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G AT E W AY T O P H I L A D E L P H I A

K A I T L I N W. M c D O N A L D ARCHITECTURAL THESIS 2010-2011 TEMPLE UNIVERSITY_ TYLER


G AT E W AY T O P H I L A D E L P H I A

K A I T L I N W. M c D O N A L D ARCHITECTURAL THESIS 2010-2011 TEMPLE UNIVERSITY_ TYLER E R I C O S K E Y, FA C U L I T Y A D V I S O R

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RESEARCH

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Abstract Theore cal approach Case Study: “Landscape as Infrastructure” Tac cal Approach Case Study: Millennium Park Proposed Site Pre-Design Overview

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PRE-DESIGN

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Introduc on to Program Precedents Time and Scale Phased Approach Phase 1: Landscape Phase 2: Transpora on Phase 3: Built Environment Phase 4: Loose Space Program Design Objec ve

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DESIGN

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Thesis Summary Site Users Program Modules Organiza on Bridging the Exsis ng Detailed Zone_Navy Yard System Details

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APPENDIX

Fall 2010

Fall 2010 - Spring 2011

Spring 2011

Fall 2010- Spring 2011

2 Concluding Comments 3 Work Cited 5 Image References


G AT E W AY T O P H I L A D E L P H I A

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RESEARCH

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Abstract Theore cal approach Case Study: “Landscape as Infrastructure” Tac cal Approach Case Study: Millennium Park Proposed Site Pre-Design Overview

Fall 2010


ABSTRACT The intersec on of the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers appears to be an underu lized urban space that at one me was a former site of industry and importance. With the changing role of industry and its new spa al requirements, the reappropria on of space in this area is possible. The primary focus of this thesis will study spa al strategies that incorporate landscape urbanism and phase design, that allow for the poten al development of the post industrial waterfront and a new gateway to Philadelphia. In order to achieve this analysis of other post industrial waterfront projects which have become catalysts for urban growth and change is necessary. The chosen site lies between two waterfront development projects in Philadelphia that are either in the works or under considera on by the city, the Schuylkill Banks River Park and Trail System and the PennPraxis proposal, Civic Vision for the Central Delaware, on the Delaware River which stops just above the Navy Yard. This in-between area is a prime loca on for waterfront development because it will become the nexus or gateway that completes the redevelopment of Philadelphia’s post industrial riverfront. This area is also of par cular interest because of the exis ng industrial programs and uses already exhibited in an ad hoc fashion on the site, the absence of a master plan, and weak land use controls. The current stakeholders on the site are the Philadelphia Interna onal Airport, The Navy Yard, historic Fort Mifflin, and the Sunoco Corpora on refinery. These players, in addi on to the constraints on the site; such as the natural a ributes, the transit infrastructure, and the forth men oned manufacturing and industrial forces will be addressed in the design. This thesis aims to create a system framework, not a master plan that is to be completed in phases, similar to Michele Desvigne’s plan for the Garonne River in Bordeaux, France. Given the condi ons and stakeholders on the site in Philadelphia the phases of design will be: landscape, transporta on, and built environment. These phases will eventually be conveyed in a series of design vigne es similar to Weiss and Manfredi’s renderings, and those produced by James Corner and Field Opera ons.

RESEARCH

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THEORETICAL APPROACH The mouth of the Schuylkill River is an underu lized parcel of land that if exploited could become the eventual gateway to the city of Philadelphia visible from automobiles, airplanes, and water transporta on. There has been a vested interest in urban renewal and the upper areas of the Schuylkill River and the Delaware River from Northern Liber es down to South Street. Is one of Philadelphia’s ideological func ons of “public” space able to manifest at the mouth of the Schuylkill River via an array of spa al strategies? The primary focus will study spa al strategies that allow for the development of the post industrial waterfront and the poten al new gateway to Philadelphia. The constraints of the waterfront site (natural features, highway, bridges, roadways, prior manufacturing plants and old factories, ect.) will be explored. Ideally this will be achieved in a similar manner to the landscape architecture firm Weiss and Manfredi, more specifically the Olympic Sculpture Park design in Sea le, Washington. This firm u lizes spa al strategies that create the desired cohesive system integra ng landscape design and urbanism, prac cing what Charles Waldheim coined as landscape urbanism when he introduced the new discipline into the field

Figure 1.1 Olympic Sculpture Park Sea le, Washington

during the April 1997 Landscape Urbanism Symposium and Exhibi on in Chicago. The term does not have a clear defini on, however Waldheim describes it as, “ […] the prac ces in which landscape replaces architectural form as the primary medium of city making. This understanding of decentralized post-industrial urban form highlighted the le over void spaces of the city as poten al commons.” 1 Weiss and Manfredi u lized aspects of landscape urbanism in the crea on of a zig-zag retaining wall system on the eight acre site fron ng Elliot Bay. This new piece of infrastructure acts as the means of circula on for visitors and locals and simultaneously, it serves as a means to help restore the shoreline’s ecosystem and create a 1 Shane, Grahame. “The Emergence of Landscape Urbanism.” In The Landscape Urbanism Reader. 1 ed. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. 58.

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hospitable environment for migra ng salmon. 2 These underlying themes of landscape urbanism are applicable to Philadelphia’s underu lized pos ndustrial waterfronts and will be u lized in an interwoven system of natural, infrastructural, and social forces within the site. It will be developed using the exis ng topography and industrial ar facts found along the site. The designed framework will be comprised of an interlocking network of movement systems, parks and open spaces, and land development.

CASE STUDY “Landscapes as Infrastructure” Elizabeth Mossop is a well known academic whose primary focus and research revolves around landscape, urbanism, and infrastructure. She is a professor of Landscape Architecture and is currently the Director of the School of Landscape Architecture at Louisiana State University. In her essay “Landscapes of Infrastructure” which was published in the 2006 edi on of the Landscape Urbanism Reader, Elizabeth Mossop explored the rela onships between contemporary urbanism and landscape theory. Mossop provided a brief history of landscape architecture star ng with Fredrick Law Olmstead’s proposal for Boston’s Emerald Necklace in the 1880’s, and con nues through the me period when Landscape Architecture was becoming a full fledged discipline in the 1960’s and 1980’s. Two different approaches to 2 Manfredi, Michael, and Marion Weiss. Surface/Subsurface. 1 ed. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007.

landscape architecture in an urban environment were clearly outlined. The first view, “… is a world view that separates the works of humans from the natural world,” 1 and Mossop, credits much of this to Ian McHarg and his book, Design with Nature.2 McHarg is cri cized for his polarized style and his tendency to over ar culate the dis nc on between what Mossop describes as the, “…sustaining, spiritually, renewing country side, and the ugly, dirty, brutal industrial city”. The opposing view, which the author herself supports, is, “the schism within the discipline of Landscape Architecture, between environment and design”. Elizabeth Mossop offers a theory of landscape in rela on to urban infrastructure while providing readers with current analyses available between the two. Her analysis will serve as the theore cal founda on for this thesis. Given the absence of a long range vision for the proposed site, weak outdated land use controls, and the current programs and uses already exhibited in an ad hoc fashion, there is the poten al for the mouth of the Schuylkill River to act as a gateway to Philadelphia; for residents, employees, tourists alike. A hybrid landscape with blurred boundaries and a cross disciplinary approach will be u lized in order to propose design for the development of the Schuylkill River from the end of the Schuylkill Banks Park to the southern end of the Penn Praxis’ Civic Vision for the Central Delaware 1 Mossop, Elizabeth. “Landscapes as Infrastructure.” In The Landscape Urbanism Reader. 1 ed. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. 163-178. 2 Mcharg, Ian L.. Design with Nature (Wiley Series in Sustainable Design). New Ed ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 1995.

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TACTICAL APPROACH O en mes the prac ces of landscape urbanism are thought of as unacceptable to public agencies and clients because of their perceived unpredictable outcomes. Primarily due to the nature of working with systems that a empt to recognize and understand natural processes, landscape urbanism strategies do not produce a final unchanging individual object, building, or master plan, but rather provides a framework that features landscape as a pla orm for organizing urban systems.

Figure 1.2 Aker Shipyard, Philadelphia Navy Yard Figure 1.3 Sunoco Co. Refinery, Philadelphia

proposal.3 The objec ve is a dynamic system taking place at a neighborhood scale along this corridor with func oning ecological systems that deal with human ac vity, natural processes, and that also take into account social, poli cal, and economic factors. The geology, the topography, the rivers, the harbor, and the climate provide a star ng point for explora on. The poten al of the project lies in the ability to exploit the rela onship between these natural systems and the public open spaces of Philadelphia. 3 School of Design of University of Pennsylvania. “A Civic Vision for the Central Delaware.” Issuu - You Publish. h p://issuu.com/pennpraxis/docs/ civic-vision-for-the-central-delaware (accessed September 9, 2010).

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In the past decade, with the growing awareness of sustainability and the changing poli cal and economic climate in America ci es and clients have turned to known supporters of the landscape urbanism ini a ve for help with reclaiming freeways, dilapidated infrastructure and toxic industrial sites. Philadelphia could benefit from a reliance on private ini a ve given the city’s and the state of Pennsylvania’s current economic standing. The city of Chicago with the help of several private en es followed this trend with the crea on of Millennium Park.


CASE STUDY Millennium Park, Chicago the Civic Scale and Fiscal PotenƟal ‘Heteropolis’ is a terrain that embraces diversity and its goal is to sustain itself as a viable economic and ecological enƟty, but also to further a slow, peaceful interweaving of world views” 1 -Charles Jencks, Landscape Architect and Theorist Charles Jencks uses the term Heteropolis to define Millennium Park in Chicago. The new park area provides Chicago with an infrastructure of access and communica on among the interrelated func onal systems of the city. The park has provisions for cars, buses, trains, and bicycles since its ini al incep on in 1997. This has effec vely allowed for a ‘hypermobility’ and ‘hyper connec vity’ within a unique ‘hybrid’ system. This hybrid system includes: • • • • •

public-private visible-invisible alliances regionalism-localism built-unbuilt introverted-extroverted spaces.

Regionalism-localism, the extension of the metro line and the crea on of a new stop has served both the local (residents) and regional level (tourists). Introverted-extroverted spaces, at one me the city of Chicago looked inward and away from Lakeshore Drive bordering 1 Satler, Gail. “Millennium Park.” In Two Tales of a City: Rebuilding Chicago’s Architectural And Social Landscape, 1986-2005. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2006. 157.

Figure 1.4 Millennium Park, Chicago

Lake Michigan, however, now Millennium Park acts as a portal to the city and has led to the construc on of a new wing to The Art Ins tute Museum designed by Renzo Piano. The building opens towards Millennium Park and even forms a bridge between Millennium and Grant Parks and various other new construc on projects.2 These aspects have helped the Loop become a viable economic en ty. Millennium Park in Chicago is an appropriate case study for a few different reasons. First, this redevelopment project provides interes ng insight into the interplay between public and private funding and stakeholders in an urban landscape project. Second, the unusual zoning codes and historic land use of the site has required a blurred line between the built and the unbuilt landscape. Lastly, the efforts made in this redevelopment project to ensure ac vity throughout out the en re day and year can serve as a lesson in temporarility, and designing for mul ple seasons as seen through the Laurie 2 ------157.

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Garden plan ng plans and the adapta on of the Ice rink into a cafe during the warmer months. Harnessing the private market has advantages. Most importantly, it can increase the chance of the implementa on of projects that benefit the public as exemplified with Millennium Park; the city’s contribu on was approximately 270 million dollars and 205 million dollars funded by private contribu ons.3 “As the pace of social and technological change accelerates and as capital becomes more mobile and real estate markets more vola le, it is increasing the difficulty for long lead- me planning efforts to keep up,“ according to Ma hew Kiefer who discusses this issue in depth in his ar cle “Public Planning and Private Ini a ve: The South Boston Waterfront”.4 Given the close proximity of the Philadelphia Gas Works, Philadelphia Interna onal Airport, the Philadelphia Sun Oil sta on, Gulf oil sta on, and the Atlan c Refining Company, Akers Ship Building, there is a possibility that these en es could become vested stakeholders in a redevelopment project at the given loca on. Also, the William Penn Founda on could poten ally ac vate the proposed system given its ongoing interest in the Schuylkill Banks project and funding for the new boat launch area, Schuylkill Landings at Bartram’s Garden, which is below the Walnut Street bridge. As the research and design phase progresses, theses rela onships seen in Millennium Park and worthy of further explora on. 3 Satler, Gail. “Millennium Park.” In Two Tales of a City: Rebuilding Chicago’s Architectural And Social Landscape, 1986-2005. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2006. 158. 4 Kiefer, Ma hew. “Public Planning and Private Ini a ve: The South Boston Waterfront.” In Urban Planning Today: A Harvard Design Magazine Reader (Harvard Design Magazine). 1 ed. Minnesota: Univ Of Minnesota Press, 2006. 88.

PROPOSED SITE By the early part of the 20th century, the ports of Philadelphia and Camden had become a single, regional, mari me economy, and commercial hub centered on the industrial waterfront of the two ci es and was linked with more than twenty ferry lines. With the birth of the automobile and the construc on of the first Delaware River Bridge in 1926 and the Walt Whitman Bridge in 1952, a shi in development occurred, with a new focus on the inland areas linked to the bridge approaches. This inevitably led to the demise of the ferry lines, which ceased to exist in 1952. This ini ated more car and truck based suburban development, effec vely accelera ng the decline and abandonment of the urban waterfront. As a result, Philadelphia has a fragmented waterfront.1 In the past two decades, areas along the Schuylkill and Delaware rivers have been studied and some areas have started to be developed. Along the Delaware, there is currently an ini a ve geared towards revitalizing the riverfront in the Northern Liber es area, just above the Benjamin Franklin Bridge. Con nuing southwards, Penn Praxis Studio of the University of Pennsylvania conducted a yearlong inves ga on that concluded with a series of proposals for the strip of waterfront star ng just above Penn’s Landing 1 Brown, Peter Hendee. “Philadelphia and Camden.” In America’s Waterfront Revival: Port Authori es and Urban Redevelopment (The City in the Twenty-First Century). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. 78-103.


and ending at the large waterfront commercial area that is home to the retail store, Ikea. Looking towards the Schuylkill River, a new series of trails and infrastructure improvements have effec vely linked boat house row to the lower Schuylkill. However, the Schuylkill Banks system abruptly stops just before the Philadelphia Gas Works waterfront property. The le over area between the Schuylkill Banks Park and the edge of the Penn Praxis area is the chosen site that warrants further study. This area encompasses the stadium region boarding interstate I-95 to the north and the Delaware River to the east, but the former and recently developed Philadelphia Naval Yard cons tutes the actual inhabited edge on the eastern boundary. The southernmost boundary of the study area is the historic Fort Mifflin, built in 1771 which fronts the Delaware River and also forms the northern edge of terminal F, the outer most limits of the Philadelphia Interna onal Airport. The western edge of the area is the Passyunk Avenue Bridge that crosses the Schuylkill River. The bridge also dissects the oldest con nuously opera ng petroleum facility in the world with origins da ng back to the 1860’s when the petroleum industry was in its infancy, and is currently owned and operated by Sunoco, Inc.2

2 “Sunoco Chemicals’ Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Chemicals Plant.” Welcome to Sunoco Chemicals. h p://www.sunocochem.com/products/phila. htm (accessed October 14, 2010).

Figure 1.5 Google Aerial Image of Gateway Area

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PRE- DESIGN OVERVIEW The crea on of a “gateway,” the objec ve conveyed through the tle, warrants a smaller area of a en on. However, the scale of this gateway may vary depending on the user type, for example, an airplane passenger, taxicab passenger, boat tour passenger, ect. The area surrounding The Girard Point Bridge, approachable via I-95, forms the nexus the focused area. If one were to imagine a circle drawn with a center point located at the midpoint of this double decker bridge, it will include an area large enough to touch the por on of the American Shipping Company’s property at the edge of the Naval Yard, the Schuylkill River’s entrance into the Delaware River, the large wetland area underneath I-95, and a radius far reaching enough to include a small por on of the Sunoco property. This circumscribed area will prove to be the site for the design proposal. The intellectual underpinnings of Weiss/Manfredi’s work, which is rooted in the specific infrastructure, hydrology, manmade elements, and the geology of every project site will serve as a precedent for the research for the proposed site in Philadelphia. According to Kelly Smets, author of the recently published book, The Landscape of Contemporary Infrastructure, a gateway is a network superimposed on an exis ng landscape. It spawns development that inevitably combines both global and local features and in turn becomes a gateway to regional character. “When a network engages with a place, it straddles the threshold between two cultures ini ates exchanges of various sorts. More o en than not, the network brings new ac vi es (and new customers), which in turn enrich local economies. At the same me, the experience of the local (in cultural or economic terms) is what a racts the traveler to visit. ” 1 The iden fied site boundary is where this gateway can occur in Philadelphia and where Elizabeth Mossop’s theore cal framework akin to landscape urbanism prac ces will be applied. 1 Smets, Kelly. Kelly Shannon,Marcel Smets’sThe Landscape of Contemporary Infrastructure [Hardcover](2010). Ro erdam: NAi Publishers, 2010.

Figure 1.6 Girard Point Bridge Looking Towards Philadelphia Navy Yard

1.9 RESEARCH


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PRE-DESIGN

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Introduc on to Program Precedents Time and Scale Phased Approach Phase 1: Landscape Phase 2: Transpora on Phase 3: Built Environment Phase 4: Loose Space Program Design Objec ve

Fall 2010 - Spring 2011


INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAM The purpose of this thesis is to alter the exis ng area to become a coherent system of ac vity instead of the current layout of individual physical en es which are defined by fences and security checkpoints and other barriers. The landscape framework will promote connec vity and access to the industrial waterfront. The system will enable and accommodate growth and change over me. In an effort to form a new gateway, new thresholds or in-between areas that relate to one another will be created to alter the exis ng disconnected groundscape. The main program will be public interven ons that are necessary to a ract and promote the inhabita on and awareness of the area, while s ll embracing the current wide range of industry present at the mouth of the Schuylkill River. The a ractors will be temporal in nature and will occur at specific loca ons based on a set of criteria of different spa al strategies and theory, such as “landscape urbanism” and “loose space”. “Landscape urbanism” is a term and theory coined by Charles Waldheim in the early 1990’s to describe the interdisciplinary approach to urbanism that provides an intellectual and prac cal alterna ve to the hegemony of the New Urbanism. This tac c favors landscape prac ces as the primary means of organizing an urban environment as opposed to strictly architectural prac ces. “Loose Space” is a term used to describe unorganized or undefined spaces where users create their own program, as they do so space becomes loose. But before u lizing these techniques, successful post industrial waterfront schemes must be explored.

2.1 PRE-DESIGN


PRECEDENTS Given the recent push for the redevelopment of post industrial riverfronts there are many precedents that are rela ve to Philadelphia and should be analyzed. Weiss and Manfredi’s Olympic Sculpture Garden in Sea le, Washington is of par cular interest. The firm created a new urban groundscape, a landscape urbanism technique, by manipula ng the ground plane to create a zigzag retaining wall system that cuts through the eight and a half acre once polluted site on Elliot Bay. The retaining wall becomes a piece of infrastructure that accommodates visitors circula on overtop of the city’s exis ng railways and highways. The wall also serves as means to help restore the shoreline’s ecosystem and create a hospitable environment for migra ng salmon. The garden’s affilia on with the Sea le Art Museum and its specific program, a garden for displaying art, is what a racts people to this once neglected site. The associa on between the cultural ins tu on and its rela onship and adjacency to the post industrial riverfront is what spawns the subsequent growth and development of the area. The same is true of the Bal more Inner Harbor and its rela onship with the Na onal Aquarium, as well as the Saint Louis Riverfront park and its’ connec on to the gateway arch to the Midwest. As such, a similar affilia on needs to be created in Philadelphia

to a ract people to this industrial area. The landscape urbanism techniques used by Weiss and Manfredi for the Sea le Sculpture Garden is also important for its integra on of topography, infrastructure, landscape, and program, as well as the design’s interac on among various scales; the site, the waterfront, and the city of Sea le.

Time and Scale: A SensiƟve Urban Strategy Landscape architect Michel Desvigne’s proposal for the Right Bank of the Garonne River in Bordeaux, France is a dynamic phased master plan. It covers three hundred and thirty acres, stretches five mile long across from the Bordeaux historical center and the old city port. Desvigne’s main objec ve is, “to create an ‘intermediate landscape’ of geomorphological features [encompassing natural riverbanks, marches, meadows, and woodland environments] in order to create a new texture not found in the rela vely barren entwis ng condi ons.”1 Desvigne relies on the concept of process over me and openly acknowledges that it would, “probably take many decades for this site to find coherence.”2 However, he recognizes that in me the new urban park will restore the industrial landscape once ripe with factories, and a er its es mated comple on in 2034, it will become a catalyst for development, of which studies are currently underway to design neighborhoods adjacent to the park. The proposal focuses on the 1 Tiberghien, Gilles A., Michel Desvigne, and James Corner. “The Right Bank of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.” In Intermediate Natures the landscapes of Michel Desvigne. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2009. 49. 2 -------

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manipula on and playing upon the exis ng parcels, the industrial areas, the abandoned parking lots, and the roads. Desvigne’s first move is crea ng new green space directly adjacent to the river, which follows the exis ng form of the land as it meets the river. His second phase will be a new parkway for motorized traffic that cuts through the wooded areas created in the ini al phase. These new roads run perpendicular to the river following the industrial lots, the exis ng road systems, and other infrastructure elements.3These moves connect the river to the exis ng city fabric. Michel Desvigne’s final phase again returns to the edge of the river and deals with the old factories; “some will remain for adap ve reuse, others are to be removed, and sites are designated for future development.”4

3 Reed, Peter. Groundswell, construc ng the contemporary landscape. New York: Museum Of Modern Art,2005. 152. 4 -------Project Parcels

Project Roads

Figure 2.1 Desvigne’s Phasing Proposal for Garonne River in Bordeaux, France

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Michel Desvigne’s plan for the Right Bank of the Garonne River is a cri cal precedent for the mouth of the Schuylkill River for its two principle phases, the growth and development of the park system and the development of the surrounding industrial neighborhood. Desvigne’s objec ve for crea ng a con nuous park that is linked to the river will form a necessary framework to promote inhabita on and development of this once ac ve industrial land. Addi onally, the areas that Desvigne chose for specific interven ons is worthy of further explora on. In short and most importantly, the large scale of the chosen site in Philadelphia warrants a similar phased design as exemplified by Michel Desvigne’s proposal. It is possible for one of Philadelphia’s ideological func ons of ‘public’ space to manifest at the mouth of the Schuylkill River, if a similar me phased approach to this case study is u lized. Project Buildings


Figure 2.2 Phasing in Detail

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Michelle Devigne’s phasing was broken up into three phases: landscape, infrastructure, and the built environment. The same phases can be used in Philadelphia, in addi on to a fourth phase, loose space. Loose pace will deal primarily with site users defining their own program to help strengthen the inhabita on of the system. The larger context of the gateway site is shown on the adjacent page and the diagram below illustrates all of the current forces and stakeholders that will influence the crea on of a new gateway.

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Figure 2.4 Site Analysis Detail

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PHASE 1: Landscape Phase one will address and incorporate into the design proposal the site’s hydrological features, the wetlands, the woodlands, the exis ng park system, and the brown fields. Using the landscape to create new environmental strategies will lead to one among many possible rela onships between buildings and site, site and city. Charles Waldheim has observed that landscape is more than just the lens of representa on; it is a medium of construc on, […] landscape is a layered, synthe c phenomenon, encompassing more than a two-dimensional surface.”1 This needs to be remembered thought out the design process.

the standard panel size for the telescoping oil containers found on the Sunoco property. The panels are eight feet high by thirty feet wide, as such the grid increments for the diagram on the following page is eight feet by ten feet 2. The Girard Point Bridge, part of Interstate I-95, is the background of this diagram in order to convey the feeling of monumentality on the site. The double decker bridge has a domina ng presence on the site given its length and its one hundred and thirty five foot ver cal clearance for barrages to access Sunoco and The Navy Yard.

PHASE 3: Built Environment  

The transporta on phase will focus on connec ng the current highways, river ways, and abandoned railways on the site. The current system of connec on is very complex. As such the goal is not to redesign the transpira on system since that is a thesis in itself, but rather adapt it slightly so that it forms a new connec on to the desired system at a more pedestrian friendly scale. Currently, the only thing on the site that has a manageable rela onship to the human body is

The third design phase’s main objec ve is to create the site a ractors that are needed to promote the inhabita on of the area. However, given the scale of the site and the goal of a dynamic system, it is important that the loca on of these interven ons be chosen carefully. As such, the exis ng built environment needs to be explored. The majority of the buildings and current site uses are related to industry. There is one instance of a new residen al project that was marketed by developers to people who use the Philadelphia Interna onal Airport as a hub for their careers given the close proximity. Excluding this one instance, the presence of human ac vity is con ngent upon the hours of opera ons for the industrial and manufacturing

1 Mostafavi, Mohsen, and Gareth Doherty. Ecological urbanism . Baden, Switzerland: Lars Muller, 2010. 539.

2 Hayes, Brian. Infrastructure: a field guide to the industrial landscape. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005. 166.

PHASE 2: TransportaƟon

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facili es. As such, the goal of this design phase is to curtail this problem of lack of inhabita on by designing an interven on that is to be used by the current workers and in me city residents and eventually tourists. The specific loca on of this interven on will occur at one of these loca ons highlighted in the orange boxes. These loca ons were determined by the layering of the landscape, transporta on, and the built forces present on the site.

PHASE 4: Loose Space The last design phase will occur at or around these highlighted areas. The concept of loose space will be used as a method for describing the program and ac vity on the site, within the framework created by the first three phases. Architecture and Humani es professor at New Jersey Ins tute of Technology, Karen A. Franck and urban design Lecturer at the Barle School of Planning, University College of London, Quen n Stevens, published a book en tled, Loose Space Possibility and Diversity in Urban Life in 2007 that provides many precedents for methods of approaching the re-appropria on of urban space, one of which is loose space. Many urban spaces have fixed uses but o en mes people peruse a variety of ac vi es not originally intended for those loca ons. On the other hand, some areas no longer have a fixed use, “as in an abandoned factory, or the possibility never

Figure 2.5 Sunoco Co. Entrance

existed at all, as next to a rail road track.”3 In all of these examples, through people’s ac vi es, spaces become “loose”. The abandoned water edge and the old factory buildings Desvigne made use of in the first and third phases are scales of loose spaces, and the new gateway area in Philadelphia has similar a ributes. “For a site to become loose, people themselves must recognize the possibili es inherit in it and make use of those possibili es for their own ends, facing the poten al risks in doing so.”4 According to Franck and Stevens, Loose space is on the opposite end of the spectrum when it comes to, “the aesthe cally and behaviorally controlled ad homogenous “themed” environments of leisure and consump on” where unpredictability or happen chance is eradicated, like a theme park. 5 Looseness is curtailed by official constraints that restricted certain ac vi es, including loitering, no ball playing, and who is allowed access, all of which is more o en than not enforced by signage, as is the case by the Philadelphia Sunoco refinery. 3 Franck, Karen A., and Quen n Stevens. Loose space: possibility and diversity in urban life. London: Routledge, 2007. 2. 4 ---------5 Franck, Karen A., and Quen n Stevens. Loose space: possibility and diversity in urban life. London: Routledge, 2007. 8.

2.8


Acknowledging that any form of human ac ons can make a space loose, then loose spaces inevitably possess temporal quali es, whether they last only a few moments, or months, or years. At the same me, the spontaneous event, the enjoyment of diversity, and the discovery of the unexpected is what fuels loose space. Loose space is most likely to occur in areas where there is free access to open public space and where a level of anonymity between stranger and a diversity of persons are s ll allowed. These condi ons according to Franck’s and Steven’s are most o en met at le over and abandoned areas, vacant lots, sidewalks, front yards, parks, parking lots, edges of highways, roads, and railways. Possible interven on sites have some of these types of spaces which could be re-appropriated for new, and at first, temporary uses. Eventually, these loose spaces will be brought to life by human ac vity and will help create a network of ac vity that will in me act as a catalyst for the inhabita on of this area of Philadelphia. One can now understand that, “… a certain amount of physical disorder can encourage new and inven ve users, not only because it indicates lower surveillance and lack of regula on but also because it provides spaces and materials that expand the poten al scope of ac ons. (Lynch 1990) Physical deteriora on can make use of the complex layout of the terrain, opening links and thus opportuni es.” 6 Finding the connec on 6 Franck, Karen A., and Quen n Stevens. Loose space: possibility and diversity in urban life. London: Routledge, 2007. 9.

2.9

between the types of spaces previously shown in the anaylsis detail is one of the primary goals of the design proposal. Furthermore, the poten al of a space to become loose may lie in its rela onship to other regulated spaces. In Philadelphia, the rela onship between the current stakeholders on the site, all of which have different long term mo va ons and goals, is important but needs to be simplified. Even though the buildings, bridges, parking lots, and navigable river have fixed owners and names; the ghtness of the programming needs to be unraveled and the le over or underu lized space needs to be highlighted, more specifically the contrast between ght and loose space. When the edges of the current private en es become porous, one will be able to see and move more easily between these newly formed, oddly shaped loose spaces or thresholds and in turn people will be able to straddle the barrier between public and private.

PROGRAM With the landscape urbanism framework in place, in me the site will become a heavily used park system integra ng the site’s different layers; the landscape, transporta on, and the built environment. The program will range in degrees of looseness. The well defined program, such as recrea on spaces, a possible ecological research


center, and a performance venue, being the most rigid to the bike path and trail connec ng the gateway site to the Schuylkill Banks river Park and the Penn Praxis study area being the most loose. The ladder component would be the most loose because it could be adapted by users for possible use as a temporary outdoor art gallery, framers market, skate boarding park, or viewing spots for light shows on the river. These temporary events would in turn promote long term growth and awareness of the site and eventually become a catalyst for con nued growth and change in the area.

visible for the air, car, and waterways, in a similar fashion to Desvigne’s new urban texture. This will effec vely create a new gateway that will provide visitors with an alterna ve, more posi ve first impression of the city of Philadelphia that can be experienced at different scales. AddaƟve Progam Algae Farming Water Filtration Rain Collectors Algae Bio-Reactors CO2 Emission Holder Ventilation Units Built Program Viewing Pavilion Water Feature Wind Farm Benches

DESIGN OBJECTIVE

Commercial / Shop / Cafe Performance Fishing Dock Lighting

The main interven ons on the site which will be used to ini ally a ract more people to the mouth of the Schuylkill River will be very well defined. For much of the system however, a framework will be laid out that allows for other programming and user poten al to unfold. Everything in the system cannot be foreseen and should not be defined from the very start of the project. The success of this spa al framework and overall system depend on the effec ve integra on of the four phases; the landscape, transporta on infrastructure, and the exis ng built environment. In me, with the passing of a few decades, the en re network will be

Boat Dock Sun Deck Ecological Fruit / Vegetable Garden Vegetation Rocks / Stones Earth Meadow Bird Watching Sanctuary Wetlands Remediation Wetlands Water Gardens (plants requiring no soil) Local Plant Gardens Controlled Research Recreation Water (in module) Playground Blacktop Sports (hockey,skateboarding) Sports Fields Ice Skating

Figure 2.6 Progream List

PRE-DESIGN

2.10


G AT E W AY T O P H I L A D E L P H I A

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DESIGN

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Thesis Summary Site Users Program Modules Organiza on Bridging the Exsis ng Detailed Zone_Navy Yard System Details

Spring 2011


THESIS SUMMAY_ GATEWAY TO PHILADELPHIA

The intersec on of the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers appears to be an underu lized urban space that at one me was a former site of industry and importance. With the changing role of industry and its new spa al requirements, the reappropria on of space in this area is possible. The chosen site is a prime loca on for waterfront development because it will become that gateway that is needed to complete the redevelopment of Philadelphia’s post industrial riverfront. This thesis aims to incorporate landscape urbanism and phase design strategies with a floa ng hexagon modular system that conforms and adapts exis ng river edge condi ons. These modules bring new recrea onal, produc on and agriculture, and ecological programs to the mouth of the Schuylkill River.

DESIGN

3.2


The chosen site has three dis nc ve exis ng edge condi ons that are used to aid the design of the proposed modular floa ng system.

SITE and USERS

To the west of the gateway is a superfund site adjacent to the F terminal of the Philadelphia Interna onal Airport. This wetland has a riparian so edge. These two condi ons help dictate the desired program for this area that allows for the eventual reclama on of this site via bioremediaon and phytoremedia on. To the east of the Girard Point Bridge is the western most edge of the Philadelphia Navy Yard Complex. This chosen area has an exis ng bulkhead retaining wall that is used to dock barges and naval ships, crea ng a hard, engireened edge. The proposed system must adapt to this hard edge while simultaneously serving as an alterna ve campus center for the Navy Yard. The main program would be similar to the Schuylkill Banks Trail with added built program of a commercial corridor, performance venue, recrea onal fields, and dierent types of gardens. The aim Figure 3.2 Google Earth Aerial Photo UNIT SCALE (feet) 32 24 16 8 10

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is to create an addi onal des na on within the complex given its vast size.

TRAIL TRAIL

GlaxoSmithKline Gl laxoSm mith hKline

RESEARCH

Public Docks ks _ Cruise Lines Li

Urban n Outfitters Outfi fitterrs _ Extension Subway nsion of Broad oad Street St Subway ayy _ Extension Patco Exten nsion of Pat tco

HISTORIC

MARINA

Aker A ker

Marina _ Police Marina ina Unit U it _ Uni Boat Boatt School _ Storage Sto e _ Bo oaat Auction Auctio tio iio on

MARINA ARINA

SHIP

Bike e Trails T _ Gardens _

RECREATION R ECREA ECREATTIO ON

INDUSTERY

Fort Mifflin Trail _ New I-95 Entryy

H STORIC HIS C HISTORIC

?

Tasty Ta Ba Baking

The northern edge of the gateway is adjacent to the Tasty Baking Headquarters within the Commercial core of the Navy Yard and The Sunoco Refinery. A por on of this area lies underneath the Girard Point Bridge and is currently derelict, however at one me, a por on of this waterline was used for docks. As such, the current edge is a hybrid of so and hard condi ons. Given the neighboring program, produc on such as algae farming is an appropriate theme for the programming of this area.

USERS Planned Expansion

TRAIL

Figure 3.4 Site Users

3.4


1 8

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5 1

3.5 Water (in module) Rocks / Stones Commerical / Shop / Cafe Performance

B V W S C P

20+ 50+ 5

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Figure 3.5 Program Coding and Module Sizes

With the desire to form a physical connec on and the decision to leave the Girard Point Bridge as exis ng, an alterna ve bridging method is needed. With the help of case studies, including Lateral Studio’s proposal for a floa ng Water Economies and Ecologies in California, a similar scaled approach is appropriate. As such, a strong hexagonal module was determined to which subsequent program is added. The chart above provides a system of program and size organiza on. Wind Farm Fishing Dock Water Feature Wetlands Wetlands Remediation Pool Algae Bio-Reactors CO2 Emission Holder Ventalation Units Veiwing Pavilion Bird Watching Sanctuary Sports Fields Water Gardens (plants requiring no soil)

WTP

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Sun Deck

Blacktop Sports (hockey,skateboarding)

Lighting

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E

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RC

Water Treatment Pools

Earth

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Epoxy Resin

Recycled Rubber

Benches

Modules Geo-Webbing

Fiberglass Grating

Light Weight Concrete

Plastic

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Material Property

Grouping

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IS

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Module 2

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Very Large Floating Structure (VLFS)

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Decking [ altered for program]

Rigid

Rigid Body Motion

Galvanized Steel Grating [ water penetrable ]

Length of Structure Characteristic Length

Module 3

[ 20’ x 4.5’ ]

The organiza on of the modules is dependent upon the exis ng edge condi ons.

Galvanized Steel Frame

Module 4

Figure 3.8 Tendencies of Floa ng Objects

[ 40’ x 9’]

Metal Pontoon [ filled with high density polyethylene HDPE ]

Module 5

[ 80’ x 18’ ]

Typical Module Section

Figure 3.6 Module Sec ons

Figure 3.7 Module Configura on Riparian Edge

BULK HEAD

HYBRID CONDITON

Wetland Area

Campus Area

Production Zone

Module within Module

Pier and Module

Pier and Module _ Module in Module

Figure 3.9 Edge Condi ons

3.6


BRIDGING THE EXSISTING The campus area of the Navy hard is a hardedged pier. There is a series of sta onary piers extending from the exis ng to which all other floa ng modules congregate around and connect. Given the large size of the superfund site and the desire to reclaim this site, the largest module is 80 feet in diameter and composed of dierent varia ons of smaller modules, each with its own programs. These larger modules connect together and will eventually penetrate the site, cleaning the contaminents from the site as they work their way inland. The produc on zone of the site, algae farming, juxtaposed against the Sunoco is a hybrid condi on. As such, the hard edges will be approached in a similar manner as the campus center; with extensions of permenant piers with floa ng modules falling into place around the sta onary piers. While the so edges of the site will be organized using the module within module approach, in turn eec vely crea ng a hybrid condi on. The heavy use of barges on the Schuylkill is thought to lessen in the coming years with the changing role of industry and alterna ve fuel sources being sought. Knowing this, there is a central island with external moveable limbs that will be kept closed most of the ming allowing for pedestrian passage across the river. This connec on is able to move as needed to allow for large barge passage occasionally and smaller boat traďŹƒc more frequently.

Figure 3.10 Overall System Organiza on with Moving Bridge

[W

3.7


[ PRODUCTION ] Algae Farming

WETLAND / SUPER FUND ] Bioremediation

[ CAMPUS ] Recreation _Commerical _Performance


WG SD

LPG

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3.9

Figure 3.11 Detailed Plan of Navy Yard Site with Program Coding

LP


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These sec ons illustrate the method of connec ons between module to module, module to river bed, and module to pier. The overall system is based o the mooring ball connec on in sailing.

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Figure 3.12 Detailed Sec ons of Navy Yard Site

3.10


SYSTEM DETAILS

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Figure 3.13 Detailed Rendered Plan of Navy Yard Site

3.11

DESIGN

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Figure 3.14 Detailed Sec ons of Navy Yard Site

DESIGN

3.12


G AT E W AY T O P H I L A D E L P H I A

4

APPENDIX Fall 2010- Spring 2011

2 Concluding Comments 3 Work Cited 5 Image References


CONCLUDING COMMENTS

The current floa ng hexagon modular system does create the desired fun and lively urban landscape. The proposal has the poten al to alter people’s percep on and the industrial image of Philadelphia when one is entering from the south via plane, train, car, or boat. The new urban landscape is conveyed effec vely through an aerial perspec ve image. Also, the organiza on of the overall system is very clear in plan and sec on. Conversely, with the aim of crea ng a physical connec on between all of Philadelphia’s riverfronts, the physical links between the adjacent master plans are not conveyed. A reoccurring comment during the review is that the three dimensional and experien al quality of this thesis is lacking. However, this thesis was effec ve in provoking thought, as one juror stated, “ I visit this site frequently and now I will always look at it differently.”

APPENDIX 4.2


Work Cited Brown, Peter Hendee. “Philadelphia and Camden.” In America’s Waterfront Revival: Port Authories and Urban Redevelopment (The City in the Twenty-First Century). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. 78-103. Cunha, Dilip Da, and Anuradha Mathur. Mississippi Floods: Designing a Shi ing Landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001. Kiefer, Ma hew. “Public Planning and Private Ini a ve: The South Boston Waterfront.” In Urban Planning Today: A Harvard Design Magazine Reader (Harvard Design Magazine). 1 ed. Minnesota: Univ Of Minnesota Press, 2006. 88. Franck, Karen A., and Quen n Stevens. Loose space: possibility and diversity in urban life. London: Routledge, 2007. Ghosn, Rania, and Gareth Doherty. Landscapes of energy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Graduate School of Design, 2009. Hayes, Brian. Infrastructure: a field guide to the industrial landscape. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005. “Industrial Past to an Industrial Future: Community Design Collabora ve Blog.” Community Design Collabora ve Blog. h p://blog.cdesignc.org/industrial-past-to-an-industrial-future/ (accessed November 12, 2010). J.W, Thomas. “A detailed glimpse at the PIDC industrial land use study | PlanPhilly: Planning Philadelphia’s Future.” PlanPhilly: Planning Philadelphia’s Future | Planning Philadelphia’s Future. h p://planphilly.com/detailed-glimpse-pidc-industrial-land-use-study (accessed November 10, 2010). “Mari me Commerce in Greater Philadelphia.” Issuu - You Publish. h p://issuu.com/cscoville/ docs/ports (accessed October 26, 2010). Mostafavi, Mohsen, and Gareth Doherty. Ecological urbanism . Baden, Switzerland: Lars Muller, 2010. Mcharg, Ian L. Design with Nature (Wiley Series in Sustainable Design). New Ed ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 1995. Mossop, Elizabeth. “Landscapes as Infrastructure.” In The Landscape Urbanism Reader. 1 ed. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. 163-178. “Na onal Support for Urban Neighborhoods and Industry: Community Design Collabora ve Blog.” Community Design Collabora ve Blog. h p://blog.cdesignc.org/na onal-support-forurban-neighborhoods-and-industry/ (accessed November 12, 2010). “PIDC, Industrial Market Analysis and Land Use Strategy.” PIDC. h p://www.pidc-pa.org/ReportsAndStudies.asp (accessed November 10, 2010). 4.3


“Philadelphia used to have a lot of industry: Farewell to the Girard Point (Tidewater) Grain Elevator “ a study of Philadelphia’s built environment and landforms. h p://ruins.wordpresscom/2007/12/20/philadelphia-used-to-have-a-lot-of-industry-farewell-to-girard-point- dewatergrain-elevator/ (accessed October 17, 2010). Reed, Peter. Groundswell, construc ng the contemporary landscape. New York: Museum Of Modern Art, 2005. SchroÌ’der, Thies. Changes in scenery: contemporary landscape architecture in Europe. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2001. Schwartz, Martha. “Ecological Urbanism and the Landscape.” In Ecological Urbanism. 1 ed. Baden, Switzerland: Lars MÃller Publishers, 2009. 525. Satler, Gail. “Millennium Park.” In Two Tales of a City: Rebuilding Chicago’s Architectural And Social Landscape, 1986-2005. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2006. 157. School of Design of University of Pennsylvania. “A Civic Vision for the Central Delaware.” Issuu You Publish. h p://issuu.com/pennpraxis/docs/civic-vision-for-the-central-delaware (accessed September 9, 2010). Shane, Grahame. “The Emergence of Landscape Urbanism.” In The Landscape Urbanism Reader. 1 ed. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. 58. Smets, Kelly. Kelly Shannon,Marcel Smets’sThe Landscape of Contemporary Infrastructure [Hardcover](2010). Ro erdam: NAi Publishers, 2010. Steenbergen, Clemens M.. Composing landscapes analysis, typology and experiments for design. English ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2008. “Sunoco Chemicals’ Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Chemicals Plant.” Welcome to Sunoco Chemicals. h p://www.sunocochem.com/products/phila.htm (accessed October 14, 2010). Tiberghien, Gilles A., Michel Desvigne, and James Corner. “The Right Bank of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.” In Intermediate Natures the landscapes of Michel Desvigne. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2009. 49-58. Wrenn, Douglas M.. Urban Waterfront Development. Washington, DC: Urban Land Inst, 1983.

4.4


IMAGE REFERENCES 1 RESEARCH Figure 1.1“Olympic Sculpture Park Sea le, Washington.” Manfredi, Michael, and Marion Weiss. Surface/Subsurface. 1 ed. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007. Print. Figure 1.2 “Aker Shipyard, Philadelphia Navy Yard” Kaitlin McDonald. Sep. 2010. Figure 1.3 “ Sunoco Co. Refinery, Philadelphia” Figure 1.4 “Millennium Park, Chicago”. Figure 1.5 Google Aerial Image of Gateway Area. Google. Sep. 2010. Figure 1.6 “Girard Point Bridge Looking Towards Philadelphia Navy Yard”

2 PRE-DESIGN Figure 2.1“Desvigne’s Phasing” Tiberghien, Gilles A., Michel Desvigne, and James Corner. “The Right Bank of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.” In Intermediate Natures the landscapes of Michel Desvigne. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2009. 48. Figure 2.2 “Phasing in Detail” ¬¬-----------. Figure 2.3 “Site Analysis” Kaitlin McDonald. Jan. 2011. Figure 2.4 “Site Analysis Detail” Kaitlin McDonald. Jan. 2011. Figure 2.5 “ Sunoco Co. Entrance” Kaitlin McDonald. Sep. 2010.

3 DESIGN Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10 Figure 3.11 Figure 3.12 Figure 3.13 Figure 3.14“

4.5

Google Earth Aerial Photo. Google. Sep. 2010. “ Site Scale” Kaitlin McDonald. Oct. 2010 “ Site Users” Kaitlin McDonald. Apr. 2011. “Program Coding and Module Sizes” Kaitlin McDonald. Mar. 2011. “Module Sec ons” Kaitlin McDonald. Mar. 2011. “Module Configura on” Kaitlin McDonald. Mar. 2011. “Tendencies of Floa ng Objects” Kaitlin McDonald. Apr. 2011. “Edge Condi ons” Kaitlin McDonald. Apr. 2011. “Overall System Organiza on with Moving Bridge” Kaitlin McDonald. Apr. 2011. “Detailed Plan of Navy Yard Site with Program Coding” Kaitlin McDonald. Mar. 2011. “Detailed Sec ons of Navy Yard Site” Kaitlin McDonald. Apr. 2011. “Detailed Rendered Plan of Navy Yard Site” Kaitlin McDonald. Apr. 2011. Detailed Sec ons of Navy Yard Site” Kaitlin McDonald. Apr. 2011.


G AT E W AY T O P H I L A D E L P H I A


Gateway to Philadelphia  

Thesis Document 2011, Temple University Architecture Program

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