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自然:自 itself 然 it is 自然 the DMZ Scenario Kahyun Lee


自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario


Kahyun Lee


自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Table of Contents


自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

自然:自 itself 然 it is: the DMZ Scenario Begins

01

Abstract

自然:自 itself 然 it is

11

Concept / Polemic

The Demilitarized Zone

19

Site and Circumstances

The DMZ Scenario

31

Program

Precedents

43

Design Precedents

49

Cross-disciplinary Precedents

55

Texts

A Perspective / Perspectives

59

Technique

Shooting the DMZ Scenario

67

Schedule / Timeline

69

Bibliography


Abstact


自然:自 itself 然 it is: the DMZ Scenario Begins


01

自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

now. the DMZ in 2010

Since 1953, the DMZ has been guarded by military forces on both sides and has been protected from human intrusion. Ever since the SouthNorth Korean summit talks in 2000, the DMZ has been changing from a symbol of the military, tension, silence, conspiracy, and pain to the symbol of reconciliation, peace, life, and hope between two Koreas. However, nothing has been fully examined in the DMZ.

1. Preserving Korea’s demilitarized corridor for conservation, Ke Chung Kim, pp 245 Korean peninsula, http:/visibleearth.nasa.gov/ view_rec.php?id=6148

Abstract

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Digital Mania

Abstract

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

prologue. Human Being and Nature / Thesis and Antithesis

In its commonest sense, the concept of ‘nature’ is opposed to human beings: ‘nature’ has been ‘otherness’ to humanity.1 Consequently, humans become thesis, and ‘nature’ becomes antithesis.

1. What is Nature? Culture, Politics, and non-Human, Kate Soper, Blackwell, Oxford, 1995, pp 15

Abstract

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

The Close of the Silver Age, Lucas Cranach the Elder , http:/grantolsen.blogspot.com/2009_11_01_archive. html

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Abstract

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episode1. Reunification

At some point in the future (in 2030), South and North Korea achieved a reunification. The fences on both sides were torn down.

Abstract

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Abstract

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

episode2. the DMZ in 2035

After the reunification (in 2035), the DMZ, a no-man’s land which stretches for 150 miles across the Korean peninsula and varies from 3 to 12 miles in width, had generated a lot of controversy between people who wanted to preserve ‘nature’ in the DMZ and people who wanted to develop the DMZ. Before the reunification, the DMZ already attracted about 3 million tourists each year in South Korea alone. They were fascinated by the fact that they could ‘see’ the most heavily fortified frontier in the world and the last Cold War border from a distance. Now, after the unification, as one Korea, the time has come to move forward.

1. Korean DMZ a sanctuary for birds, Barbara Demick, Los Angeles Times, March 25, 2004, World, the Harford courant

Abstract

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Korean sunset - 1964, Tony Karp, http:/www.technoimpressionist.com/nvart2/nvart2-kodachromememories.htm

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Abstract

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

epilogue.‘自然:自 epilogue.‘ 自然:自 itself 然 it is’ / Synthesis

Opposed to the conventional understanding of the relationship of human beings and ‘nature’ as thesis and antithesis, a new project based on ‘自 然:自 itself 然 it is’ as a synthesis of human and ‘nature’ aided by digital media has been proposed to make the DMZ a bridge space between the two Koreas. The DMZ is no longer an area that should be left untouched. However, it is different from the notion of ‘tabula rasa.’ The thesis project will propose three steps for the DMZ based on ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is’: 1) by using the bunkers and wall constructions, building laboratory facilities to research the region; 2) constructing infrastructure; 3) designing the DMZ as a bridge space between North and South Korea. However, it doesn’t mean these phases are indicating an increasing ‘urbanization’ of the DMZ, rather, it will suggest ‘naturalization’ of the DMZ. Here, ‘naturalization’ means a development approach based on ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is.’ Also, there is no end point for each phase. As time goes by, the three steps will overlap and proceed in the DMZ based on ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is.’

Abstract

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Reunification the DMZ Laboratory Constructing Infrastructures Designing the DMZ as bridge space

the DMZ scenario

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Abstract

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Concept / Polemic


自然:自 itself 然 it is


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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

自然:自 itself 然 it is 自然

We, as human beings, have considered the external “physical world” as something that is differentiated from an internal “mental world.”1 The external “physical world” includes the work of humanity such as architecture and ‘nature’ as our surroundings (which is natural and not influenced by us) and an internal “mental world” is about ourselves as human beings. As in the separated relationship between the external “physical world” and the internal “mental world”, in the external “physical world,” the work of humanity and ‘nature’ are also opposed to each other since the work of humanity is to some degree the representation of ourselves so ‘nature’ becomes otherness to the work of humanity as well. Here, ‘I,’ my creation, and ‘nature’ are differentiated and cannot overlap with each other. Many ideas and perspectives about ‘nature’ have been proposed and discussed, however, we still cannot think clearly about the relationship between the organisms which are Oil and Water, http:/www.william-samuel.blogspot.

ourselves as human beings and our surroundings which is ‘nature’ and

com The Eternal Struggle Between Human Beings and Nature, http:/rsvblogger.wordpress.com/2010/07/31/

the relationship between the work of humanity and untouched ‘nature.’ Because from our general perspective, without a doubt, ‘nature’ has been

the-eternal-struggle-between-human-beings-andnature

Concept / Polemic

otherness to humanity, us.

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In the words of a key text of scholastic philosophy: ‘As man is made for the sake of God, namely, that he may serve him, so is the world made for the sake of man, that it may serve him;’2 this ‘anthropocentric’ idea has influenced the ways of thinking about ‘nature’ over the centuries.3 The ‘anthropocentric’ idea of human beings has distorted their own relationship, as human beings, with ‘nature’ and has brought the destructive idea of humanity’s domination over ‘nature.’4 In its commonest sense, the concept of ‘nature’ has been opposed to human beings: ‘nature’ has been ‘otherness’ to humanity.5 Consequently, humans become thesis, and ‘nature’ becomes antithesis. Their relationship cannot be overlapped or combined. In modern philosophy, human beings and ‘nature’ as thesis and antithesis has been interpreted as a Subject - Object division; humanity as the thinking subject is differentiated from ‘nature’ as object to be thought, but which is incapable of thought itself.6 It seems like ‘nature’ as that which is unaffected by human influences is the most common use of the term. However, the concept of ‘nature’ is complex and includes something more than a straightforward distinction between the built and unbuilt environment. Digital Mania

Concept / Polemic

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Marx insisted that ‘the nature which preceded human history no longer exists anywhere (except perhaps on a few Australian coral islands of recent origin).’7 As he said, in our own time the human influences on the environment have been intensive,8 so if we keep thinking about ‘nature’ as that which is unaffected by human influences, it would be unlikely that very much of our environment remains that we could consider as ‘nature’ in this sense. Are ancient monuments and ruins ‘nature’ or not? Don’t they look like part of ‘nature’? To understand our relationship with ‘nature,’ should we differentiate ourselves from ‘nature’? I’m arguing that there are limitations of thinking of ‘nature’ as that which is independent of us, and external to us, and it is not the only way to think about the relationship between us and ‘nature.’ Here, as opposed to the conventional understanding of the relationship of human beings and ‘nature’ as thesis and antithesis, I’m proposing ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is’ as a synthesis of humans and ‘nature.’

Old Castles, http:/www.castle.lv/castles4/orden-eng. html Left to Right: Rūjiena Rujen (1257), Durbe Durben (1263), Ropaži Rodenpois (1320), Rēzekne Rositten (1285)

Concept / Polemic

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis, http:/www.lisbethhummel.com/Joomla158/index.php?option=com_morfeo show&task=view&gallery=1&Itemid=60&233adae 36c158eafa97067172224941f=dd4f31ba47de070de7 a8891b6f41a843

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

According to Chuang Tzu, who has been one of the most influential philosophers in Eastern culture, everything in the world including ourselves could be part of ‘nature.’ There is no boundary between people, their creations, and the surroundings. From this perspective, the Pyramids in the desert are part of ‘nature.’ The marble coated surface of the Pyramids turned into the sands of the desert. It is there and is merging into the surroundings. The Pyramids (which were creations of humanity and human beings) have been becoming part of ‘nature’ over time in the sense of ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is.’ ‘Nature’ or getting back to the status of ‘nature,’ in this idea, is both a present space and an absence of time and space.9

Concept / Polemic

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The Thinker, Rodin, http:/www.psychologytoday. com/blog/imagine/200807/body-think

‘Nature’ in Korean is 자연 and it means ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is.’ It could be rendered as ‘Be.’ Here, ‘Be’ is different from the notion of ‘Cogito, ergo sum: I think, therefore I am.’ Self-identification is the most common way to describe the existence of human beings. ‘I,’ is significant. ‘I’ differentiates itself from its surroundings - ‘nature.’ In the notion of ‘ 自然:自 itself 然 it is,’ on the other hand, people don’t differentiate themselves from their surroundings. The act of creating does not have significant meaning within the idea of ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is.’ If there is creating, it could be understood as a self-transformation, a self-change from the things that have existed, or a hybridization with other things.

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Human beings and ‘nature’ are interdependent. Culture exists in their relationships and the changes of humanity: ‘Culture does not exist in a complete vacuum.’10 Consequently, how people understand ‘nature’ will be reflected in their own culture and vice versa. In this sense, the notion of ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is’ can be understood through the sensibility of Korean culture. Traditional Korean architecture embraced ‘nature’ as it is. Rather than making a picturesque scene of the building, traditional Korean architecture borrowed the elements from ‘nature,’ followed the order of what was there, and merged into ‘nature.’ In this sense, the work of humanity and human beings could be overlapped with ‘nature.’

Concept / Polemic

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario The sensibility of ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is’ can be seen in contemporary Korean culture as well. Throughout its history, Korea has struggled for its identity and independence from the invasion by powers such as the West, Japan, China, and Russia.11 However, it hasn’t only resisted the powers, rather, Korean culture found its way to survive and retain national culture and identity. It has sought reciprocal relationships with other cultures. What contemporary Korean culture has is a synthesis of traditional Korean culture and Western culture including technology. Korean culture doesn’t simply resist or isn’t simply subsumed by Western culture. As synthesis, contemporary Korean culture has been created out of thesis and antithesis: ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is’ - synthesis - embraces what it is or what they - thesis and antithesis - have and will have. Since the sensibility towards ‘nature’ is embedded in Korean culture, Koreans (especially artists) tend to question the relationship among ‘I,’ my creation, and ‘nature.’ They seek ways of blurring the boundaries between people and nature, Eastern and Western, and traditional culture and technology etc. based on ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is.’ According to Marx, humanity is essentially both the creature of ‘nature’ and its creator, even though we have conceptualized ‘nature’ as absolute otherness to ourselves.12 He suggested the possibility of ‘nature’ as the totality of being with humanity. From this view, human beings are neither opposed to nor viewed as separable from ‘nature:’13 They are the creatures and creators. In ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is,’ we are spectators and at the same time players.14

1. Steps to an Ecology of Mind; Collected Essays in

8. Neil Smith, Uneven Development; in Ed soja,

12. “Humanity is presented both as belonging with the

Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology,

Postmodern Geographies: the Reassertion of Space in

order of Nature, and sharing in a structure of dependencies

Gregory Bateson, Jason Aronson Inc., 1972

Critical Social Theory (Verso, London, 1989); David

on the environment that is common to other animals; but

2. Libri Sententiarum, II, 1, 8, cited in Lovejoy, Great

Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity ( Blackwell,

also as differentiated from that order in its very capacity

Chain, pp 186-187

Oxford, 1989); Doreen Massey, spatial Divisions of

to create the conditions of its own alienation. Humanity

3. What is Nature? Culture, Politics, and non-Human, Kate

Labour (Macmillan, Basingstoke, 1984); cf. Henri

viewed as a collective Subject is thus both a ‘spontaneous’

Soper, Blackwell, Oxford, 1995, pp 23

Lefebvre, The Production of Space, trans. D. Nicholson -

or ‘natural’ product of its interaction with Nature, but

4. Ibid, pp 5

Smith (Blackwell, Oxford, 1991); Alexander Wilson, The

also an active agent who - unlike the spider or the bee

5. What is Nature? Culture, Politics, and non-Human, Kate

culture of Nature ( Blackwell, Oxford, 1991).

- is responsible for the forms of that interaction and in

Soper, Blackwell, Oxford, 1995, pp 15

9. What is Nature? Culture, Politics, and non-Human, Kate

principle capable of transforming them,” pp 47

6. Ibid, pp 42

Soper, Blackwell, Oxford, 1995, pp 187-188

13. What is Nature? Culture, Politics, and non-Human,

7. Ibid, pp 18

10. Korean Anthropology: Contemporary Korean Culture

Kate Soper, Blackwell, Oxford, 1995, pp 22-23

in Flux, Edited by Korean National Commission for

14. See ‘As one engages in urban practices within the

UNESCO, Study of How Koreans View and Utilize

database city, the presence of the database provides

Nature, Choi Cahng-jo, 2003, pp 71

incentive to interact - it makes the spectator a player,’

11. Korean Studies Series No16: Modern Korean History

Urban Spectator, Chapter 7- the Database City, Eric

and Nationalism, Jimoondang Publishing Company, Shin

Gordon, pp 192

Yong-Ha, 2000, pp 3

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Site and Circumstances


The Demilitarized Zone


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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

the Demilitarized Zone

“But where danger is found, there also rises that which saves.” F. Hulderlin

For 60 years, after the Korean war, the two independent Koreas on the Korean peninsula, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) or North Korea and the Republic of Korea (ROK) or South Korea, have created diverse perspectives about the ways of living under the different governments. Even though people in the two separated Koreas have separate ideologies, cultures, and even languages, the Korean people desire the benefits of a united Korea with a peaceful and prosperous future. In 1953, the DMZ, a no-man’s land, was established in the middle of the Korean peninsula to keep the enemy troops apart. It stretches for 150 miles across the Korean peninsula and varies from 3 to 12 miles in width. Until now, for over a half a century, human activities have been kept out of most of the DMZ which is a heavily mined and closely watched strip of land.

The DMZ, http:/www.polkcounty.org/vn/ DASF/603rd_DASS/S_Bowen.html The DMZ, The DMZ Report 2008, Green Korea

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

NLL (Northern Limit Line) 1 miles the DMZ MDL(Military Demarcation Line)

1 miles

9 miles

Civil Control Area

SLL (Southern Limit Line)

12 miles

Border Area

CCL (Civil Control Line)

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Expectation

Current situation

Natural succession in the DMZ

Site and Circumstances

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

For Koreans, the DMZ is the sacred resting place of soldiers from the two Koreas and other war victims including foreign soldiers and innocent citizens. Therefore, conserving the DMZ is spiritually important. Furthermore, the DMZ is environmentally important. Over time, wild habitats have reclaimed what was destroyed by war activities in the DMZ. It has been reported that since the DMZ was established, the DMZ has been reclaimed by nature in the near absence of human impact. According to the report, ‘Sanctuary: for nature and the dead’ by William B. Shore, even though experts have not had full access to the DMZ, they have found enough evidence of rich biodiversity. Based on their research, the DMZ and the partially protected adjacent land, the Civilian Control Zone (CCZ) in South Korea, host 52 mammal species, 201 bird species, 28 amphibian reptiles, 67 inland fish species, and 1,194 plant species. These researchers insist that due to the limited human influences, diverse environments have formed in the DMZ.1

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

However, some other researchers insist that since the DMZ is a symbol of ‘non-violence’ and ‘non-intrusiveness,’ environments in the DMZ might have been exaggerated or misunderstood.2 According to them, the military activities in the DMZ during and after the war are another type of battle, a battle between human beings and ‘nature.’ The bunkers were constructed and the forests were removed from the field of fire. So they insist that nature in the DMZ will not be in the same state as it was before the war began as we expect and imagine it to be. Also, there is the possibility that ‘nature’ in the northern part of the DMZ has been more destroyed than in the southern part because North Korea doesn’t have a buffer zone like the CCZ in South Korea. The fact which is not controversial is that nothing has been fully examined in the DMZ. No matter which views of the researchers about the DMZ are true, the status of DMZ’s environment should be understood as ‘the status of natural succession of the battle field.’

1. Sanctuary:for Nature and the Dead - Preserving the Korean Demilitarized Zone, William B. Shore, the November/December 2004 WORLDWATCH Magazine 2. DMZ: Developable uses and break up, Sowha publication, Inyoung Kim and Jaehan Park, 1999

Site and Circumstances

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The DMZ, The DMZ Report 2008, Green Korea

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

the Civilian Control Zone (CCZ)

After 1958, when the South Korean government started to take charge of defending the Military Demarcation Line (MDL), restricted civilian acts were allowed in some areas which didn’t have problems in terms of the military activities and defenses under the permission by the government: the Civilian Control Line (CCL) and the Civilian Control Zone (CCZ). The CCL and the CCZ were established 5 to 20km to the south of the Southern Limit Line (SLL).

The DMZ The CCZ

Site and Circumstances

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Compared to the DMZ, the CCZ achieved more successful natural succession development because the DMZ was subject to more destructive military activities during the war and the fire after the war. Since no one can access the DMZ, there have been problems of protecting areas in case of natural fire. So the CCZ is considered as the most untouched area in South Korea because it has been alienated from the human influences to great degree. However, the area of the CCZ is decreasing due to the needs for the development especially near the capital region. In 2007, the government decided to move the CCL from 3 to 12 miles from the SLL to 3 to 6 miles from the SSL. Consequently, the destruction of nature in the CCZ is rapidly increasing now.

Wetlands Rivers

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Incursion Tunnels

‘Comardes, our invasion tunnel has come up exactly where we planned!’

North Korean Tunnels, http:/www.militaryphotos. net/forums/showthread.php?162240-Bluffer-s-GuideNorth-Korea-strikes!-(2009)

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Discovered four tunnels 30 more tunnels may exist 300-400 feet below ground 2,400 troops/hour

the MDL

North Korean Tunnels, http:/www.globalsecurity.org/ military/ops/dmz.html

Since November 15, 1974, the South has discovered four tunnels crossing the DMZ dug by North Korea. This is indicated by the orientation of the blasting lines within each tunnel. Upon their discovery, North Korea claimed that the tunnels were for coal mining; however, no coal has been found in the tunnels, which are dug through granite, but some of the tunnel walls have been painted black to give the appearance of anthracite.1 The tunnels are believed to have been planned as a military invasion route by North Korea. Each shaft is large enough to permit the passage of an entire infantry division in one hour, though the tunnels are not wide enough for tanks or vehicles. All the tunnels run in a north-south direction and do not have branches. Engineering within the tunnels, following each discovery, has become progressively more advanced. For example, the third tunnel sloped slightly upwards as it progressed southward, to prevent water stagnation. Today, visitors may visit the second, third and fourth tunnels through guided tours.2 1. Sides, Jim (2009). Almost Home. Xulon Press. p. 118. 2. “Demilitarized Zone”. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2007-11-09

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the Korean Wall

The Korean Wall, KFA from the Korean People’s Army military

The Korean wall is a concrete barrier that was allegedly built along the length of the DMZ in South Korea between 1977 and 1979. Dutch journalist and filmmaker Peter Tetteroo shows footage of what he believes (at the prompting of his North Korean guides) to be the Korean Wall.1 North Korea contends: In the area south of the Military Demarcation Line, which cuts across our country at its waist, there is a concrete wall which stretches more than 149 mile from east to west, is 16-26 feet high, 33-62 feet thick at the bottom, and 10-23 feet wide in the upper part. It is set with wire entanglements and dotted with gun embrasures, look-outs and varieties of military establishments [...] the South Korean rulers built this wall over a period of many years from 1977.1 In December 1999, Chu Chang Jun, North Korea’s longtime ambassador to China, repeated claims that a “wall” divided Korea. He said the south side of the wall is packed with soil, which permits access to the top of the wall and makes it effectively invisible from the south side. He also claimed that it served as a bridgehead for any northward invasion.2,3 According to the United States, the wall does not exist, although there are anti-tank barriers along some sections of the DMZ.2 Site and Circumstances

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1. “Welcome to North Korea:A film by Peter Tetteroo for KRO Television”. Retrieved 2009-12-29. 2. New York Times, 1999 3. “Tear Down the Korean Wall”. DPRK UN Mission. December 3, 1999. Retrieved 2007-10-29.

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Armistice Agreement ( July 27, 1953 )

TEXT OF AGREEMENT AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF, UNITED NATIONS COMMAND, ON THE ONE HAND, AND THE SUPREME COMMANDER OF THE KOREAN PEOPLE’S ARMY AND THE COMMANDER OF THE CHINESE PEOPLE’S VOLUNTEERS, ON THE OTHER HAND, CONCERNING A MILITARY ARMISTICE IN KOREA.

PREAMBLE The undersigned, the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, on the on hand, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers, on the other hand, in the interest of stopping the Korean conflict, with its great toll of suffering and bloodshed on both sides, and with the objective of establishing an armistice which will insure a complete cessation of hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final peaceful settlement is achieved, do individually, collectively, and mutually agree to accept and to be bound and governed by the conditions and terms of armistice set forth in the following Articles and Paragraphs, which said conditions and terms are intended to be purely military in character and to pertain solely to the belligerents in Korea.

ARTICLE RTICLE I Military Demarcation Line and Demilitarized Zone

1. A Military Demarcation Line shall be fixed and both sides shall withdraw two (2) kilometers from this line so as to establish a Demilitarized Zone between the opposing forces. A Demilitarized Zone shall be established as a buffer zone to prevent the occurrence of incidents which might lead to resumption of hostiles.

2. The Military Demarcation Line is located as indicated on the attached map (Map 1).

3. The Demilitarized Zone is defined by a northern and a southern boundary as indicated on the attached map (Map1).

4. The Military Demarcation Line shall be plainly marked as directed by the Military Armistice Commission hereinafter established. The Commanders of the opposing sides shall have suitable makers erected along the boundary between the Demilitarized Zone and their respective areas. The Military Armistice Commission shall supervise the erection of all makers placed along the Military Demarcation Line and along the boundaries of the Demilitarized Zone.

5. The waters of the Han River Estuary shall be open to civil shipping of both sides wherever one Program

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

bank is controlled by one side and the other bank is controlled by the other side. The Military Armistice Commission shall prescribe rules for the shipping in that part of the Han River Estuary indicated on the attached map (Map2). Civil shipping of each side shall have unrestricted access to the land under the military control of that side.

6. Neither side shall execute any hostile act within, from, or against the Demilitarized Zone.

7. No person, military or civilian, shall be permitted to cross the Military Demarcation Line unless specifically authorized to do so by the Military Armistice Commission.

8. No person, military or civilian, in the Demilitarized Zone shall be permitted to enter the territory under the military control of either side unless specifically authorized to do so by the Commander into whose territory entry is sought.

9. No person, military or civilian, shall be permitted to enter the Demilitarized Zone except persons concerned with the conduct of civil administration and relief and persons specifically authorized to enter by the Military Armistice Commission.

10. Civil administration and relief in that part of the Demilitarized Zone which is south of the Military Demarcation Line shall be the responsibility of the Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command; and civil administration and relief in that part of the Demilitarized Zone which is north of the Military Demarcation Line shall be the join responsibility of the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers. The number of persons, military or civilian, from each side who are permitted to enter the Demilitarized Zone for the conduct of civil administration and relief shall be as determined by the respective Commanders, but in no case shall the total number authorized by either side exceed one thousand (1,000) persons at any one time. The number of civil police and the arms to be carried by them shall be as prescribed by the Military Armistice Commission. Other personnel shall not carry arms unless specifically authorized to do so by the Military Armistice Commission.

11. Nothing contained in this Article shall be construed to prevent the complete freedom of movement to , from, and within the Demilitarized Zone by the Military Armistice Commission, its assistants, its joint Observer Teams with their assistants, the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission hereinafter established, its assistants, its Neutral Nations Inspection Teams with their assistants, and of any other persons, materials, and equipment specifically authorized to enter the Demilitarized Zone by the Military Armistice Commission. Convenience of movement shall be permitted through the territory under the military control of either side over any route necessary to move between points within the Demilitarized Zone where such points are not connected by roads lying completely within the Demilitarized Zone.

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the DMZ Scenario

The DMZ has remained a no-man’s land for over sixty years ever since the armistice pact was signed after the Korean war. Thus it preserves a unique ‘nature’ unparalleled anywhere in the world.1 ‘Nature’ in the DMZ is actually ‘unexpected’ nature. Habitats for migratory birds near the DMZ weren’t only the results of ecological succession; they were aided by human influences such as the farmlands and the irrigation reservoirs. In the DMZ, people are the creatures and creators of ‘nature.’2 Here, the following questions are raised. Should the remains of the war be cleaned up? Can they be part of ‘nature?’ Should the DMZ remain intact and preserved for the future of Korea? How can we deal with a new understanding of ‘nature’ - ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is’ as a synthesis of human and ‘nature’ - when we design spaces? The answers will be proposed in three design steps for the DMZ based on ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is.’ The three design phases are linked with each other and there are no end points for each phase in the process. Helmet in thhe DMZ, http:/www.mjm.co.kr/mjm/ blog/perblog/upload/12593/AP595C.jpg Landmines, http:/www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/ bilder/Aussenpolitik/HumanitaereHilfe/Minenraeumen/MinenFeld,templateId=large__blob.jpeg

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Abandoned Train, http:/photo.donga.com/udata/photonews/image/200611/20/59653_0.65802900.jpg Landmine, http:/www.peoplejam.com/files/u1811/ bouncing_betty.jpg Fortified Hillock with Machine Gun Positions near Nampo, http:/www.militaryphotos.net/forums/ showthread.php?162240-Bluffer-s-Guide-NorthKorea-strikes!-(2009)

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Being on a fence the sign implied that there is a mine field.

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Mine Zone Sign near Korean DMZ, Razor Nylon, http:/razornylon.deviantart.com/ art/Mine-zone-sign-near-Korean-DMZ162937733?q=gallery:RazorNylon/12162679&qo=16

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

phase1. Laboratory

Out of the remnants of the Korean War, laboratories are constructed to study the DMZ. Since the DMZ has never been fully examined, people on both sides, who want to preserve ‘nature’ in the DMZ and people who want to develop the DMZ, agreed that the DMZ should be understood as ‘the status of natural succession of the battle field.’ Based on the notion of ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is,’ bunkers, tanks, and other remnants of the war are considered as parts of ‘nature’ and they are used for constructing the laboratory facilities in the DMZ. Not only their physical remnants, but also their systems are used in that process. By operating the machines with digital technology, people such as researchers, scientists, and designers don’t have to take potentially fatal risks when they are exploring the unknown areas in the DMZ. The information will be gathered, stored, and shared through the digital space. For some areas which were completely destroyed because of the military activities in the DMZ during and after the war, the machines will also be used for reforestation. At the same time, people start to build the laboratory facilities using the old bunkers. Using the notion of ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is,’ the DMZ is conserved and developed.

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Man Tree (De boommens), Hieronymus Bosch

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phase2. Constructing Infrastructures

Underground tunnels Roads

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The infrastructures are constructed. In the DMZ, there are some infrastructures which were constructed before the war began as well as highways connecting the North and South which was constructed in the DMZ under the agreement of the two Koreas. Existing infrastructures are used to construct the new infrastructures to minimize the influences of development in the DMZ. Several underground tunnels which were used for invasions are also considered as possible infrastructures. The infrastructures are for the future network of protected areas which are diverse in size and category, including provincial, municipal and national parks, and green zones throughout the Korean peninsula.

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phase3. the DMZ with 自然

After the DMZ was constructed between the two Koreas, rare and endangered species, including leopards and possibly tigers, have increased in population in the DMZ. The DMZ has also offered a secure refuge for endangered migratory birds in Asia.3 However, as a bridge space and an emotionally important space on the Korean peninsula, the DMZ couldn’t remain untouched. The DMZ becomes the space for the memories of the war, a space for ‘nature,’ and the bridge space between the northern and southern parts of Korea. The bunkers (some of the laboratories which were constructed in phase 1 will remain) are transformed into the spaces for people visiting or passing by the DMZ, not for the war. Here, the digital media are also introduced in the DMZ. Actual and virtual experiences are mixed and introduced to people in the DMZ. What people - including scientists, researchers, and visitors experience is gathered and stored in the database and will be shared with others through digital media. What they construct in the database is the representations of what they have seen and experienced. As Eric Gordon says, the database allows people to interact with others as well as ‘nature.’ The database, mixed with the reality of the DMZ, therefore, becomes part of ‘nature.’ People who were only spectators of ‘nature’ before, become players in the DMZ.4 ‘Nature,’ people, and non-nature co-exist in the DMZ.

1. Korea-DMZ, DMZ sketch, Brief history of DMZ, 11/16/2010, http://www.korea-dmz.com/en/s/scm_main_ en.asp 2. DMZ: Developable uses and break up, Sowha publication, Inyoung Kim and Jaehan Park, 1999, pp 180 3. Preserving Korea’s demilitarized corridor for conservation, Ke Chung Kim, pp 248 4. See ‘As one engages in urban practices within the database city, the presence of the database provides incentive to interact - it makes the spectator a player,’ Urban Spectator, Chapter 7- the Database City, Eric Gordon, pp 192

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Sign Warning about the Demilitarized Zone Ahead, http:/techmediatainment.blogspot.com/2010_04_01_ archive.html

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Precedents


Design Precedents

Cross-disciplinary Precedents

Texts


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Flakturm

rockets) the fortifications were vaster

or

Antiaircraft tower, generally located in

and more complex. The first was the

sheltered civilians during air raids.

cities for the control of rooftops. Each

Pecnemunde crater, which took on

During the early part of the war,

tower was equipped on a platform

the form of the container but was

these

or in containers with one or several

considerably enlarged from a ten-

their scarcity, were reserved for Nazi

antiaircraft guns, sometimes with a

meter diameter for classical vertical

party members and for the families

radar firing system.

artillery to several dozen meters for

of was heroes. The interior space

the first space rockets. Next came

was organized in chambers around a

Fortress

the Warren-type bunker, in which

helicoidal ramp or an access stairway.

For the defense of a major port to

the rocket was assembled horizontally

Those windowless collective shelters

forbid enemy access from sea or land

before raised vertically in front of the

had electric ventilation systems, but, to

of a functionally favorable point.

fortification’s doors. Then there was

save energy, their interior walls were

the giant dome at Wizernes in which

finished in phosphorescent coating.

the same operations took place but in

Several of these bunkers could house

Individual or Collective Shelter Individually,

the

corresponds

to

shelter

generally

paralielepipedal,

public

these

shelters,

bunkers

because

of

which the rocket emerged erect in the

several thousand people. The most

to

sky... Other projects were imagined,

elaborate form of this kind of bunker

the necessity of surveillance of the

but essentially the V2 were launched

had an aerostatic profile designed to

surroundings of a support station or

from tractor-drawn mobile platforms.

divert bomb trajectories, thus to avoid

a

sentry

box,

battery; collectively, it protects troop

direct impact.

corps in the event of aerial or land

Light Atillery Bunker

bombing in the region. It possesses a

This casemate contains a classical

Mobile Bunker (experimental)

defense for its access points, generally

campaign

antitank

This heavy artillery casemate (several

one or two machine-gun nests as

cannon for direct firing onto the

hundred tons of concrete) revolves on

well as crenellations controlling the

beaches or the surrounding area of

its base: the shelter bay. It can be

entrance.

It

or

an

shelter

different

the support stations, supplementing,

moved electrically or manually be two

equipment,

medical

in fact, the other types of defense

men.. The major drawback of classical

(machine-gun bunkers, for example).

artillery bunkers is, of course, the

Its principle objective is the enemy

severe reduction in the firing field of

Launching Site

landing, the infantry ot the tanks

the cannon; as for mobile steel turrets,

For the V1 or flying bomb, there

accompanying the landing, or the

like the ones on warships, they were

is a launching ramp with a small

barges relaying the troop transporters.

too costly. To compensate for these

transmission

can

cannon

posts, transformers, kitchens, etc.

blockhouse for the firing command

drawbacks.

General

Theo

Habicht

with a tunnel to shelter machines. The

Luftschutzraum

Allied pilots called them “ski sites”

Antiaircraft

because they looked so much like ski

located in cities for the protection

exposed its open facade; afterwards,

ramps. For the V2 (or stratospheric

of

its closed side. A well-aimed shot into

Precedents

local

decided to build pivoting concrete shelter

townspeople.

generally Cylindrical

turrets

during

firing,

the

bunker

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

the running wheels could immobilize

Submarine Base

Its objective is to hit, besides landing

the piece definitively.

Huge structure designed to protect the

craft, the infantry and tanks that have

U-Boats during mission preparations

landed. The support station then is

Observation or Firing Direction Tower

or during upkeep between mission.

located at the edge of the littoral while

Fairly rare in the Atlantic Wall, each

Composed of a dozen chambers per

the coastal batteries are generally in

one is located either on an island

element, this building contains the

the rear or on promontories. In fact,

or on the low littoral. As its name

workshops and the docks for the

the coastal support stations constitute

describes it, it directs the firing of

repair of twelve submarines as well as

an uninterrupted line from the major

a coastal battery; the slits aligned

reserves and basements with lodgings

harbors from Norway to Spain all the

along its upper portion allow for

for the crews ( the Lorient base had

way to Italy.

the sectorization of the firing field.

room for 5000 men). Particular care is

Diverse equipment can also be found:

given to protection against bombing,

Tobrouk

radar, projections, etc. These towers,

first with the covering of the chambers

The proper name of the most common

like the posts similarly named, are

with slabs of reinforced concrete of an

of bunkers. A small casemate with a

located forward or in the rear of the

average thickness of seven meters,

cunnet for an automatic weapon or

line of artillery bunkers; once again

then with containers for antiaircraft

a tank ruttet taken from the enemy

the site is the major imperative.

artillery from machine-gun mountings

(from the Renault FT in particular)

to the 88mm cannon. Located in the

and with a small shelter bay for two

Open Forward Facade of an Artillery

major ports from Norway to the south

or three soldiers. It ressembles a little

Bunker

of France, submarine bases are an

the tanks that Rommel buried in the

Besides the presence or absence of

integral part of fortresses.

desert during the engagements of the

the inscription “Todt Front” above

Afrika Korps.

the embrasure and the framing of the

Support Station

cannon’s artifice with vertical redans,

The coastal support station guarantees

Todt Front

one notices the alternating curved- or

the continuity of the line of defense and

Named for Fritz Todt, first chief of

flattened-angle profiles, which reveal

collects different arms with a limited

European fortifications. Small graded

both differences in the plan type (or

perimeter

(from

meters):

concrete mass overhung above the

in arms) and also the origins of the

antitank

cannons,

machine-gins,

embrasure, to avoid the funneling

construction. The fortress pioneers

grenade-throwers, light antiaircraft

effect of the option facade of the

generally used the flattened angle; the

defenses, etc., as well as passive

bunker. Indeed, in the duel with

Todt Organization used the rounded

equipment, shelter or troop lodgings,

opposing artillery, this opening risked

angle. The end result was the same;

surrounded by trenches or antitank

guiding enemy projectiles into the

avoiding the fragile right angle. When

walls

protection,

fortification, like a funnel, and thus

the open facade is smooth, it is to be

the sea front itself being mined or

destroy the fortification, like a funnel,

protected by armor plating.

defended

and thus destroying it.

or

barbed by

300-400

wire

obstacles

to

landing

craft: tetrahedrons, hedgehogs, etc.

Bunker Archeology, Paul Virilio

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Design Precedents

Women at War: Reclaimed Bunker Turned Museum

‘Women at War’ proposes the four programs within the reclaimed bunker. Four stages of war will be represented : past, present, reflection and remembrance, and future. In my project, bunkers will be transformed according to three phases; 1) building laboratory facilities to research the region; 2) constructing infrastructures; 3) designing the DMZ as a bridge space between North and South Korea. Some of the bunkers which were transformed as laboratories in phase 1 will remain.

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“Women . War . Peace’ will be a new and exciting war museum with the pure focus of Women and War, Journeying through the exhibition will illustrate the compassion, realism, horrors and bravery seen and felt through the eyes of women during war time, both on the front-line and behind the scenes. This museum interrogates the creativity of learning through emotional and experiential spaces and details.” Charlotte Wilson

Women at War, http:/webecoist.com/2010/08/20/ reclaimed-war-bunker-as-museum

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Bunker 599

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“A seemingly indestructible bunker with monumental status is sliced open. The design thereby opens up the minuscule interior of one of NDW’s 700 bunkers, the insides of which are normally cut off from view completely.”

‘Bunker 599’ lays bare two secrets of the New Dutch Waterline (NDW), a military line of defence in use from 1815 until 1940 protecting the cities of Muiden, Utrecht, Vreeswijk and Gorinchem by means of intentional flooding. In the same way that the forms of bunkers are manipulated in the project, ‘Bunker 599,’ the bunkers in the DMZ will be actively transformed according to three phases.

Bunker 599, http:/www.e-architect.co.uk/holland/ bunker_599.html

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Cross - disciplinary Precedents

Contemporary Traditional Korean Dress

Korean culture found its way to survive and retain national culture and identity. It has sought reciprocal relationship with other cultures.

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Portrait of a Beauty, Shin Yun-bok

Contemporary traditional Korean dresses show the synthesis of different cultures based on Korean sensibility.

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Contemporary Korean Dance

Mask, James Jeon

For a choreographer such as James Jeon, born in South Korea but spending most of his formative years in the United States, operating under a dual set of influences has been a way of life. His choreography has alwyas been experimental, but when he created Inner Moves, those dual influences came together in a balanced harmony of music and movement. Conceived as a fusion of eastern movements working in tandem with the traditions of western classical ballet, this collaboration of traditional art forms results in a work that is contemporary both visually and thematically. Eastern dance, whether in emphasizing the visualization of inner feelings, or technical matters such as landing on the heel instead of the point of the foot, exists as a contrast to the athleticism of today’s classically trained dancer. Those contrasts are at the heart of Inner Moves, but they become balanced in a way that demonstrates the universality of dance. Mr. Jeon sees modern life as mechanical and sometimes barren, and through Inner Moves he attempts to communicate the inner feelings of those living in this culture. By introducing intuitive notions to classical western traditions, while allowing the athleticism and artistry of ballet to influence eastern movement, he may well have created the appropriate vocabulary to accomplish this.

Inner Moves, James Jeon, Photo by Natalia Perez

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“Asian music and dance are completely different from Western dance in spirit, rhythm, and harmony. In Inner Moves, dancers showcase contrasting personalities and, through their movement, a new form of dance is born.” James Jeon

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Contemporary Korean Arts

Nam June Paik (July 20, 1932 – January 29, 2006) was a Korean-born American artist. He worked with a variety of media and is considered to be the first video artist.1 “Bye Bye Mr. Kipling”, was a live link between Seoul, Tokyo, and New York in 1986 intended as a refutation of Kipling’s “East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet.” Nam June Paik said “Wrap Around the World” and suggested that the time had come to involve the whole planet.2 Although his idea emerged from the Korean sensibility towards nature, he didn’t only insist on the Eastern way of thinking. Rather, he proposed the ways of hybridizing multiple influences such as different cultures, art and technologies, and nature and humanity - ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is’; what he called a ‘sensibility of Bibimbob.’ Moon is the olodest TV, Nam June Paik, videoinstallation (1965-1992)

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“In New York, there is a Korean restaurant, ‘Sam Bok.’ At ‘Sam Bok,’ the taste of Bulgogi and Dubu jjigae (Korean Tofu stew) are somewhat not enough and a bit less than what I expected compared to those in Korea. However, Bibimbob is good there even though it is cooked and sold in New York since it can be easily mixed. It is a ‘sensibility of Bibimbob’ in Korean culture.” Nam June Paik

TV Buddha (1974), Nam June Paik, Closed Circuit video installation with bronze sculpture Video Fish (1975), Nam June Paik, Three channel video installation with aquariums, water, live fish, and variable number of monitors. Moon is the olodest TV, Nam June Paik

1. Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Nick Montfort, The New Media Reader, MIT Press, 2003, pp 227 2. SATELLITE ART: AN INTERVEW WITH NAM JUNE PAIK, Eduardo Kac, O Globo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in July 10, 1988. Republished in: DIVA -- Digital & Video Art Fair, 2005 Cologne (A Tribute to Nam June Paik), pp. 8-9.

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Texts

6. Kate Soper, What is Nature ( Blackwell, Oxford, 1995),

1. Employed as a metaphysical concept, which it mainly is in the

pp 155-156

argument of philosophy, ‘nature’ is the concept through which humanity thinks its difference and specificity. It is the concept of the non - human, even if , as we have seen, the absoluteness of the humanity - nature demarcation has been disputed, and our ideas about what falls to the side of ‘nature’ have been continuously revised in the light of changing perceptions of what counts as ‘human.’ But in a formal sense, the logic of ‘nature’ as that which is opposed to the ‘human’ or the ‘cultural’ is presupposed to any debates about the interpretations to be placed on the distinction and the content to be given to the ideas. One is invoking the metaphysical concept in the very posing of the question of humanity’s relations to nature.

2. Employed as a realist concept, ‘nature’ refers to the structure, processes and causal powers that are constantly operative within the physical world, that provide the objects of study of the natural sciences, and condition the possible forms of human intervention in biology or interaction with the environment. It is the nature to whose laws we are always subject, even as we harness them to human purpose, and whose processes we can

In our common sense, ‘nature’

neither escape nor destroy.

is separated from humanity no matter which side which explains

3. Employed as a ‘lay’ or ‘surface’ concept, as it is in much

the relationship between ‘nature’

every day, literary and theoretical discourse, ‘nature’ is used

and people stand on. In my thesis,

in reference to ordinarily observable features of the world: the

‘nature’ is not differentiated as

‘natural’ as opposed to the urban or industrial environment

an object as opposed to a subject,

(‘landscape,’ ‘wilderness,’ ‘countryside,’ ‘rurality’),

humanity based on ‘自然:自 itself

animals, domestic and wild, the physical body in space and

然 it is.’ In this sense, ‘nature’ and

raw materials. This is the nature of immediate experience and

human beings will co-exist in the

aesthetic appreciation; the nature we have destroyed and polluted

DMZ.

and are asked to conserve and preserve.6

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Descartes, Spinoza and Liebniz had all agreed to the principle

3. Lovejoy, Great Chaiin, pp 188f 4. Kate Soper, What is Nature ( Blackwell, Oxford, 1995),

that non omnia hominum causa fieri [‘not everything is created

pp 23-24

for human ends’]3 , and Locke, Kant, Addison, Bolingbroke, and many others, were to invoke the idea of the Chain as a reminder of the numerous creatures superior to man, and as a

The concept of ‘nature’ has been

caution against arrogant assumptions of human dominance within

opposed to human beings: ‘nature’

‘Nature.’4

has been ‘otherness’ to humanity.

Regardless of the actual definitions of the terms ‘nature’ and

4. Korean Anthropology: Contemporary Korean Culture in Flux, Edited by Korean National Commission for

‘culture,’ there is no denying that these two words have now become an intricate part of our daily vocabulary. Originally,

UNESCO, Study of How Kroeans View and Utilize Nature, Choi Cahng-jo, 2003, pp 69 5. Ibid, pp 70

the term ‘nature’ was used to denote unaffected shapes and conditions, all entities in the vast universe untouched by humans. This corresponds to the etymological origin of the term ‘nature’ from Greek ‘physis’ or the Latin ‘natura,’ both meaning ‘come into being,’ ‘created,’ or ‘born.’4

Despite the fact that this Western tradition of differentiating the material and the spiritual has contributed greatly to developments

It seems like ‘nature’ as that

in material research, it is nonetheless flawed in its inability to see

which is unaffected by human

the universe as it actually is.5

influences is the most common

Human understanding of nature has changed consistently through

use of the term. However, the

the process of modernization. Not only have traditional views of

concept of ‘nature’ is complex and

nature been discarded, but the misconception that we dominate

includes something more than a

nature, and not the other way around, has also been propagated

straightforward distinction between

and extended.

the built and unbuilt environment.

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

1. Urban Spectator, Chapter 7- the Database City, Eric

Digital social networking is ostensibly transforming the social

Gordon, pp 183 2. Ibid, pp 187 3. Ibid, pp 192

personality as such. Instead of relying on the whimsy of others, users can manufacture their own data to be ordered by others, and likewise, they can obtain greater control in ordering the data of people and places with which they come into contact.1

If in the middle of the twentieth century, the promise of machine intelligence was the self-sufficiency of the machine and its ability to interact with the world of humans, interactivity, as it is now understood, is more aligned with the user’s ability to interact with the world through machines. While this might not seem like such a dramatic departure, it has wide - reaching rhetorical effects: interactivity now represents our ability to transcend the machine - to use it to enhance human experience, as opposed to using human experience to enhance the machine. Interactivity has become a defining feature of digital media. And yet there is no agreement as to the meaning of that feature.2

‘ In ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is,’ we are spectators and at the same time

As one engages in urban practices within the database city, the

players. Human beings are the

presence of the database provides incentive to interact - it makes

creatures and creators of ‘nature.

the spectator a player.3

5. Henri Lefebvre, The Priduction of Space, trans. D.

... remains, to a greater or lesser degree, part of nature. It is an

Nicholson - Smith ( Blackwell, Oxford, 1991), pp 83-84

object intermediate between the realm of symbols and the realm of signs. Does it engender a space? Yes. Is that space natural or cultural? Is it immediate or mediated - and, if the latter, mediated by whom to what purpose? Is it given or artificial? The answer to such questions must be: ‘Both.’ The answer

The concept of ‘nature’

is ambiguous because the questions are too simple: between

includes something more than a

‘nature’ and ‘cultural,’ or between work and product,

straightforward distinction between

complex relationships (mediations) already obtain. The same goes

the built and unbuilt environment.

for time and for the ‘object’ in space.5

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The viewer must be able to ‘see’ around the next bend in the

6. Korean painting, Keith Pratt, Oxford university press, 1995, pp 41

path, past a clump of trees, or through a hanging pocket of mist. He must be able to sense the muffling stillness of snowfall, the

7. Ibid, pp 42-43 8. Ibid, pp 44 9. Ibid, pp 42-43

isolating effect of a squall of rain, and the soothing changes of color on clouds as the sun sets.6

The painter worked from imagination, from examples of other pictures well known to him, or from memory. He might spend time travelling through the mountains, absorbing the mood of the landscape, studying the rock formations, the coloring patterns of vegetation, cloud effects, and chiaroscuro before retiring to the undisturbed seclusion of his studio and there letting the spirit of his subject flow through his wrist and brush into a representation of what he had seen. What he painted, therefore, was a distillation of his experience.7

The temporal sequence of the picture skillfully passes through all four seasons, and the viewer can well believe that it would take a traveler a whole year to make the journey from beginning to end.8

Furthermore, Korean landscape painting rejects simple visual

Multiple perspectives share the

realism for the reason that the single fixed viewpoint of a pre-

idea of ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is’

cise moment limits the viewer’s appreciation of all aspects of

which is both a present space and

the scene. Instead, painting the picture from low, middle, and

an absence of time and space.

high ground perspective successively, as if the viewer had moved

Spectators can experience the

upwards and sees the landscape from three levels, gives a better

space in the painting while the

overall understanding of its actuality.9

perspectives are changing.

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Technique


A Perspective / Perspectives


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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

A Perspective

‘Cogito, ergo sum: I think, therefore I am’: Self-identification is the most common way to describe the existence of human beings in our own time. Consequently, “Reason” - which is sufficient grounds for explanation or a logical defense of the objective existence, ‘I am’ - becomes important. ‘I,’ is significant. ‘I’ differentiates itself from its surroundings - ‘nature.’ In this sense, fixed perspective shares the idea of ‘nature’ as otherness to humanity.

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Beach at Beverlyjohn, John Frederick Kensett

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Perspective, Jan Vredeman De Vries, Courtesy, the Bancroft Library, Berkely, California Table of Perspective, the 1728 ‘’Cyclopaedia’’: Volume 2

“The Renaissance painters’ artistic goal was the scientific optical mastery of nature. Conditioned by the aspirations and outlook of the Renaissance, they sought to achieve this step by step by focusing always on one aspect, on one cut-out section of the unbounded wealth of surrounding nature. Like the anatomist - another pioneer of the same spirit, who made his conquest of knowledge by eliminating the living, moving aspects of the body - the artist - the anatomist of the visual image - eliminated the flux of the innumerable visual relationships that the visible world has for the spectator. He froze the living, fluctuating wealth of the visual field into a static geometrical system, eliminating the time-element always present in the experiencing of space, and thus destroying the dynamic relationships in the experience of the spectator.”1

1. Language of Vision, Gyorgy Kepes, Dover Publications, 1995, pp 86

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Perspectives

Eastern paintings with the ‘Scatter plot’ have no fixed perspective; it is outside of the constraints of a fixed point. In one painting, there are several views; this idea cannot be easily understood by our own common sense which considers ‘nature’ as otherness to humanity. For example, mountain scenery can be depicted in multiple ways to reveal different perspectives. By extending the perspectives, Eastern paintings have flexibility in composition. Things are related to each other, and even to the people in the paintings. As people in the painting stroll in ‘nature,’ the perspectives will change, too. It is not only for the outside viewers; it shows the concept of ‘自然 Nature.’ There is no boundary between people and nature: People seek to get along with their surroundings - ‘nature.’ Likewise, people in the painting do not stand out but are absorbed into the painting; people, non-nature, and ‘nature’ co-exist.

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Soyojung, Jeong Seon

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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Jan Van Eyck sometimes used three or more vanishing points to increase the inner space of a room. Veronese, Tintoretto, and other painters employed in one picture many vanishing points and horizon lines. Their work was the first to break with the limited system of linear perspective which made the spectator pause in time and space - a contradiction to the nature of visual experience. By using multiple perspectives, the static fixation was overcome, because simultaneous perspective means moving in space.1 Multiple perspectives share the idea of ‘自然:自 itself 然 it is’ which is both a present space and an absence of time and space.2 Spectators can experience the space in the painting while the perspectives are changing.

1. Language of Vision, Gyorgy Kepes, Dover Publications, 1995, pp 90 2. What is Nature? Culture, Politics, and non-Human, Kate Soper, Blackwell, Oxford, 1995, pp 187-188

Technique

Digital Mania


自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini and his Wife (N.G., London, 1434)

Digital Mania

Technique

66


Schedule / Timeline


Shooting the DMZ Scenario


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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Shooting the DMZ Scenario

January

5 12 19 26

February

2 9 16 23

March

2 9 16 23 30

April

6 13

Schedule / Timeline

Digital Mania


自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

Presentation Perspectives _ Showing the DMZ Laboratory _ Transformation of Bunker Pin-up Introducing Information Database to the Laboratory Facilities Infrastructure _ Transformation of Incursion Tunnel Infrastructure _ Network of Infrastructure including Database Pin-up Design a Bridge Space Introducing Digital Media to Experience of Visitors the DMZ _ Shooting Start Pin-up Representation _ Perspectives Representation _ Perspectives On Air

Digital Mania

Schedule / Timeline

68


Bibliography


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自然 自然:自 itself 然 it is the DMZ Scenario

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Kahyun Lee


自然: 自itself 然it is  

自然: 自itself 然it is the DMZ Scenario University of Michigan (M.Arch 2011) Thesis_Prep (Fall_2010) Advisors (Jason Young / Thom Moran)

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