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DISSERTATION AND ARCHITECTURAL PROJECT (PART 1)

RETHINKING ADAPTIVE RE-USE: A SENSITIVE APPROACH TO HERITAGE INTERIORS

BY KAANAN J THAKKAR FOURTH YEAR B.ARCH (2016-17) 13B

13077

GUIDED BY PROF.SANJITA MAINDARGIKAR

DR. D. Y. PATIL SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE (SAVITRIBAI PHULE PUNE UNIVERSITY) D Y PATIL KNOWLEDGE CITY, CHAROLI BUDRUK, LOHEGAON, PUNE-412105


D Y PATIL GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS

D Y PATIL SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE D Y Patil Knowledge City, Charoli Bk, Lohegaon, Pune-412 105, Phone: 020-67077902/903, Fax: 020-67077718 www.dypatilarch.com

CERTIFICATE (Academic Year 2016-2017)

This is to certify that the dissertation titled “Rethinking Adaptive re-use: A sensitive approach to heritage interiors” by Ms. Kaanan J Thakkar, Submitted to the D Y Patil School of Architecture Charholi (Bk) Lohegaon, Pune (Affiliated to the Savitribai Phule Pune University) in partial fulfillment of the Degree Course of Bachelor of Architecture is a bonafide

work

completed

under

the

guidance

of

Prof.

Sanjita

Maindargikar.

Prof. Guide

Principal/ Academic Coordinator

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

Name:

Name:

Sign:

Sign:


D Y PATIL GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS

D Y PATIL SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE D Y Patil Knowledge City, Charoli Bk, Lohegaon, Pune-412 105, Phone: 020-67077902/903, Fax: 020-67077718 www.dypatilarch.com


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am deeply grateful to the following people for their important role and support through my dissertation and architectural project: First of all, Prof. Sanjita Maindargikar for her invaluable support and constructive criticism throughout my study. Prof. Veena Shenvi and Prof. Ashish Sakat, our subject guides for Dissertation and Project I, for their inputs and insights from time to time. Our Director-in-charge and Principal Prof. Shubhda Chaphekar and everyone else who has directly or indirectly helped me through the stages of my work and completion of the dissertation study.


ABSTRACT

The research shows the study of adaptive re-use in heritage conservation, and aims to discover the various parameters of adaptive re-use in different types of heritage buildings. The study follows with the importance of heritage interiors, and with the help of few case studies, a few recommendations and guidelines for a sensitive and ideal approach of adaptive re-use for the functions and elements of heritage interiors are provided.


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 ..................................................................................................................................1 

Introduction to Heritage Conservation: ................................................................................1

CHAPTER 2 ..................................................................................................................................6 

Relevance:.............................................................................................................................6

Problem statement: ...............................................................................................................8

Aim: ......................................................................................................................................9

Research questions:...............................................................................................................9

Objectives: ............................................................................................................................9

Limitations: .........................................................................................................................10

Methodology: ......................................................................................................................11

CHAPTER 3 ................................................................................................................................12 

Elements of Heritage interiors: ...........................................................................................12

CHAPTER 4 ................................................................................................................................14 

In conversation with Conservation architect Vikas Dilawari: ............................................14

Case studies: .......................................................................................................................16

Net Case Study 1: Dominican church into a book store. ....................................................16

Net Case Study 2: Renovation of Room No. 203, 204, 205A at South Block. ...................20

Net Case Study 3: Bhau Daji Lad Museum. .......................................................................25

Live Case Study- Pol Houses in Ahmedabad: ....................................................................29

House 1: French haveli .......................................................................................................29

House 2- Diwanji ni haveli: ................................................................................................37

The sensitivity of the approach towards the heritage interiors for each case study:……………. ......................................................................................................................42 CHAPTER 5 ................................................................................................................................43 I


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors 

Analysis, inferences and recommendations: .......................................................................43

Inferences and guidelines proposing possible reusability options: .....................................44

Recommendations and guidelines.......................................................................................46

Conclusion: .........................................................................................................................51

APPENDIX ..................................................................................................................................53 BIBLIOGRAPHY .........................................................................................................................55

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Flow chart of methodology ..............................................................................................11 Figure 2: Sketches showing form, scale and outlook in interiors....................................................12 Figure 3: Interior arched opening at City palace Udaipur ...............................................................12 Figure 4: Interiors at heritage homes in Ahmedabad and Goa .......................................................12 Figure 5: Flow chart for categorization on elements in heritage interiors .....................................13 Figure 6: Dominican church-main entrance ....................................................................................16 Figure 7: Dominican church plan after modification ......................................................................16 Figure 8: View of cafe ......................................................................................................................17 Figure 9: View of steel structure .....................................................................................................17 Figure 10: View of steel structure ...................................................................................................18 Figure 11 : Another view .................................................................................................................18 Figure 12 : View of the Secretariat ..................................................................................................20 Figure 13: North and South Secretariat buildings ...........................................................................20 Figure 14: Chhatri with Jali screens .................................................................................................21 Figure 15: The VVIP room................................................................................................................21 Figure 16: The new meeting room ..................................................................................................22 Figure 17: The meeting room ..........................................................................................................22 Figure 18: Meeting rooms during British era ..................................................................................23 Figure 19: A picture from a round table conference .......................................................................23 Figure 20: Elevations in measured drawings ...................................................................................25 Figure 21: Before and after restoration- Front elevation ...............................................................25 Figure 22: Gold gilding in columns – before and after ....................................................................26 Figure 23: Staircase- before and after.............................................................................................26 Figure 24: Colonnade- before/after ................................................................................................27 Figure 25: Checkerboard design basalt floor...................................................................................27 Figure 26: Lighting Before/after ......................................................................................................28 Figure 27: French Haveli - Front ......................................................................................................29 Figure 28: Courtyard........................................................................................................................30 Figure 29: Kitchen............................................................................................................................30 Figure 30 :Reception .......................................................................................................................30 Figure 31: Skylight ...........................................................................................................................30 Figure 32: Waiting in courtyard.......................................................................................................30 Figure 33: Dining on 1st floor ..........................................................................................................31 III


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors Figure 34: Ceiling and Flooring ........................................................................................................31 Figure 35: Bedroom and Toilet ........................................................................................................31 Figure 36: Balcony ...........................................................................................................................31 Figure 37: Restored plan of Ground floor- French Haveli ...............................................................33 Figure 38: Existing plan of Ground floor - French haveli .................................................................33 Figure 39: Restored plan of First floor- French haveli .....................................................................34 Figure 40: Existing plan of First floor- French Haveli .......................................................................34 Figure 41: Restored Second floor plan - French Haveli ...................................................................35 Figure 42: Sectional elevation of French Haveli ..............................................................................36 Figure 43: Front elevation of French Haveli ....................................................................................36 Figure 44: Sketch showing Albergo Diffuso .....................................................................................36 Figure 45: Diwanji Haveli entrance .................................................................................................37 Figure 46: Courtyard........................................................................................................................37 Figure 47: Bedroom, Toilet and Multipurpose hall .........................................................................38 Figure 48: Ground floor restored plan of Diwanji Haveli ................................................................39 Figure 49: Ground floor existing plan of Diwanji Haveli ..................................................................39 Figure 50: First floor restored plan of Diwanji Haveli .....................................................................40 Figure 51: First floor existing plan of Diwanji Haveli .......................................................................40 Figure 52: Elevation of Diwanji Haveli .............................................................................................41 Figure 53: Section of Diwanji Haveli ................................................................................................41 Figure 54: Openings before and after .............................................................................................42

LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Abstract of the topic ..........................................................................................................10 Table 2: Case studies abstract .........................................................................................................42 Table 3: Classification of conversion ...............................................................................................44 Table 4: Spatial organization ...........................................................................................................46 Table 5: Interior design ...................................................................................................................47 Table 6: Interior architctural features and finishes .........................................................................48 Table 7: Options for building conversions .......................................................................................52

IV


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

“Conservation is not only about the past, but also about the future.� - Dr. Lee Ho Yin, Faculty, HKU.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

CHAPTER 1  Introduction to Heritage Conservation: Amidst the urban sprawl, surrounded by the high rises and the low, the slums and the markets, the busy roads and heavy traffic, the historic structures which were once important, endure with time, forgotten, neglected, decaying and gradually losing its charm. Both inside and outside, the awe-inspiring beauty and the impact, the structures once had, fade. Heritage conservation, is not a subject, it is a ‘movement’. It is about realising the importance of these historic structures in contemporary times, about spreading the awareness and preserving as many as possible, about justifying them by recreating their importance, it is about breathing new life into these abandoned and eroding structures. Conservation is both past and future oriented, in the face of declining architectural standards and profit motivation in the present; conservation is bound to continue past buildings and legacies into the future. In this future, the artefacts must be seen to be vital and capable of undergoing change without losing their essential quality. No longer is conservation just an emotional issue to want to save old buildings. It is economical and essential. It is more than a question of aesthetics. Conservation touches our basic values. With different techniques and ideas depending on the type of damage the building has gone through, the conservation of heritage buildings is undertaken. Heritage conservation, hence, seeks to maintain and thereby increase the value of buildings by keeping their original built form and architectural elements, favouring their restoration rather than replacement and, when restoration is impossible, recreating scale, period and character. The focus is not to rebuild and reconstruct, but to preserve and enhance the existing elements and structures. 1


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

The historic structure to be restored is properly documented first by inspecting the premises, identifying its cultural significance, analysing its construction, technology and the concept behind it, understanding the type of damage and defect. Then, as per the guidelines and principles formulated by the UNESCO heritage and Archaeological Survey bodies, the work of restoration is undertaken along with advocating the use of like to like materials and minimum interventions. One of the most useful proven techniques undertaken by the world, in order to recreate the importance and hence preserve heritage structures is – ‘Adaptive Re-use’ – the process of reusing a heritage site or building for a purpose other than which it was built or designed.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 Adaptive Re-use: (Literature study) Adaptive re-use in heritage conservation is not a very new approach- it was established and theoretically formulated as early as the 19th century. The practice not only compliments but also challenges and reveals the history and the unique character of the heritage building, by preserving the design and spirit of the place through its architectural expression. The re-use of historic buildings and neighbourhoods is economically sensible. It is an effective strategy to conserve architectural heritage, particularly by using traditional artisans and craftsmen in the process. Such re-use distinguishes between preservation as an ideal on the one hand and, on the other, the goal to prolong the useful life of architectural heritage by retaining as much as possible, of the surviving evidence as a vestigial presence. In fact adaptive reuse helps retain history and brings cultural heritage of a society to its fore. Not only reminding the society of its heritage but also allowing a bond which protects and interprets the cultural heritage of a society. Saving and reusing public buildings gives our society identity and sense of place. It is of course economical and in fact a sustainable move, since reusing the existing saves their embodied energy and does not waste it. Major projects of Adaptive Re-use include the Victorian buildings of Mumbai and Kolkata, the Royal Palace and fort heritage hotels in Rajasthan, heritage museums in Kolkata, Havelis in Delhi and Ahmedabad, traditional houses in Kerela, urban heritage residential colonies in Mumbai and many more.

 Aspects of adaptive re-use: 1. Cultural: Customs, traditions and time, are manifested by the heritage structure since the Era it was built in. Adaptive re-use of a historic building can-

Inspire and spread awareness of Heritage preservation

-

Generate an urge to know more about the cultures and traditions bygone.

2. Economical : -

The demolition cost and energy is saved

-

The existing capital can be used for the repair jobs the building needs 3


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

-

Local material and labour can be used.

-

Revival of the traditional arts and decorations can be made.

-

The new use of the building can generate revenue to sustain the revenue and maintain the building.

-

Can also benefit the regional surroundings and villages by creating employment options and earn revenue with tourism.

3. Social: -

The re-use of the building can provide the place and the era a new identity.

-

It can give understanding of the roots and history, which provides with stability in life.

4. Environmental: -

Preservation of the original building's "embodied energy"- the energy consumed by all of the processes associated with the production of a building, from the attainment of natural resources to product delivery, including mining, manufacturing of materials and equipment, transport and administrative functions.

-

By reusing buildings, their embodied energy is retained, making the project much more environmentally sustainable than an entirely new construction.

-

Use of local materials- hence environmentally responsible.

-

A sustainable project.

5. Promoting innovation: -

The adaptation of buildings presents a genuine challenge to architects and designers to find innovative solutions.

-

As development pressures increase in our cities, need for reuse, also increases if the idea of demolition is eradicated, producing some excellent examples of creative designs that retain heritage significance.

 Strategic approach of Adaptive re-use: The strategic approach concentrates on the processes and strategies used for adapting important structures. (1) Building within 4


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

(2) Building over (3) Building around (4) Building alongside (5) Recycling materials (6) Adapting to a new function (7) Building in the style of an era. Three strategies for conversions: (1) Intervention (2) Insertion (3) Installation

“To provide meaningful architecture is not to parody history but to articulate it.” – Daniel Libeskind.

The quote elaborates on the rightfulness of the practice of Adaptive re-use for heritage buildings, since it gives meaning to the now old building to be useful in the contemporary times and have importance for its character.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

CHAPTER 2  Relevance: When the restoration of a heritage structure is undertaken with the practice of adaptive re-use, it has to be made sure, that the functional purpose being introduced in it, would not be causing misuse or overuse, and does not compromise the identity and character of the structure, while accommodating the requirements in the least obtrusive manner and with minimum interventions. Adaptive re-use although is a practice of preservation of heritage interiors while restoring the exteriors and facades, the major compromise made in order to regenerate function, obviously, is made by altering the interiors and their functions (in some cases, entirely). Heritage interiors are a collection of architectural features and finishes and siteassociated or site-appropriate furniture and furnishings organised in space inside a historic building. It cannot be divorced from the structure in which it exists. Heritage interiors can provide particularly powerful and evocative interpretive experiences because they physically represent a past moment in history. These spaces need to be shown special interest to avoid unnecessary interventions. When a change of use in a heritage structure is approved, every effort needs to be made to minimize the loss of significant interior spaces. It is necessary to understand that heritage interiors are the important basis of the structural and aesthetic heritage value, and cannot be compromised. The guidelines and principles provided for the conservation of heritage by various bodies, do not appear to be prioritizing the heritage interiors as a major basis of conservation. The agencies concerned with the heritage in India are: 1. Heritage Conservation Committee (HCC) under Ministry of Urban Development 2. Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) 6


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

3. State Archaeological Departments 4. City Development Authorities 5. INTACH- Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage of India 6. Aga Khan Trust Example: A guideline statement in the ‘Charter for the Conservation of Unprotected Architectural Heritage and Site in India’ – produced by INTACH, clearly shows the negligence of value for heritage interiors, which is as follows: “When it becomes necessary to ‘modernise’ and comprehensively alter the original internal functional characteristics of the building or site, its external image must be retained.” Within the framework of the guidelines, the drive for conservation of heritage interiors needs to be incorporated. Conservation of the interiors is a major issue, mostly overlooked and neglected. Not only that, very often, the term heritage covers only prestigious and royal monuments, and the urban heritage of small and private heritage structures from the same era are also overlooked. These structures are either demolished in the knack of redevelopment, or left to be in ruins. Whereas major projects of heritage conservation are taken up by reusing palaces and forts as highly economically valued ‘Heritage hotels’. Both ways, all types of heritage structures are unjustified here. On one hand, the adaptive re-use of a fort with a different former function is now highly manipulated to be used as an economical project and modified to be a hotel, and on the other hand, the heritage neighbourhoods with an original former function of living and residing in, is ignored to be useless.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 Problem statement: The main problems regarding adaptive reuse of buildings are: 1. Recognising the right building for reuse. 2. Recognising the right reuse for a particular building. 3. Addressing the historic value of the building. 4. Assessing the possible damages that can result from reuse. 5. Overcoming the space barriers and re-creating the function with minimum alterations. As Modern architecture increasingly becomes part of the continuum of architectural history and its buildings experience, various threats that range from material to functional obsolescence, demolition due to abandonment and lack of appreciation, concern for heritage preservation is needed. It is important to look at the development of the protection of the historic built fabric in order to determine the most appropriate way to continue to approach conservation and reuse of these buildings. Adaptive reuse is a strategy that has been most used for protecting the old buildings and sites, as mentioned earlier; and while in most of the projects where adaptive reuse practice is being applied the ‘character, spirit and sense’ of place is often missed, or entirely forgotten. Hence, why can’t a full attempt to preserve the structure as a whole be made?

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 Aim: To discover the various parameters of adaptive re-use in different types of heritage buildings and provide recommendations and guidelines for a sensitive and ideal approach of adaptive re-use for the functions and elements of heritage interiors.

 Research questions: 1.

What lessons can be learnt from the current practice of Adaptive re-use in Heritage conservation?

2.

How can one re-use a heritage building, while preserving the heritage interiors to the fullest within the framework of guidelines?

 Objectives: When talking about the heritage structure and its adaptive re-use, two major factors that need immediate attention and that need to be understood, documented and focused on while conservation is the space which makes the structure what it actually is- The type of building and its interiors. This notion all in all leads to a need for a new approach to Adaptive re-use. The objectives of this research are as follows: 1) To explain and establish the need for conservation of Heritage interiors. 2) To study the practice of adaptive re-use and identify its approach to the heritage interiors. 3) Addressing the issue on the basis of examples and the need of incorporating the importance and value of conservation of heritage interiors in the framework of guidelines. 4) To investigate the relationship between new and old in the adapted and reused buildings as applied to the surrounding society. 5) To provide with ways of providing the much-needed sensitive approach in adaptive re-use, while making minimum interventions and alterations to the interiors and making them function able for contemporary times. 6) To determine the suitable functions for the re-use of various types of heritage buildings, in order to maintain the original character and spirit.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 Limitations: 

One of the major problem that is encountered in the process of adaptive reuse is that of less flexibility of the space. This challenge usually limits the potential of what can be achieved. However the adaptive reuse concept can help improve urban sustainability.

This research focuses only on the interiors of Heritage buildings and their adaptive re-use.

 Abstract: 1) Aim

-

To discover the various parameters of adaptive re-use in different types of heritage buildings.

-

To provide recommendations and guidelines for a sensitive and ideal approach of adaptive re-use for the functions and elements of heritage interiors.

2) Research question

-

What lessons can be learnt from the current practice of Adaptive re-use in Heritage conservation?

-

How can one re-use a heritage building, while preserving the heritage interiors to the fullest within the framework of guidelines?

3) Objectives

-

To study the practice of adaptive re-use and identify its approach to the heritage interiors.

-

To determine the suitable functions for the re-use of various types of heritage buildings,

4) Limitations

-

Less flexibility of the space

-

Research focuses only on the interiors of heritage buildings Table 1: Abstract of the topic

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 Methodology: 

The research begun with understanding adaptive re-use and its effects and then listing of various elements that incorporate the heritage interiors while pointing out the current scenario of adaptive re-use.

This was done on the basis of case studies of various types of buildings in order to understand the various possibilities of re-use.

On understanding the issues of adaptive re-use, detailed analysis and interventions to the buildings studied were derived.

With the help of the collected data and derived inferences, new guidelines for adaptive re-use of heritage interiors were hence formulated referring to the type of building.

Figure 1: Flow chart of methodology 11


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

CHAPTER 3  Elements of Heritage interiors: Features like – walls, ceiling, doors, floor, windows, etc., are the major part that make the heritage interiors. The other associated content includes- decoration and furnishing, original fixtures like fireplaces, stained and painted glass, lighting, artefacts, services and sanitary ware, 

Identification of elements: 1) Form 2) Scale 3) Outlook 4) Lighting Figure 2: Sketches showing form, scale and outlook in interiors 5) Openings 6) Enclosures

Figure 3: Interior arched opening at City palace Udaipur 7) Furnishings 8) Decorations 

Figure 4: Interiors at heritage homes in Ahmedabad and Goa

Upon entering a building, we sense shelter and enclosure. This perception is due to the bounding floor, wall, and ceiling planes of interior space. These are the architectural elements that define the physical limits of rooms. They enclose space, clear its boundaries, and separate it from adjoining interior spaces and the outside.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 Categorisation of elements:

Figure 5: Flow chart for categorization on elements in heritage interiors

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

CHAPTER 4  In conversation with Conservation architect Vikas Dilawari: 1) What do you personally feel about conservation of heritage buildings? -

Like a patient who is sick and is in serious deteriorating health conditions, needs a doctor and treatment for its well-being and future survival, a building suffering from damage and neglect needs the same. Here the conservation is the treatment of recovery.

2) Why is adaptive re-use known as the most useful and accepted way of heritage conservation? -

Until and unless a heritage building in a damaged condition is treated, it is taken to be useless and a waste of land in the common mentality. In modern times, until and unless, a building produces economy, it is well to stand, if not, there are hundreds who would like to demolish the old structure to build a skyscraper. This case is seen in Mumbai, it is a constant struggle to convince the common people. Adaptive re-use is the revitalization of a heritage building to be useful in the modern times that would produce economy and help its future survival.

3) What is your view on adaptive re-use with respect to the conversion of heritage interiors and elements in current practices? -

In today’s practice, the problem is that people don’t want to see how much a building’s heritage essence remains unless it is a Grade I or Grade II building. Although it is seen to it that minimum modifications are made aesthetically and structurally, sometimes it gets difficult to retain the same piece in place due to the amount of damage, hence the approach differs from building to building. But maximum care should be taken, in the end like I said, the economy and use gained from the building, matters the most.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors



Analysis and inference: -

The conversation very well sums up the basic fundamentals of conservation and adaptive re-use in contemporary times.

-

Ar. Vikas Dilawari being one of the most well-known conservation architects in Mumbai has worked with INTACH on Dr. Bhau Daji Lad museum in Mumbai.

-

The museum is the perfect example of a sensitive approach to heritage interiors.

-

He clearly states that for a conservation of a heritage building is only justified, if it is useful and respected for its worth. This can only be achieved with having it re-used with suitable functions and produce economy.

-

The approach and extent of repairs differs from building to building as per the amount of damage.

-

Minimum modifications should be made while repairing.

-

The common people need to be made aware of the importance of the heritage buildings and their need to stay alive amongst the growing cities.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 CASE STUDIES:  Net Case Study 1: Dominican church into a book store. -

Location: Maastricht, Netherlands, Europe

-

Building type: Religious

-

Consecrated in 1924

-

Adaptive re-use: BookstoreBoekhandel Selexyz Dominicanen

-

Architect (bookstore) : Merkx + Girod

Area: 750 sq. m

Significance: 1) The building was once part of a

Figure 6: Dominican churchmain entrance

Dominican friary knocked about over the centuries by various invading armies. It was being used by the citizens of Maastricht as an indoor bike pound. 2) Later, turned into a warehouse. 3) Contained stone vaults and faded remains of ceiling paintings from around 1337; and others by the artist Jan Vessens, depicting saints and sinners and episodes from the Bible, dating from 1619. Adaptive re-use: 1) Installation of a towering, three-storey black steel book stack in the long, high nave. 2) Installation of cafe in the choir area. The central feature of the cafe is a long, cruciform table lit by a lamp suspended from the stone vaults in the guise of a modern halo.

16

Figure 7: Dominican church plan after modification


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

3) Popular books are kept on lower shelves, while academic, esoteric and theological works are kept closer to heaven. These are reached by stairs within the sleek, well-made book stack, although there is also a lift. 

Parameters covered:

1) Re-use: - The church being a monument, needed to be kept as an open space as much as possible hence,

introducing

the

two

floors

asymmetrically gave respect and emphasis to the structure. - The new use blended well in the structure due to matching space requirements for both old and new uses. Figure 8: View of cafe 2) Space: - The scale of the black steel book stack was necessary because a spread of shelves along and across the nave would have detracted from its character. - Also Selexyz needed 1,200 sq. m of selling space to make the shop's finances add up. - Another intervention was the lighting plan that was integrated with the furniture or the volume to avoid pollution in the interiors.

3) Structural Systems: - Original structural frame was untouched; addition of the book stack to two floors above was done in order to have more horizontal free space on ground level. Figure 9: View of steel structure

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

4) Usage: -

Visitors include locals as well as tourists, around 10 people per floor

-

Compared to a small village like Maastricht, it is a closed space attraction that benefits the tourism.

-

Placed in the centre of the town, it is easily accessible.

-

The seating provided for the bookstore includes the café tables and stools in the aisles.

Figure 10: View of steel structure -

Natural lighting- during the day maintains the

essence of the church while the artificial lighting provided for evenings are spotlights on the columns looking 4 ways. Otherwise, the steel structure has tube lights fit to the ceiling on the aisle between book shelves. -

Services for the café are provided from the back

door in the corner, at the end of the left aisle. The café Figure 11 : Another view

serves premade croissants and sandwiches only, hence a sink is provided and all needed. No wash

rooms available. -

A chandelier in the centre of the café is retrofit.

 Analysis/ inference: -

The conversion of the church into a bookstore here is a rightful approach, since the basic structural system and spaces are not disturbed.

-

The steel structures are independent and are not retrofit into the columns or the ceiling.

-

The original characters and features of the church are retained with a few modern additions like the café. 18


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

-

The crucifix form table at the cafĂŠ places in the sanctuary proves the religious sensitivity taken up with the adaptive re-use.

-

No partitions and distribution of spaces is made, leaving it to its original scale and order.

-

The need for artificial lighting is well looked after with the white spotlights, without overshadowing the church’s painted ceiling and mosaic floors.

-

The only drawback at keeping public places like shops and libraries in simple places like church is, less flexibility to provide services while avoiding retrofitting.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors



Net Case Study 2: Renovation of Room No. 203, 204, 205A at South Block. -

Location- Secretariat, New Delhi

-

Building type: Official

-

Constructed- 1910

-

Adaptive re-use- Meeting room

-

Renovation by- Central Public Works Department, India. Figure 12 : View of the Secretariat



Significance:

1) South Block is a grade-1 heritage building among the two blocks (North and South) of the Secretariat building. 2) Both the identical building have four levels, each with about 1,000 rooms, in the inner courtyards to make space for future expansions.

Figure 13: North and South Secretariat buildings 3) In continuation with the Viceroy's House, these buildings also used cream and red Dholpur sandstone from Rajasthan, with the red sandstone forming the base. Together the buildings were designed to form two squares.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

4) They have broad corridors between different wings and wide stairways to the four floors and each building is topped by a giant dome, while each wings end with colonnaded balcony. 5) Much of the building is in classical architectural style, yet it incorporated from Mughal and Rajasthani architecture style and motifs in its

Figure 14: Chhatri with Jali screens

architecture. These are visible in the use of Jali, perforated screens, to protect from scorching sun and monsoon rains of India. 6) Another feature of the building is a dome-like structure known as the Chatri, a design unique to India, used in ancient times to give relief to travellers by providing shade from the hot Indian sun. 7) The style of architecture used in Secretariat Building is unique to Raisina Hill. In front of the main gates on buildings are the four "dominion columns", given by Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. At the time of their unveiling in 1930, India was also supposed to become a British dominion soon. 8) However, India became independent within the next 17 years and the Secretariat became the seat of power of a sovereign India. In the years to follow the building ran out of accommodation. 9) A number of restoration and few renovation works have been taken up since then. 

Adaptive re-use: -

In view of frequent visits of foreign delegates

and

other

VVIP’s,

Ministry of Defence felt the need of a lavish committee room. 21

Figure 15: The VVIP room


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

-

It included dismantling the old partition, jalis, flooring and other items and to make the area vacant for converting room No. 204 to a sophisticated committee room by natural hardwood flooring, POP ceiling with AC ducts, wall panelling with teak veneered board and finishing walls with texture paint.

-

Also attaching toilet and pantry with modular kitchen by making a partition

in

room

No.205A.

Converting room No. 203 to a Figure 16: The new meeting room conference room after dismantling existing partition, floorings etc. with attached audio room with a large display window with fixed glass. -

Restoring of existing door and windows to its original design.

-

Since this is a grade –I heritage building, there were restrictions in using various items such as the use of tiles only in the wet areas and restrictions in using aluminium work etc.



Items of Work Executed: -

Flooring done with natural hard wood.

-

POP Ceiling in two levels with cove lighting and cornice.

-

Air

conditioning

through

vertical ducts. -

Walls finished with lacquered

Figure 17: The meeting room

polished teak wood panelling up to one meter, top finished -

With moulding and beading.

-

Rest of the walls finished with white textured paint.

-

Toilet flooring in vitrified floor tiles and doors in toughened glass.

-

Pantry flooring in vitrified floor tiles and walls in ceramic tiles.

-

Working platform of solid acrylic surface achieved. 22


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Analysis and Inferences:

-

This project undertaken by the CPWD is mentioned as an example in the ‘Handbook for Conservation in India’ by CPWD itself.

-

This type of example to be given in the handbook is a real proof of to what extent a project of adaptive re-use can go, wherein the interiors are harshly neglected, broken, modified and modernised. -

The thought of adaptive re-use is

given the meaning of modernizing the heritage interiors, which could have been done by providing justified repair jobs. -

Addition of materials, vitrified tile

and wood floorings, wooden panel partitions, POP ceilings proves the insensitive approach taken to re-use the Figure 18: Meeting rooms during British heritage building which was once too an era Official building. -

Removal of original features like Jali screens to fit glass panels and air conditioning units, existing partitions to widen the rooms, are a few more actions not recommended.

-

In order to make a meeting room of an international level, if the traditional features and the essence of the rooms would have been kept, it would have been a more useful project.

-

IT would have given a chance to display the tradition, culture and mixed heritage architecture of the British era.

-

Retrofitting of air conditioning units could be done and flooring could have been kept the same and Figure 19: A picture from a round table polished to be a smooth yet slip- conference resistant.

23


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

-

A formal ambience while keeping the paints and finishes, furniture from the era of the building could be provided.

24


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 Net Case Study 3: Bhau Daji Lad Museum. -

Location- Byculla, Mumbai.

-

Building type: Museum

-

Constructed- 1869-72

-

Adaptive re-use- Museum

-

Renovation by- INTACH

Significance: The

Dr.

Museum,

Bhau

Daji

Mumbai's

Lad oldest

museum, is an institution of the Municipal

Corporation

Figure 20: Elevations in measured drawings

of

Greater Mumbai (MCGM). Formerly known as the Victoria & Albert Museum, Bombay, the building first opened to public in 1872. The Museum collection showcases the history and culture of the city. By 1997, the Museum had fallen into a state of disrepair. After the completion of restoration by INTACH, it was opened to public in 2007. The project won the 2005 UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage Conservation Award of Excellence, the highest international award in this field. 

Restoration & Revitalisation:

Figure 21: Before and after restoration- Front elevation

-

The building required comprehensive restoration. Algae were visible in the exterior façade and plant growth had penetrated deep into the building’s core.

-

The building suffered from a history of leakage and had to be secured against the onslaught of monsoons. 25


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

-

A delicate operation that involved dismantling different parts of the building, numbering each piece, and after removing the plant growth, re-fixing the pieces.

-

The broken terracotta details of the capitals and cornices, and the balustrades were repaired.

-

The interior is a rare example of High Victorian design in India. The grand wrought iron palisades, staircase railings and arched supports, as well as the Corinthian capitals and columns which are the defining features of the building were imported from England.

-

The richly coloured details, the intricate woodcarving, the Minton tiled floors, the etched glass and gold gilding make it a unique example of 19th century architecture in the country.

-

Figure 22: Gold gilding in to columns – before and after separation of several of the cast iron columns Internally the

deterioration

had

led

from the walls and many of the etched glass panes were broken. -

Poor lighting created a dull and gloomy atmosphere.

-

It’s richly coloured interiors and exquisite details had also worn out.

-

A yellowing off-white paint had brushed away the gold gilding, the refined design details and with it the vision and intentions of its founding fathers.

Figure 23: Staircase- before and after -

The beautiful etched glass windows with specially designed grills and wooden louvres to protect the objects from the sun are a dominant feature of the building.

-

The squares and circles in the arched ceiling of the lofty central vestibule had lost their gilding and become dark and discoloured. 26


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

-

The tympanum earlier had delicate fresco paintings which had been erased with paint and were not possible to retrieve.

-

Electrical cables were conspicuous all over the building. The Victorian iron pillars had separated from the walls.

Figure 24: Colonnade- before/after -

The original design was conceptualized by George Birdwood. The design included all the basic features of the building visible today- a long hall, Doric pillars, galleries on either side of the building and large windows for light and ventilation.

-

Master gilders from a family of artists in Vasai were employed to restore the original 24 carat gold gilding on the columns. The craftsmen had been gilding church statues for generations. In this way, the restoration project supported a dying art.

-

The checkerboard design basalt floor had sustained much wear and damage. It had to be ground an inch to remove the scarring and pitting.

-

The

Figure 25: Checkerboard design basalt floor

polishing took weeks to accomplish but the effort has put the sheen and colour back into the floor, and the design which was obscured is now visible. -

One of the unique features of the building is the flooring with Minton tiles on the stairwell and the upper floor. These tiles were shipped from England. 27


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

-

Poor lighting created a dull and gloomy atmosphere. The Museum's richly coloured interiors and exquisite details had also been effaced.

Figure 26: Lighting Before/after -

Perhaps the most daunting task before the team was to incorporate new lighting and electrical requirements which was substantial. The stone walls made embedding the wires difficult, if near impossible. Fortunately the roof was more amenable and the wires were able to be concealed.

-

The time period of the establishment of the Museum was researched carefully and lighting designs were created.

 Analysis and inferences: -

The intricate details and characters of the building as a whole are welltaken care of.

-

If not the exact copy, the closest possible piece of the damaged are achieved.

-

The lighting, paints and concealing of wires if given a good thought to retain the time and character of the space for it to not overshadow the architectural details.

-

The spaces of between the long span columns and staircases are let to be in their original forms without any distributions, while placing the displays and tables for the articles at the museum.

-

The efforts taken for the museum to stand as a whole as before are recommendable.

28


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 Live Case Study- Pol Houses in Ahmedabad:  House 1: French haveli -

Location: Old city, Ahmedabad

-

Building type: Residential

-

Constructed in- 1865

-

Adaptive re-use: Bed and Breakfast stay home.

Owned by- 3 foundation

Significance: Figure 27: French Haveli 1) ‘The French Haveli’ is a 150 year old, Front artistically restored Gujarati heritage home, earlier owned by a Jain Mr.Chimanlal Shah and his family, now a Bed and Breakfast stay home. 2) Maintaining its splendid traditional structure, the ‘Haveli’ offers a unique experience of living in the historic community called the ‘Pol’ (a housing cluster which comprises many families of a particular group, linked by caste, profession, or religion). 3) The community space has a Chabutra (the bird feeder), a 100 years old Jain temple. 4) Walking towards the French Haveli from the main street is a remarkable transition from the traffic filled urban landscape to the very serene and historic area. 5) One may be reminded of the proceedings of daily lives back in the ancient times as one passes through the clusters of rows of houses joined by labyrinthine streets to open again into sub lanes called ‘Khadki’, and squares called ‘Chowks’. 6) The name is derived to commemorate the first of its kind ‘Indo-French project’ in India to ‘revitalize the Old City of Ahmedabad’. 7) French architects once restored this Haveli and lived here before it was taken up by 3 foundation. 29


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 Adaptive re-use: - The haveli, once a residence has been converted into a bed breakfast hotel, wherein the visitors feel homely within the decorated space of a Pol house.

- The main entrance raised at a plinth of around 750mm was once a larger verandah. Figure 28: Courtyard

Figure 31: Skylight

Figure 30: Reception

Figure 29: Kitchen

- On entering the verandah that used to expand inside, next was the sky lit mini courtyard that also acted as the living room. - It then was surrounded by other private rooms with door opening to Figure 32: Waiting in courtyard

lead in.

- While restoring it, the walls surrounding the courtyard were taken down in order to make a waiting for the reception which was the second door on the right. Left side was a seating provided around a table with decorated cushions and old restored furniture and articles. 30


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

- An electrical circuit box under the staircase, an indo-western looking washroom, a rain water harvest tank chamber top, then followed by a modular kitchen and the servant’s room was provided on the right of the courtyard. - Two staircases lead to the next level. - The next level had corridors with windows overlooking the courtyard, and a dining area, with three bedrooms (two single occupancy and one double- as per the size of the room) and one staircase leading to the next level.

Figure 34: Ceiling and Flooring

Figure 33: Dining on 1st floor

- The bedrooms were painted in simple subtle colours with furniture ranging from the era of the house, with timber unfinished slabs with exposed rafters painted in off-white or POP false ceilings to cover the uneven ones. - Air conditioning was provided in the bedrooms, rest of the haveli was

Figure 35: Bedroom and Toilet

on naturally light and ventilation. - The washrooms are provided by creating brick wall partitions within the room and are modern with dado finish up to the ceiling.

Figure 36: Balcony 31


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

- The flooring was finished with timber panels or tiling which originally were mud and lime finished. - The second floor too had two bedrooms, a common lobby with library and a two huge balconies in each room with tea-tables and decorated patterns of chinatiling, covered with pergola and climbers.

32


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Figure 37: Restored plan of Ground floor- French Haveli

Figure 38: Existing plan of Ground floor - French haveli

33


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Figure 39: Restored plan of First floor- French haveli Figure 40: Existing plan of First floor- French Haveli

34


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Figure 41: Restored Second floor plan - French Haveli

35


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Figure 42: Sectional elevation of French Haveli

 Analysis and inferences: -

-

-

-

-

-

The adaptive re-use of the residential Pol house to a closed and small space like a bed-breakfast hotels an appropriate approach. The use of materials and elements on the interiors is mostly simple yet not typical like that of a Pol houses. In original Pol houses, single washrooms and other wash areas Figure 43: Front elevation of French generally used to be outside the house Here in the knack of providing the Haveli washrooms for each room, alterations in the floor plans with partition brick walls are made. Tiled and POP false ceilings were not necessarily needed instead of the original raw floors and ceilings. Also new slabs were made in bison panel when damaged entirely. Rain water harvested water was still made to use. - The ‘French Haveli’ strives to be an example of investing for heritage and culture preservation. The community space around French Haveli has the potential to become a preserved heritage area. A need for an economic model to preserve heritage in Figure 44: Sketch showing Albergo Diffuso

our old city. - One such Italian model “Albergo Diffuso”

(scattered hotel), a concept of scattered rooms in Old Italian villages: rooms in different house but same management.—is to be established. 36


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

House 2- Diwanji ni haveli: -

Location: Old city, Ahmedabad.

-

Building type- Residential Constructed: 250 years ago

-

Adaptive re-use: Mixed use

-

Owned by: City Heritage Centre (NGO- 3 foundation)

Significance: 1) Diwanji ni haveli is one of its kind- an all in wood Figure 45: Diwanji Haveli entrance haveli. 2) Former owner – Kutchhi Diwan Kamal Mangaldas. 3) The structure is 4 floors with large floor areas. 4) Later was a girls’ school until it was restored 2 years ago and made a bed breakfast, a cultural centre with multipurpose halls and an office for the NGO City Heritage Centre.

Adaptive re-use: 1) The major challenge was the levels around wooden joints had dropped due to decay of the joint. All joints had to be repaired and levels restored. 2) A major exercise of unloading the heavy floor base (fuska floor) and to be replaced with lighter material and also ensure the required stiffness of floor, was done using approved methods from European restoration industry. 3) The other major intervention was use of alternative floor base instead of wood to reduce cost and also solution for termite free material. All artisans for lime, stone and woodcarving worked to recreate the original designs. 4)

With a central courtyard surrounded by

different rooms like an office of the NGO, a small modular kitchen, reception and waiting area consisted of the ground floor. Figure 46: Courtyard

37


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Figure 47: Bedroom, Toilet and Multipurpose hall 5) Going up further, multipurpose halls and master bedrooms with column free spans were given, with corridors overlooking the courtyard. 6) The furniture and materials provided were the closest to the original in replacement. 7) The washrooms were made with partition walls in rooms and were modern. 8) Rain water was harvested into a huge underground tank led with steps from ground floor. Water flowed down from the room with the help of rain chains. 9) The structural members were untouched.

38


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Figure 48: Ground floor restored plan of Diwanji Haveli

Figure 49: Ground floor existing plan of Diwanji Haveli

39


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Figure 50: First floor restored plan of Diwanji Haveli

Figure 51: First floor existing plan of Diwanji Haveli 40


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Figure 53: Section of Diwanji Haveli

Figure 52: Elevation of Diwanji Haveli

41


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

 Analysis and inferences: - The haveli is used at its best with clear span large rooms. - The colors of paints and flooring used were

shades of brown and off-white different from that of the original blue and. - Openings which were with pointed arches earlier were now straightened up to be the regular shapes unnecessarily. - Water was harvested well and was made to use. - Furniture used was a blend of modern and Figure 54: Openings before and after

traditional. - This project of adaptive re-use is a great example

of using the structural composition and floor plans as it is, and give functions accordingly.  On the basis of analysis and inferences derived from the case studies, the sensitivity of the approach towards the heritage interiors can be given: No.

Case study

Former use

Adaptive reuse

1.

Dominican church

Church, religious Bookstore, commercial

Sensitive

2.

Secretariat Meeting room

British colonial office use

Meeting room, official

Insensitive

3.

Dr. Bhau Daji Lad Museum

Museum

Museum/ Office/ activity centre

Sensitive

4.

French haveli

Residence

Bed-breakfast hotel

Sensitive

5.

Deewanji haveli

Residence

Multipurpose/ bed Sensitive breakfast/ office

Table 2: Case studies abstract 42

Sensitive/ Insensitive


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

CHAPTER 5  Analysis, inferences and recommendations: 

Criteria concerned :

1. Function and purpose: it should satisfy the function thus meeting the purpose. 2. Utility, Economy and Sustainability: this is required during selection and appropriate use of material. 3. Form and style: should be with respect to the heritage building elements and proportional. 4. Image and meaning: character of the new use of the building should be defined once the users utilise the space, and should not devaluate its heritage importance. 

Analysis of adaptive reuse strategies through case study examples: 1) For the typological approach, it presents building types that have received major attention as well as those which have been researched to a more limited degree (e.g. religious buildings and commercial buildings). 2) Also, detailed research on parameters in adaptive reuse and interior spaces have been noted in the various cases. 3) Studies that could be categorized as taking a strategic approach tend to deal more with ‘sense of place’ than ones that take a typological or technical approach. 4) In the case of buildings which are not protected because they lack status as monuments, the owners and developers are mainly concerned with their socioeconomic value.

43


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Here is the classification of the conversion of various types of buildings (based on existing case studies):

Category

Typology

Conversions

Religious

Church and chapel

Cultural centre Commercial

Semi-public buildings

Office

Cultural centre Office

Residential buildings

House

Cultural centre

School

Hotel

Ware house

Office Museums

Public building

Museum

Office

Exhibition house

Museum Cultural centre Workshop arena

Table 3: Classification of conversion

 Inferences and guidelines proposing possible reusability options: 

Inferences: 1) Redevelopment beyond the envelope of many buildings is possible without compromising the significance of the fabric through the judicious use of setbacks and skilful design of facades and insertions to complement, if not possible to mimic heritage and historical details. 2) The preservation of buildings enables the streetscape to retain its significance, character, history and scale whilst allowing the buildings to have a new life within the contemporary economic and social context.

44


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

3) The new uses that have been adapted to the buildings illustrated in the case studies have been well thought in terms of structural changes, interior design, suitability to society and environment 4) Although, in case of adapting to services of modern requirements, the form, spaces and elements of interiors have been tampered with, and in some cases changed. 

Guidelines:

1) Reuse Strategy: -

Typological: Before the reuse of the building, literature study about the original as well as the new use to be incorporated is a must.

-

Technical: Structural study and analysis of the heritage building along with the dimensions should be known and noted.

-

Strategical: The heritage building along with its surroundings should be taken into context thus reusing the building while keeping in mind the ‘time, character, sense and spirit’ of the place.

2) Use and function: -

Choice of use and function depends on location, building typology, environmental factors, social factors, and economic factors.

-

Environmental factors include site features, climatic conditions and embodied energy of existing building.

-

Social factors include the needs and wants of the society and preservation of the character, sense and spirit of the place.

-

Economic factors include the budget for reuse, sustainable construction and durability. Also the outcome and later function and its benefits.

3) Quality of Design: -

It should be suitable to the surroundings and the society, preservation of the historical and heritage elements should be carried out to the fullest. It should also be made structurally sound and strong to be durable.

4) Materials and technology: -

Use of locally available materials or use of new materials in case of unavailability, should be merged well.

45


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

-

The materials of the original structure should be ideally maintained and used unless it is a dilapidated structure.

-

The new additions and preservation to be done can be a combination of old and new techniques and materials in the construction.

5) Flexibility and reversibility: -

The building should be able to undergo future changes and adapt to other reusability options in case change of use needs to be done due to society demands or economic demands.



Recommendations and guidelines.

1) Spatial organization: Recommended i.

Not recommended

Identifying, retaining and

i.

preserving the floor plan or

individual rooms such as the

interior spaces that define the

character of the heritage interiors

historic character.

diminishes. ii.

ii.

Altering a floor plan or

Ensuring that character defining

Enclosing the courtyards and verandahs.

circulation patterns and spatial

iii.

Ignoring or obscuring the

arrangements are preserved in

character defining circulation

developing visitor routing or

patterns and spatial arrangements

adaptation of spaces for non-

when developing visitor routing

interpretive purposes.

or adaptation of spaces for noninterpretive purposes.

iii.

Limiting operational and other contemporary functions to non-

iv.

character defining spaces.

Accommodating contemporary functions in character defining space or in ways that interfere with the historically intended circulation.

Table 4: Spatial organization

46


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

2) Interior design: Recommended i.

ii.

iii.

Not recommended

Identifying, retaining and

i.

Altering arrangements of the

preserving arrangements of the

furniture and furnishings

furniture and furnishings

arrangements that are important

arrangements that are important

in defining the overall historic

in defining the overall historic

character of the interior such as

character of the interior

the character diminishes.

Documenting arrangements of

ii.

Failing to adequately document

furnishings and decorations

furnishings and decorations with

including the history,

the history, significance,

significance, integrity, and the

integrity, and the existing

existing conditions before any

conditions before any work is

work is undertaken.

undertaken.

Documenting the change

iii.

Proceeding with work without

including the decision making

any study of the existing

process, decisions made, and

conditions.

actual work undertaken. iv.

Leaving no written record of the actual work undertaken and the alternative options considered.

Table 5: Interior design

47


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

3) Interior architectural features and finishes: Table 6: Interior architectural features and finishes Recommended i.

Not recommended

Identifying, retaining and

i.

Altering the interior

preserving the interior

architectural features that are

architectural features that are

important in defining the overall

important in defining the overall

historic character of the interior

historic character of the interior

such as the character diminishes.

that include- window coverings ii.

(curtains or venetians), columns,

Replacing an entire historic element when repair or limited

cornices, baseboards, panelling,

replacement in the materials can

light fixtures, hardware,

be made.

flooring, paints, varnishes, plaster, finishes such as graining

iii.

and other decorative materials

Installing new decorative elements that obscure and

that accent the interior features

damage character-defining

and provide colour, texture and

interior-architectural features

pattering to the walls, floors and

and finishes.

ceilings. iv. ii.

Removing or over painting the

Documenting the evolution of

existing finishes such as paints

the structure, existing conditions

and wallpapers.

and integrity before any work is v.

undertaken.

Applying finishes over surfaces left unfinished historically.

iii.

Preparing a full treatment plan,

vi.

taking into consideration, the

Changing the type of finish or its colour,

site resources, significance of the furnished interiors and the

vii.

interpretative objects.

Failing to document the resources and assess the overall integrity prior to work.

48


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

iv.

Protecting and stabilizing the

viii.

Proceeding with work without

damaged interior architectural

recording the existing

elements and finishes as a

conditions.

preliminary measure. ix. v.

Initiating work other than the basic protection and stabilization

Protecting interior architectural

prior to formulating the overall

features from arson, vandalism

treatment plan.

and effects of the weather, by installing protective banners,

x.

security and fire-alarm systems

Failing to protect and stabilize a damaged interior feature until

keyed to the local agencies.

additional work is undertaken, thus allowing further damage to

vi.

Establishing an ongoing

occur to the historic feature.

environmental monitoring program addressing the

xi.

Permitting entry through

temperature, humidity, pests,

insecure openings like broken

etc.

doors and windows hence inviting damage due to

vii.

Consulting an architectural or

vandalism and exposure to

object conservationist to

weather.

determine the appropriate and xii.

suitable range of actions to be

Stripping interior details like woodwork, doors, windows,

taken for the structural as well as

light fixtures, copper piping,

the interior elements.

decorative materials, etc. viii.

Protecting interior architectural elements such as staircases or

xiii.

Failing to adequately monitor environmental conditions.

decorative finishes and walls, with heavy canvas or plastic

xi.

sheets during ongoing project

Failing to consult the conservationists to determine the

work.

appropriate range of actions to

49


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

ix.

Removing damaged or

be taken for the structural as

deteriorated paints or finishes to

well as the interior elements.

the nest sound layer using the

xiv.

gentlest method possible, then

interior features during ongoing

repairing or refinishing with

project work causing gouging,

compatible paint or coating

scratching, denting or other

systems.

damages. xv.

x.

Failing to provide protection to

Evaluating the existing

such as sandblasting to remove

conditions to determine the extent and methods of repairs

Using inappropriate methods

paints and coatings. xvi.

needed.

Destroying decorative finishes to address underlying structural problems without protecting or documenting them prior to work.

Other feature to be taken care of would be the kitchenware, furnishings, floor levels, joinery, etc.

50


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

CHAPTER 6

 Conclusion:  This research strives to offer possible strategies for the successful adaptive reuse of heritage buildings with causing minimum interferences in the existing forms, designs and interior elements.

 It demonstrates that it is not only important to retain and restore but also to adapt them so as to give them new uses that are similar to their original intents. 

Adaptations for contemporary use have resulted in new forms based on old forms but adapted for contemporary use. The research also focuses on preserving the spirit of existing form and space;

For instance, the original building envelope and window frame are preserved and upgraded by the addition of insulation in the walls and double glazing for the windows. This material preservation of elements maintains the original characteristics of a building. The contemporary material that has been used in the new addition may be an updated version of the old; it therefore preserves historical identity at the same time as it is the product of contemporary technology.

Finally this process looks at long-term feasibility for a neighbourhood; specifically, it proposes the transformation of uses for different building typologies.

51


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Below listed are the possible options for change in use based on the building typology:

Typology

Options for building conversion

1) Residential

-

Residential purpose-Private/Rental Hotel Office block Educational building Retail units Mixed use development containing offices/shops/flats.

2) Religious

-

Monumental preservation Library Community centre Old aged homes Orphanages Museum

3) Industrial

-

Monumental preservation Museum Residential use Offices and hotels Sports centre Art galleries

4) Offices

- Retail shops - Residential - Office use - Commercial - Hospitals Table 7: Options for building conversions

Hereby, the guidelines provided shall help in giving a careful approach to the practice of adaptive re-use, while considering the interiors.

One needs to be aware of the dos and don’ts given in this study.

Hence the aim to discover the various parameters of adaptive re-use in different types of heritage buildings and to provide recommendations and guidelines for a sensitive and ideal approach of adaptive re-use for the functions and elements of heritage interiors, here is fulfilled.

52


Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

APPENDIX 

Identifying Primary and Secondary Interior Spaces in Historic Buildings: This document provides guidance on identifying and evaluating significant

elements in the interior of a building, to clarify those elements that must be retained or minimally modified in a rehabilitation project, and those that can undergo greater change or modification. A thorough evaluation of all historic elements of a building in the planning stages of a project will help ensure that the project can be completed successfully by maintaining the building’s historic character. Following the guidance below will help accomplish the evaluation. This review is part of a three-step process involving researching and documenting the building’s history, evaluating the building’s historic elements, and assessing changes to the building proposed in a rehabilitation project. Evaluating the interior of a building involves two aspects: identifying which elements of the interior are historic, including those changes that have acquired significance; and evaluating the significance and physical condition of those elements. Historic elements may be evaluated as either primary or secondary. Primary elements are those that are important in defining the historic character of a building and that should be retained or only minimally altered. Secondary elements are less critical in contributing to the historic character and may be able to undergo greater change without substantially impacting the building’s overall historic character. It should be recognized that these elements are more likely to lie on a continuum of most to least important, rather than simply falling into one category or the other, and the amount of acceptable change will have an inverse relationship to that importance, depending on other factors such as physical condition. Elements can be categorized as pertaining to the building’s plan; the individual interior spaces or

sequences

of

spaces;

or

architectural features,

finishes or materials that may have sufficient importance and physical integrity to be retained or only minimally altered.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

Differentiating between primary and secondary elements is very important. The following definitions may help in evaluating these elements: Primary spaces are those that are essential in conveying the historic and architectural character of a building. They are most often associated with the primary use or purpose for which the building was designed or used during its period of significance and can vary greatly from building to building. Some buildings, such as churches, theatres or gymnasiums, contain single large spaces that accommodate the principal use. These are easy to identify as the primary space of the building. Secondary spaces are less critical in defining a building’s importance within its period of significance. They often still help define the building’s significance and character, but because of their size, location, or function their impact is not felt as strongly when progressing through the building. Thus, altering these spaces may not significantly impair the ability of the overall building to convey its primary historic significance. A secondary space is usually a more simply detailed space with restricted access – such as an office, hotel guestroom, or a bedroom – or a utilitarian space that serves a support function within a building – such as a kitchen or bathroom. Generally, these spaces are less architecturally detailed and subordinate in character to the primary spaces to which they relate.

The basic idea is to retain as much as possible and to for the benefits and future survival of the heritage building being conserved. For the, is our culture and time from the past remains, and stays alive.

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Rethinking Adaptive Re-use: A Sensitive Approach to Heritage Interiors

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Burra charter- ICOMOS

Conservation handbook- CPWD

Guiding principles for recording and documentation of heritage buildings IndiaINTACH

Adaptive Reuse and its problems: The Architects Collaborative

Redeveloping and Rehabilitating traditional areas

Identification and Documentation of heritage buildings

Architectural digest magazine.

Architecture update magazine, July 2016

Marg magazine, March 2016

Conservation of Historic Buildings, Bernard M Feilden

Conservation of Lucknow Heritage

INTACH reports and projects, www.intach.org

Managing our cultural heritage, Xavier Greffe- Translated from French by Latika Sehgal

Living buildings, Architectural Conservation, Philosophy, Principles and Practice- Donald Insall

Adaptive reuse.net

New Uses for Heritage Places, Heritage council of new south wales

www.heritageanddevelopment.org

www.nps.gov ( National Park Service- U.S department technical services)

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Profile for Kaanan Thakkar

Dissertation- Rethinking Adaptive Reuse: A sensitive approach to heritage interiors  

A dissertation study to discover the various parameters of adaptive re-use in different types of heritage buildings and provide recommendati...

Dissertation- Rethinking Adaptive Reuse: A sensitive approach to heritage interiors  

A dissertation study to discover the various parameters of adaptive re-use in different types of heritage buildings and provide recommendati...

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