research  offers   detailed  analysis  of  consumer  behaviours,  highlighting  devices  in  which  to  target,  the   times  of  day  certain  devices  are  used  most,  the  TV  shows  consumers  watch,  this  will   help  to  better  relate  the  contextual  environment  of  the  message.  (IPA,  2013)  

  (comScore,  2013)   This  image  from  comScore  represents  data  much  like  that  of  IPA  Touchpoints,   presenting  that  when  considering  the  device  to  use,  time  of  day  plays  a  big  part.  For   instance,  if  the  campaign  was  to  reach  consumers  watching  ITV  ay  8:30PM,  then  better   results  would  come  through  targeting  tablet  users  as  this  is  when  tablets  are  most   popular.  (IPA,  2013)      

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However,  depending  on  what  a  brand/advertisers  is  looking  for,  I.E.  purchase,  or  social   interaction,  then  different  strategies  should  be  used.  Ad-­‐sync  is  a  great  way  at  achieving   any  DR  on  a  smart  device.  Ad  Sync  works  by  sending  a  signal  to  the  smart-­‐device,  this   signal  prompts  a  synchronised  advert  to  be  sent  to  the  device.  This  synchronisation   helps  to  act  as  a  roadblock  in  a  way,  giving  the  user  a  very  engaging  experience.       The  researcher  would  recommend  the  reader  to  look  into  the  potential  TV  integration  of   Twitter  Music  App  recently  released.  BBC  America  state  in  a  tweet:  

  (BBC  America  Tweet)  (AOL  Inc,  2013)   There  is  no  more  detail  on  the  potential  use,  however  with  the  amount  of  viewers  who   state  using  Twitter,  the  scope  for  such  a  use  is  enormous,  not  to  mention  reach,  and  its   targeting  opportunities  due  to  Twitters  database  on  users.  (AOL  Inc,  2013)   Social  interaction  enables  great  PR  to  be  achieved,  if  done  right,  this  could  be  as  simple   as  adding  a  #hashtag  to  a  TV  advert,  this  then  drawing  a  user  to  engage  further  with  the   brand.  What  this  then  allows  a  brand  to  do  is  use  the  data  retrieved  through  the   #hashtag  to  be  feed  back  into  the  TV/mobile  ad.  According  to  Twitter  (2013)  by  adding   a  #Hashtag  to  an  ad  it  can  increase  tweet  volume  by  4  times.    An  example  on  how  this   has  been  done  well  would  be  a  campaign  by  3  with  the  #hashtag  of  #danceponydance.   This  advert  asking  users  to  share  and  come  up  with  their  own  versions  of  the  dancing   pony  using  a  micro-­‐site  ponymixer.com,  3  then  chose  ideas  from  users  who  engaged  and   fed  it  back  into  the  TV  creative.  (Njodi,  2013)  This  creative  later  went  viral,  thus  creating   added  value  to  the  campaign.  (Creative  Review  ,  2013)   57    

 

 


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The  last  note  from  the  researcher,  that  of  a  strong  belief  -­‐  and  a  first  though  that  should   be  considered  when  thinking  of  using  the  second-­‐screen  -­‐  as  quoted  by  Brennan  “Tell   your  story,  as  powerfully  and  effectively  as  you  can,  via  the  first  screen,  and  only  attempt  to   use  second  screen  if  you  have  something  truly  valuable  to  offer”,  “If  the  TV  creative  is   strong  enough,  people  will  want  to  engage  further  –  and  that  is  why  it  is  called  ‘second   screen’”                                                        

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Tashakkori,  A.  and  Teddlie,  C.  (2003)  Handbook  of  Mixed  Methods  in  Social  and   Behavioural  Research.  Thousand  Oaks:  Sage.   TCS  (2012)  Revolutionize  Television  Experience  Second  Screen:  Insights.  TATA   Consultancy  Services.   The  Drum  (2013)  ITV’s  Ad  Sync  format  reports  active  engagement  of  over  38%  following   trial  [online].  The  Drum.  Available  from:   http://www.thedrum.com/news/2013/02/28/itv-­‐s-­‐ad-­‐sync-­‐format-­‐reports-­‐active-­‐ engagement-­‐over-­‐38-­‐following-­‐trial  [Accessed:  12  April  2013].   Thinkbox  (2012)  How  Viewers  Engage  With  Television  [online].  Thinkbox.  Available   from:  http://www.thinkbox.tv/server/show/nav.854  [Accessed:  19  April  2013].   Thinkbox  (2012)  Tellyporting:  travelling  to  TV's  near  future  [online].  Thinkbox.  Available   from:  http://www.thinkbox.tv/server/show/nav.1427  [Accessed:  19  April  2013].   Thinkbox  (2012)  Watching  TV:  convivial,  controllable  and  convenient  [online].   Thinkbox.tv.  Available  from:  http://www.thinkbox.tv/server/show/nav.988  [Accessed:   9  April  2013].   Twitter  (2012)  MTV  incorporates  Twitter  [online].  Twitter.  Available  from:   https://business.twitter.com/success-­‐stories/mtv  [Accessed:  12  January  2013].   Twitter  (2012)  MTV  incorporates  Twitter  into  Video  Music  Awards  [online].  Business:   Twitter.  Available  from:  https://business.twitter.com/optimize/case-­‐studies/mtv/   [Accessed:  16  January  2013].   Twitter  (2013)  Tune  In  With  TV.  Tweeting  About  TV  [Online].  p.14.  Available  from:   http://cdn.thejournal.ie/media/2013/01/tweeting-­‐about-­‐tv.pdf  [Accessed:  20  April   2013].   WA  TV  History  (2011)  Media  Covergence  the  Evolution  of  Content  Form  and  Delivery   [online].  WA  TV  History.  Available  from:  http://watvhistory.com/2011/04/media-­‐ convergence-­‐the-­‐evolution-­‐of-­‐content-­‐form-­‐and-­‐delivery/  [Accessed:  3  April  2013].   Wallenstein,  A.  (2011)  TV  taps  companion  apps  [online].  Variety  Media.  Available  from:   http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118041544/  [Accessed:  16  January  2013].   Waters,  D.  (1997)  Qunantitative  Methods  for  Business.  2nd  ed.  Essex:  Addison  Wesley   Longman  Publishers  Ltd.   Weinreich,  N.K.  (2012)  Transmedia  Storytelling  in  Marketing.  United  States  of  America:   Marketing  Professionals  Daily  Mix.   Wittgenstein,  L.  (1965)  Philosophical  Investigations.  New  York:  The  Macmillan  Company.   Yin,  R.K.  (2003)  Case  Study  Research:  Design  and  Method.  3rd  ed.  London:  Sage.   Zeebox  (2013)  Zeebox:  Home  [online].  Zeebox.  Available  from:   http://zeebox.com/tv/home  [Accessed:  16  January  2013].     62    

 

 


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Appendices     Appendix  1:  Interviewee   Consent  Form      

Bucks  New  University     Queen  Alexandra  Street   High  Wycombe   HJ11  2JZ   Telephone  number  –  01494  522141     21014267@bucks.ac.uk   Informed  Consent  Form   Title  of  Work:  What  is  the  role  of  second  screen  in  relation  to  TV  viewing,  and   what  are  the  implications  for  Advertising?     Name  of  Researcher:  Kalvin  Coates   1. I  have  read  and  understood  the  attached  information  sheet  giving  me  the  details   of  the  study  to  be  undertaken  by  Kalvin  Coates   2. I  have  had  the  opportunity  to  ask  Kalvin  Coates  any  questions  that  I  had  about   the  research  and  my  involvement  in  it,  and  I  understand  my  role  as  a  participant   3. My  decision  to  take  part  (consent)  is  entirely  voluntary  and  I  understand  that  I   am  free  to  withdraw  at  any  time  until  15/02/2013    without  giving  a  reason  or   being  penalised   4. I  understand  that  data  gathered  in  this  study  may  form  the  basis  of  a  report  or   other  form  of  publication  or  presentation  in  the  future   5. I  understand  that  my  name  will  not  be  used  in  any  subsequent  literature,   publication  or  presentation,  and  that  every  effort  will  be  made  to  protect  my   anonymity   Participant’s  name  (In  Capitals  ):  

 

 

Participant’s  signature:  

 

 

Researchers  signature:  

  Researchers  Name:  

 

 

Kalvin  Coates   Date:  

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Appendix  2:  Interview  Cover   Letter      

 

 

  Dear  Participant.   The  purpose  of  this  study  is  to  investigate  the  role  of  second  screen  devices  in  relation  to  TV   viewing.   1. You  may  decline  to  participate  without  giving  reasons  or  being  penalised     2. You  will  be  free  to  withdraw  at  any  time  up  to  15/02/2012  again  without  giving  reasons   or  being  penalised     3. You  may  ask  me  for  more  information  at  any  time  to  help  with  your  decision.  My  contact   details  are  below.     4. The  name  and  contact  details  for  Kalvin  Coates  are  below  as  are  the  contact  details  of   the    Supervisor  in  the  case  of  any  problems  that  might  occur  and  you  wish  to  discuss  the   research  further     5. The  research  will  take  the  form  of  interviews  between  the  researcher  Kalvin  Coates  and   you.  The  interviews  are  likely  to  take  approximately  20  minutes  although  this  can  vary   for  each  person.  Each  interview  will  be  different  for  each  participant  and  for  this  reason   an  individually  negotiated  process  can  be  worked  on  so  you  feel  absolutely  comfortable   in  your  progression  through  the  interview  process.       6. You  are  entitled  to  see  the  questions  before  the  interview.  They  can  be  supplied  and   explained  before  you  decide  to  take  part  and  any  questions  answered  to  clarify  any   point.     7.  All  interviews  will  be  recorded  and  then  transcribed  to  allow  for  analysis  of  the   information  given.  All  recordings  will  be  anonymous  and  stored  as  per  the  Data   Protection  Act,  1998.  That  is  a  locked  drawer  in  a  locked  office  that  only  the  research   has  a  key.  No  tapes  are  marked  and  when  transcribed  the  interviews  will  not  identify   any  individual  by  name  or  role     8. The  interview  transcripts  will  be  seen  by  the  researcher  for  the  purposes  of  analysis.   They  may  also  be  viewed  by  the  supervisor  and  the  marker  who  will  be  reviewing  the   work  of  the  researcher  and  will  not  know  you  personally  or  know  be  able  to  identify  you   by  the  transcripts  of  the  interview     Interviewer:  Kalvin  Coates    

Supervisor:  Vic  Davies    

Email:  21014267@bucks.ac.uk  

Email:  vic.davies@bucks.ac.uk    

 

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Appendix  3:  Interview  Candidate  and  Timings   Thomas  Hebditch  –  ZenithOptimedia  

February  12th  2013  

Charlie  Smith  –  Bliss  Mobile    

February  12th  2013  

David  Brennan  –  Author  of  Connected  TV  

February  18th  2013  

Digital  Team  at  ITV  

February  13th  2013  

Declan  Clarke  –  Head  of  Tech  -­‐  Now  TV  

February  15th  2013  

department  at  BSkyB    

Appendix  4:  Draft  Semi-­‐Structured  Interview  Questions   1. Do  you,  or  have  you  considered  incorporating  a  multi-­‐screen  strategy  when  targeting  TV   viewers,  and  why?  (Multi-­‐screen  in  terms  of  using  both  first  and  second  screen)   2. Do  you  see  any  value  in  using  second  screen  as  an  advertising  medium,  and  why?   3. How  do  you  perceive  the  role  of  Social  Media  in  relation  to  second  screen,  and  why?   4. Do  you,  or  have  you  thought  of  creating/utilizing  Companion  Apps  into  you  campaign   strategies,  and  why?     5. Do  you,  or  have  you  thought  of  incorporating  Transmedia-­‐Storytelling  into  you  strategies   when  planning  a  campaign,  and  why?     6. Do  you  believe  context  plays  a  big  part  in  relation  to  choosing  which  content  suits  which   device,  and  why?     7. What  is  your  view  on  the  progression  of  second  screen  as  a  viable  advertising  medium?              

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Appendix  5:  Draft  Questionnaire     This  questionnaire  hopes  to  gain  understanding  as  to  the  role  of  second-­‐screen  in  relation  to   TV  viewing,  and  the  implications  for  advertising.   1. Do  you  own  a  Smartphone/Tablet  device?   [  ]  Yes    

 

 

 

[  ]  No      

 

[  ]  Yes  I  own  both  

<If  you  answered  No,  this  is  the  end  of  the  questionnaire,  Thank  you  for  your  participation.>  

2. Which  gender  category  best  describes  you?   Male  [  ]    

 

Female  [  ]    

 

Prefer  not  to  say  [  ]  

3. Which  category  below  includes  your  age?   [  ]  16  or  younger      

[  ]  40-­‐49    

[  ]  17-­‐20      

 

[  ]  50-­‐59    

[  ]  21-­‐29    

 

[  ]  60  or  over  

[  ]  30-­‐39   4. Do  you,  or  have  you  used  your  Smartphone/Tablet  whilst  watching  TV?   [  ]  Yes    

 

 

 

[  ]  No      

5. If  you  do  use  a  Smartphone/Tablet  whilst  watching  TV,  how  often  do  you  do  so?   [  ]  Never   [  ]  Once  a  Month  or  Less   [  ]  Several  Times  a  Month   [  ]  Several  Times  a  Week   [  ]  Once  a  Day   [  ]  Several  Times  a  Day                           66    

 

 


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6. When  using  your  Smartphone/Tablet  in  front  of  the  TV,  what  are  you  doing  on  the  device?   Please  choose  either  one,  or  multiple  answers  

[  ]  Emailing   [  ]  General  Browsing   [  ]  Shopping   [  ]  Accessing  Facebook   [  ]  Banking   [  ]  Playing  Games   [  ]  Looking  at  the  news   [  ]  Find  out  more  about  a  TV  show   [  ]  Catching  up  on  sports  news/results   [  ]  Find  out  more  about  brand/advert   [  ]  Working   [  ]  Accessing  Twitter   [  ]  Gambling   [  ]  Other  (Please  specify)       ____________________________________________________________________     7. When  using  your  Smartphone/Tablet  in  front  of  the  TV,  have  you  ever  used  an  application   for  a  specific  show?  E.G.  Sky+,  YouView,  Zeebox,  The  Walking  Dead,  Shazam     [  ]  Yes    

 

 

 

[  ]  No      

8. If  you  have  used  an  application  specifically  for  a  TV  show,  do  you  feel  this  gives  you  a  better   viewing  experience?   Please  comment  in  the  box  below  your  answer  

   

 

    The  researcher  would  like  to  thank  you  for  completing  this  questionnaire;  the  results  will  be   published  within  the  researcher’s  dissertation.       67    

 

 


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Appendix  6:  Ethical  Statement  and  Consideration     The  findings  in  this  dissertation  will  be  that  of  results  non-­‐commercially  sensitive,  yet   providing  intriguing  insights  into  second  screens  relationship  with  TV  viewing.     Possible  risks  of  participating  respondents  are  conflicts  of  interest  and  release  of   commercially  sensitive  materials.     To  ensure  that  the  results  taken  from  research  are  ethical;   All  data  recovered  from  primary  research  will  require  permission  from  respondents  to   use  the  information  gathered  for  research  purposes,  which  in  turn  can  be  shared   without  breaking  any  confidential  agreement  made.  Any  data  shared  that  is  confidential   must  be  kept  so.  Copies  of  the  consent  form  are  attached  to  the  Appendix  in  Figure  1.   All  respondents  will  be  shown  a  copy  of  this  proposal,  indicating  reasoning  for  research   and  the  methods  conducted.  This  will  help  to  educate  respondents  and  ensure  the   research  is  free  from  conflicts  of  interest.  Copies  of  the  Cover  Letter  are  attached  to  the   Appendix  in  Figure  2.        

 

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Appendix  7:  Online  Survey  Response  Results  (Survey  Monkey)  

  This  image  shows  the  number  of  responses  (100)  collected  through  Survey  Monkey  .  

Appendix  8:  Street  Survey  Response  Results  Westfield  (Google  Docs)  

  This  Image  shows  the  number  of  responses  (51)  collected  through  Google  Docs,  these   were  answered  on  the  researchers  iPad,  collected  in  Westfields  shopping  centre.        

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Appendix  9:  Questionnaire    

   

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Appendix  10:  Questionnaire  Data  Analysis  Results      

  and  Mobile  Viewing  Habits  Questionnaire     TV  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Question   1     150   responses  

  Are  you  male  or  female?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Male    

 

 

64  

57%   43%  

86  

 

 

Female  

 

Prefer  not  to  say  

0  

0%  

 

 

Unanswered    

1  

0.70%  

 

 

 Question   2     150   responses  

 

 

 

Which  category  below  includes  your  age?  

 16  or  younger  

 

0  

 

17-­‐20  

17  

 

21-­‐29  

85  

             Question  

30-­‐39  

24  

40-­‐49  

13  

50-­‐59  

4  

60  or  older  

7  

Unanswered    

1  

3   150   responses  

 

How do you watch TV?

 Scheduled TV

 

 

84  

 

On-Demand

 

Online Streaming

      Question    

Other

6  

Unanswered

1  

4     150   responses        

     Question   5  

 

 

 

 

 

0%   11%   56%   16%   9%   3%   5%   0.70%  

 

               

 

 

 

 

 

100   53  

56%   67%   35%   4%   0.70%  

           

 

Where  do  you  watch  TV?  

   

  the  Sofa   On  

 

 

 

 

 

 

In  Bed  

73  

91%   49%  

At  Desk  

10  

7%  

Other  

11  

7%   0.70%  

136  

Unanswered    

 

Who  do  you  watch  TV  with?  

1  

   

     

 

   

 

 

 

  72  

 

 


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150   responses    Alone  

 

94  

 

With  Friends  

63  

 

With  Family  

94  

       Question  

Other  

3  

Unanswered    

1  

6     149   responses  

 

 

Do  you  own  a  Smartphone  and/or  Tablet  Device?    Yes  

 

101  

 

No  

18  

 

Yes  I  own  Both  

30  

     Question  

Unanswered    

7   145   responses  

 

 

No  

 

Unanswered    

8     148   responses  

63%   42%   63%   2%   0.70%  

 

 

 

 

68%   12%   20%   1.30%  

 

119  

 

82%   18%   4%  

26  

6  

 

     

 

     

 

 

 Never  

 

 

If  you  do  use  a  Smartphone/Tablet  whilst  watching  TV,  how  often  do  you  do  so?  

 

 

Once  A  Month  Or  Less  

5  

 

Several  Times  A  Month  

18  

12%  

 

Several  Times  A  Week    

44  

         Question  

Once  A  Day    

14  

Several  Times  A  Day  

42  

30%   10%   28%   2%  

Unanswered  

25  

3  

 When  using  your  Smartphone/Tablet  in  f  ront  of  the  TV,  what  are     you  doing     on  the  Device?    Emailing    

 

 

 

General  Browsing  

 

Shopping  

 

Accessing  Facebook  

       

Banking  

35  

Playing  Games  

43  

Looking  At  The  News     Find  Out  More  About  A  TV   Show  

46  

57%   75%   38%   73%   25%   31%   33%  

44  

32%  

79   103   52   101  

 

 

     

         

         

       

73    

   

 

17%   3%  

9     138   responses  

 

 

2  

 

           

Do  you,  or  have  you  used  your  Smartphone/Tablet  whilst  watching  TV?       Yes  

   Question  

 


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Catching  Up  On  Sports  News/   Results     Find  Out  More  About  A   Brand/Advert  

 

25  

18%  

29  

21%  

Working    

21  

15%  

 

 

Accessing  Twitter  

55  

 

         Question  

Gambling    

40%   4%   13%   8.60%  

   

10   97   responses      

   Question  

11   43   responses  

6  

Other  

18  

Unanswered    

13  

 Yes  

 

27  

 

28%  

No  

70  

72%  

Unanswered    

54  

35.70%  

 If  you  have  used  an  application  specifically     for  a  TV  show,  do  you     feel  this  gives  you   a  better  viewing  experience?    

43  

 

     

   

 When  using  your  Smartphone/Tablet  in  f  ront  of  the  TV,  have  you     ever  used     an  application  for  a  specific  TV  show?  

 Answered    

         

28%   72%  

         

33%  

 

       

Unanswered  

 

  Yes,   Yeah  

 

No  

6  

14%  

 

 

N/A  

3  

7%  

 

 

Useful  in-­‐depth  answers    

15  

35%  

 

 

Irrelevant  answers  

5  

11%  

 

     

108  

  Coding   of  Answers    

     

14  

     

 

 

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Appendix  11:  Questionnaire  Data  Analysis  Graphs  and  Data  Representation      

Figure  1  

Are  you  Male  or  Female?  

Male    

43%   57%  

Female  

 

Figure  2    

Which  category  below  includes  your  age?     3%   9%  

0%   16  or  younger  

5%   11%  

17-­‐20   21-­‐29  

16%  

30-­‐39   40-­‐49   50-­‐59  

56%  

60  or  older  

 

Figure  3    

How  do  you  watch  TV?   100   80   60   40   20   0  

56%  

67%   35%   4%  

  75    

 

 


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Figure  4  

Where  do  you  watch  TV?   160  

91%  

140   120   100  

49%  

80   60   40   20  

7%  

7%  

At  Desk  

Other  

0   On  the  Sofa  

In  Bed  

 

Figure  5    

Who  do  you  watch  TV  with?   2%  

Other  

63%  

With  Family   With  Friends  

42%  

Alone  

63%   0  

20  

40  

60  

80  

100  

 

 

            76    

 

 


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Figure  6    

Do  you  own  a  Smartphone  and/or   Tablet  Device?   Yes  

No  

Yes  I  own  Both  

20%   12%   68%  

 

Figure  7    

Do  you,  or  have  you  used  your   Smartphone/Tablet  whilst  watching  TV?   18%  

Yes     No   82%  

 

Figure  8    

If  you  do  use  a  Smartphone/Tablet  whilst   watching  TV,  how  often  do  you  do  so?   Never   28%  

17%   3%   12%  

10%   30%  

Once  A  Month  Or  Less   Several  Times  A  Month   Several  Times  A  Week     Once  A  Day     Several  Times  A  Day  

  77    

 

 


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Figure  9    

When  using  your  Smartphone/Tablet  in  front   of  the  TV,  what  are  you  doing  on  the  Device?   13%  

Other  

4%  

Gambling    

40%  

Accessing  Twitter  

15%  

Working    

21%  

Find  Out  More  About  A  Brand/Advert  

18%  

Catching  Up  On  Sports  News/  Results    

32%  

Find  Out  More  About  A  TV  Show  

33%  

Looking  At  The  News    

31%  

Playing  Games  

25%  

Banking  

73%  

Accessing  Facebook  

38%  

Shopping  

75%  

General  Browsing  

58%  

Emailing     0  

20  

40  

60  

80  

100  

120  

  Examples  of  Other:     Answering messages, Zeebox sometimes, Texting, Texting, Never use it, Reading blogs, Texting, Instagram, Texting/Messaging, Texting/Socialising, controlling my TV, Explicit videos

  Figure  10    

When  using  your  Smartphone/Tablet  in  front   of  the  TV,  have  you  ever  used  an  application   for  a  specidic  TV  show?   72%  

No  

28%  

Yes   0  

10  

20  

30  

40  

50  

60  

70  

80  

78    

 

 


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Figure  11:  If  you  have  used  an  application  specifically  for  a  TV  show,  do  you  feel  this   gives  you  a  better  viewing  experience?     Yeah.  I  have  the  Voice  app,  I’m  not  sure  how  great  I  find  it  though:  /.  Yes. Did not find it

that interesting.  Yes makes you feel like you know more about it.  Yes. I  have   used  one  of  my  husband’s  iPad,  it  did  make  the  show  more  enjoyable  as  I   felt  I  was  contributing.  Yes.  Means  I  can  be  even  lazier  lol. Shazam is a good way to see what my mates are watching. Helps me choose.  Yes. I  only  use  my  device  for  shopping  and  playing  games  while  watching  TV,  I  have  never  used   a  specific  application  designed  for  TV.  Yes, it makes the viewing experience more interactive.  Nope.  No.  Gadget  show,  spring  watch,   gambling.  Yes.  N/A.  Not

really – it distracts me from what

you are watching.  N/A.  Yes. Depends  on  the  show,  if  its  captivating  like   a  drama  twitter  is  a  distraction  and  sometimes  spoils  it  unless  I’ve  paused  it. No.   Yes.  No.

Yes, I use Zeebox. It's a great way of choosing what to watch

by seeing what my friends are watching.  Nope.  No, accessing on Twitter seems better to me.  Yup yeah yah oui yes true.  No.  Yes.  Yes it does.  Not Applicable. Yes...

it streams

better and you can go straight to the channel guide... It’s much easier.  No.  It

makes me feel a lot more engaged with the show that I am watching.  Yes. The walking dead app doesn't make the experience better but is just a fun bonus to the show. TV Catchup. Yes. Yes, as it helps to get more involved with the program and offers a better viewing experience. Yes. Yes, it makes the viewing experience more

interactive. Indefinitely.

   

 

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Appendix  12:  Semi-­‐Structured  Interview  David  Brennan  

Semi-­‐Structured  Interview  Questions   1. How  do  you  watch  TV?    Like  most  people,  according  to  industry  research.  I  like  watching  scheduled  TV,  on  the  sofa,     mainly  with  my  family  around  me  and  sometimes  alone  as  a  treat.  I  love  great  storytelling,   sport  and  other  live  events,  easy  laughs  and  the  occasional  bit  of  inspiration.   I’m  watching  more  on  demand  now  that  Sky  is  making  it  available,  so  around  25%  of  our   viewing  is  via  catch-­‐up  (especially  BBC  Iplayer,  looking  forward  to  4OD  hitting  the  platform   soon),  movies,  the  planner,  or  Sky  Store  which  –  as  I  predicted  about  3  years  ago  –  is  proving   a  viable  alternative  to  Blockbuster  for  our  DVD  ‘treats’.   I  watch  lots  of  clips  online  and  am  increasingly  loading  up  my  i-­‐pad  for  frequent  journeys   overseas,  but  the  bulk  of  our  household  viewing  is  still  to  programmes  on  channels   2. Do  you  yourself  multi-­‐screen?   Frequently  –  and  have  been  doing  for  some  time.  It  all  started  with  texting  but  tablets  and   smartphones  have  created  a  revolution.  Don’t  get  me  wrong  –  we’ve  always  done  other   stuff  when  we’re  watching  TV,  switching  in  and  out  of  activities,  it’s  nothing  new6  –  but  my   ipad  and  iphone  and  the  three  Kindle  Fires  we  own  between  us  are  starting  to  get  picked  up   more  regularly.  We’re  seeing  that  in  all  the  research.7   3. Do  you  see  any  value  in  using  second  screen  as  an  advertising  medium,  and  why?   Massive  value  –  it  could  create  a  revolution  in  the  value  of  all  three  screens,  if  they  are  used   sensitively,  innovatively  and  intuitively.  The  purchase  journey  –  from  initial  awareness  of  a   brand  to  actual  purchase  –  often  lasts  a  matter  of  minutes  when  it  used  to  be  days,  weeks  or   even  months.  The  relationship  between  marketing  activity  and  response  can  be  plotted   more  precisely.  You  can  create  instant  dialogue  and  deeper  relationships.  It  can  be  made   completely  intuitive  for  the  viewer  so  response  can  be  maximized  and  navigated.  But  the   following  needs  to  be  born  in  mind;   •

The  relationship  generally  flows  from  the  TV  set  to  online8  

                                                                                                                          6  See  www.thinkbox.tv  –  Engagement  Study   7  See  www.thinkbox.tv  -­‐  Tellyporting  

8  See  www.thinkbox.tv  –  TV  &  Online:  Better  Together  

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Apps  are  a  fantastically  enabling  navigation  tool  for  second  screening  (but  getting  them   adopted  in  significant  quantities  is  proving  increasingly  challenging)  

Advertisers  need  to  bear  in  mind  the  branding  value  of  television  in  their  desire  to  milk  the   short-­‐term  response,  or  only  evaluate  their  TV  activity  in  this  way.  The  danger  is  also  n  TV   advertising  becoming  so  response-­‐led,  it  will  end  up  being  unwatchable.  That  is  when  the   competition  would  really  bite  for  TV.  

Second  screens  can  be  both  a  distractor  and  an  enhancer,  and  a  lot  of  that  will  depend  what   is  on  (TV)  screen  at  the  time.  The  pressure  will  be  on  TV  content  –  especially  advertising  –  to   make  it  more  the  latter  than  the  former,  with  great  creativity  and  clever  interactivity.   Thinkbox  recently  indicated9  that,  during  ad  breaks,  it  is  about  half  and  half,  but  when  used   as  an  enhancer,  it  can  be  very  effective.  

4. How  do  you  perceive  the  role  of  Social  Media  in  relation  to  second  screening,  and  why?     Social  media  has  been  a  terrific  turbo-­‐boost  to  what  has  always  occurred  –  people  talking   about  what’s  on  TV,  so  it’s  no  coincidence  that  it  is  the  single  (by  far)  biggest  second  screen   activity  people  engage  with.  But  I  agree  with  the  statement  that  we  should  think  of  it  as  a  PR   channel,  not  an  advertising  channel.  In  that  way,  give  the  social  networks  something  to   share  and  you  can  turbo-­‐charge  the  word  of  mouth  buzz  behind  TV  programming  or   advertised  brands.   But  it’s  also  worth  remembering  that  online  in  total  is  only  responsible  for  7%  of  all  brand   word-­‐of-­‐mouth10  -­‐  we  should  think  of  ‘social  media’  as  all  those  offline  fireside   conversations,  phone  calls  and  water  cooler  moments  as  well.   5. In  your  opinion  do  you  see  value  in  creating/utilizing  Companion  Apps  into  campaign   strategies,  or  does  this  draw  the  viewer  away  from  the  first  screen?     The  value  is  in  the  creativity.  In  itself,  I’d  say  don’t  bother.  Tell  your  story,  as  powerfully  and   effectively  as  you  can,  via  the  first  screen,  and  only  attempt  to  use  second  screen  if  you  have   something  truly  valuable  to  offer  –  information,  entertainment,  inspiration,  utility.  If  the  TV   creative  is  strong  enough,  people  will  want  to  engage  further  –  and  that  is  why  it  is  called   ‘second  screen’   6. Do  you  see  value  in  incorporating  Transmedia-­‐Storytelling  into  you  strategies  to  enhance  the   viewing  experience,  and  why?                                                                                                                               9  www.thinkbox.tv  –  Screen  Life  

10  Ed  Keller  &  Brad  Fay  –  ‘The  Face  to  Face  Book’  and  their  international  ‘Talktrack’  research.  

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I’m  in  two  minds  about  this.  I  first  heard  it  described  by  a  Coca  Cola  executive  at  a  media   conference  about  6  years  ago  and  it  sort  of  made  sense.  The  ‘overarching  narrative’  was   going  to  be  made  available  across  (and  customized  towards)  different  screen-­‐based  media   channels.  In  many  ways,  that  is  just  good,  consistent  branding,  and  expanding  or   personalizing  the  storytelling  element  across  media  simply  makes  sense  in  a  multi-­‐screen   world.  And  it  focuses  on  storytelling,  which  was  a  bad  word  in  marketing  until  around  15   years  ago,  but  which  we  now  know  powers  human  learning,  memory,  development  and   behaviors.  So  I  sort  of  liked  the  concept.  But…   Storytelling  is  essentially  passive.  It  has  been  for  millennia.  Some  would  argue  it  should   always  be.  It  relies  on  surprise,  and  linear  narrative  arcs,  and  creative  depictions  and,  most   of  all,  imagination.  While  we  can  play  with  the  idea  of  storytelling  being  enhanced  across   media  platforms  and  screens,  I  think  it  is  more  about  developing  the  story  to  be  available   across  all  screens,  but  customized  for  different  contexts.     Which  brings  me  to…     7. Do  you  believe  context  plays  a  big  part  in  relation  to  choosing  which  content  suits  which   device,  and  why?     I  think  context  is  critical  in  a  number  of  ways.  First  of  all,  totally  functionally,  things  like   screen  size,  connectivity,  device  functionality  etc.  will  always  be  important;  for  example,   people  will  prefer  to  consume  content  on  the  biggest  screen  available  and  there  is  a  strong   correlation  between  length  of  optimum  tine  for  content  and  screen  size  (smaller  screens,   shorter  content!).   Secondly,  there  is  the  context  of  the  ‘media  moment’.  Is  it  alone  or  with  others?  At  home,  at   work  or  on  the  move?  What  time  of  day?  What  other  activities  are  occurring?  All  these   contextual  elements  can  have  a  huge  part  to  play  in  both  content  selected  and  device  in   which  it  is  displayed.     8. What  is  your  view  on  the  progression  of  second  screen  as  a  viable  advertising  medium?  

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As  I  said  earlier,  there  are  significant  opportunities  for  advertising  in  terms  of  shortening   routes  to  purchase  and  finding  ways  to  allow  consumers  to  intuitively  engage  with  their   content.  There  are  several  challenges  though  if  these  are  to  be  fully  maximised;   1. Content  needs  to  be  synchronised,  so  the  right  content  ends  up  on  the  second  screen   automatically.  ITV  are  offering  a  hybrid  version  of  this  with  Shazam,  but  I  believe  the   synchronisation  will  occur  via  connected  TV  sets  sending  an  audio  signal  to  other  devices.   2. Consumers/customers  will  need  to  be  persuaded  to  download  relevant  apps  (although   connected  TVs  may  be  able  to  by-­‐pass  this  particular  challenge  in  future).  Apps  were  being   downloaded  frequently  by  early  adopters  of  second  screens  but  there  is  so  much   competition  now  and  many  apps  find  very  few  takers  these  days.   3. Privacy  issues  will  need  to  be  addressed  if  targeting  and  personalisation  are  fully  achieved.   4. The  right  content  needs  to  be  created.  I  still  believe  agencies  haven’t  completely  got  second   screening  and  I  have  seen  relatively  few  really  innovative  second  screening  campaigns.  It   might  be  argued  that  most  second  screening  (e.g.  social  media,  finding  out  information)   don’t  need  specific  apps  –  consumers  are  more  than  able  to  participate  in  these  ways   regardless  –  but  creatively  there  is  still  much  that  agencies  and  advertisers  could  do.                              

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Appendix  13  Semi-­‐Structured  Interview  Francesca  Seeley       1. Do  you,  or  have  you  considered  incorporating  a  multi-­‐screen  strategy  when  targeting  TV   viewers,  and  why?  (Multi-­‐screen  in  terms  of  using  both  first  and  second  screen)   -­‐

Yes,  have  used  in  recent  campaign  for  my  client,  Barclaycard.  In  November/  December  2012   we  ran  a  brand  campaign  called  ‘Toys’,  which  featured  a  toy  store  come  to  life,  and   demonstrating  payment  with  Barclaycard’s  ‘Paytag’  product.  Barclaycard  like  to  be  seen  as   leaders  in  innovation,  therefore  they  are  always  interested  in  new  innovations  in  the   industry  and  ‘media  firsts’.  We  integrated  a  Shazam  element  into  the  TV  campaign  in  order   to  demonstrate  the  brands  lead  in  innovation  –  the  viewer  was  able  to  Shazam  the  ad  with   their  mobile  in  order  to  enter  into  a  competition.  Was  a  really  nice  idea  but  when  it  went   live  we  had  technical  issues  as  too  many  people  entered  the  competition  and  the  server   couldn’t  handle  the  volume.  

-­‐

Need  to  ensure  a  quality  consumer  experience  –  if  doesn’t  work  properly  reflects  negatively   on  the  brand,  consumers  dissatisfied  and  client  less  likely  to  use  this  technology  again.  

2. Do  you  see  any  value  in  using  second  screen  as  an  advertising  medium,  and  why?   -­‐

Yes,  if  you  are  clever  about  it.  Households  increasingly  tech  savvy;  whole  family  will  be   online  at  the  same  time  on  multiple  devices,  whilst  watching  TV  in  the  evening  –  offers   platform  for  reaching  mass  audience  of  engaged  viewers.    

-­‐

TV  audience  but  at  the  price  of  digital  media  –  if  run  online  activity  to  correlate  with   particular  TV  programming,  can  reach  your  target  audience  with  relevant  ads  at  much   cheaper  cost.  

-­‐

Need  to  present  the  viewer  with  a  strong  call  to  action  –  reward  them  for  interaction  

3. How  do  you  perceive  the  role  of  Social  Media  in  relation  to  second  screen,  and  why?   -­‐

Social  media  offers  opportunity  for  brands  to  facilitate  conversation  around  interesting   content.  

-­‐

Advertisers  can  replicate  the  buzz/talkability  TV  shows  for  their  TV  ads.  They  can  track  social   conversations  online  around  their  ad,  and  respond  to  them.  Drives  consumer  engagement   and  starts  two-­‐way  conversations.    

-­‐

This  will  be  dependent  on  the  TV  creative  being  exciting  and  shareable.  

4. Do  you,  or  have  you  thought  of  creating/utilizing  Companion  Apps  into  you  campaign   strategies,  and  why?     -­‐

E.g.  Zeebox?  

-­‐

Have  considered  but  current  usage  is  not  high  enough  for  my  client  to  buy  in.  

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5. Do  you,  or  have  you  thought  of  incorporating  Transmedia-­‐Storytelling  into  you  strategies   when  planning  a  campaign,  and  why?     -­‐

Good  example  from  another  client  in  the  agency  was  the  Mercedes  campaign,  ‘#youdrive’.  

-­‐

TV  ad  played  half  a  video…  viewer  was  then  prompted  to  go  online  and  vote  for  one  of  two   video  endings.  The  ending  which  received  the  most  votes  was  played  live  on  TV.    

-­‐

This  gave  the  viewer  control  –  empowering  them  gains  their  trust  in  the  brand.  Shows  their   opinion  is  valued.  

-­‐

Was  a  first  in  the  industry  so  gave  the  campaign  huge  amount  of  PR  and  talkability.  

6. Do  you  believe  context  plays  a  big  part  in  relation  to  choosing  which  content  suits  which   device,  and  why?     -­‐

Most  vital  consideration  is  your  audience.  Consider  which  devices  they  are  likely  to  use,  and   what  content  they  consume.  Need  to  marry  up  the  findings  in  order  to  be  successful  in  using   second  screen  advertising.  E.g.  ‘Young  digital  natives’  have  very  different  media   consumption  habits  and  technology  uses  to  ‘Practical  mums’.  

7. What  is  your  view  on  the  progression  of  second  screen  as  a  viable  advertising  medium?   -­‐

I  think  its  progression  is  inevitable.  Even  though  it  is  quite  a  new  concept  in  the  industry,  it   won’t  take  long  to  take-­‐off  –  just  need  a  couple  of  real  success  stories  of  advertisers  doing  it   right  to  get  people  switched  on  to  it.  

-­‐

Opens  up  opportunity  for  two-­‐way  conversations  between  advertisers  and  their  audiences  –   undeniable  value  in  that.   Food  for  thought:  

-­‐

What  would  happen  if  the  relationship  between  online  and  TV  is  reversed?  If  what  is   trending/being  talked  about  online  is  pulled  into  TV  content?  E.g.  if  audience  are  talking   about  what  to  do  on  Friday  night,  entertainment  advertisers  can  track  their  social   conversations  and  show  them  ads  on  TV  relevant  to  them  e.g.  gigs/cinema/restaurants  to  go   to  etc.  

-­‐

What  is  broadcast  TV  is  largely  replaced  by  video  on  demand  (VOD)  e.g.  40D,  ITV  player,  BBC   iplayer  etc.?  As  people  become  busier  and  find  less  time/desire  to  watch  programmed  TV,   will  this  help  or  hinder  advertisers  in  reaching  their  target  audiences?  May  make  it  more   difficult  to  guarantee  audiences  at  set  times  of  the  day,  however  as  VOD  is  also  online,   sophisticated  tracking  may  enable  more  relevant  ads  to  be  served  when  consuming  video   and  browsing  other  content  online  e.g.  if  on  eBay  watching  an  item,  could  be  served  a  pre-­‐

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roll  ad  featuring  similar  items  in  TV  content  –  allows  advertisers  to  fully  roadblock  and  hit   audience  with  messaging  from  all  angles.   AMEX  –  have  just  released  a  ‘pay-­‐by-­‐tweet’  service,  which  allows  AMEX  customers  to  pay  for   products  by  tweeting  a  product  code  on  Twitter.  See  my  blog  for  details  and  POV   http://maxusglobal.co.uk/maxus-­‐mouth  (second  one  down).  Opportunity  for  social  to   directly  link  with  commerce…    and  to  be  activated  through  TV                              

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Appendix  14:  Thomas  Hebditch  Interview  Notes  

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What is the role of second screen in relation to TV viewing?