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Spring
 2010



 


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
 
 Elementary
Schools 
 
 Analysis
Report
 
 



 AENG
321
–
Introduction
to
Architecture
 Dr.
Ahmed
Sherif
 Teaching
Assistant:
Irinie
Wanis
 
 
 
 
 
 
“As
I
enter
these
doors,
I
am
prepared
to
learn”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Amr
Tawfik‐Katherine
Antaki‐Lilian
Mina‐Nehad
Kamel‐Yousra
Gomaa
 The
American
University
in
Cairo
 Spring
2010



2


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Table
of
Contents
 Introduction
 Objective
of
Project
1
 Literature
Review
 1. Pre‐Design
 a. Developmental
Guidelines
 b. Planning
Guidelines
 2. Description
of
Project:
 a. Site
Planning
 
 ‐
Site
Size
 
 ‐
Playing
Field
Sizes
 
 ‐
Site
Design
Concepts
 b. Circulation
 
 ‐
Exterior
Concepts
 
 ‐
Interior
Concepts
 
 ‐
Design
Configuration
 3. Design
(Properties/Issues)
 a. Materials
 b. Acoustic
Control
 c. Interior
Design
 
 
 ‐
Flexibility
 
 
 ‐
Technology

 
 
 ‐
Interior
Facilities
 
 
 ‐
Furnishings
 
 
 ‐
Security
 
 
 ‐
Codes
 4. Building
Services:
 a. Structural
Systems
 
 ‐
Fire
Safety
 b. Mechanical
Systems
 
 ‐
Heating,
Ventilation
and
AC
 c. Electrical
Systems
 
 ‐
Lighting
 
 
 
 



3


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 Local
Case
Study:
The
American
International
School
in
Egypt
 
 1. Introduction:
 a. AIS
–
American
International
School
of
Egypt
 2. Description
of
Project:
 a. Site
Planning
 b. Circulation
 3. Design
(Properties/Issues)
 a. Materials
 b. Acoustic
Control
 c. Interior
Design
 4. Building
Services:
 a. Structural
Systems
 b. Mechanical
Systems
 c. Electrical
Systems


International
Case
Study:
Long
Beach
International
Elementary
School
in
USA
 1. Introduction:
 a. Long
Beach
International
Elementary
School
in
USA
 2. Description
of
Project:
 a. Site
Planning
 b. Circulation
 3. Design
(Properties/Issues)
 a. Materials
 b. Acoustic
Control
 c. Interior
Design
 4. Building
Services:
 a. Structural
Systems
 b. Mechanical
Systems
 c. Electrical
Systems
 Comparison
 Checklist
and
Conclusion
 References



 



4


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


INTRODUCTION
 
 The
 architect
 who
 designs
 a
 school
 building
 cannot
 think
 only
 in
 terms
 of
 shelter,
 or
 blueprints,
 or
 brick
 and
 stone
 and
 steel.
 The
 architect
 must
 think
 about
 the
 individuals
 who
 will
use
the
building.
The
architect
must
think
about
the
job
the
building
should
help
to
do:
the
 full
development
of
all
of
each
student’s
potentials.
If
the
architect
keeps
these
things
in
mind,
 he
may
be
able
to
contribute
to
the
achievement
of
the
educator’s
goals
by
creating
a
building
 that
 is
 a
 tool
 for
 the
 teacher
 and
 an
 expression
 of
 the
 school’s
 educational
 approach
 by
 creating
an
atmosphere,
a
mood,
to
aid
the
student
in
every
learning
task
set
before
him
by
 making
the
school
a
place
the
student
looks
forward
to
entering,
and
one
he
regrets
leaving.


OBJECTIVE
OF
PROJECT
1
 Project
 1
 aims
 at
 reaching
 proper
 and
 detailed
 criteria
 of
 a
 successful
 elementary
 school
 design.
 Through
 research
 and
 reading
 of
 different
 literature
 and
 through
 the
 analysis
 of
 two
 case
studies:
one
local
case
study
in
Egypt
and
another
international
case
study
in
the
US,
one
 can
settle
on
a
checklist
for
elementary
school
design
and
use
this
as
basic
reference
in
Project
 2
of
the
course.
 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



5


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


LITERATURE
REVIEW
 1. Pre‐Design:
 
 a. Developmental
Guideposts
for
Children
and
Adolescents:
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 
 Physical
 Emotional
 Social
 Middle
 •
Apparent
difference
 •
6‐year‐olds
begin
to
 •
Family
influence
 Childhood
 between
growth
rate
of
 assert
independence
and
 decreases,
peers
are
 (ages
6‐9)
 girls
and
boys
(girls
 demonstrate
confidence.
 more
important,
teachers
 closer
to
end
growth
 •
6‐year‐olds
fear
the
 become
authority
figures.
 states,
boys
taller
and
 supernatural.
 •
6‐year‐olds
have
many
 heavier).
 •
7‐year‐olds
are
more
 internal
conflicts,
 •
Nearsightedness
may
 stable,
narcissistic,
polite,
 resulting
in
 begin
to
develop
at
8
 responsive,
empathetic,
 capriciousness.
 years.
 and
less
aggressive
and
 •
6‐year‐olds
choose
 •
6‐year‐olds
use
whole
 can
draw
connections
 playmates
on
qualities
of
 bodies
for
activities
and
 between
cause
and
effect.
 age
and
size
(not
gender
 large
muscles
are
more
 •
8‐year‐olds
demonstrate
 or
ethnicity),
and
7‐year‐ developed,
7‐year‐olds
 greater
independence,
 olds
are
more
aware
of
 more
cautious
and
show
 vacillate
between
moods,
 social
status
or
ethnicity
 ease
with
fine
motor
 and
begin
to
sense
how
 differences
among
 skills,
8‐year‐olds
 others
feel
toward
them.
 themselves.
 develop
fine
motor
skills
 •
7‐
and
8‐year‐olds
 •
7‐year‐olds
are
self‐ and
increased
attention
 discover
some
of
their
 critical
and
often
 spans.
 limitations
and
may
 disassociate
themselves
 •
Nervous
habits
begin
 hesitate
to
try
new
tasks,
 from
frustrations.
 to
appear
at
age
7.
 but
8‐year‐olds
seek
to
 •
7‐year‐olds
are
well
 create
an
external
image
 mannered
unless
bored,
 of
competence
and
 and
8‐yearolds
are
more
 confidence.
 developed
socially.
 •
7‐year‐olds
are
more
 conscious
of
position
 among
peers;
boys
and
 girls
play
separately.
 •
8‐year‐olds
prefer
 company
and
approval
of
 peers,
and
exhibit
more
 self‐control
and
modesty.
 
 
 



6


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Late
 •
More
resistance
to
 Childhood
 disease.
 (ages
9‐11)
 •
Steady
increases
in
 body
measurements:
 height
and
weight
(girls
 more
than
boys),
and
 muscle
growth.
 •
Have
fine
motor
skills.
 •
May
feel
 uncomfortable
with
 scrutiny.
 •
Many
girls
begin
 showing
signs
of
 puberty.


•
Fear
exclusion
from
 peers.
 •
Prone
to
outbursts
but
 try
to
control
them.
 •
10‐year‐olds
mild
 tempered,
seek
 reassurance
from
others,
 anger
comes
and
goes
 quickly.
 •
10‐year‐olds
most
afraid
 of
heights
and
dark.
 •
11‐year‐olds
fear
school,
 friends,
for
parents’
 welfare,
strange
animals,
 threatening
world
events;
 are
more
easily
angered,
 often
resulting
in
physical
 violence,
but
can
control
 outbursts
more
 appropriately.


•
Socialize
in
exclusive
 groups
with
own
sex
 (boys’
groups
gravitate
 toward
bravado
and
 competition,
and
girls’
 are
well
structured
and
 more
concerned
with
 maturity).
 •
Develop
important
 individual
friendships,
 which
are
often
fluid.
 •
Ties
to
family
less
 important
than
ties
to
 peers;
adult
shortcomings
 looked
at
critically,
often
 leading
to
conflicts.



 b. Planning
Guidelines:
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 
 Elementary
 schools
 usually
 include
 grades
 1
 through
 5
 or,
 sometimes
 also
 grade
 6.
 Elementary
schools
often
also
include
prekindergarten
and
kindergarten.
 
 The
program
elements
of
an
elementary
school
can
be
categorized
in
three
major
areas:
 1.
Classrooms:
general
purpose
classrooms,
special
education
classrooms
 2.
Specialized
program
areas:
music
room,
science
room,
art
room,
computer
lab,
gymnasium,
 cafeteria,
auditorium,
library
 3.
Administrative
and
resource
areas:
general
office,
principal’s
office,
guidance
office,
nurse’s
 office,
faculty
room,
teachers’
resource
room,
specialized
resource
areas
for
remediation.

 
 Net‐to‐Gross
Calculations:

 ‐
GSF:
Gross
square
feet
is
the
entire
area
of
the
plan
of
the
school
building,
including
interior
 and
exterior
walls,
corridors,
stairwells,
mechanical
rooms,
and
so
on.
 ‐
NSF:
Net
square
feet
refer
to
the
net
usable
area
of
specific
program
elements.



7


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 1. Classrooms:
 
 
 
 
 The
 typical
 size
 of
 a
 classroom
 is
 approximately
 28
 students.
Classroom
sizes
actually
range
from
750
to
1000
 NSF.
As
students
of
elementary
schools
need
to
sit
either
 at
 individual
 tables
 and
 chairs
 or
 at
 group
 tables,
 classroom
 sizes
 are
 better
 when
 they
 are
 wide
 and
 comfortable.
Within
the
classroom
computer
clusters
and
 other
 equipment‐intensive
 spaces
 are
 needed.
 Also
 enough
 space
 must
 be
 allowed
 for
 classroom
 materials
 and
storage.
Most
elementary
schools
do
not
have
lockers
 

Figure
1:
Classroom
(Google
Images)
 in
 corridors,
 so
 storage
 spaces
 must
 be
 well
 thought‐out
 within
 classrooms.
 Special
 education
 classrooms
 are
 sized
 to
be
the
same
or
half
the
size
of
general
purpose
classrooms
so
as
to
allow
flexibility
in
the
 use
of
space.

(Time
Saver)
 
 2. Specialized
Program
Areas:
(Building
Type
Basics)
 Music
room

 
 
 
 850–1,000
sq
ft
 Science
room


 
 
 1,000–1,400
sq
ft
 Art
room

 
 
 
 1,000–1,400
sq
ft
 Computer
lab


 
 
 1,000–1,400
sq
ft
 Gymnasium

 
 
 
 36
ft
x
52
ft–45
ft
x
70
ft
 Auditorium
School
capacity
 
 x
50%
x
7sq
ft
 Library

 
 
 
 900–1,200
sq
ft2
 Dining
Room
School
capacity

 x
50%
x
12
sq
ft3
 Kitchen

 
 
 
 Depends
on
food
 
 
 
 
 
 Program
and
 
 
 
 
 
 Equipment
 Gymnasium

 
 
 
 Full
gym
plus
stage;
 
 
 
 
 
 combined
gym
and
 
 
 
 
 
 auditorium
standards
 
 3. Administrative
and
Resource
Areas:
(Building
Type
Basics)
 Administration
 Work
area

 
 
 
 600
sq
ft4
 Waiting
area

 
 
 
 200
sq
ft
 Principal’s
office

 
 
 250
sq
ft



8


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Guidance

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Student
health
 Nurse’s
office


 
 
 Exam
room

 
 
 
 Waiting
area

 
 
 
 Rest
area

 
 
 
 Toilet
room

 
 
 
 Faculty
 Faculty
room

 
 
 
 Teachers’
resource
area

 
 Specialized
resource

 
 
 rooms
for
remediation
 
 2. Description
of
Project:
 a. Site
Planning:


150
sq
ft
per
 counselor
plus
 waiting
area,
if
 clustered
 150
sq
ft
 80
sq
ft
 200
sq
ft
 150
sq
ft
 80
sq
ft
 600
sq
ft
 600
sq
ft
 450
sq
ft


‐
Site
size:



 •

The
size
of
the
site
is
not
restrained
to
the
building
alone;
other
exterior
spaces
must
 also
 be
 well
 thought
 of.
 These
 spaces
 are
 the
 following;
 administration
 and
 faculty
 parking,
visitor
parking,
student
parking
(for
older
students
in
high
school),
bus
drop‐off
 areas,
 service
 and
 loading
 areas,
 playing
 fields
 and
 playgrounds
 for
 younger‐age
 children.
(Time
Saver)
 



 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
2:
Space
Allocation
Diagram
(Time
Saver)



9


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Other
 things
 must
 also
 be
 considered
 when
 determining
 the
 size
 and
 different
 elements
 of
 a
 school.
 
Factors
 such
 as
 wetlands,
 easements
 and
 setbacks
 must
 be
 thought
of
when
deciding
which
areas
of
the
site
can
be
utilized
for
building
and
which
 are
 not.
 Moreover,
 topography
 reviews,
 and
 climate
 and
 natural
 features
 must
 be
 researched
 in
 advance
 to
 analyze
 whether
 or
 not
 they
 will
 suit
 open
 areas
 like
 playgrounds
and
playing
fields.
(Time
Saver)


‐
Playing
Field
Sizes:
 •

As
 we
 have
 mentioned
 earlier,
 playing
 fields
 are
 among
the
different
exterior
 components
of
a
school.

 Although
 most
 fields
 have
 standard
 measurements,
 local
 regulations
 have
 the
 final
 say
 in
 determining
 those
measurements.

 Sport
fields
need
the
proper
 sun
 orientation
 when
 locating
them
on
the
school
 site;
 they
 should
 be
 oriented
 north‐south
 if
 Figure
3:
Site
Plan
(Building
Type
Basics)
 possible.

 An
 alternative
 option
 for
 small
 school
 sites
 is
 to
 have
 one
 field
 space
 for
 different
 sports
(for
example,
football
fields
usually
have
a
track
surrounding
it
for
track
and
field
 activities).

 










‐(Building
Type
Basics)


‐
Site
Design
Concepts:

 •

There
are
different
types
of
schools;
some
have
one
single
building
that
students
stay
 in
 all
 day
 long
 except
 when
 engaging
 in
 sports
 and
 other
 physical
 activities.
 Schools
 might
 also
 have
 all
 grades
 from
 prekindergarten
 to
 high
 school
 on
 one
 site
 with
 elementary
school,
middle
school
and
high
school
having
each
their
own
building;
it
is
 therefore
called
an
educational
campus.

 These
 different
 grades
 might
 also
 share
 the
 same
 facilities
 like
 the
 gymnasium,
 the
 cafeteria,
the
clinic,
the
auditorium
and
so
on
that
could
be
located
in
other
buildings.



10


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


• •


As
 opposed
 to
 this
 type
 of
 school
 where
 grades
 are
 separated
 by
 age
 or
 level,
 other
 schools
are
designed
more
like
colleges.

 In
this
type
of
school,
buildings
are
separated
by
subjects,
for
example
there
could
be
a
 science
building
housing
all
the
laboratories
and
other
scientific
subjects,
while
another
 housing
art,
for
example.


(Building
Type
Basics)
 Many
 issues
 should
 be
 considered
 when
 deciding
 which
 of
 the
 designs
 should
 be
 chosen:
 o Climate
 and
 security
 must
 be
 well
 thought
 of;
 they
 are
 crucial
 to
 decide
 whether
or
not
children
could
move
from
building
to
building
rather
than
stick
 to
one
building.

 o One
 building
 is
 of
 course
 more
 controllable
 and
 more
 easily
 secured
 than
 an
 open
campus.
 o 
Educational
objectives
should
also
be
reviewed
when
making
the
decision.


 o Designing
 open
 schools
 is
 more
 common
 for
 private
 schools
 (in
 the
 United
 States),
 schools
 that
 offer
 all
 grades
 from
 kindergarten
 onwards,
 are
 more
 appropriate
 for
 moderate
 climate
 regions
 (like
 here
 in
 Cairo
 for
 example)
 and
 schools
with
large
enrollments.

 o On
 the
 other
 hand
 a
 one
 building
 school
 is
 typical
 for
 a
 public
 school
 elementary,
middle
or
high
school
in
the
United
States
for
example.

 o Organization
 is
 another
 key
 factor
 that
 every
 designer
 must
 consider
 when
 initiating
his
design
of
the
school.
Under
organization
come
various
elements:
  
Entry
 sequence
 is
 very
 important,
 the
 designer
 must
 know
 what
 the
 children
 do
 once
 they
 enter
 the
 elementary
 school
 building,
 questions
 like;
do
they
head
immediately
to
class?
Or
whether
they
all
meet
in
a
 common
 room?
 Such
 questions
 help
 the
 designer
 place
 the
 different
 spaces
in
coordination
with
what
the
children
actually
do.

  Other
 information
 include
 whether
 the
 school
 will
 have
 different
 entrances,
 some
 formal
 and
 some
 informal,
 whether
 the
 bus
 will
 drop
 off
children
at
an
entrance
different
from
that
used
by
parents
who
drop
 off
their
children
personally.

  Climate
 conditions
 are
 also
 important,
 they
 determine
 whether
 or
 not
 classrooms
have
direct
exterior
access,
or
whether
corridors
are
outdoor
 or
 not.
 Such
 organization
 will
 reduce
 construction
 costs,
 reduce
 unnecessary
 space,
 however
 if
 entrances
 increase
 by
 a
 lot,
 this
 could
 hinder
the
capability
to
monitor
and
secure
the
school.

  Internal
 circulation
 is
 another
 important
 issue
 concerning
 organization,
 in
 the
 case
 of
 an
 elementary
 school,
 children
 are
 often
 circulating
 as
 a
 class,
 when
 others
 are
 still
 attending
 their
 classes,
 the
 designer
 needs



11


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


o o o

o

this
 information
 to
 accommodate
 the
 building
 to
 such
 a
 condition,
 for
 example
 he/she
 needs
 to
 assure
 that
 such
 event
 will
 not
 distract
 the
 children
who
are
inside
their
classrooms
(this
is
where
building
materials
 and
acoustic
play
an
important
role).

 School
 size
 and
 teaching
 methodology
 are
 other
 important
 issues,
 as
 well
 as
 cost
efficiency.

 Schools
are
very
much
in
need
of
natural
light,
in
fact
there
are
regulations
to
 the
amount
of
light
needed
in
some
rooms.


 Furthermore,
 accessibility,
 direct
 site
 access,
 as
 well
 as
 service
 access
 to
 the
 mechanical
areas
like
the
gymnasium,
the
kitchen
and
the
auditorium
are
also
 needed.

 Solar
 orientation
 plays
 another
 important
 role
 in
 deciding
 the
 amount
 of
 artificial
lighting
and
heating,
as
well
as
ventilation.




 We
 can
 therefore
 say
 that
 site
 planning
 is
 not
 just
 about
 knowing
 how
 the
 site
 is
 organized
or
where
the
buildings
are
placed,
it
requires
precise
details
about
the
activities
that
 will
take
place
on
site
for
the
designer
to
achieve
good
site
planning.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 b. Circulation:
 ‐
Exterior
Concepts:
 
 One
 of
 the
 most
 important
 and
 crucial
 parts
 of
 site
 development
 is
 the
 coordination
 between
 vehicular
 circulation
 (buses
 and
 other
 vehicles
 that
 belong
 to
 either
 parents,
 staff
 members,
or
other
services)
and
pedestrian
circulation.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
4:
Site
Map
(Building
Type
Basics)


The
 amount
 of
 parking
 required
should
be
determined
as
well
as
the
space
required
for
the
amount
of
buses



12


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


• •

and
 expected
 parents
 dropping
 off
 their
 children,
 this
 varies
 with
 the
 grades,
 the
 location
of
the
school
and
the
demographics.
 
An
important
factor
in
planning
the
circulation
is
keeping
the
vehicle
circulation
areas
 separate
or
as
separate
as
possible
from
the
children
walking
areas.

 The
bus
drop
off
area
should
be
designed
in
a
way
that
they
do
not
have
to
back
up,
it
 should
 be
 a
 one
 way
 circulation
 (for
 example
 circular)
 where
 children
 go
 from
 the
 sidewalk
directly
into
the
bus
to
assure
complete
safety.
 
Since
we
are
talking
about
a
school,
it
should
be
considered
when
designing
the
site
 circulation
that
most
of
the
traffic
enters
and
exists
the
site
at
the
same
time,
therefore
 the
driveways
must
be
long
and
wide
enough
to
accommodate
such
peak
time
traffic.

 The
 roadway
 system
 must
 also
 be
 designed
 to
 allow
 the
 easy
 access
 of
 emergency
 vehicles
 at
 all
 times
 but
 especially
 at
 those
 peak
 times,
 these
 vehicles
 should
 not
 be
 stuck
in
traffic.
 












‐(Time
Saver
&
Building
Type
Basics)
 ‐
Interior
Concepts:



 


‐
Entry
sequence:
How
do
students
enter
school?
Where
do
they
go
then?
How
do
staff
 and
faculty
enter
the
building?
How
does
the
public
or
parents
enter
the
building?
Is
 administration
located
in
the
centre
of
the
school?
 ‐
Internal
circulation:
Where
do
students
have
to
go
during
the
school
day?
Do
they
go
 individually
at
each
class
period,
such
as
in
the
upper
grades?

 ‐
 School
 size:
 How
 many
 students
 are
 enrolled
 in
 the
 school?
 Are
 there
 any
 sub
 groupings
 within
 the
 building
 to
 moderate
 the
 secrecy
 created
 in
 facilities
 with
 large
 enrollments?

 ‐
Teaching
methodologies:
What
are
the
teaching
methodologies
used?
Are
there
any
 so‐called
 “magnet
 programs”
 (Building
 Type
 Basics)?
 Is
 there
 a
 team
 teaching
 approach?
 ‐
Efficiency/cost:
What
is
the
amount
of
corridor
space
needed
to
serve
each
room
in
 the
building?

 ‐
Natural
light:
What
are
the
light
requirements
for
every
school
component
or
room
 type?
 ‐
 Site
 access:
 What
 is
 so
 special
 in
 the
 site
 access?
 Does
 it
 allow
 direct
 access
 or
 do
 students
have
to
pass
by
other
school
components
to
get
to
their
classes?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 













‐(Building
Type
Basics)
 ‐
Design
Configuration:



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


13
 


‐
Centralized
resources
with
double‐loaded
classroom
wings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
5:
(Building
Type
Basics)



 
 ‐
Dumbbell
double‐loaded
classroom
wings



 


Figure
6:
(Building
Type
Basics)



 
 
 ‐
Spine
with
double‐loaded
classroom
wings



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


14
 



 Figure
7:
(Building
Type
Basics)


‐
Courtyard
with
double‐loaded
classroom
wings



 


Figure
8:
(Building
Type
Basics)



 ‐
Centralized
resources
with
single‐loaded
classroom
wings



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


15
 


‐
Spine
with
single‐loaded
classroom
wing



 


Figure
9:
(Building
Type
Basics)


‐
Centralized
resources
with
classroom
clustering


Figure
10:
(Building
Type
Basics)


‐
Dumbbell
with
classroom
clustering
 ‐
Courtyard
with
classroom
clustering
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ‐
Campus
plan


Figure
11:
(Building
Type
Basics)



16


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


‐
Multi‐grade
campuses
 ‐
Compact
urban
 3.



Design
(Properties/
Issues)
 
 a. Materials:
 The
 selection
 of
 materials
 is
 one
 of
 the
 most
 important
 phases
 when
 developing
 a
 project.
 The
 designer
 and
 client
 must
 find
 a
 balance
 between
 the
 theme
 and
 character
 that
 they
want
to
project
along
with
the
environment
surrounding
the
place.
Clients
tend
to
ask
for
 durable
 materials
 such
 as
 vinyl
 tile
 floors,
 painted
 concrete‐block
 walls,
 cold
 fluorescent
 lighting
and
numerous
wall
and
corner
protection
accessories,
which
ends
up
giving
the
image
 of
 a
 factory
 rather
 than
 a
 homey
 school.
 New
 products,
 however,
 are
 being
 introduced
 that
 are
both
durable
and
can
be
maintained
without
harming
the
environment.

(Time
Saver)
 ‐
Walls:

 The
best‐case
scenario
for
walls
is
the
usage
of
high‐impact
gypsum
and
sometimes
an
 addition
 of
 a
 “skim
 coat”
 of
 diamond
 hard
 plaster
 of
 at
 least
 4
 ft.,
 which
 helps
 improve
 durability.
Another
common
alternative
is
painted
or
ground
face
block.

(Building
Type
Basics)
 ‐
Floors:
 The
floors
must
enhance
acoustic
quality
and
ensure
the
lack
of
accidents
and/or
the
 cause
of
injuries.
They
should
not
be
slippery,
if
possible,
may
have
rugs
or
moquette
to
also
 help
the
acoustic
atmosphere.
Having
such
floors
are
easy
to
clean
or
replace.
For
any
areas
 with
water
or
any
messy
materials,
such
as
the
rest
rooms
or
art
classroom,
should
have
tiled
 floors.
They
are
durable
and
easy
to
maintain.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 ‐
Ceiling:
 When
building
the
ceilings,
it
is
very
important
to
take
into
account
the
travel
of
sound
 and
 how
 it
 bounces
 off
 of
 ceilings
 and
 walls.
 Once
 carpeting
 is
 placed,
 it
 helps
 reduce
 acoustics.
Furthermore,
a
designer
should
add
acoustic
ceiling
tiles.
Wall
projections
in
terms
 of
 openings
 and
 corners
 must
 always
 be
 considered.
 It
 is
 highly
 encouraged
 to
 use
 natural
 wood
for
trim
and
casework
since
it
is
very
durable
and
requires
low
maintenance
rather
than
 painted
trim
and
cabinets.
The
most
durable
and
affordable
types
of
wood
are
light
ones
like
 maple
 and
 oak.
 The
 most
 used
 by
 manufacturers
 for
 child
 furnishings
 are
 maple,
 birch
 and
 beech.
 If,
 however,
 the
 client
 requests
 painted
 cabinets,
 factory
 polyester
 or
 vinyl
 pain
 coatings
 are
 durable
 and
 easy
 to
 clean
 however;
 their
 colors
 are
 usually
 limited
 to
 white
 or



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


17
 


almond.
 Adding
 plastic
 laminate
 to
 countertops
 is
 functional
 however
 cabinet
 fronts,
 doors
 and
drawer
fronts
tend
to
peel
and
delaminate
throughout
time.
Melamine
materials
should
 only
be
used
on
concealed
surfaces.
Depending
on
the
client’s
needs,
the
environment
of
the
 building
must
be
spacious
in
relation
to
its
function.
For
example,
kindergarten
children
spend
 more
time
on
the
floor
and,
therefore,
require
softer
play
surfaces
than
elementary
students.

 (Building
Type
Basics).
 



 
 
 Figure
12:
Building
Type
Basics


Balancing
the
material
selection
with
the
construction
and
maintenance
funds
is
a
very
 important
 factor
 in
 a
 project.
 It
 is
 an
 ongoing
 challenge
 to
 ensure
 durability
 and
 maintain
 a
 tight
budget,
which
often
tends
to
the
use
of
materials
with
less
quality
to
build
more
spaces.
 It
is
also
important
to
consider
the
fact
that
some
materials
may
be
pricy
compared
to
others
 but
 it
 in
 return,
 they
 are
 more
 durable;
 in
 the
 long‐run,
 the
 client
 pays
 less
 with
 the
 pricier
 materials.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 b. Acoustic
Control:
 
 Acoustic
 control
 is
 a
 very
 important
 matter
 when
 designing
 the
 mechanical
 and
 construction
aspects
of
a
building.
Especially
in
 schools,
 controlling
 acoustics
 is
 critical;
 to
 facilitate
 learning,
 voices
 from
 outside
 the
 class
 must
 be
 restricted
 while
 the
 teacher’s
 words
 must
 be
 emphasized.
 The
 architect,
 or
 sometimes
 in
 difficult
 cases
 an
 acoustic
 consultant
 must
 find
 the
 design
 the
 appropriate
 acoustics
 so
 that
 not
 only
 the
 outside
 noise
 is
 restricted
 but
 also
 to
 make
 sure
 that
 the
 teacher’s
 voice
 is
 not
 overshadowed
by
an
access
of
voice
waves.

 
(Building
Type
Basics)

Figure
13:
Definitions
of
Acoustic
Elements
(Building
Type
Basics)



18


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 Optimum
Reverberation
(500‐1000
Hz)
in
Auditoriums
and
Similar
Facilities:
 



 
 Figure
14:
Graph
illustrating
optimum
reverberations
(Building
Type
Basics)
 •


 Even
with
well‐controlled
acoustics,
noise
is
always
an
issue
in
schools.
In
elementary
 schools
 noise
 can
 come
 from
 various
 sources,
 whether
 it
 is
 coming
 from
 the
 playground
outside
or
from
the
movement
of
tables
in
a
nearby
classroom.
Therefore,
 a
loud
and
clear
voice
is
always
essential
from
the
teachers.



Figure
15:
Sound
Paths
(Building
Type
Basics)



19


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


There
are
three
fundamental
issues
that
affect
how
students
can
hear
and
understand
 in
a
classroom
in
regards
to
the
acoustics.
These
three
issues
are:
 o Distance,
from
the
source
of
sound
(the
teacher,
the
screen,
the
television…)
to
 the
 student
 and
 how
 any
 background
 noise
 affects
 the
 sound
 when
 it
 travels
 that
distance.

 o The
 level
 of
 background
 noise,
 the
 noise
 coming
 from
 HVAC,
 lighting
 or
 other
 systems,
 or
 the
 noise
 coming
 from
 outside
 the
 classroom,
 whether
 from
 another
indoor
space
or
from
the
outdoor
areas.

 o The
 effect
 of
 reverberance,
 the
 level
 of
 reverberation
 after
 sounds
 which
 can
 affect
the
hearing
and
understanding
of
the
sound
itself.

(Building
Type
Basics)


Figure
16:
(Building
Type
Basics)



 
 Designers
are
responsible
of
controlling
the
previously
stated
criteria
in
order
to
ensure
 proper
acoustic
control.
In
most
cases
the
acoustic
control
is
done
in
the
areas
closest
 to
 the
 students
 themselves
 whether
 it
 is
 the
 floors,
 the
 ceilings
 or
 even
 both.
 For
 example,
 unless
 the
 ceiling
 has
 very
 high
 walls,
 it
 should
 not
 be
 treated
 for
 acoustics
 because
ceilings
are
more
often
than
not

(Time
Saver).



20


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 



 •

Figure
17:
(Building
Type
Basics)


Controlling
acoustics
can
range
from
placing
a
carpet
to
installing
an
acoustic
tile
ceiling
 with
 a
 specified
 NRC
 of
 0.7
 at
 least,
 which
 will
 replace
 any
 additional
 elements
 to
 control
acoustics
in
that
room,
that
being
said,
plaster
ceiling
are
not
recommended
for
 classrooms.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 Classroom
 dimensions
 are
 not
 very
 important
 for
 acoustic
 control
 (except
 in
 auditoriums);
they
are
more
vital
for
audiovisual
technology,
something
that
is
not
yet
 present
 in
 all
 elementary
 school
 classrooms.
 Such
 classrooms
 depend
 mainly
 on
 television,
 VCR
 and
 sometimes
 overhead
 projectors,
 nothing
 more
 advanced
 than
 those.
(Time
Saver)



21


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Figure
18:
Acoustic
Control
Diagram
(Building
Type
Basics)



 •

Not
every
room
in
the
school
needs
the
same
acoustic
control
criteria:
 o Classrooms:
  With
an
average
area
of
650
to
900
sq
ft,
and
average
ceiling
height
of
 10
ft,
acoustic
control
in
classrooms
is
usually
done
by
using
materials
to
 absorb
 noises,
 (the
 noises
 come
 from
 either
 from
 nearby
 rooms
 or
 noises
from
the
various
mechanical
system
in
the
room).
  To
successfully
absorb
incoming
noises,
the
best
way
is
to
install
acoustic
 ceiling
 tiles
 with
 an
 NCR
 of
 0.7
 at
 least;
 however,
 floors
 and
 walls
 can
 also
be
considered
as
an
alternative.

  For
 the
 noise
 coming
 from
 nearby
 classrooms
 and
 other
 rooms,
 full‐ height
 partitions,
 like
 walls
 for
 example
 should
 reduce
 the
 noise
 considerably.

  The
air
transfer
ducts
must
be
also
be
able
to
reduce
noise
in
the
same
 manner
 as
 the
 walls
 and
 doors
 they
 go
 through,
 they
 should
 therefore
 have
the
same
acoustic
control
characteristics.




22


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


 

  

As
budgeting
for
school
is
usually
limited,
this
should
also
be
considered
 in
the
design
of
the
acoustics,
with
a
limited
budget,
NC
ratings
cannot
 be
perfectly
attained.
They
should
however
ensure
spaces
where
voices
 can
be
heard
and
understood
clearly,
while
having
a
limited
amount
of
 noise.

 For
example,
the
best
reverberation
time
in
a
classroom
of
5,300
cu
ft,
is
 0.35,
 and
 for
 a
 lecture
 it
 is
 0.35
 to
 0.4,
 a
 classroom
 that
 could
 be
 characterized
 as
 quiet
 would
 have
 a
 background
 noise
 of
 35
 (NC=35),
 while
a
normal
classroom
it
would
be
40
(NC=40).
 
The
 main
 goal
 to
 control
 acoustics
 in
 classrooms
 is
 to
 reduce
 the
 external
noises.

 An
ideal
medium
to
achieve
such
goal
is
to
locate
classrooms
away
from
 noisy
 areas
 (like
 the
 gymnasium,
 the
 cafeteria,
 the
 mechanical
 and
 service
area…);
however
such
medium
is
not
always
easily
achieved.
 Installing
 appropriate
 acoustic
 isolation
 in
 ceilings,
 walls
 and
 floors
 is
 always
needed
as
previously
stated.
 Sometimes,
 ventilations
 ducts
 are
 lined,
 and
 special
 heavy
 doors
 to
 reduce
noise
even
more.

 Further
 acoustic
 installations
 can
 also
 be
 added
 to
 noises
 coming
 from
 inside
 the
 room
 (students
 themselves,
 HVAC,
 lighting
 appliances…)
 this
 type
of
acoustic
control
is
preferred
to
be
in
higher
parts
of
walls.
 Given
that
parallel
walls
often
create
waves
of
sounds,
it
is
suggested
to
 limit
 these
 waves
 by
 furnishings
 and
 wall
 finishes
 that
 help
 ease
 those
 direct
sound
trembles.
 










‐(Building
Type
Basics)



23


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Figure
19:
Ray
Diagrams
in
Lecture
Rooms
(Building
Type
Basics)



 o Music
practice
rooms:
  This
 type
 of
 rooms
 needs
 special
 acoustics
 control
 because
 even
 high
 STC
do
not
necessarily
block
music
instrument
sound
from
one
room
to
 the
other.
  Such
 rooms
 usually
 require
 high
 STC
 which
 could
 be
 achieve
 by
 decoupled
 construction;
 either
 by
 doubling
 the
 walls
 and
 floors
 or
 by
 creating
a
room
within
another
room.

  Decoupled
 construction
 also
 prevents
 the
 vibration
 effect
 caused
 by
 a
 musical
instrument’s
sound.

  Such
construction
is
either
prefabricated
(usually
for
small
sized
rooms),
 or
built
following
the
common
means
of
construction
(for
larger
rooms,
 prefabricated
versions
can
be
very
expensive)
  Music
 practice
 rooms
 are
 advised
 to
 be
 placed
 next
 to
 more
 ‘noisy’
 rooms
like
the
gymnasium,
the
mechanical
rooms
or
the
cafeteria
rather
 than
being
next
to
the
classrooms.

(Time
Saver)
 
 



24


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


o Auditoriums:
  Since
 school
 auditorium
 are
 often
 used
 for
 many
 occasions
 (lectures,
 music,
 plays…),
 the
 acoustics
 must
 satisfy
 all
 the
 needs
 without
 being
 very
expensive
in
regards
to
an
often
limited
budget.

  To
satisfy
those
needs
the
acoustics
must
be
in
the
middle
between
the
 best
 reverberation
 time
 for
 music
 and
 for
 speech,
 (this
 could
 be
 influenced
by
the
size
and
volume
of
the
room
among
other
reasons)
  Like
 other
 rooms
 such
 as
 classrooms,
 once
 again,
 exterior
 and
 mechanical
noises
should
be
controlled.

  The
 proper
 use
 of
 acoustic
 materials
 should
 be
 applied
 to
 achieve
 the
 right
 reverberation
 time,
 the
 perfect
 blend
 of
 reflecting
 and
 absorbing
 planes
 should
 be
 created
 to
 project
 sounds
 and
 avoid
 sound
 reflection
 respectively.

  Instead
of
have
the
absorptive
planes
on
the
surfaces
(walls
or
ceilings)
 next
to
the
stage,
it
is
recommended
that
this
type
of
planes
is
placed
on
 the
back
wall,
the
one
facing
the
stage.
  Since
suspended
acoustic
clouds
are
not
practical
in
schools,
smooth
and
 hard
materials
are
used
to
make
ceilings
reflect
sound.
  In
some
cases,
soft
planes
are
placed
on
the
side
walls
of
the
back
of
the
 auditorium
to
absorb
sound.
  At
the
front
of
the
auditorium,
ceilings
and
side
walls
(planes
that
diffuse
 and
distribute
sound
 to
the
spectators)
should
be
close
to
the
stage
in
 order
to
avoid
or
at
least
decrease
the
delay
between
the
origin
of
the
 sound
and
its
reflected
version
that
travels
to
the
audience.
  Upholstered
 chairs
 are
 recommended,
 they
 too
 provide
 absorption
 characteristics.
  Curtains
offer
a
variation
in
reverberation
times.
  Circular
and
curved
areas
are
not
recommended
for
this
type
of
room,
 they
do
not
distribute
reflection
evenly.
  Air
 handling
 system
 are
 special
 in
 auditorium,
 they
 have
 to
 have
 low
 pressure
 fans,
 slower‐than‐average
 air
 velocities,
 meaning
 slower
 than
 1,000
ft
per
minute,
and
grills
and
diffusers
with
a
maximum
size
of
20
 NC.
  All
sound
system
components
are
essential
and
should
be
considered
in
 the
initial
design
of
the
building.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 



25


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


o Gymnasiums:
  This
type
of
rooms
is
very
hard
to
control
in
regards
to
acoustics,
they
 need
proper
reverberance
levels
control
or
else,
they
become
too
high.
  Since
the
floor
is
always
hard
for
other
reasons,
the
ceiling
is
the
only
 plane
that
could
be
treated
acoustically.
  Acoustic
material
of
at
least
2
inches
in
thickness
and
an
NRC
of
0.7
is
 placed
on
the
bottom
side
of
the
slab
of
the
ceiling.
  If
sound
amplifiers
or
loudspeakers
are
used,
additional
treatment
in
the
 walls
is
needed.
  Gymnasiums
are
not
required
to
be
above
or
next
to
quiet
areas
such
as
 classrooms,
they
could
however
be
under
classrooms
(the
slab
has
a
 high
STC
that
controls
acoustics),
or
next
to
other
'noisy'
areas.
(Building
 Type
Basics)
 o Laboratories:
  The
 noise
 of
 the
 fume
 hoods
 should
 be
 controlled
 by
 treating
 the
 exhausts,
 the
 NC
 level
 of
 the
 equipment
 should
 be
 at
 maximum
 45
 or
 50.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 o Dining
areas:
  These
areas
should
be
separated
from
the
kitchen
and
serving
areas
by
 treating
the
walls
and
ceilings
with
acoustic
tiles
with
a
minimum
NRC
of
 0.8.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 o Workshops:
  These
 areas
 should
 be
 located
 to
 the
 other
 noisy
 areas
 we
 have
 previously
stated.
  The
walls
and
ceilings
should
be
treated
to
have
a
minimum
NRC
of
0.75.
 (Building
Type
Basics)
 o Swimming
Pools:
  In
 this
 special
 case,
 moisture
 resistant
 is
 a
 must
 for
 the
 material
 used
 to
 treat
 the
 noise.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 


Figure
20:
(Building
Type
Basics)



26


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


c.



Interior
Design:
 
 To
achieve
a
high
comfort
level
for
children
they
should
feel
at
home
inside
their
school
 and
not
overwhelmed.
To
achieve
that
the
designer
should
know
the
size
of
children
at
each
 age
and
his
needs.
 • •

For
example,
kindergarten
classrooms
are
larger.
 All
 support
 areas
 of
 a
 classroom
 should
 be
 designed
 to
 support
 the
 age
 of
 the
 students
 using
it.
The
following
components
are
to
be
considered
for
successful
design:


‐Ergonomics:
 To
 determine
 the
 appropriate
 heights
 of
 equipment
 and
 their
 placement
 ergonomic
 diagrams
are
to
be
used
like
the
following
for
elementary
schools:
 
 
 
 







 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
21:
Ergonomic
Sample
Diagram
(Building
Type
Basics)




‐
Flexibility:
 o Multiple‐use
 spaces:
 Large
 spaces
 are
 not
 often
 available.
 That’s
 why
 it’s
 very
 practical
to
use
those
spaces
for
many
purposes,
like
combining
a
gymnasium
hall
 with
an
auditorium
or
a
large
exam
room.
(Ex:
Gymnatorium
or
cafetorium)
This
of
 course
 requires
 more
 standardized
 finishing
 to
 fit
 those
 multi‐purpose
 needs
 (
 Walls,
 floors,
 lighting,
 acoustics,
 heating
 and
 ventilation)
 and
 furniture
 that
 are
 flexible
to
maneuver
(foldable
and
roll‐away).
(Building
Type
Basics)
 



27


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


o Partition
Walls:
are
a
major
tool
to
provide
flexibility,
territoriality
and
privacy.
 However
the
whole
space
should
be
furnished
to
coordinated
with
the
overall
 space
in
case
those
partitions
are
removed.
(Time
Saver)
 
 o Generic
Materials
and
finishes
for
multi‐use
spaces:
  Physical
and
visual
textures
appropriate
for
child’s
age
  Vinyl
composition
tile
flooring
  Tight‐level
carpeting
  Neutral
painted
walls
  Separate
table
and
chair
combinations
  General
 Lighting:
 Especially
 natural
 lighting,
 should
 be
 used
 in
 a
 creative
 way
 to
 allow
 student’s
 enjoyment
 and
 a
 pleasing
 work
 environment
 that
 reduces
stress
levels.
  Storage
 areas
 are
 important
 to
 allow
 flexibility
 and
 more
 free
 space
 for
 circulation
and
other
activities
in
a
classroom.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 




‐
Technology:

 Technology
is
nowadays
a
major
factor
that
 influences
design
 o Needs
 constant
 adjustments
 and
 update
 in
equipment,
which
is
important
to
take
 in
account
in
design
 o Special
lighting
requirements
to
minimize
 glare
(see
Section
Lighting).
 o Furnishing
 configuration
 should
 Figure
22:
Computer
Lab
Sample
(Building
Type
Basics)
 reduce
glare
effect:
 o Finishes
should
absorb
light
rather
than
reflecting
it:
  Floor
treatment:
Advisable
to
use
developed
carpeting
systems
reduce
glare
 and
eliminate
static
electricity
build‐up
  Construction
of
elevated
sectional
computer
floor
for
unrestricted
and
safe
 computer
 wiring.
 (Costly)
 =>
 Or
 instead
 there
 are
 less
 costly
 but
 less
 aesthetically
pleasing
solutions
like
wiring
drops
from
the
ceiling.
 





‐
Interior
facilities:












 










‐(Building
Type
Basics)


o Classroom
facilities
  Depth
of
counters
(see
Figure
21)
  Class
setup/
seating
arrangement
(for
examples,
see
Figures
 24‐27)
 


Figure
23:
(Google
Images)



28


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 



 Figure
24:
(Time
Saver)



 Figure
25:
(Time
Saver)




 
 












 
 
 Figure
26:
(Time
Saver)
 Figure
27:
(Time
Saver)
 
 
 o Toilet
 facilities:
 ‐>
 the
 younger
 the
 students
 the
 more
 there’s
 a
 need
 for
 a
 close
 bathroom.
 For
 example
 in
 kindergarten
 classrooms
 it
 is
 very
 likely
 to
 have
 a
 bathroom
attached
or
inside
the
class.

 ‐>
It
is
also
important
to
adjust
the
height
of
the
sinks,
soap
and
the
toilet
cabinets
 to
be
reachable
for
children.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 o Corridors:
 should
 be
 wide
 enough
 to
 allow
 student’s
 personal
 space
 (i.e.
 simultaneous
 student
 traffic
 and
 locker
 access).
 They
 shouldn’t
 be
 as
 large
 as
 in
 middle
 and
 high‐school
 because
 elementary
 school
 students
 have
 a
 home‐base
 classroom
and
don’t
regularly
move
to
other
specialized
classroom
for
science,
for
 instance.
 It
 is
 very
 typical
 to
 find
 banks
 of
 lockers
 on
 the
 sides
 for
 storage
 that
 should
support
child’s
size
at
the
particular
age.
(Building
Type
Basics)



29


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


o Art/music
rooms
 o Administration
 offices:
 like
 reception
 desk,
 nurse’s
 station
 and
 guidance
 office
 are
 used
 by
 adults,
 Figure
28:
Sample
Hallway
(Building
Type
Basics)
 should
 be
 sized
 according
 to
 adult
 users.
 However
 they’ll
 be
 sometimes
 serving
 children.
 That’s
 why
 it’s
 important
 to
have
a
section
of
a
reception
desk
for
example
lower
in
 height
 to
 allow
 visual
 contact
 between
 the
 receptionist
and
the
children.

 Also
larger
areas
like
the
cafeteria,
library
 and
gymnasium
should
be
mainly
designed
to
support
the
 size
 of
 children
 except
 for
 the
 personal
 desks
 of
 Figure
29:
Sample
Library
Desk
(Building
Type
Basics)
 adults.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 ‐
Furnishings:
 o In
 selecting
 the
 appropriate
 size
 and
 height
 of
 furniture
 the
 age
 of
 children
 (targeted
users)
must
be
kept
in
mind
to
be
comfortable.
 o Materials
 of
 furniture
 also
 have
 to
 suit
 the
 age
 of
 children
 and
 their
 use,
 such
 as
 plastics
or
light
wood
that
are
:
  Functional
and
easy
to
maneuver

  Surfaces
easy
to
clean
and
wipe‐off
 
(For
example,
chairs
shouldn’t
be
too
heavy
for
a
child
to
carry
and
also
if
 placed
in
an
elementary
art
room
it
should
be
easy
to
cleanup)
  The
ability
to
disinfect
the
materials
id
very
important
when
they
are
used
 by
 children.
 Nowadays,
 there
 are
 many
 researches
 and
 new
 products
 on
 plastics
and
materials
that
resist
the
growth
and
development
of
bacteria
on
 surfaces.
  Furniture
should
also
be
made
out
of
materials
of
enduring
quality
that
are
 durable,
resistant
to
scratches
and
to
abusive
use
by
children.
 =>
 Classroom
 chairs
 are
 more
 likely
 to
 be
 high‐density
 plastic
 on
 chrome‐ structures.
 o Furniture
 used
 in
 adult
 areas
 like
 reception
 or
 administration,
 should
 be
 comfortable
for
parents
when
they
visit,
like
cushioned
sofa‐type
furniture.
 o Specialized
 classrooms
 and
 labs
 may
 need
 stand‐up
 work
 areas
 (see
 fig.
 #)
 and
 music
rooms
may
only
need
suitable
sized
chairs
and
music
stands.
 o The
Aesthetic
aspect
of
furniture
is
also
important
because
they
have
to
fit
in
the
 general
 theme
 of
 the
 building
 and
 visually
 please
 the
 users.
 That’s
 why
 the
 following
aspects
should
be
considered:
  From
the
curriculum
perspective:
 • Curriculum
taught
to
entire
class
at
once?
 • Required
books
and
materials
used
at
desks
and
tables
 • Frequency
of
class
rearrangement
 • Number
of
computers
in
a
room



30


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


From
the
building
interface
perspective:
 • Distribution
of
electrical
power
and
computer
cables
allowing
future
 additions
 • Connection
 of
 power
 and
 cabling
 in
 a
 way
 to
 allow
 furniture
 rearrangement
 • Addressing
 wires
 management:
 (part
 of
 building
 or
 furniture
 design?)
 • Appropriate
location
of
computers
 From
the
general
perspective:
 • Durable,
safe
and
maintenance‐free
materials
 • Storage
accommodation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



 
 
 
 






Figure
30:
Working
Heights
for
Elementary
(Building
Type
Basics)



‐
Security
measures:
 


Security
measures
installed
in
the
interior
of
a
school
are
part
of
planning
the
building.
 o Site:
laid
out
to
ensure
clearance
of
sight
across
playground
and
parking
 o Entrance:
should
be
for
visitors
alone
and
 another
for
students.
 o Security
 personnel
 should
 be
 located
 within
 the
 administration
 suite
 or
 in
 a
 remote
area
for
visual
coverage.
 o Some
other
security
measures
are
the
 installation
of:


Figure
31:
(Google
Images)



31


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


 Video
surveillance
  Metal
detectors
  Alarm
systems
  Theft‐detection
systems
  Key‐pad
coded
locking
systems
 (Although
they
might
limit
freedom
and
privacy)
 o Some
passive
measures
realized
in
design
are:


  Clear
 sight
 lines
 throughout
 campus
 with
 designing
 an
 open,
 visible
 and
 bright
areas
  Positioning
the
administration
adjacent
in
front
of
the
entrance
  Provide
reasons
for
staff
to
be
seen
in
corridors
  Elimination
of
secluded
areas
in
plan
design
  Provide
side
corridors
that
allow
student
flow
  Provide
 a
 system
 of
 communication
 between
 administration
 and
 all
 other
 areas
  Interior
physical
barriers
(like
gates
and
bars)
(Building
Type
Basics)
 







‐
Codes:

 o According
to
the
ADA
(Americans
with
Disabilities
Act)
 the
 following
 legislations
 should
 be
 taken
 in
 account
 in
universal
design:
  Provide
equal
access
to
all
spaces
regardless
of
 an
individual’s
disabilities
(ex:
design
a
ramp
to
 serve
all
people)
  Regardless
of
the
integration
of
children
with
 Figure
32:
Sample
Accessibility
(Google
Images)
 special
 needs
 with
 normal
 children,
 equal
 access
to
all
people
without
barriers
should
be
 provided,
like
the
following
measures:

 • Accessible
 parking
 areas
 near
 to
 entrances
for
disabled
 • Automatic
 entry
 doors
 with
 accessible
 vestibule
areas
 • Centralized
vertical
circulation
 • Graphics
 with
 information
 given
 in
 Figure
33:
(Building
Type
Basics)
 large
print/
Braille
 • Wider
 classroom
 wing
 corridors
 to
 accommodate
various
users
 • Adjustable
 and
 flexible
 furnishing
 and
 space
 dimensions
 to
 accommodate
wheelchairs
(ex.
Toilets).
(Building
Type
Basics)



32


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
34:
ADA
Diagram
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 
 o Fire‐resistance:
  Highly
fire‐resistant
construction
and
materials
supporting
minimal
fire
 spread
  Include
fire
extinguishers
at
regular
intervals
 
 4.
Building
Services:








a.
Structural
Systems:
 
 As
a
result
of
changes
and
differences
in
age,
many
construction
factors
and
structural
 systems
have
been
changed
in
school
construction
such
as
masonry
bearing
wall,
wood
frame,
 poured‐in‐place
concrete,
precast
concrete,
steel
frame,
and
 Teflon
coated
fiberglass
fabrics
which
are
currently
used
in
school
 construction.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 •

Building
life:
Most
schools
tends
to
last
a
long
time,
which
 means
that
most
new
school
prefer
structural
systems
with
 indefinite
 life
 spans
 and
 minimal
 maintenance
 requirements
such
as
concrete,
steel,
bearing
wall.
 
 Fire
safety:
the
selection
of
fire‐resistant
structural
 systems
 as
 fireproofed
 steel,
 concrete,
 glue‐ 






Figure
35:
Interior
Sample
(Google
Images)
 laminated
beams
are
highly
usable
now
in
modern
schools.
 
 Seismic
(earthquake)
Considerations:
an
important
thing
to
 be
 considered
 is
 the
 building’s
 ability
 to
 withstand
 seismic
 events.


Figure
36:
Interior
Library
(Google
Images)



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


33
 


• •


 Flexibility:
 it
 is
 fundamental
 that
 the
 selection
 of
 a
 structural
 system
 should
 not
 prevent
 or
 exclude
 future
 reconfiguration
 of
 space
 or
 additions
 to
 a
 school.
 The
 flexibility
 is
 a
 major
 factor
that
should
be
considered.

 
 Aesthetics:
 many
 architects
 use
 structural
 system
 that
 has
 dramatic
 effects
 because
 the
 structural
 system
 can
 be
 a
 major
 aesthetic
 consideration
the
school
design.
 
















Figure
37:
Exterior
(Google
Images)
 






 Long
 span
 spaces:
 the
 large
 space
 such
 Cafeteria,
 gym,
 and
 auditorium
 etc.
 are
 structurally
 the
 most
 complex
 space
 because
 these
 spaces
 are
 typically
 designed
 as
 one‐story
(open)
structures
and
rarely
have
other
structures
above
them.
These
spaces
 usually
 use
 long
 span
 materials
 such
 as
 steel,
 trusses,
 precast
 concrete,
 and
 glue‐ illuminated
beams.

 
 
 
 
 
 










‐(Building
Type
Basics)
 



 


Figure
38:
(Building
Type
Basics)



34


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 •

Foundation:
early
geotechnical
analysis
is
very
important
because
availaible
sites
often
 cause
problems
such
as
poor
soil
conditions,
so
it
vital
to
peroform
detailed
analysis
 prior
to
site
aquisition.

 
 Special
issues:
Special
consideration
must
be
given
to
the
selection
of
the
structural
 system
for
swimming
pools.
The
high
humidity
and
chemicals
used
rust
many
structural
 systems
and
are
considered
a
source
of
many
problems.
(Building
Type
Basics)






b.
Mechanical
Systems:
 General
points
to
consider:
 ‐
 Interior
Environment:
heating,
cooling,
humidity
control,
air
cleaning
and
ventilation
 ‐
 Simplicity:
 Boilers,
 Chillers,
 pumps,
 and
 air
 handling
 equipment
 should
 be
 easily
 
 accessed,
with
space
around
the
equipment
adequate
for
service

 ‐
 Life‐Cycle
 Analysis:
 Schools
 should
 be
 aware
 that
 energy
 savings
 and
 lower
 
 maintenance
costs
often
justify
the
higher
first
costs
of
more
efficient
systems
 ‐
 Ability
 to
 accommodate
 growth
 and
 change:
 mechanical
 systems
 should
 be
 designed
 
 to
accommodate
change
easily

 ‐
 Ventilation:

 
 Occupied
areas:

 
 
 15
cubic
feet
per
minute
per

 occupant
of
perimeter
area
 
 Locker
and
shower
rooms:

 
 1
cfm
per
sq
feet
of
floor
area
 
 Toilets:

 
 
 
 2
cfm
per
sq
feet
of
floor
area
 
 Kitchen‐
dishwashing:

 
 100‐150
cfm
per
sq
ft
of
floor
area
 ‐
 Air
Conditioning:
in
order
to
improve
the
teaching
environment
and
allow
year‐round
 
 use
 ‐
 Impact
of
Program:
Different
program
have
different
mechanical
systems
 ‐
 Regional
Variability:
Recommended
design
temperatures
 ‐
 Indoor
Air
Quality:
Environmental
Quality
 ‐
 Noises
 and
 Vibration:
 location
 of
 mechanical
 rooms
 and
 selection
 of
 partition
 
 materials
 are
 critical
 in
 school
 design
 (vibration
 isolation
 mountings,
 particularly
 with
 
 a
suspended
floor)
 ‐
 Program
Area:
space
required
for
mechanical
systems
varies
widely
 ‐
 Construction
Budget:
varies
widely
according
to
size
of
mechanical
systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 










‐(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 
 
 School
Components:



35


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ‐
 ‐
 ‐
 ‐
 ‐
 
 
 
 ‐
 ‐
 ‐
 
 
 


Figure
39:
(Building
Type
Basics)














‐Program
Areas:
 Elementary
 Schools
 are
 typically
 more
 complex
 than
 pre‐school
 facilities.
 They
 can
 contain
 gymnasiums,
 auditoriums,
 cafeterias
 and
 other
 specialized
 teaching
 spaces
 like
media
center,
music,
art…
etc.)
 
 ‐
Hours
of
Operation:
 Operation
hours
in
elementary
schools
are
from
7:00am
to
3:00pm.
Peak
cooling
load
 occurs
in
the
afternoon
and
peak‐heating
demand
is
in
the
morning
at
the
start‐up.

 
 ‐
Basic
Classroom
Needs:
 Heating
and
Ventilation
in
all
classrooms
 Air‐Conditioning
for
classes
used
year‐round
in
warm,
humid
climates
 Summer
dehumidification
in
humid
climates
 Economizer
cycles
for
use
during
winter
months
 Separate
temperature‐control
zone
for
each
classroom
 
 ‐
Gymnasiums:
 Gymnasiums
 often
 have
 independent
 systems
 to
 accommodate
 various
 activities
 during
and
after
operation
hours:

 Locker
rooms
are
often
provided
and
positioned
so
they
are
directed
to
the
outside
 Toilets
and
showers
are
also
provided
 Great
deal
of
Ventilation
(air
may
be
transferred
from
adjacent
spaces)
 ‐
Administrative
Areas:
 These
areas
are
mainly
occupied
beyond
normal
class
hours
and
when
the
school
is
not
 operating.
They
are
mostly
served
by
separate
systems
and
are
air‐conditioned.
 
 
 
 



36


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


‐
Science,
Art,
and
Computer
Rooms:
 These
rooms
require
adequate
ventilation
(odors
caused
by
animals
in
science
rooms
 and
 some
 art
 media).
 Computers
 almost
 always
 require
 air‐conditioning,
 and
 a
 separate
system
is
usually
desirable
for
computer
labs
and
server
rooms.
 
 ‐
Libraries
and
Media
Centers:
 In
order
to
preserve
books
and
other
materials,
libraries
and
media
centers
should
be
 air‐conditioned.
 Humidification
 may
 also
 add
 to
 prevent
 winter
 dryness.
 Large
 temperature
and
humidity
variations
should
be
prevented
throughout
the
year.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 










‐(Building
Type
Basics)



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



Figure
40:
(Building
Type
Basics)



37


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 


c.
Electrical
Systems:
 ‐
Lighting
Design:
 •

The
 lighting
 system
 is
 a
 very
 critical
 factor
 in
 design
 as
 it
 has
 a
 significant
 impact
 on
 energy
 cost,
 health,
 performance
 and
 stress
 levels
 of
 students
 and
 teachers.
 (i.e.
 inadequate
 lighting
 and
 glare
 cause
 eyestrain,
 that
 make
 concentration
 of
 students
 very
difficult.)
(Time
Saver)
 The
illumination
of
a
classroom
is
a
very
important
and
also
diverse
issue
depending
on
 the
type
of
class
and
the
time
it
is
taught
at.
  In
 the
 case
 of
 elementary
 schools,
 classrooms
 are
 multi‐use
 spaces
 with
 different
 activities,
unlike
in
high
schools
where
every
classroom
is
suited
for
a
specific
class.
 So
here
the
lighting
system
must
be
carefully
designed.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 ‐
Light
Reflectance
values
in
a
school:


Figure
41:
(Building
Type
Basics)







 
 •

‐
Light
Levels:

 In
 a
 teaching
 type
 of
 class
 it
 is
 important
to
ensure
that:
  Desks,
 walls,
 blackboards
 and
 screens
 are
 adequately
 lit
 with
 a
 brightness
ratio
of
(5:1)
to
ensure
 visual
 comfort
 and
 minimum
 eyestrain.
(Building
Type
Basics)


Figure
42:
(Building
Type
Basics)



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


38
 


‐
Glare:
  It
 is
 an
 effect
 of
 extreme
 contrast
 or
 luminance
 (i.e.
 too
 much
 uncontrolled
 luminance
reflected
by
surfaces
and
objects)
 that
 can
 be
 disturbing
 and
 frustrating
 to
 students/
teachers.
(Building
Type
Basics)
  To
reduce
glare:

 Figure
43:
(Building
Type
Basics)
 1. Limit
 the
 amount
 of
 light
 emitted
 towards
 the
 eye
 (from
 a
 wrong
 direction)
 2. Increase
 number
 of
 light
 fixtures,
 regarding
 the
 careful
 location
 of
 fixtures
 as
 a
 function
 of
 architectural
 design,
LRV
and
brightness
ratio
of
space.
(Building
Type
Basics)



 



















 



 



 Figure
44:
Glare
Reflection
(Building
Type
Basics)



 3. Colors
of
walls
also
affect
the
lighting
design:

  Preferred:
Colors
in
the
cool
range
like
(soft
greens
and
blues),
however
it
depends
 on
the
school’s
environment.
(Time
Saver)
  In
elementary
schools:

bright
and
warm
colors
are
used
to
inspire
students.
 4. Nowadays,
 there
 are
 more
 sophisticated
 lighting
 systems,
 like
 multilevel
 switching
 and
 dimming,
 where
 in
 a
 set
 of
 lights
 each
 could
 be
 operated
 individually.
The
use
of
such
systems
depends
on
the
budget
to
be
used
in
 the
school.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 ‐
Electric
Lighting:

 o Commonly
 used
 in
 interior
 spaces
 for
 reading
 books.
 (2x4
 fluorescent
 lamp
 lay‐in
 troffer)

 o The
 use
 of
 computers
 has
 introduced
 new
 lighting
 needs
 like
 indirect
 lighting
 to
 avoid
glare
and
reflection
by
using
ceiling
and
walls
to
reflect
light
and
illuminate
a
 space
softly
and
evenly.

 o Fixtures
should
be
typically
suspended
18
in.
from
the
ceiling,
spaced
in
rows
ca.
 10
ft
apart.
(ceiling
height
about
8
in.
from
fixture
to
floor)


 
‐(Time
Saver)
 



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


39
 


‐
Day
lighting
and
Windows:

 


Windows
bring:
Air,
Light
and
a
view
to
interior
spaces.


Thus
they
have
the
following
effects
on
owner
and
users:


Orientation
 of
 classrooms
 in
 a
 plan
 and
 efficient
 design
 of
 windows
 and
 shading
 devices
prevent
energy
loss
and
heat
gain.
 





*North
 –
 and
 south
 facing
 rooms
 have
 different
 requirements.(South‐facing
 rooms
 must
 
 








have
 shades
 against
 summer
 sun
 and
 can
 in
 the
 winter
 bring
 warmth
 into
 the
 
 








room)
 •






*West‐
facing
windows
should
be
avoided
where
feasible.
 • • • 














(Building
Type
Basics)


Sunlight
introduces
a
large
contrast
even
in
electrically
lit
classrooms.
(60
foot‐candles
 lit
classroom
gains
8000‐10000
foot‐candles
from
sunlight)
 Daylight
should
be
used
to
control
costs
with
a
careful
design
of
electric
system.
 Vandalism
should
be
considered
in
the
plan
of
school
and
placement
of
windows,
like
 placing
them
in
easily
monitored
areas.
 
 







 










‐(Building
Type
Basics)



 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
45:
(Building
Type
Basics)


‐
Design
Guides:
 Schools
like
many
institutional
buildings
don’t
have
a
large
budget
allocated
for
renovation
and
 maintenance,
thus
lighting
systems
ideally
should
be:
 • • • • •

As
maintenance
free
as
possible
 Very
energy
efficient
[taking
advantage
of
daylight}
 Durable,
 long‐lasting
 
 [long
 life
 lamps/fixtures,
 extended‐life
 fluorescent
 lamps
 in
 less
accessible
places
like
corridors]
 Tough
and
relatively
damage
proof
(resistant)
 Fixtures/
ballasts
with
minimum
noise
possible
 
 










‐(Building
Type
Basics)



40


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 ‐
Classrooms:
 o Surface
Reflectance
is
important
 o Compare
life‐cycle
costs
with
first
 costs
of
different
lighting
systems
 o Maximum
daylight
 o Multiple
 switching,
 multilevel
 ballasts
for
multiple
lighting
levels
 if
required
 o Use
 of
 standard
 fluorescent
 Figure
46:
Sample
Classroom
(Google
Images)
 cool/warm
 white
 lamps
 (direct/indirect
fixtures)
 =>
Incandescent
lamps
are
not
advisable


(Building
Type
Basics)










































 ‐
Lecture
Halls:
(similar
to
classrooms)


o Preferred
to
use
switching
and
multi‐level
ballasts
 o Light
 switches
 should
 be
 clearly
 labeled
 and
 located
 at
 the
 entrance
 and
 front
 of
 the
room.
 o Row
of
adjustable
fixtures
at
the
front
of
the
room.
 o Black/whiteboards
may
be
lit
with
fluorescent
fixtures.
 o Use
of
narrow
vision
panels
and
control
of
light
from
outside
the
room.
 o In
Large
lecture
halls,
the
use
of
spotlight
is
recommended
to
light
the
speaker.
 o Separate
lights
required
in
case
board
and
screen
are
used
simultaneously.
 o Preferred
to
locate
the
doors
so
that
when
opened
during
lecture
light
from
outside
 does
not
fall
on
screen.
 
 
 
 








 










‐(Building
Type
Basics)
 






 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
47:
Lecture
Room
Diagram
(Building
Type
Basics)
 







 





 

 


Typical
lecture
room
lighting
using:
 45deg.
Baffled
parabolic
 reflector
for
min.
and
direct
 reflected
glare
 ‐ adjustable
track
lights
for
 table
illumination
 ‐ Asymmetric
reflector
for
 chalkboard
lighting
 (Source:
Stein
and
Reynolds2000,
 p.1304)
 ‐


41


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools




‐
Auditoriums
and
multipurpose
spaces:
 o Flexible,
dimmable
lighting
is
advisable
 o Incandescent
lamps
proffered
(unlike
classrooms)
 o For
writing
and
study
tasks,
fluorescent
or
HID
(high
intensity
discharge)
lamps
may
 be
added
 o In
case
of
relatively
inaccessible
ceilings,
long‐life
lamps
are
preferred

 o Lights
on
steps/
tiers
should
be
installed
for
safety
 o Careful
installation
of
noisy
ballasts
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 







‐
Gymnasiums:
 o Preferred
to
use
tough,
relatively
damage
proof
fixtures
 o Multilevel
Switching
is
recommended
for
multi‐purpose
use
(Gymnatorium)
 o Accumulation
of
dirt
should
be
considered.
(Building
Type
Basics)
 
 








‐
Corridors:
 o High
reflectance
walls,
floor
and
ceiling
for
better
use
of
light
and
cheerfulness
 
The
illustrated
example
shows
appropriate
lighting
system
for
a
corridor
with
side
 luminaries
to
illuminate
lockers
and
any
displays
on
the
walls.
(Building
Type
Basics)


Figure
48:
Hallway
Diagram
(Building
Type
Basics)









‐
Cafeterias:

 o Soft/
glare‐free
light
permits
a
cafeteria
to
serve
also
as
a
work/study
or
meeting
 room
for
students.
(Building
Type
Basics)



 Figure
49:
Sample
Cafeteria
(Google
Images)



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


42
 









‐
Libraries:
 
 o Various
lighting
Systems
to
be
used
for
different
activities
and
rooms.
 o Reading
Rooms:
‐
general
lighting
system
(like
Fluorescent
or
HID)
 or:
lower‐level
general
lighting
and
additional
fluorescent
lights
at
tables.
(Careful
 use
of
noisy
ballasts)
(Building
Type
Basics)
 o Work
and
Check‐out
areas:

similar
to
reading
rooms
or
even
higher.
 o Computer
areas:
Direct‐indirect
lighting
is
advisable.

 o Preferred
to
use
fixtures
with
lenses
specifically
designed
for
the
purpose
(but
not
 baffles
and
plastic
diffusers
because
they
don’t
illuminate
surfaces
adequately)
 (Building
Type
Basics)
 



 Figure
50:
Fixture
Diagram
(Building
Type
Basics)









‐
Laboratories:
 o Choice
of
fixtures
should
be
appropriate
for
fixed,
dark‐colored
benches
and
shiny
 surfaces.
 o Preferred
use
of
indirect
lighting
for
diffusion
on
vertical
surfaces.
 o Location
of
fixtures
should
be
parallel
to/
behind
benches.
 o Examples
for
possible
lighting
systems
in
labs
(Figures
51‐53):
(Building
Type
Basics)
 









Figure
51:
(Building
Type
Basics)


Figure
52:
(Building
Type
Basics)


a.)
Pendant
direct‐indirect
units
 
 .



 


Figure
53:
(Building
Type
Basics)


b)
and
c)
quiet
and
electronic
ballasts
recommended
 









43


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 ‐
Art
Rooms:
 o Preferred
the
use
of
skylights
or
north‐facing
windows
 o Constant‐Color
daylight
 o Deluxe
Fluorescent
tubes
(for
artificial
lighting)
 o Adjustable
task
lighting
at
desks
 o Spotlights
for
focused/detailed
applications
 o To
display
artworks:

 =>
Incandescent
lights,
adjustable
wall‐washing
or
fluorescent
fixtures.
(Building
 Type
Basics)
 



44


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 LOCAL
CASE
STUDY:
AIS
Egypt
 1.
Introduction:
 a.



AIS
–
the
American
International
School
in
Egypt:
 
 
 The
American
International
School
in
Egypt
opened
its
doors
to
its
first
 240
 students
 in
 1990.
 
 Today,
 AIS
 Egypt
 has
 over
 1,300
 students
 from
 41
 countries,
occupying
a
new
and
modern
campus
in
Cairo
Festival
City.
 
 At
AIS
Egypt,
a
comprehensive
Pre‐Kindergarten
to
Grade
12
American
curriculum
is
offered.

 The
Elementary
School
has
eight
levels
of
classes
from
Pre‐Kindergarten
through
to
Grade
5.

 The
curriculum
consists
of
Language,
Arts,
Mathematics,
Social
Studies
and
Science,
Music,
Art,
 Physical
Education
and
Library.

(www.aisegypt.com)
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
54:
A.I.S.
Building
View
from
Field



45


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


2.
Description
of
Project:
 


a.



Site
Planning:


• Zoning
and
Climate:
 
 A.I.S.
is
located
in
New
Cairo
which
is
a
new
suburb
of
Cairo;
it
is
surrounded
by
a
new
 built
project
“Cairo
Festival
City”
and
it
is
facing
Mubarak
Police
Academy.
Consequently,
the
 climate
is
mostly
dry
and
sunny
in
the
morning.

 
 
 North
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 South
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
55:
Site
Plan
(Google
Earth)


• View:
 N
=
Mubarak
Academy
for
Security
 S
&
W
=
Cairo
Festival
City
 E
=
Residential
Area
  Surrounding:
calm
residential
neighborhood
and
police
controlled
region



 • Space
Allocation:
 
 The
site
of
A.I.S.,
like
most
other
school
is
not
restricted
to
classrooms,
other
rooms
are
 included
in
the
site
as
they
are
complementary
to
those
classrooms.

 



46


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Figure
56:
Space
Allocation
of
A.I.S.



 •

Soil
is
an
issue
to
be
concerned
about
in
site
planning,
in
the
case
of
A.I.S.,
starting
a
 school
in
desert
was
definitely
a
challenge.
Not
only
in
the
construction
of
the
buildings
 themselves,
but
also
to
irrigate
the
different
variety
of
plants
whether
for
fields
or
for
 decoration.

 
 Topography
 is
 another
 matter,
 at
 the
 school
 the
 land
 was
 not
 on
 the
 same
 level,
 therefore
 we
 notice
 that
 school
 was
 built
 on
 those
 levels,
 no
 changes
were
done
to
rectify
that
change
in
levels.


Inclined
School
 Level


Street
Level
 Figure
57:
General
View
from
outside


Figure
58:
Busses
Street



47


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Instead,
the
design
included
that
topographic
anomaly
in
the
design
of
the
streets
and
 that
 of
 the
 school
 itself;
 streets
 were
 transformed
 into
 slight
 ramps
 and
 stairs
 were
 added
to
connect
both
levels.
 
 Playing
Fields
sizes:



 o According
to
the
school,
the
playing
fields
are
following
local
measurement
 standards.
 o The
 idea
 of
 juxtaposing
 different
 sports
 on
 one
 field
 is
 a
 space
 saving
 creative
 design
 that
 AIS
 has
 benefited
 from;
 by
 creating
 a
 track
 that
 surrounds
the
football
field
 o Sun
 orientation
 is
 also
 important
 in
 sport
 fields;
 they
 should
 be
 oriented
 north
south,
which
is
the
case
in
AIS.

 
 
 


North
 Football
Pitch



 
 
 
 


South



 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
59:
Bird
View
of
Field
(Google
Earth)


Track



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


48
 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
60:
Site
Plan
of
A.I.S.
(Google
Earth)


• Site
design
concept:
 o AIS
 is
 not
 just
 an
 elementary,
 it
 houses
 classes
 from
 kindergarten
 to
 high
 school.
 The
school
is
divided
by
grade,
 with
 each
 age
 category
 residing
 in
 a
 different
 floor
 of
 the
 same
 building.
 There
 is
 a
 floor
 for
 the
 elementary
 school,
 one
 for
 middle
 school
 and
 one
 for
 high
 school.
 Kindergarten
 occupies
 a
 small
 entity
 of
 the
 entire
 building.
 The
 different
 facilities
 however
 are
 shared
 by
 all
 the
 different
 levels,
 with
 the
 exception
 of
 the
 playground
 
 Figure
61:
Site
Plan
2
(Google
Earth)
 which
 is
 only
 for
 both
 kindergarten
 and
 elementary
 school
 students.
 Most
 other
 facilities
 are
 in
 a
 different
 area
 from
 the
 classrooms
 like
 the
 gymnasium,
 the
 clinic,
 the
 playing
 fields,
 the
 pool,
 among
 others,
 and
they
are
shared
by
all
grades.



49


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 o Such
a
design
is
very
much
appropriate
for
a
school
here
in
Egypt
for
many
reasons:
 ‐
Climate
and
security
are
not
much
of
an
issue
here
in
Cairo.
Climate
is
often
 moderate
 which
 easily
 allows
 students
 to
 move
 from
 building
 to
 the
 other
 without
danger.

 ‐
 The
 design
 is
 also
 beneficial
 for
 educational
 purposes.
 Since
 all
 grades
 share
 facilities,
 this
 allows
 smaller
 students
 to
 learn
 from
 older
 ones,
 or
 even
 the
 opposite.
 They
 are
 being
 taught
 to
 deal
 with
 people
 their
 age
 as
 well
 as
 deal
 with
other
older
or
younger
than
them.

 o As
seen
above,
the
entire
roadway
of
the
school
is
placed
around
the
school
far
from
 the
 pedestrian
 area.
 It
 was
 also
 shown
 how
 buses
 and
 cars
 do
 not
 share
 the
 same
 entrance.
 
 


b.
Circulation:




 Vehicular
 circulation
 should
 be
 separate
 from
 pedestrian
 circulation,
 firstly
 for
 coordination
 between
 the
 two
 and
 secondly
 for
 the
 security
 and
 safety
 of
 the
 children
of
the
elementary,
this
is
the
case
in
 AIS
where
we
see
that
the
pedestrian
area
is
 completely
 separated
 from
 the
 vehicular
 areas
whether
buses
or
cars.

 • The
amount
of
parking
is
quite
small
in
 comparison
 to
 the
 school,
 often
 people
tend
to
park
outside
the
site
to
 find
a
place
which
is
considered
a
disadvantage.
Figure
62:
Site
Plan
with
Gates
(Google
Earth)
 • Traffic
 is
 very
 much
 controlled
 as
 both
 cars
 and
 buses
 have
 a
 one
 way
 directed
 roadway,
 they
 enter
 through
 one
 gate
 and
 go
 out
 through
 another.
 This
 allows
 in
 reducing
traffic
at
peak
times.
 • Safety
is
also
considered
when
it
comes
to
the
drop‐off
areas
of
the
buses,
the
process
 is
explained
by
this
sketch:
 • Even
though
the
roadway
surrounding
the
school
is
wide,
inside
the
school
it
is
fine
but
 it
could
have
been
wider
considering
the
number
of
cars.

The
real
problem
is
with
the
 length
of
the
road;
it
is
quite
limited,
which
could
create
traffic
when
the
peak
times
 arise.



50


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Figure
63:
Entrances
(Google
Earth)



 ‐
Entry
Sequence
/
Accessibility:


Main
Gate


Students
 either
 come
 to
 school
 by
 car
 or
 they
 take
 the
 
 school
bus.
AIS
students
coming
to
school
by
car
enter
the
 school
 each
 day
 from
 the
 main
 gate
 located
 on
 the
 right
 side
of
the
main
elevation.
They
go
directly
to
the
first
floor
 where
 the
 main
 entrance
 of
 the
 school
 is
 located.
 Other
 Main
Entrance
 students
 who
 take
 the
 school
 bus
 are
 dropped
 off
 at
 the
 right
side
of
the
building
on
the
side
elevation
where
they
 go
 through
 an
 arcade
 directly
 to
 the
 playground.
 They
 either
 go
 immediately
 to
 their
 classes
 passing
 by
 the
 












Figure
64:
Main
Entrance
 administrative
 area
 or
 they
 hang
 out
 on
 the
 playground
 until
 the
 first
 class
 period
 starts.
 Faculty
 and
 staff
 enter
 the
 building
 from
 the
 same
 gate
 located
on
the
left
side
of
the
main
façade.
During
the
school
day,
the
public
are
not
allowed
 to
 enter
 the
 building;
 however,
 after
 the
 school
 day,
 the
 public
enter
from
the
same
gate
the
students
enter
from.
 Central
 administration
 is
 located
 at
 the
 primary
 entrance
 of
all
students,
so
it
is
some
kind
of
a
security
checkpoint.







Figure
65:
Busses
Drop
Off



51


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 
 


Playground
 B
 U
 S
 E
 S



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 ‐
Internal
Circulation:


Main
Gate
 Figure
66:
Elementary
Floor;
Ground
Floor



 In
 the
 morning,
 when
 students
 arrive
 at
 the
 school,
 they
 usually
 gather
 in
 the
 playground
 waiting
 for
 the
 first
 class
 period
 to
 start.
 During
 the
 school
 day,
 students
 have
 a
 lunchtime
where
they
go
as
a
group
to
the
cafeteria
and
eat
 their
 lunch.
 However,
 traveling
 with
 food
 outside
 the
 cafeteria
 is
 not
 Figure
67:
View
of
Building
from
Playground
 permitted.
Then,
there
is
a
 so‐called
 “recess”
 where
 the
 students
 gather
 at
 the
 playground.
 During
 these
 breaks
 in
 the
 schedule,
 students
 are
not
allowed
to
be
in
the
hallways
of
classes
or
near
the
 administration
 area.
 The
 typical
 circulation
 is
 done
 through
 













Figure
68:
Hallway
 stairs;
one
main
stairway
and
Elementary
school
students
in
particular
travel
as
a
class
when
 they
have
P.E.
or
Music.
Otherwise,
elementary
school
students
don’t
travel
that
much.
At
the



52


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


end
of
the
day,
students
travel
individually
to
the
place
where
the
busses
park
or
they
wait
in
 front
of
the
main
gate
waiting
for
their
parents
to
pick
them
up.

 ‐
School
Size:
 
 A.I.S.
 currently
 has
 1,300
 students
 enrolled.
 Every
 school
 component,
 if
 elementary,
 middle
or
high
school
has
its
own
full‐grade
groupings.
These
groupings
are
decided
according


Figure
69:
A.I.S.
in
the
playground
(www.aisegypt.com)


to
 grade
 level.
 The
 so‐called
 “houses”
 (i.e.
 Panthers,
 Tigers,
 Stars...
 etc.)
 mitigate
 the
 anonymity
created
in
facilities
with
this
large
enrollment
number.
Such
groups
have
their
own
 “characteristics”
and
work
always
in
a
group
when
it
comes
to
the
different
activities,
such
as
 football
matches,
and
other
magnet
programs.
(www.aisegypt.com)
 ‐
Site
Access:
 
 Many
 spaces,
 including
 classrooms
 for
 lower
 age
 groups,
 benefit
 from
 direct
 site
 access.
 A.I.S.
 has
 a
 special
 design
 for
 their
 school
 where
 elementary
school
is
located
on
the
first
floor,
middle
school
is
located
on
 the
second
floor
and
high
school
is
located
on
the
third
floor.
Especially
in
 the
 “elementary
 first
 floor”
 of
 the
 school
 building,
 students
 have
 this
 opportunity
to
have
direct
access
to
their
classrooms
with
no
need
to
go
 through
the
corridors
of
higher
grade
levels.



Classrooms


Main
Entrance
 Figure
70:
Main
Hallway


C
 L
 A
 S
 S
 E
 S
 


Courtyard


C
 L
 A
 S
 S
 E
 S
 


Figure
71:
Location
of
Classes


‐
Design
Configuration:
 The
 American
 International
 School
 of
 Egypt
 has
 a
 special
 design
 concept.
 It
 is
 not
 only
 a
 courtyard
 with
 double
 loaded
 classrooms
 wings,
 but
 it
 is
 also
 a
 multi‐grade
 campus.
 Here,
 elementary,
 middle,
 and
 high
 school
 grades
 share
 the
 same
 campus.
These
levels
are
separated
into
three
floors;
however,
 these
 different
 levels
 may
 share
 some
 facilities
 such
 as
 the
 gym,
 the
 auditorium,
 the
 music
 room,
 and
 so
 on.
 The



53


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


courtyard
model
is
widely
used
in
school
design.
Here,
courtyards
allow
for
secure
open
areas,
 which
 can
 be
 programmed
 for
 reading
 areas,
 science
 project
 areas,
 and
 other
 academic
 supportive
 functions.
 This
 school
 design
 takes
 special
 care
 to
 ensure
 that
 the
 functions
 surrounding
the
courtyard
and
the
uses
for
the
courtyard
are
compatible
and
do
not
disturb
 each
other,
thus
every
floor
has
wide
hall
ways
that
separate
classrooms
on
each
side
of
the
 wing.
Sun‐study
analysis
was
made
here
to
ensure
that
these
open
spaces
remain
sunny
and
 usable.

 3.
Design
(Properties/
Issues):

 


a.


Exterior
Design:


‐
Façade:

 The
 school
 is
 surrounded
 by
 a
 3
 meter
high
brick
and
metal
fence.
 =>
 This
 gives
 a
 feeling
 of
 safety
 and
 trust
 for
 children
 and
 parents
 that
 shouldn’t
 worry
 about
 their
 children
 during
those
7
hours
of
school.
 Figure
72:
Façade

 • The
school
building
has
a
3
story‐
high
façade
that
is
curved
from
the
sides,
made
out
 of
bricks,
concrete
walls
and
transparent
glass
windows
in
a
Mediterranean
style.
 =>
As
the
school
is
located
in
a
residential
district,
the
use
of
Mediterranean
style
that
 is
used
in
home
designs
like
the
area
around
it
makes
the
school
building
homey
and
 welcoming
to
students.

 Wind
Direction
 
 ‐
Lighting:

 •


 Sun
 Orientation


Figure
73:
Site
Plan



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


54
 


As
the
building
is
U‐shaped
with
double
loaded
rooms
(see
Figure
73):
 

 

Classrooms
and
Administrative
Area
facing
north
(Main
Façade):
have
the
best
 daylight
 quality
 with
 minimum
 glare
 (disadvantage:
 classes
 directed
 to
 the
 north
are
very
few)
 Classrooms
 with
 windows
 facing
 east:
 take
 advantage
 of
 daylight
 with
 a
 light
 use
of
shading
devices.
 Classrooms
with
windows
facing
west:
use
the
shading
devices
more
than
other
 rooms
 (completely
 closed)
 due
 to
 the
 direct
 sunlight
 causing
 eyestrain
 and
 strong
 glare.
 Instead
 they
 use
 more
 electrical
 fixtures,
 which
 is
 a
 negative
 aspect
in
terms
of
energy
waste
and
costs.
 Library
facing
south:
use
shading
devices
and
shutters
to
prevent
direct
sunlight
 which
can
cause
eyestrain
and
strong
glare
while
reading



 ‐
Ventilation:

 
 
 The
school
being
located
in
Cairo,
Egypt
needs
to
face
the
northern
wind
in
order
to
 have
better
natural
ventilation
and
minimize
the
use
of
mechanical
ventilation
systems
that
 are
very
costly
and
environmentally
harmful.
However,
only
the
main
façade
(administration
 and
only
4
classrooms)
is
facing
north
so
that
the
courtyard
is
not
taking
advantage
of
the
 northern
wind
(see
Figure
73).
 
 ‐

Acoustic
Control:
 
 Given
that
the
AIS
is
located
in
the
middle
of
deserted
areas,
the
surroundings
of
the
 school
are
very
quiet
and
don’t
present
 a
problem
to
the
acoustics
of
the
entire
 site.
However,
one
can
expect
future
 construction
sites
(“Cairo
Festival
City”
 and
other
residential
villas
and
houses)
 located
near
the
school
which
could
 cause
a
problem
in
the
future.

 
 
 The
principal
rule
in
acoustic
 control
is
separating
the
noisy
areas
 from
the
quiet
areas;
this
is
very
much
 the
case
in
AIS.

 
 
 Figure
74:
Noise
vs.
Quiet



55


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


c.
Interior
Design:
 
 The
elementary
school
section
of
AIS
is
in
the
first
ground
and
consists
of
classes
on
 both
sides
with
the
administration
in
the
middle.
The
library
is
in
the
same
building.

 
 ‐
Flexibility:

 
 o Multiple‐use
spaces:

 As
an
example,
there’s
the
gymnasium
that
is
used
for
 other
purposes
such
as
an
exam
hall
to
accommodate
 a
large
number
of
students,
which
resembles
the
idea
 of
a
“gymnatorium”.

 Figure
75:
Gymnasium
 •


 Generic
materials
and
standards
are
also
used
like:
  Vinyl
flooring
  Tight‐
level
carpets
(see
Figure
75)
  Neutral
paint
colors
(beige,
white,
light
green
 and
blue..)
  Separate
table
and
chair
combinations
(from
 plastic
and
easy
to
maneuver)
 

Figure
76:
Storage
Room


Natural
and
bright
artificial
lighting
(like
 windows
and
increscent
lighting)
 Storage
rooms
in
classes
and
separate


 
 Partition
walls
as
a
tool
to
provide
flexibility,
is
found
for
example
in
 the
clinic,
where
it
used
for
separation
and
 privacy.

 Figure
77:
Storage
Room
2



 
 
 Figure
78:
Partition
Walls



 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
79:
Nurse’s
Bedroom



56


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 ‐
Interior
Facilities
and
Furnishing:
 
 Classrooms:

 o Furnishing
 of
 classrooms
 have
 different
 configurations
 and
 arrangements,
 in


Figure
80:
Classroom
1


Fig.
showing
 different
 seating
 arrangements


addition
 to
 places
 having
 carpets
 and
 cushions
 and
 rounded
 tables
 for
 children
to
sit
and
play
on
the
ground
depending
on
 every
age
and
its
needs.
 o Furniture
 sizes
 depend
 on
 age
 of
 children
 (depending
 on
 grade)
 







Figure
81:
Classroom
2
 o Materials
 and
 textures
 of
 surfaces
 are
 appropriate
 for
 the
 age
 of
 children
 with
 soft
 surfaces
 (plastics,
 cloth...)
 and
 Fig.
showing
soft
 chrome‐plastic
chairs
that
are
easy
to
 materials
and
sharp
 maneuver
by
children.
 edges
covered
for
 
 the
safety
of
 
 children.

 Specialized
rooms:

 o Art
 rooms
 have
 special
 furniture
 and
 Figure
82:
Play
Area
 arrangement
according
to
its
function.
Stools
and
 desks
are
made
of
wood.
Floors
are
made
of
tiles
 to
 be
 durable
 against
 any
 liquids.
 Shelves
 are
 thicker
and
higher
than
those
in
classrooms
and
in
 addition,
two
storage
rooms
can
be
accessed
from
 the
class
and
may
be
closed
with
lockable
doors.

 o 
Music
rooms
have
chairs
only
and
music
stands.
 Wood
 
 Library:
 is
 a
 quiet
 environment
 for
 students
 to
 work.
 Tiles
 Computer
 tables
 are
 made
 of
 wood
 to
 reduce
 any
 changes
 of
 electrical
 currents
 traveling
 through
 to
 



















Figure
83:
Art
Room
 students
 or
 other
 computers.
 It
 is
 divided
 into
 sections,
 depending
on
age.
The
elementary
students
have
their
own
floor,
away
from
high
school
 students,
and
their
own
part,
away
from
middle
school
students.
The
library
has
a
rocking
 chair
and
more
carpets
on
the
floor
for
comfort
to
sit
on
and
read
or
listen
to
books.
All
 cabinets
and
bookshelves
are
made
of
wood
along
with
the
librarian’s
desk.




57


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 •


 •

• •


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Dimensions
of

 computer
tables/
 chairs
suit
the
age

 of
children.


Figure
84:
A.I.S.
Student
at
Desk


Figure
85:
Dimensions
Diagram


Administration:

 o Furniture
sizes
and
heights
are
suitable
for
adults
like
 employees,
and
visitors.
 o There
are
no
special
counters
that
suit
the
height
of
 children
in
addition
to
the
standard
adult
sizes.
 
 Figure
86:
Administration
 Corridors:
are
wide
and
have
cubicles
on
the
sides
 between
classes.
 
 Toilets:
Sinks
have
heights
suiting
the
age
of
children.
 
 Nurse’s
 office:
 is
 made
 of
 ceramic
 tiled
 floors
 for
 durability
 and
 sanitation.
 
 Surfaces
 are
 made
 of
 smooth
 finishing
 and
 can
 be
 easily
 cleaned.
 Shelves
 Figure
87:
Elementary
Bathroom
 and
 cabinets
 are
 closed
 with
 a
 glass
 door.
 There
 is
 a
 bathroom
 inside
 the
 nurse’s
 office
 and
 it
 is
 located
 close
 to
 the
 regular
 bathrooms
 that
 students
 use.
 One
 room
 may
 be
 accessed
 from
 the
 nurse’s
 office
that
has
two
beds
and
a
wooden
divider
between
both
 for
privacy.
Across
the
hall
is
another
room
with
two
beds
and
 a
divider
and
each
bed
can
be
accessed
from
a
different
door
 in
order
to
eliminate
the
need
to
move
the
divider.
 
 Figure
88:
Nurse’s
Office



58


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


The
auditorium
has
carpeted
floors,
to
ensure
the
lack
of
sound
from
traveling.
Chairs
are
 cushioned
 and
 fold
 in
 order
 to
 ease
 cleaning
 under
 them.
 The
 stage
 is
 made
 of
 wooden
 floors
and
extends
from
one
side
to
the
audience.
The
sound
system
and
lighting
system
 are
 located
 in
 a
 room
 at
 the
 top
 back
 of
 the
 auditorium
 for
 any
 operations
 and
 do
 not
 interrupt
the
audience.


 
 • Technology:
 o In
A.I.S.’s
elementary
school
there
are
no
special
computer
labs
for
children
 except
in
the
library

 o There
is
in
each
classroom
one
computer
for
teacher
and
students.
The
 computer
is
set
on
a
special
table
with
the
dimensions
that
fit
the
age
of
 students
using
it.
 o There
are
other
technological
devices
installed
in
classes
like
projectors
and
 board
screens.
 
Size
of
tables
and


chairs
are
suitable
for
 the
age
of
students.
Up:
 Grade3
student,
Down:
 KG/grade1‐
computers.



 
 
 
 


Figure
89:
PC’s
in
Classrooms
 Figure
90:
Projector
in
Classrooms


Security:
 o Entrance:
There
are
2
doors
at
 the
southern
(pedestrian)
 entrance
of
the
school,
one
for
 elementary
school
students
and
 one
for
middle
and
high
school
 students.

 o Passive
 measures:
 Visitors
 enter
 from
 the
 elementary
 school
 door,
 which
 is
 right
 beside
 the
 security
 personnel
 room
 that
 is
 Figure
91:

Surveillance
Camera
at
Main
Entrance
 facing
 the
 administration
 building
and
get
a
name
tag
and
permission
before
entering.
This
gives
the
 security
personnel
control
and
visual
coverage
of
everyone
coming
from
this
 gate.




59


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


 Inside
 the
 building
 there
 is
 no
 specific
 location
 for
 security
 guards,
 but
 about
 3
 of
 them
 circulate
 in
 the
 corridor
 using
 wireless
 radiophones
for
communication.
 o Surveillance
 devices:
 There
 is
 a
 video
 camera
 on
 top
 of
 the
 administration
 part
facing
the
gate
for
more
surveillance.
 
 • Codes:
 In
 AIS
 there
 are
 many
 interior
 facilities
 that
 are
specially
designed
for
disabled:
 o Equal
 Access
 for
 all
 people
 and
 disabled
 persons
(students
and
faculty):
  Door
sizes
(classrooms)
  Elevators
 Figure
92:
Ramp
to
Auditorium
&
Field

  Ramps
to
allow
flexible
circulation
  Wide
corridors
  Flexible
 furniture
 configuration
 inside
 classrooms
  Toilets
 specially
 designed
 for
 disabled
to
allow
wheelchairs
 o Fire‐safety:

  The
 furniture
 is
 non‐flammable
 and
 would
 not
lead
to
a
greater
fire
if
there
were
one
to
 begin
with.
 










Figure
93:
Girl’s
Toilet

  There
 are
 fire‐extinguishers
 everywhere
 Inside
Toilets:
Cabinets
for
disabled
are
 inside
 the
 building
 at
 regular
 intervals
 wider
and
open
from
the
opposite
direction.



 (every
 3‐5
 meters
 inside
 the
 halls
 of
 the
 school,
on
every
floor)
 ‐
Acoustics:
 
 After
this
overall
acoustic
control,
each
room,
or
each
function
is
treated
differently
for
 
 acoustics.

 • Classrooms:
 
  The
classrooms
are
carpeted;
using
carpets
on
the
floor
of
the
 
 classrooms
is
one
of
the
simplest
and
cheapest
ways
available
for
 
 acoustic
control
 
 
 
 


Figure
94:
Close‐up
of
Carpet
Floors

 


Figure
95:
Classroom
Interior




Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


60
 


Acoustic
tiles
are
used
in
some
parts
of
the
ceiling
which
is
another
source
of
acoustic
 control:


Figure
96:
Close‐up
of
Ceiling


Figure
97:
Interior
of
Classroom


Classrooms
are
not
directly
adjacent
to
noisy
areas
like
the
cafeteria,
the
playing
area,
 the
auditorium
and
so
on,
which
minimize
outdoor
noises.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
98:
Space
Allocation
Diagram



 •

Ventilation
ducts
and
HVAC
systems
are
placed
on
higher
parts
of
the
wall,
that
way,
 indoor
noise
is
minimized,
and
the
RC
is
lowered.



Some
parts
of
the
ceiling
 are
not
covered
in
tiles,
 which
could
increase
the
 NC.




 
 
 


Figure
99:
Close‐up
of
AC
Location



61


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 Since
 parallel
 walls
 create
 direct
 sound
 waves
 that
 could
 disturb
 the
 intelligibility
 of
 sounds,
the
furnishing
of
the
walls
are
a
good
way
to
avoid
such
unwanted
waves.
 



 
 
 
 
 Figure
100:
Classroom


Figure
101:
Classroom
with
another
angle
 
 Music
Rooms:
 
 o In
 the
 music
 room,
 egg
 cartons
 are
 placed
 on
 a
 part
 of
 the
 ceiling
 as
 a
 creative
 and
 affordable
 way
 to
 absorb
 the
 music
 sounds
 from
 traveling
 elsewhere
outside
the
music
room.

 
 






Figure
102:
Music
Room
 o The
special
design
of
the
ceiling
is
specific
 to
music
rooms,
to
facilitate
acoustic
 control.



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 









Figure
103:
Music
Room



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


62
 



 o The
music
room
is
not
located
directly
next
to
the
classrooms;
it
is
located
next
 to
other
noisy
areas
like
the
playing
fields
and
the
auditorium.
A
passageway
for
 bus
 allows
 the
 separation
 between
 the
 music
 rooms
 and
 the
 classrooms.
 This
 helps
in
keeping
the
classrooms
away
from
exterior
unwanted
noises.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



 Figure
104:
Space
Allocation
Diagram
 
 
 
 Auditorium:
 
 o Using
a
number
of
curtains
distributed
on
 different
levels
allows
a
good
variation
in
 reverberation
times.




 Figure
105:
Auditorium


o To
minimize
or
even
restrict
exterior
noises
from
coming
inside
the
room,
the
 auditorium
 is
 left
 without
 windows;
 the
 ventilation
 is
 achieved
 through
 the
 ducts
that
are
distributed
around
the
ceiling
large
sized‐room.

 
 
 
 
 


Figure
106:
Auditorium
Back
Side



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


63
 


o As
for
the
noise
of
the
mechanical
systems,
like
the
HVAC
systems
for
example,
 it
is
controlled
by
placing
such
devices
on
the
upper
parts
of
the
walls
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
107:
Auditorium
Back
Side


Figure
108:
Ventilation
Close‐up


o As
 another
 attempt
 to
 reduce
 the
 noise
 the
 entire
 ceiling
 of
 the
 auditorium
 is
 covered
 with
 acoustical
tile
to
treat
other
internal
 noises
like
the
voice
of
the
audience
 for
example.

 o The
use
of
acoustic
materials
is
used
 













Figure
109:
Lighting
Close‐up
 on
all
the
walls
of
the
room
whether
 close
 to
 the
 stage
 or
 not.
 This
 is
 considered
 an
 inconvenience,
 the
 absorptive
 materials
should
only
be
applied
to
the
back
walls
that
are
facing
the
stage.

 
 o The
ceiling
is
covered
with
acoustical
tiles
as
we
have
seen
above,
this
is
good
 for
 absorbing
 the
 noise
 of
 the
 audience
 and
 that
 of
 the
 ceiling
 ventilation,
 however,
smooth
and
hard
surfaces
are
better
to
reflect
sound
properly.

 
 o Upholstered
chairs
are
another
good
tool
to
absorb
unwanted
noises.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
110:
Auditorium
Chairs



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


64
 


o The
 auditorium
 room
 has
 a
 rectangular
 shape,
 this
 an
 advantage
 because
 circular
and
curved
rooms
are
not
appropriate
for
the
function
of
an
auditorium
 as
 they
 do
 not
 dispense
 sound
 evenly
 throughout
 the
 room,
 which
 is
 a
 neede
 characteristics
for
the
walls
of
an
auditorium.

 
 o Another
aspect
that
shows
how
the
sounds
of
the
stage
are
treated
differetnly
 from
 those
 of
 the
 audience
 area
 is
 the
 treatment
 of
 the
 floor.
 As
 we
 can
 see,
 the
audience
area
is
carpeted,
as
opposed
to
the
stage
area
which
has
a
hard
 floor.
 This
 is
 an
 advantage
 because
 the
 carpet
 helps
 to
 absorb
 the
 unwanted
 noises
 of
 the
 audience,
 while
 the
 hard
 floor
 disperses
 the
 sounds
 of
 the
 performers
or
lecturers
from
the
stage
to
the
audience.




 
 Figure
111:
Auditorium
Floors


Figure
112:
Auditorium
Stage
Floors



 
 o The
sound
systems
are
considered
in
the
design
of
the
room




 
 
 


Figure
113:
Auditorium
Speakers


o Once
 again,
 as
 we
 have
 seen
 above,
 the
 auditorium
 is
 located
 away
 from
 the
 classrooms,
it
is
next
to
the
other
noisy
areas
we
have
previously
discussed.
 
 



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


65
 


Gymnasium/
Gymnatorium:
 
 o For
sports
related
reasons
the
floor
of
the
gymnasium’s
floor
is
usually
hard.
 Since
 hard
 floor
 do
 not
 absorb
 sounds,
 it
 would
 be
 very
 hard
 to
 use
 the
 gymnaisum
 for
 other
 reason
 like
 exams
 for
 example.
 Therefore,
 when
 the
 room
is
used
for
more
quiet
activities,
the
floor
is
covered
with
carpets
as
a
 cheap
and
manageable
way
to
treat
acoustics
temporarily.

 
 
 
 


Figure
114:
Gymnasium
Floors



 o As
the
floor
has
to
be
hard
for
sports,
the
ceiling
is
the
only
areas
that
could
 be
 treated,
 therefore,
 all
 the
 mechanical
 systems
 and
 ducts
 are
 placed
 on
 the
ceiling

 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
115:
Gymnasium
Ceiling


Dining
Area:
 o There
 are
 two
 ways
 to
 succesfully
 separate
 noisy
 areas
 from
 quiet
 ones.
 They
 ca
 be
 separated
 as
 we
 have
 seen
 above
 in
 two
 different
 location
 on
 the
 site.
 There
 is
 also
 the
 other
 solution
 of
 separating
 them
 on
 different
 floors
of
the
building,
the
noisy
areas
being
under
the
quiet
ones.
Althought
 the
first
option
was
used
for
the
majority
of
the
noisy
areas
of
the
building,
 the
cafeteria
is
the
exception
of
using
the
latter
option.
In
AIS,
the
cafeteria
 is
 located
 underneath
 the
 admnistration
 area,
 which
 succesfully
 separates
 the
two
areas.

 



66


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
116:
Space
Allocation
Diagram
 
 
 o Having
the
entire
dining
area
treated
with
acoustical
tiles
is
a
disadvatage.
 Such
treatment
should
only
be
reserved
for
the
eating
area,
the
serving
area
 should
not
have
them,
there
purpose
is
to
separate
eating
and
serving
area,
 which
is
not
the
case
if
the
entire
ceiling
has
them.
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 4.
Building
Services:
 


Figure
117:
Cafeteria


a.
Structural
Systems:

 •

Building
 life:
 The
walls
 of
 the
 school
are
concrete,
 steel,
 and
 bearing
 wall;
 by
 which
 they
 want
 the
 minimal
 maintenance
 over
 the
 following
 years
 and
 indefinite
 life
 spans.
 
 Fire
 Safety:
 To
 achieve
 fire
 safety,
 they
 used
 fireproof
 concrete
and
glue‐laminated
beams.
These
materials
are
 preventable
to
burn.
 
 


Figure
118:
A.I.S.
Building



67


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 Long
Span
space:
In
 swimming
pool,
they
 materials
such
as
 glue‐illuminated
 such
place
are
one‐ structures
which
 must
be
no
columns.

 
 


gym
and
at
the
 used
long
span
 steel,
trusses,
and
 beams
because
 story
(open‐space)
 mean
that
there
 Figure
119:
Gymnasium




 Special
issues:
The
high
humidity
and
the
chemicals
 used
in
swimming
pool
water
rust
many
structural
 systems,
so
they
used
ceramic
plates
that
are
 avoidable
to
rust.




 
 


Figure
120:
Indoors
Pool



 b.
Mechanical
Systems:
 
 Space
 
 School
mechanical
systems
encompass
the
generation
and
 application
of
heat
and
mechanical
power
and
the
 design,
 







Figure
121:
Water
Tank
 production,
 and
 use
 of
 machines
 and
 tools.
 At
 the
 AIS,
 there
 are
 general
 points
 that
 are
 considered
 when
 considering
 the
 exterior
 mechanical
 systems
of
the
school
building:
 ‐
 Simplicity
 in
 the
 Design
 of
 Mechanical
 Systems:
 Mechanical
 components,
 such
 as
 boilers,
 chillers,
 pumps,
 and
 air
 handling
 equipment
 are
 easily
 accessed,
 with
 space
 around
 the
 equipment
adequate
for
service
and
maintenance.

 ‐
 Life‐Cycle
 Analysis:
 Schools
 should
 be
 aware
 that
 energy
 savings
 and
 lower
 maintenance
 costs
often
justify
the
higher
first
costs
of
more
efficient
systems
 ‐
 Ability
 to
 accommodate
 growth
 and
 change:
 Mechanical
 systems
 should
 be
 designed
 to
 accommodate
change
easily
 
 



68


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 c.
Electrical
Systems:
 ‐
Classrooms
(Elementary
Schools):
 • Electrical
Lighting
fixtures
used
are
fluorescent
lamps
in
the
ceiling
 o Switches
 are
 located
 next
 to
 the
 door
 but
 are
 nor
 multi‐level
 or
 dimming
 switches.
 • Daylight
 is
 transmitted
 in
 the
 room
 through
 large
 glass
 windows
 with
 shading
 devices.

 o Walls
and
Ceilings
are
white
which
makes
the
rooms
look
brighter
 • No
special
indirect
lighting
for
the
computer
in
each
room
 
 ‐
Corridors
(Elementary
Schools):

 Fluorescent
electrical
fixtures
at
the
ceiling
 No
side
or
focused
lighting
for
boards
or
displays
 As
preferred
there
are
light‐blue
colored
 corridors
affecting
brightness
and
positive
 inspiration
in
the
elementary
school
 
 ‐
Music
Room:

similar
to
classroom
facing
east
 
 ‐
Auditorium:
 • No
windows
transmitting
daylight
for
special
 lighting
requirements
 • There
are
flexible
and
dimmable
lighting
fixtures
at
 the
ceiling
and
on
the
sidewalls
using
incandescent
 lamps
as
recommended.
 • Special
focus
spotlight
on
the
sides
and
at
the
back
 to
illuminate
the
stage
during
performances.
 • No
lights
used
on
steps

 ‐
Library:


 • • •

Figure
122:
Hallway


Figure
123:
Auditorium


located
in
the
first
and
second
floor
 uses
fluorescent
lamp
(lay‐in)
as
a
general
lighting
system
 No
indirect
lighting
for
computers
 
 ‐
Gymnasium/
Gymnatorium:

 • • •

• •

Only
2
small
windows
facing
north
that
allow
daylight,
 instead
the
lighting
system
is
electrical.
 Incandescent
lamps
distributed
on
the
sides
of
the
 rooms
(walls)
not
at
the
ceiling
where
mechanical
and
 structural
systems
take
place.


Figure
124:
Gymnasium



69


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 ‐
Pool:
 Covered
with
a
semi
closed
ceiling
allowing
skylights
 (natural
daylight)
 • The
southern
part
has
a
concrete
slab
with
fluorescent
 lamps
 
 ‐
Cafeteria:
 •

Is
located
in
the
underground
level
and
has
glass
 windows
at
the
whole
southern
side
(no
need
for
 shading
devices
due
to
its
low
level)
 • Uses
fluorescent
lamp
(lay‐in)
as
a
general
lighting
 system
 (No
other
lighting
systems
because
it’s
not
used
as
a
 work/meeting
room)
 
 ‐
Outdoors:


Figure
125:
Pool


• • 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
126:
Cafeteria


Outdoor
Incandescent
lamps
are
located
along
the
fence
of
the
school
 Strong
spotlights
on
the
roofs
of
the
building
to
illuminate
the
courtyard
and
 the
Sports
arena
at
night.



70


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 INTERNATIONAL
CASE
STUDY
 
 1.
Introduction:
 
 
 
 a.



Long
Beach
International
Elementary
School
–
Thomas
Blurock
Architects:
 
 
 Working
 early
 in
 his
 career
 with
 redevelopment
 agencies
 in
 Boston
 and
 Southern
 California
 and
 on
 high
 schools
 for
 impoverished
 villages
 in
 Southern
 Italy,
 Thomas
 Blurock
 realized
that
designing
inner‐city
schools
would
combine
his
dual
interests
in
urban
planning
 and
education
architecture.
 
 
 
 This
 34‐classroom
 school
 sits
 on
 a
 former
 parking
 lot
 in
 downtown
 Long
 Beach.
 International
 Elementary
 School,
 located
 in
 Long
 Beach,
 California,
 serves
 grades
 K‐5
 in
 the
 Long
 Beach
 Unified
 School
 District.
 The
 constraints
 of
 the
 small
 site
 and
 the
 educational
 program
 challenged
 traditional
 notions
 about
 elementary
 schools.
 The
 architects’
 solution
 maximizes
 play
 area,
 addresses
 security
 concerns,
 and
 responds
 to
 surrounding
 urban
 and
 residential
neighborhoods.
 
 2.
Description
of
Project:
 
 
 
 a.
Site
Planning:
 
 Long
Beach
International
Elementary
School
has
realized
the
design
of
inner‐city
schools
which
 combines
the
dualism
between
urban
planning
and
the
architecture
of
educational
buildings.
 ‐
Space
Allocation
 •

The
site
of
the
school
consists
of
 facilities
 that
 complement
 the
 essential
 elements
 which
 are
 classrooms:
 
 
 
 
 Figure
127:
Main
Entrance



71


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
128:
Space
Allocation
Diagram


Figure
129:
Space
Allocation
Diagram



 ‐
Site
Circulation:
 •

The
 vehicular
 circulation
 should
always
be
separated
 from
 the
 pedestrian
 one,
 mainly
 for
 safety
 reasons.
 This
 is
 very
 much
 the
 case
 at
Long
Beach
International
 Elementary
School.
It
is
the
 case
 for
 the
 simple
 reason
 that
the
school
is
two
story
 building;
 therefore,
 since
 vehicles
 are
 only
 allowed
 outside
 the
 building,
 the
 interior
 of
 the
 building
 becomes
 a
 pedestrian
 only
 area
 completely
 separated
 from
 the
 outside
 where
 vehicles
circulate.

 


Figure
130:
Floor
Plan
(Google
Images)



72


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


The
notion
of
safety
is
triggered
again
in
circulation
at
the
drop
off
area.
At
the
school,
 safety
 is
 ensured
 by
 closing
 the
 street
 of
 the
 entrance
 during
 school
 hours
 to
 ensure
 the
safety
of
the
children
coming
and
going
into
the
school.

 
 The
faculty
parking
lot
is
appropriate
to
the
size
of
the
building,
there
is
also
another
 parking
for
parents.
 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
131:
Parking
(Google
Images)


‐
Playing
Fields:
 •

By
 elevating
 the
 playing
 fields
 on
 a
 deck
 above
 the
 classrooms,
 Long
 Beach
 International
Elementary
school
doubled
the
usable
space.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
132:
Playground
(Google
Images)



73


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


• • •

There
is
a
24
foot‐high
corrugated
metal
screen
is
placed
all
around
the
fields
serving
a
 double
benefit.
It
firstly
protects
the
students
on
the
field
from
the
surroundings,
and
 by
showing
their
silhouettes
through
the
screen
which
produce
a
neighborhood
feeling.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
133:
Side
View
(Google
Images)



 Despite
space
restrictions,
the
school
did
not
 take
the
opportunity
of
juxtaposing
different
 sports
 fields
 in
 one
 space,
 instead
 it
 settled
 to
three
basketball
fields,
limiting
the
variety
 of
sports
available
on
site.

 
 


Figure
134:
Site
Plan
(Google
Earth)


Figure
135:
Site
Plan
(www.greatschools.org)


Sun
 orientation
 plays
 an
 important
 role
 in
 designing
 sports
 fields;
 they
 should
 be
 oriented
 north‐south.
 This
 is
 not
 the
 case
 at
 Long
 Beach
 International
 Elementary
 School;
 on
 the
 contrary,
 the
 fields
are
oriented
east‐west.





 



74


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


‐
Site‐design
Concept:
 •

Long
 Beach
 International
 Elementary
 School
 is
 a
 K‐5
 elementary
 school;
 it
 houses
 classes
 from
 kindergarten
 to
 5th
 grade.
 There
 is
 no
 clear
 separation
 between
 educational
 spaces
 and
 other
 facilities.
 It
 is
 organized
 by
 placing
 classes
 from
 kindergarten
till
2nd
grade
on
the
ground
floor
along
with
all
the
indoor
facilities
(like
 the
library,
the
eating
area,
the
clinic
and
so
on).
On
another
hand,
classes
from
3rd
to
 5th
grade
are
placed
on
the
second
floor
along
with
the
outdoor
facilities
like
the
court,
 the
playground
and
sports
fields.

 Such
a
school
is
beneficial
for
an
elementary
school
for
security
reasons.
Given
that
all
 classrooms
and
facilities
are
placed
within
the
same
building,
they
are
therefore
more
 easily
contained
and
secured.

 The
school
has
six
entrances.
Even
though
this
is
beneficial
for
the
ease
in
circulation
at
 peak
times,
it
can
pose
a
problem
for
assuring
the
security
of
the
building.



Figure
136:
Site
Plan
(Google
Earth)



75


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 
 b.
Circulation:
 
 ‐
Entry
Sequence/
Accessibility:

 
 
 There
 are
 6
 entrances,
 one
 main
 entrance,
2
side
entrances
for
students,
1
 faculty
 parking
 entrance
 and
 2
 services
 entrances.
Students
should
arrive
at
Long
 Beach
 at
 8:25
 a.m.
 Students
 may
 not
 be
 on
school
property
prior
to
8:25
a.m.
due
 to
 lack
 of
 adult
 supervision.
 Students
 transported
by
car
are
to
be
dropped
off
 at
 the
 back
 on
 the
 south
 side
 of
 the
 building.
 Students
 are
 to
 be
 dropped
 off
 on
the
curb
near
the
entrance.
Buses
will
 unload
 students
 in
 the
 front
 of
 the
 Figure
137:
Site
Plan
(www.greatschools.org)
 building.
Students
may
not
be
dropped
off
or
 picked
 up
 by
 car
 in
 the
 bus
 area
 located
 in
 front
 of
 the
 school
 building.
 Students
 whose
 parents
provide
transportation
will
exit
the
side
entrances
and
go
to
the
parent
pickup
along
 the
 curb.
 All
 students
 must
 remain
 on
 the
 sidewalk
 until
 the
 vehicle
 has
 come
 to
 a
 stop
 alongside
 the
 curb
 before
 boarding.
 This
 in
 return
 poses
 some
 danger
 to
 the
 safety
 of
 the
 students
 as
 they
 will
 be
 located
 along
 a
 main
 heavy
 traffic
 road.
 Staff
 members
 and
 safety
 patrols
will
help
monitor
the
loading
process.
Parents
who
choose
to
park
in
the
front
parking
 lot
to
pickup
or
drop
off
their
student
must
walk
their
students
to
the
side
entrances.
Students
 who
ride
buses
will
exit
through
the
front
doors
located
on
the
west
elevation.

 
 ‐
Internal
Circulation:

 
 
 As
the
school
day
begins
at
8:25
a.m.
where
all
students
should
have
arrived
already
at
 school,
 the
 students
 will
 be
 directed
 to
 the
 playground
 or
 gymnasium
 depending
 on
 the
 weather.
At
8:35
a.m.,
the
bell
signaling
the
beginning
of
the
school
day
will
ring.
Any
student
 arriving
after
8:35
a.m.
is
to
use
the
main
entrance
door.
If
the
student
is
dropped
off
at
8:40
 a.m.
or
later
they
need
to
report
to
the
office
for
a
tardy
pass
before
going
to
the
classroom.
 At
Long
Beach
Elementary
School,
students
only
have
lunch
time
due
to
limited
space
in
the
 lunchroom
during
lunchtime.
If
a
parent
would
like
to
have
lunch
with
their
student,
it
will
be
 necessary
for
parent
to
sign
in
at
the
main
office
located
on
the
ground
floor.
It
is
necessary
 for
the
parent
to
sign
their
student
out
in
the
office
when
taking
them
off
of
school
property



76


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


during
 their
 designated
 lunch
 time.
 Students
 are
 then
 to
 be
 picked
 up
 and
 dropped
 off
 promptly
at
their
lunch
time.
Students
at
Long
Beach
Elementary
School
also
have
a
so‐called
 “outside
recess”
since
students
do
need
fresh
air
and
exercise.
Recess
will
be
held
inside
only
 on
extreme
bad
weather
days.
Elementary
school
students
in
particular
travel
as
a
class
when
 they
have
P.E.
or
Music.
At
the
end
of
the
day
students
are
directed
under
the
supervision
of
 teachers
and
other
supervisors
to
the
main
doors
to
be
picked
up
by
their
parents
or
to
the
 main
entrance
at
the
main
elevation
of
the
school
to
be
picked
up
by
the
school
bus.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
138:
Floor
Plan
(www.greatschools.org)
 
 
 



77


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


‐
Site
Size:
 
 
 On
 an
 area
 of
 79,605
 sq.
 ft.
 Long
 Beach
 Elementary
 School
 has
 about
 717
 students
 enrolled
from
Kindergarten
to
the
5th
grade.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
139:
Graph
of
students
vs.
grade
(www.greatschools.org)


‐
Design
Configuration:
 
 
 Thomas
 Blurock,
 the
 Architect
 of
 Long
 Beach
 Elementary
 School
 designed
 this
 inner‐city
 school
 according
to
the
dualism
between
urban
planning
and
 education
 architecture.
 There
 are
 actually
 two
 major
 strategies:

 ‐
 Creative
 use
 of
 small
 land
 parcels
 to
 maximize
 usable
space
 ‐
“Hermit‐Crab”
Concept:
using
structures
abandoned
 by
other
entities

 CLASSES
 O
 F
 F
 I
 C
 E
 S


Centralized
 Resources
 Court‐
 yard



 Figure
140:
General
View
(Google
Images)
 
 The
 configuration
 of
 Long
 Beach
 International
 Elementary
 School
 is
 based
 on
 the
 design
 of
 “centralized
 resources
 with
 single‐loaded
 classroom
 wings”.
 This
 configuration
 allows
 for
 visual
 differentiation
of
corridors
and
increased
opportunity
 for
sub‐grouping
of
classroom
areas.

 


CLASSES


Figure
141:
Floor
Plan
(www.greatschools.org)



 



78


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


3.
Design
(Properties/
Issues):
 
 a. Sun
and
Natural
Lighting:
 Ground
floor:
 • • •

Classrooms
(a)
placed
north
to
benefit
from
sunlight
and
have
a
minimized
glare
effect.
 Classrooms
 (a)
 on
 the
 west
 side
 and
 Kindergarten
 classrooms
 (n)
 facing
 south
 should
 have
shading
devices
to
reduce
glare
effect.
 Facilities
 like
 courtyard
 (k),
 computer
 labs
 (c),
 library
 (b)
 and
 kitchen
 (f)
 are
 placed
 in
 the
 middle
 and
 surrounded
 by
 walls
 of
 classrooms
 in
 order
 to
 minimize
 heat
 gain.



N


Figure
142.1:
Floor
Plan
(www.greatschools.org)


Playfield
Level
Plan:
 • • •

The
 playgrounds
 (a)
 for
 children
 are
 facing
 north,
 which
 is
 an
 appropriate
 location
 to
 protect
them
from
direct
sun‐heat.
 Classrooms
facing
south
(d)
on
the
left
side
should
have
shading
devices
to
reduce
the
 heat
and
glare
effect
at
certain
times
of
the
day.
 There
are
2
classrooms
that
are
tilted
to
the
west
so
that
could
have
a
minimized
glare
 effect.
  In
general
as
this
floor
is
at
the
roof
level
open
spaces
are
located
in
the
north
and
 closed
 spaces
 that
 could
 have
 protective
 shading
 devices
 are
 placed
 facing
 South
 and
West.




79


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 



 
 
 
 
 
 



N



 
 
 


Figure
142.2:
Floor
Plan
(www.greatschools.org)


b.
Acoustic
Control:
 
 
 Long
 Beach
 International
 Elementary
 School
 is
 built
 in
 downtown
 Long
 Beach
 California.
This
location
has
an
important
impact
on
the
acoustics
of
the
building.
Being
built
in
 the
middle
of
a
city,
it
could
be
surrounded
by
noisy
buildings
that
add
to
the
exterior
noises
of
 the
 building.
 This
 is
 the
 case
 for
 the
 school;
 it
 is
 located
 next
 to
 a
 factory
 which
 normally
 generates
loud
noise
that
is
transmittable
to
the
school.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
143:
Site
Plan
(Google
Earth)



80


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


• • • • • • •

To
 minimize
 exterior
 noise
 affecting
 the
 playing
 fields,
 a
 metal
 screen
 surrounds
 the
 fields
serving
as
a
sound
buffer.

 
 
 
 
 
 


Figure
144:
General
View
(Google
Images)


An
essential
rule
in
acoustic
control
is
separating
noisy
areas
from
quiet
ones.
This
rule
 is
 respected
 by
 the
 school,
 within
 the
 constraints
 of
 the
 space,
 On
 the
 ground
 floor,
 most
 of
 the
 noisy
 areas
 are
 placed
 in
 the
 center
 of
 the
 building,
 while
 the
 quiet
 areas
 are
 encircling
 them,
 this
 is
 an
 advantage
 as
 it
 keeps
 the
 noisy
 areas
 somewhat
 together,
 thus
 reducing
 the
 noise
 transmitted
 to
 the
 quiet
 zone.
 As
 for
 the
 second
 floor,
 the
 small
 number
 of
 classes
 is
 separated
 from
 the
 area
 of
 the
 fields
 as
 the
 classes
 are
 placed
 on
 a
 slightly
 higher
 level.
 While
 this
 is
 beneficial
 on
 both
 floors,
 it
 is
 also
 has
 disadvantages
 because
 it
 means
 that
 the
 quiet
 areas
 are
 those
 exposed
 to
 the
 noise
 of
 the
 surrounding
 streets
 and







Figure
145:
Floor
Plan
(http://www2.lbusd.k12.ca.us/intl/)


buildings.




81


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
146:
Floor
Plan
(http://www2.lbusd.k12.ca.us/intl/)
 
 http://www2.lbusd.k12.ca.us/intl/)
 Given
that
the
faculty
parking
is
located
inside
the
building
with
the
courtyard
and
the
 kindergarten
play
area
next
to
it,
a
mural
was
built
to
serve
as
a
sound
buffer
between
 the
two
as
part
of
the
acoustical
treatment
of
the
building.



Figure
147:
Floor
Plan
(http://www2.lbusd.k12.ca.us/intl/)


http://www2.lbusd.k12.ca.us/intl/)



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


82
 


A
 mistake
 in
 the
 acoustic
 control
 of
 the
 building
 comes
 from
 its
 organization.
 Since
 noisy
areas
should
be
placed
below
quiet
areas
to
reduce
the
noise
in
the
latter
ones,
 placing
all
the
playgrounds
and
playing
fields
above
quiet
areas
like
the
library,
other
 classrooms
and
other
quiet
rooms
increases
exterior
noises
in
those
rooms.

 
 In
the
library
of
the
Long
Beach
International
Elementary
School
the
simplest
and
most
 affordable
acoustic
control
method
is
used
in
the
library
floor
with
the
carpeting.




 
 
 
 


Figure
149:
Close‐up
of
Carpet
(Google
Images)



 


Figure
148:
Interior
(Google
Images)


c.
 Figure
150:
interior
of
class
and
use
of
space
 (Google
Images)


Interior
Design:
 •

Figure
151:
interior
facilities
of
building
 (http://www2.lbusd.k12.ca.us/intl/)


Interior
Facilities
and
 Furnishing:
 o Classrooms:
have
 different
 arrangements
 depending
on
the
 needs
of
each
age.
 Furniture
is
mostly
 made
out
of
wood
 and
chrome
to
be
 easy
to
maneuver
 for
children.




83


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 o Specialized
Rooms:
are
here
similar
to
classrooms
but
have
a
different
furniture
 configuration
depending
on
needs.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
152:
Art
room
(Google
Images)
 
 o Corridors:
 are
 wide
 enough
 between
 classrooms
 and
 other
 rooms
 to
 accommodate
a
large
number
of
students.
 o Administration
room:
are
located
next
to
the
entrance
and
have
different
sizes
 of
furniture
suitable
for
adults
that
work
there
or
visiting
parents.
 o Library:
has
flexible
and
movable
wooden
furniture.



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Figure
153:
Interior
of
library
(Google
Images)
 Flexibility:

 o The
existence
of
a
Multi‐purpose
room
in
the
school
plan
shows
the
aspect
of
 flexibility
has
been
incorporated
in
design.

 Technology:
There
are
specialized
computer
labs
in
the
school
that
show
an
updated
 use
of
technology.
But
there
is
no
indication
of
further
high‐tech
technological
devices
 in
terms
of
safety
and
facilities.
 Security
measures:
 There
is
no
fence
surrounding
the
school
but
only
in
some
parts
like
next
to
the
main
 entrance
and
the
rest
is
closed
with
metal
gates.
However,
there
are
safety
patrols
that
 supervise
the
children
while
going
on
the
bus
etc..
(Handbook).
 



84


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


4.
Building
Services:
 
 
 a.
Structural
Systems:
 
 • Building
 life:
 the
 façade
 of
 the
 school
 building
 is
 divided
 into
 two
 types
 of
 walls;
 by
 which
 one
 is
 an
 in
 steel
 and
 concrete
 bearing
 wall,
 while
 the
 other
 is
likely
a
steel
framed
wall.

 
 
 
 


Figure
154:
Outer
Metal
Gate
(Google
Images)



And
 from
 inside,
 the
 walls
 are
 masonry
 bearing
 walls.
 So
 they
 can
 achieve
 the
 minimal
 maintenance
 over
 the
 following
 years.



Figure
155:
Outer
Walls
(Google
Images)




 Fire
 Safety:
 in
 order
 to
 achieve
 fire
 safety,
 they
 used
 fireproof
 concrete
 and
 glue‐ laminated
 steel
 beams.
 These
 materials
 are
 preventable
to
burn.



 
 Figure
156:
Fire
Escape
(Google
Images)



Aesthetics:
 The
 structural
 system
 used
 in
 this
 school
 expresses
 modernization;
 they
 used
 steel
 structural
 system
 and
 more
 so
 the
 name
 of
 school
 is
 made
 of
 steel.

 


Figure
157:
Main
Gate
(Google
Images)




85


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



 


Long
Span
space:
they
used
long
span
material
such
as
steel
beams
and
steel
trusses
in
 this
side
of
building
because
this
side
is
one
story
space
where
the
playground
exists,
so
 that
steel
beams
can
bear
the
weight.
 b.
Mechanical
Systems:


b. Electrical
Systems:
 • For
the
interior
of
spaces
and
lighting,
there
is
a
varying
use
between
increscent
 lamp
fixtures
and
fluorescent
lamp
fixtures
in
classrooms/
library.
 
 


Figure
158:
varying
electrical
lighting
systems
in
 addition
to
daylight
from
windows
(Google
Images)



86


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Checklist
for
building
Elementary
Schools
 Description
of
Project:
 Design
properties
and
issues:
 •

Site
planning:
 o Site
design
concept:


Many
different
designs
of
schools
exist,
to
decide
between
them,
 different
 factors
 such
 as
 climate,
 internal
 circulation,
 organization,
size
of
the
elementary
school,
security
educational
 purposes
must
be
taken
into
consideration.

 
 o Space
 Allocation:
 The
 site
 of
 a
 school
 includes
 the
 classroom,
 educational
rooms
and
also
all
the
facilities
that
complement
them
  Classroom
sizes
  Playing
Field
sizes
  Standard
measurements
that
should
be
respected.
  Sun
orientation
is
an
important
factor
that
should
be
taken
into
 consideration
in
the
placement
of
the
fields
 
 o Soil,
 Topography,
 Climate
 and
 views
 (Environment
 reviews):
 are
 essential
in
the
designing
process
of
the
site
and
also
affect
the
type
of
 structure
and
materials
to
be
used.
 
 o Site
circulation:
  The
 coordination
 between
 vehicular
 and
 pedestrian
 areas
 is
 a
 key
design
element
that
ensures
safety
and
security.

  Many
elements,
like
the
number
of
employees
and
students
and
 schools
must
be
considered
in
the
design
of
the
parking
lot.
 
 Circulation:
 o Accessibility:
  School
entrances
should
be
determined
according
to
the
location
 and
thus,
traffic
peak
times
and
should
be
divided
into
grades,
in
 case
the
elementary
school
is
part
of
a
K‐12
school.
 
 o Site
access
and
Design
Configuration:

 


87


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


Amount
 of
 parking
 and
 space
 for
 buses
 required
 should
 be
 determined
based
on
the
amount
of
buses
and
expected
parents
 dropping
off
their
children.
  Driveways
must
be
long
and
wide
enough
to
accommodate
such
 peak
time
traffic.
  Easy
 access
 of
 emergency
 vehicles
 at
 all
 times
 but
 especially
 at
 those
peak
times.
  Keeping
 the
 vehicle
 circulation
 areas
 separate
 or
 as
 separate
 as
 possible
from
the
children
walking
areas.
  Bus
drop
off
area
should
be
designed
to
be
a
one
way
circulation
 for
safety
factors.
 
 o Entry
Sequence:
  Students,
teachers,
staff
and
parents
are
different.
  Separate
 entrance
 for
 those
 who
 come
 by
 bus/
 other
 means
 of
 transportation.
 
 o Internal
Circulation:
  Place
of
circulation
during
classes/
breaks..
  Evacuation
plans
in
case
of
emergencies.
 
 

Acoustic:
 o Exterior
 noise
 from
 surroundings
 should
 be
 minimized
 for
 concentration
 inside
 classrooms.
 The
 interior
 noises
 from
 either
 the
 mechanical
 systems
 or
 the
 individuals
should
also
be
contained.

 
 Lighting
and
Ventilation:
 o Lighting:
 Consider
 the
 orientation
 of
 the
 building
 to
 reduce
 the
 effect
 of
 glare
 during
 different
 times
 of
 the
 day
 and
 the
 use
 of
 shading
 techniques.
 (N‐S
 orientation)
 o Ventilation:
Consider
the
orientation
of
the
building
to
benefit
from
the
prevailing
 wind
direction
(depending
on
Location).
 
 Structural
System:
 o Façade
of
the
building
(statement/
aesthetics/
durability).
 o Fencing
of
building
and
gates
(security)
 o Gym
and
Swimming
Pool
should
be
built
using
long
span
materials
and
techniques
 like
steel
and
trusses.


Interior
Issues:
 •

Interior
facilities
and
Furnishing:



Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools


88
 


o Every
 type
 of
 classrooms
 has
 a
 different
 design
 configuration
 and
 seating
 arrangement
depending
on
its
users
and
work
type
(children/
adults).
 o Sizes
and
heights
of
furniture
different
for
adults
and
students
 o Materials
used
to
provide
comfort
and
safety
for
adults
and
children.



 Flexibility:

 o Design
of
large
multi‐use
space
to
gain
space
 o Use
of
partition
walls
to
divide
up
spaces
 o Provide
storage
places
 
 Technology:
 o Computers
in
Classrooms/labs/library
 o Security
communication
systems
 o Projectors
 o Speakers
for
announcements
 
 Acoustic
within
the
school
building:
(depending
on
room
type
and
size)
 o Floors
and
Carpeting
(meterials)
 o Walls
and
surfaces
 o Type
of
furniture
to
reduce
echo
 
 Mechanical
systems:
 o Efficient
and
eco‐friendly
HVAC
systems
are
required
 
 Lighting:
(depending
on
room
type
and
size)
 o Classrooms:
2
levels
of
lighting
/
dimming
effect
 o Computer
use:
indirect
lighting
to
reduce
eyestrain
and
glare
 o Natural
 lighting
 (clerestories,
 windows,
 skylights)
 and
 shading
 devices
 (ride
 in
 side
 channels)
 o Light
switches
in
classrooms
located
next
to
the
door
 o Light
switches’
location
in
corridors
shouldn’t
be
accessible
to
students.
 


Saftey
and
codes:
 o Passive
and
active
surveillance
techniques
 o Fire‐resistance
techniques.
 o Designed
facilities
and
furniture
for
disabled.
 
 
 
 



89
 


Project
1:
Analysis
of
Existing
Elementary
Schools



AENG 321 Research