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LET’S TRAVEL!

Jasmina de Gea – Mireia de Gea Cristina Díaz – Nora Hernández

FINAL PROJECT Technology-Enhanced teaching of English as a foreign language in Primary Education UAB, 2013/2014


OUTLINE

1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………..p.3 2. Theoretical rationale………………………………………………………………………………...p.4 3. Project description…………………………………………………………………………………..p.5 3.1. Outline of the main activities…………………………………………………………….p.5 3.2. Project’s storyboard………………………………………………………………………p.8 3.3. Under the microscope: Detailed description of the sessions………………….…...p.12 3.4. Access to the materials………………………………………………………………...p.22 4. Assessment outline………………………………………………………………………………..p.23 5. Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………...p.24

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1. INTRODUCTION This project involves two countries, Spain and France. It will be carried out within the language area, specifically, using the foreign language as a means of communication. The students implicated are 6th graders (11/12 years) and their level of English is between A1 and A2. As pupils are in their last year at school, they will be asked to design their ideal end of course trip. The only imperative is that the destination must be their telecollaborative partners’ own city, in our case, Paris. Thereby, each group of work will have to create an appealing advertisement (using Padlet) according to their partner’s interests (sports lovers, arts lovers, food lovers, nature lovers…), which will be discovered alongside the project. In the end, an award ceremony will be celebrated through a synchronous meeting so as to farewell partners and decide on the most stunning advertisements.

At the end of this project, students are supposed to be able to: ●

Recognize modal verbs and adjectives and be able to apply them in one’s own productions.

Demonstrate ability to search and select information according to a specific purpose.

Be aware of one’s own strengths and flaws and work on to improve the latter ones in further work.

Understand and communicate, progressively, using the target language.

Show a respectful attitude towards others and increase their cultural awareness by learning about different countries and people.

Finally, the competences that students will develop throughout this work are the following: ●

Communicative competence: Making use of the target language to communicate for an authentic purpose.

Intercultural competence: Being aware of cultural differences and show a receptive attitude towards them.

Data processing & digital competence: Searching, collecting, selecting and processing information through the use of different technological tools.

Cultural and artistic competence: Capability to create artistic productions progressively integrating the content that has been taught.

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2. THEORETICAL RATIONALE

First of all, through the present project we have tried to embed activities that consider the four different learning styles: tactile, visual, kinesthetic and auditory. As Basharina (2007: 95) states, the teacher must orient the students through simultaneous “multiple activity systems” which are “embedded in their local classrooms, an online global community, and broader contexts of their local cultures”. In our case, we have included a great variety of activities that will help us in this vein. What is more, throughout the project, different assessment tools and groupings (individual, partner, small group and whole class) are used in order to respect the students’ learning styles and preferences to work and produce output.

Secondly, as it is known, the more contextualized a project is, the more meaningful it results. In the concerning project, pupils are responsible for creating their own end of course trip in collaboration with Parisian students. Therefore, partners have been chosen according to our interests, always bearing in mind which our final aim is.

On the other hand, the lessons and the activities planned are learner-centered in which the teacher acts as a knowledge facilitator (Doolittle and Hicks 2003; Karpov 2003; Fosnot 2005) whose job is to set up an optimal environment for learners to construct knowledge through engagement with “artefacts”, all within their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978).

As for the assessment, it will be oriented towards a formative assessment. This type of evaluation consists of ongoing assessments, observations, summaries and reviews that inform teacher instruction and provide students with feedback on a daily basis (Fisher & Frey, 2007). In other words, the whole process is assessed, not only the final product.

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3. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

3.1. Outline of the main activities

Activity

Materials

Output

SWBAT*

Drawing: How do

-Blank sheets of

Paris sketch

-Reflect on their

we imagine Paris?

paper

previous knowledge

-Drawing materials

about Paris.

Thinglink

-Computers

production: How do

www.thinglink.com

-Thinglink mural -Use “Thinglink” in

we imagine Paris?

an intuitive way -Paris sketches

Thinglink

-Computers

production:

www.thinglink.com

Introducing ourselves

-Thinglink mural

-Write brief descriptions of themselves.

-Pictures of the children

-Know which activities/sports

-Powtoon to revise

collocate with play,

sports that collocate

do or go.

with go, play and do.

-Use “Thinglink” in an intuitive way.

Thinglink

-Computers

-Formulate WH

production: Posting

www.thinglink.com

questions so as to

questions

inquire information. -Powtoon to revise WH questions

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Thinglink analysis:

-Partner’s Thinglink

- Completed

- Answer questions

Helping our mates

production

checklist

using their knowlege of

- Checklist to

-Answer to the

analyze different

partner’s questions

items

& additional

- Giving information

comments (on the

(simple sentences)

Thinglink platform).

that could be useful

-Something to write

Barcelona.

for their partners. Deepening on

-Worksheet

-Modal verbs

-Produce sentences

modal verbs

-Pencil/pen

worksheet

using modal verbs

-Teacher’s example

(obligation, advice

of the final product

and probability).

(Granada’s Padlet) 1st meeting: Getting

- Computer

-Notes taken from

-Listen carefully to

to know each other

(Google Hangouts

the partner’s

their partners’

application)

recommendations

recommendation

(worksheet)

while taking notes.

-Sentences created during the previous

-Answer simple

meeting

questions.

Deepening on

-Flashcards

-Adjectives

-Use adjectives to

adjectives to

-Worksheet

worksheet

describe places in

describe places

-Pencil

Webquest +

- Computer with

- Information

-Research and

Information

Internet access

template

select specific

template

- Information

(completed)

information to

template (empty)

their advertisement.

develop the final product.

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2nd meeting: Are

- Computer

-Notes taken from

-Listen carefully to

we on the right

(Google Hangouts

their partners’

their partners’

track?

application)

recommendations.

recommendation while taking notes.

-Information template

-Communicate in

(completed)

the target language for a real purpose.

-”Useful language” list Final product draft:

- Computers

-Draft

-Display the

advertisement

- Templates

recommendations

- Pen / pencil

and the information given by their mates in a coherent way. -Search on the net and look for specific information.

Final product: Paris

-Computers with

-Padlet website

- Apply the

advertisement

Internet access

(with the structure of

linguistic knowledge

www.padlet.com

an advertisement)

acquired so far for a real purpose.

Peer & self-

-Peer & self-

-Peer & self-

-Assess the work

assessment

assessment grid

assessment grid

carried out by their mates through the unit. -Detect own strengths and flaws and improve the latter ones.

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3.2. Project’s storyboard

Week 1

Session 1

Session 2

- Introduction of the

- Introduce ThingLink

project (15’)

(15’)

-Modelling: Showing an

-Asking questions:

example of the first

Revise how to

activity students are

formulate WH

supposed to do

questions. (15’)

(Thinglink) (10’) - Create ThingLink: - How do we imagine

Use the Paris sketch

Paris?: draft/ paper

as a background +

version (20’)

upload their pictures and the description of

-Introducing ourselves:

themselves + post

Revise sports that

questions about Paris

collocate with go, do

(inside the Thinglink

and play. Draft of one’s

production) (30’)

own description (15’).

Week 2

Session 3

Session 4

- Analysis of the

-Modelling: Showing

partners’ ThingLink

an example of a final

(done through a

product made by the

checklist) (20’)

teacher (15’)

- Helping our mates:

-Deepening on modal

Answer their questions

verbs: Pay special

and give them some

attention to modal

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extra information to

verbs. Do some

know more about the

exercises in order to

city (20’)

internalize these structures and create

- Brainstorming:

some sentences with

Establish the different

the places that our

categories according to

partners must/have to

our mates’ interests

or can/should visit

(sports lovers, art

according to the

lovers, nature lovers,

different areas of

etc.) (20’)

interest (35’).

-Rehearsing sentences (10’)

-Commenting the rubric of the final output (15’)

Week 3

Session 5

Session 6

-1st meeting: Getting to

-Deepening on

know each other.

adjectives to describe

Groups’ presentation.

places (stunning, old,

Q & A (20’)

impressive, awesome,

-Each group reads the

beautiful…): This stuff

sentences they wrote

will be introduced

on the previous lesson

through Flashcards

to their partners. They

(20’).

also take notes from their suggestions. Q &

-Games: In order to

A (40’).

enhance their

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internalization, we will play some games (memory, who is who, the detective…) (30’).

-Adjectives worksheet: Finally, students will have to complete an individual worksheet on adjectives (10’). Week 4

Session 7

Session 8

- Groups of interest:

- 2nd meeting: Are we

Research of

on the right track?

information completing

Small groups

a template (1h).

meetings. Giving & receiving feedback (20’).

-Groups of interest: Research of information (40’). - Hand in a draft. Week 5

Session 9

Session 10

- Introduction of Padletl

- Finishing Padlet

(15’).

(1h).

- Production of Padlet (45’). Week 6

Session 11

Session 12

- Have a look at partners’ Padlet (30’).

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- 3rd meeting: Awards - Decide awards (25’).

ceremony & farewell (60’).

-Assessing partners’ Padlet using a rubric (20’) Week 7

Session 13 -Peer & selfassessment (35’).

-Reflect upon the teaching unit (what have they learnt, what do they need to continue working on, things that they would change…) (25’).

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3.3. Under the microscope: Detailed description of the sessions

★ Session 1 Activity 1: Introduction of the project (10’) -Interaction: T-Sts. / Sts.-T -Equipment/Material: -Objective: Let the students know what they are going to work on during the following weeks & share the main objectives of the project. -Description: The teacher will explain to the students that they will do an extremely important job, exploring the destination of their end of course trip; Paris. But they will not be working on their own. The students will be helped by some other students who know a lot about this stunning city; their collaborative partners will be Parisian students. Their final mission will be to produce the most appealing advertisement that they have ever seen. Activity 2: Modelling (10’) -Interaction: T-Sts. -Equipment/Material: Computer with internet connection & screen projector. -Objective: Show an example of the product students are supposed to create. -Description: Before start working on their own, the teacher will provide students with an example of the Thinglink production they are supposed to create in order to help them understand the why of the following activities. Activity 3: How do we imagine Paris? (20’) -Interaction: T-Sts. / Sts.-Sts. (group work) -Equipment/Material: Pencils, sheets, pencil colors… -Objective: Let students activate their previous knowledge about Paris. -Description: Students will be asked to make a drawing reflecting how they imagine Paris. Before that, as a whole class activity, we will brainstorm possible things/topics that can be included in their drawings (e.g. typical food and clothing, music, emblematic places, how is the flag…) to help them think about things related to the city.

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Activity 4: Introducing ourselves (15’) -Interaction: T-Sts / Sts-Sts -Equipment/Material: Powtoon to introduce activities that collocate with play, go and do, something to write the draft. -Objective: Write a brief introduction of themselves. -Description: A powtoon on activities that collocate with play (play football), go (go swimming) or do (do gymnastics) will be displayed so as to revise this stuff (students have worked on it during the previous years of study). Then, they will be asked to write a draft (2 lines) introducing him/herself (name, age, hobbies and interests…). As a homework, each student will have to search for a picture of him/herself to introduce it on the Padlets’ production, accompanied by the written description, and bring it to class for the next day in a pen drive.

★ Session 2 Activity 1: Introduction of ThingLink (15’) -Interaction: T-Sts. / Sts.-T -Equipment/Material: Computer with Internet access & screen projector, PowerPoint to introduce the tool (https://www.thinglink.com/ ) -Objective: Let students get familiar with the tool and be able to use it intuitively. -Description: The teacher will explain the tool they will use to produce their murals and share them with their partners from Paris, using a Powerpoint and the website. Activity 2: Asking questions (15’) -Interaction: T-Sts. -Equipment/Material: Computer & internet access, PowToon about Wh- questions. -Objective: Provide students with the necessary scaffolding to formulate Wh- questions. Description: The teacher will show students a PowToon video with some theory and practice about Wh- questions, in order to post questions about Paris.

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Activity 3: Production of ThingLink murals (30’) -Interaction: Sts.-Sts. (group work) -Equipment/Material: Laptops with Internet access, drawing on how they imagine Paris, student’s pictures & descriptions. -Objective: Learn how to use ThingLink in an intuitive way. Introduce the staff that has been revised (activities that collocate with do, play and go & Wh-questions). -Description: Students will have to create a ThingLink production, including three different pieces of work: 1) How do we imagine Paris? The drawing on how they imagine Paris that was done during the previous lesson will be the background image of the Thinglink production. 2) Introducing ourselves: Each student will create a link with his/her image doing something that he/she likes accompanied by the brief introductions of themselves (done during the previous lesson too). 3) Posting questions: Each group will have to post, at least, three questions concerning things that they would like to know about Paris.

★ Session 3 Activity 1 & 2: Analyze partners’ ThingLink from Barcelona & Helping our mates (40’) -Interaction: T-Sts. / Sts.-Sts. (group work) -Equipment/Material: Laptops with Internet access and worksheet with some guidelines to analyze the ThingLink. -Objective: Get in touch with our partners and use their previous knowledge about Barcelona to help them. -Description: The teacher will provide each group with a ThingLink (made by their partners), which is going to be analyzed through a checklist. Moreover, if their partners have asked to local students some questions, it is the time to answer them and clarify their doubts. At the same time, students will be asked to provide their partners with some general information about Barcelona to enlarge their knowledge of the city (all this work will be done posting tags in their Thinglink productions).

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Activity 3: Brainstorming (20’) -Interaction: Sts.-T -Equipment/Material: Blackboard & Chalk -Objective: Put in common the partners’ interests and establish some categories -Description: After having discussed in small groups and having fulfilled the analysis checklist, each group will have to present their mates’ interest as well as suggest some places that they could visit in their local city. Finally, the most frequent categories will be selected and they will be assigned to the different groups, which will be in charge of making a deeper search of information on this area (e.g. sports lovers, animal lovers, etc.).

★ Session 4 Activity 1: Modelling (15’) -Interaction: T-Sts. /Sts.- T -Equipment/ Material: Computer with Internet access & advertisement created by the teacher (using Padlet) -Objective: Let the students get an idea of what they are expected to do (an appealing online advertisement using Padlet). -Description: The teacher will show to the students an advertisement of another city (Granada, for example) in order to let them get an idea of what they are expected to do as well as get inspiration. This piece of work will be available on the net so as to enable students to do transferences from it to their own products. Moreover, we are going to pay special attention on modal verbs (recognizing them, what do they mean? when are they used?). Activity 2: Deepening on modal verbs (35’) -Interaction: Sts.-Sts. (group work) -Equipment/Material: Worksheets on modal verbs -Objective: Understand and be able to apply modals verbs to talk about obligation (must/have to), give advice (should) and express probability (can). -Description: After having seen the modals in the example and having commented their use, in groups, students will have to complete some exercises so as to internalize and assimilate them. In the end, they will be asked to produce some sentences for their partners using modals verbs

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and, preferably, some extra information. E.g. for sports lovers: You must visit Camp Nou. There, you can also watch a football-match. Activity 2: Rehearsing our sentences (10’) -Interaction: Sts. - Sts./T -Equipment/Material: Computer, Audacity and microphone -Objective: Practice pronunciation. -Description: Once the teacher has corrected the sentences, each group will rehearse them. Then, they will be recorded using Audacity. The recordings will be uploaded in the school’s blog so as to enable pupils to practice the sentences at home and be fully prepared for the meeting. Activity 3: Commenting the rubric for final output (15’) -Interaction: T- Sts./Sts.-T -Equipment/Material: Computer, projector screen & rubric -Objective: Be aware of the assessment criteria and make some changes if necessary. -Description: The teacher will bring a draft version of a rubric. It will be carefully read and discussed as a whole group, always bearing in mind the example of Granada (since it fulfills all the criteria). Students’ contributions will be taken into account so as to make them feel that they can decide on their own assessment and arise their commitment to the task.

★ Session 5 Activity 1: First meeting: Getting to know each other (60’) -Interaction: T-sts /Sts.-sts (whole class). -Equipment/material: Computer with Internet access & worksheets to fill in during the meeting & sentences created during the previous lesson, Hangouts. -Objective: Get to know the partners and listen to their suggestions in order to know what to include in their advertisements. -Description: This lesson will be devoted to do the first meeting as a whole class activity. First of all, each class will be introduced through a short video. Then, students will have the floor to ask any questions they want to their partners. After that, each group will read their sentences (the ones created using modal verbs) while the partners fill in a worksheet in order to collect this

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information and have it at their disposal for further work. Then, we will swap roles and the ones who were taking notes will have their turn to speak. Finally, students will have the floor again to ask any questions or doubts. In the worksheet they will have to punctuate their performance in the meeting, which will serve as an orientation for the teacher.

★ Session 6 Activity 1: Deepening on adjectives to describe places (60’) -Interaction: T-St. / St-St. (pairs and group work)/ Individual work. -Equipment/material: Flashcards & adjectives worksheet -Objective: Learn some adjectives to describe places so as to use them in their final advertisements. -Description: First of all, some adjectives to describe places will be introduced through flashcards. Later on, to practice this stuff, some games, such as the memory, the detective (playing with mimics) or who is who, will be proposed. Finally, students will have to complete an individual worksheet that will help the teacher to know if they are on the right track. Below, a brief explanation of these games is displayed:

- The Memory: To play the memory, the flashcards which have been used to introduce adjectives will be exploited. Students will be gathered in groups of 4 to 6, and each group will have a memory set. The cards should be upside down and in turns students will have to reverse two cards. If they are a pair, the student keeps them and continues reversing cards. If not, the cards must be put upside down again and the turn will be given to the next student. The game continues until all pairs are found and the winner is the student who has more cards.

- The detective: Each adjective has a gesture assigned. One student goes out of the classroom; he/she is the detective. The others decide who is going to direct all the class; this means, deciding when it is time to change the mimics. At the same time that hey perform the actions, they will also be pronouncing the adjectives. When the detective goes in, he/she has to found the director. In the next round, the student who was the director will be the detective.

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- Who is who: It is played in small groups (4 maximum) or pairs. The cards used to play this game will be the flashcards too. Students will have to make questions to guess which adjective their mates have.

★ Session 7 Activity 1: Research of information (60’) -Interaction: T-Sts / St-St (group work) -Equipment/material: Computer, Webquest & Information template -Objective: Look for the information required to produce their final products. -Description: Students will have to fill in a template with some important information about the places that they are going to talk about in their advertisements. To scaffold the information search, the teacher will provide students with a web quest including some useful websites where they can find the desired information. Besides, the teacher will also explain to the students the template they have to fill in with the required information. Once the teacher gives all the information, students can start working in small groups.

★ Session 8 Activity 1: 2nd meeting (20’) -Interaction: Group work -Equipment/material: Computer, Information template completed & Google Hangouts, Tips for communication. -Objective: Share the information found until the moment with partners so as to receive some feedback. -Description: A second meeting will be carried out; each work group will have a meeting with a Parisian work group which will consist of explaining each other the information they have found about the partner’ city. In order to do that, they will follow the information template done in the previous lesson. Then, the local group will give feedback to the foreign group to assess them if they are on the right track or not and give advice to them. The teacher will provide the groups with some tips for communication to greet, thank others’ contributions, offer the floor to other

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participants, do the farewell… so as to facilitate a fluent communication in the foreign language. Moreover, this meeting will be recorded and used to assess the students’ ability to speak in public as well as their degree of involvement. Activity 2: Finish the information templates (40’) -Interaction: Sts.-Sts. (work group) -Equipment/material: Computer, Webquest & Information template -Objective: Complete the information template to hand in a first draft. -Description: The remaining time after the meetings will be devoted to finish the templates in order to hand in a first draft to the teacher, so he/she can correct them. So each group work will continue working on their information templates, taking into account the suggestions pulled off from the meeting.

★ Session 9 Activity 1: Introducing Padlet (15’) -Interaction: T-Sts -Equipment/material: Computer, Screen, PowerPoint on how to use Padlet & Granada’s Padlet example done by the teacher. -Objective: Explain to students how Padlet works. -Description: The teacher will explain how Padlet works (how to access, how to upload information…) to make easier the follow-up activity and let them to make an intuitive use of it. At the same time, he/she will show the Granada’s Padlet again to remind them that they can use it as a model and make transferences. Activity 2: Producing our Padlet (45’) -Interaction: Sts-Sts (work group) -Equipment/material: Computer, Information templates corrected by the teacher, Worksheet on adjectives & Worskeet on modals. -Objective: Produce the final output taking into account all the stuff that has been worked until the moment.

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-Description: At this point, as students will be familiar with the new tool. Each group work should introduce all the information about Paris gathered until the moment (through the worksheets and the template) as well as include further information, into a Padlet creation in an appealing and engaging way.

★ Session 10 Activity 1: Finishing our Padlet production (60’) -Interaction: Sts-Sts (group work) -Equipment/material: Computer, Information templates corrected by the teacher, Worksheet on adjectives & Worksheet on modals. -Objective: Finish the final output -Description: This session will be devoted to finish their Padlet productions.

★ Session 11 Activity 1: Revise partners’ Padlets (30’) -Interaction: T-Sts. /Sts-sts -Equipment: Computers & Awards categories -Objective: Go through the other students’ Padlet so as to be able to vote with judgment. -Description: Firstly, the teacher will explain the different categories they should take into account to be able to decide the awards. All the groups will be provided with a worksheet where the categories are described so as to look their partners’ work with a clear purpose. In groups, they have to decide the awards. Finally, as a whole class activity, they will decide on the definitive awards. Activity 2: Decide awards (20’) -Interaction: T-Sts -Equipment: Digital screen or blackboard to take notes -Objective: Value the partners’ work and reaching democratic agreements

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-Description: Teacher leads the discussion by asking each group what Padlet they have voted in each category and why. So, category by category, the different groups have to reach an agreement on the winners. The teacher must prepare the diplomas (one for each member of the group) for the next session using http://www.certificatestreet.com/ . Activity 3: Assessing Partners’ Padlet (25’) -Interaction: Sts-Sts (group work) -Equipment: Computers with internet access, Partner’s Padlet & Rubric (designed on the 4th lesson) -Objective: Assess partners’ productions through a rubric -Description: Once the awards are decided, each group will be asked to focus on one of the Padlets and fulfill the previously designed rubric designed to assess their partners’ work. Padlet’s production will be also assessed by the teacher using the same rubric. The average of these two marks will be added up to obtain the final mark.

★ Session 12 Activity 1: 3rd meeting “Awards ceremony” (60’) -Interaction: Class-Class -Equipment: Computer, Google Hangouts application & Diplomas for the different categories -Objective: Close the project and recognize students’ work -Description: An awards ceremony will be celebrated between the telecollaborative partners in which each group will receive a different award from their telecollaborative partners’. It is also a nice way to see off the partners. Teachers should lead the ceremony by saying which category is awarded and then give the floor to different students to say the winner.

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★ Session 13 Activity 1: Peer & self-assessment (35’) -Interaction: T-Sts/ Individual work -Equipment: Peer-assessment grid & self-assessment grid -Objective: Assess the work carried out through the unit by their mates & be able to detect own strengths and flaws and improve the latter ones. -Description: Students will have to fill in a peer-assessment grid considering the performance of their group mates throughout the project. They will be also asked to reflect upon their own performance and detect their own strengths and weaknesses and try to think how they can improve their flaws in further work. Activity 2: Reflecting upon the project (25’) -Interaction: T-Sts/ Whole class activity -Equipment: Questions in the Self-assessment grid -Objective: Reflect upon things that have been learnt during the project and things that still need to be reinforced. -Description: The teacher will ask some questions to the students such as: what have they learnt, what do they need to continue working on, things that they would change… This information will serve to the teacher to improve the project and be aware of the star activities as well as its flaws.

3.4. Access to the materials

All the materials mentioned during the project are available on Dropbox. You will find them organized by sessions: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/6ie5orrculi69zo/AADtrbXPSTXnaB2stablJ-DPa

Moreover, a platform where all the materials are going to be uploaded, has been created so as to enable students to have online access to all this stuff. http://lestravelproject.blogspot.com.es/

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4. ASSESSMENT OUTLINE

TOOL

SWBAT/COMPETENCE

OUTPUT

SESSION

Checklist

Analyze an external

Fulfilled checklist

2

Recognize and apply the

Worksheet about

4&6

vocabulary and grammar

modals &

previously worked

Worksheet about

(adjectives & modal verbs)

adjectives

Information

Search and select

Fulfilled

template

information according to

information

one’s needs

template

Recording of

Public speaking &

Communication

the meeting

communicating in the target

throughout the

language

meeting

Teacher & Peer

Create an appealing

Final output:

Rubric

advertisement according to

PADLETS’

the criteria established

advertisement

Self & Peer

Asses the other’s

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assessment

performance and be aware

Self & Peer assessment grids

production Worksheets

7&8

8

9

of one’s own flaws and strengths Teacher’s diary

Show a respectful attitude

Notes taken by

Throughout the

& direct

towards others and fully

the teacher

whole project,

observation

participate in the activities

especially during

proposed in class

the meetings, to assess the oral competence

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5. BIBLIOGRAPHY

-Basharina, O. (2007). An activity Theory Perspective on Student-Reported Contractions in International Telecollaboration. Language Learning & Technology, 11 (2): 82-103.

- Doolittle, P. E., & Hicks, D. E. (2003). Constructivism as a theoretical foundation for the use of technology in social studies. Theory and Research in Social Education, 31(1), 71-103.

-Extract from Cummins, J. Language, Power and Pedagogy: Bilingual children in the Crossfire, Clevedon UK, 2000. Š Multilingual Matters

- Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2007). Checking for understanding: Formative assessments for your classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

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Final project - Let's travel!