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ENGLISH VERSION

KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

We must value our achievements. Real values can’t disappear. “KM” begins new series of publications to pay the tribute to the memory of those who could preserve these achievements, the secrets of blacksmithing of our ancestors.

From Workshop to Manufactory Owners of forges in Kiev, end of the 19th century.

Petty bourgeois Leontiy Berezanskiy, a blacksmith, 1832 – three apprentices, three learnIt seems strange, but there are a ers; 1834 – two apprentices, one lot of mysteries in the history of learner”. kievan blacksmith’s work. One Pay attention, that this archive of it is the owners of forges. We can logically suppose them to be document indicates only the exblacksmiths, masters of kievan istence of blacksmith’s workshop, forges. But the documents of without legal right to own the Kievan State Archives from the building. On the basis of archive funds of kievan forge shops (fund document of Kievan Forge Shop 321, 1811-1885) can confirm our from 1880 we can make such conclusions: at the beginning of supposition only in some way… The document: “Register of 1880s masters of kievan forge forge shops about another town shops leased their apartments for petty bourgeois, who live in Kiev blacksmith workshops from rich and deal with blacksmithing” Kievan people – owners of archi(Kiev State Archives, fund 321, tectural complexes. At the same file 24) lists such names of forge time archive documents of that time betoken that only some of shops owners: “Foreigner, Ivan Dizin, a black- the blacksmith masters were the smith – 1832- 1835 – worked owners of such country-seats and without apprentices and learners therefore the owners of blackPeasant Efrem Dunchenko, a black- smith workshops on the territory smith 1833-1834 – worked without of the very country-seats. For example the foreman of kievan learners, 1834 – an apprentice

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forge shop stated in his raports to the head of kiev town council that Frantz Slisarenko’s blacksmith workshop is situated in the building that was his private property in Kiev at Dmitrevskaya Street (Kiev State Archive, fund 321, file 152-A) Projects that can tell… There was a great surprise about four architectural projects of forges 1880 – 1881 from the collection of Kiev State Archive documents (funds 163, files 1946, 1984, 1997, 2183). They say that the customers of blacksmiths workshops of this period were not blacksmith masters but rich merchants. Turning over the pages of history. 1881. “Affair about giving a permission to build a house and a forge at Bezimyanniy alley” (photo 1). Merchant Arseniy Kucherov handed in with such an application to Kievan town


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council: “Filing here the plan and the front of the building, I would humbly request to allow me to build a forge according to the front of the building mentioned above.” Arseniy Kucherov tasked a prominent architect Adolf Fredrick Karl Gekker (photo 2) to develop the very architectural design. The choice was not accidental: Adolf Karl Gekker (1851 – 1896) held the rank of kievan city architect in kievan town council building department. A graduator from St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, he was the author of many kievan architectural designs such as: the reconstruction of Captain Ivanov’s wooden house at Nab-

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ereshnaya avenue 4, the reconstruction of domestic buildings of priest Butkovskiy at Vosdvishenskaya 10-B, facilities of Alexander’s hospital, non-classical secondary school building… On November 13 1881 the project of blacksmith’s workshop for merchant Kucherov was officially approved by kievan town council, it was also coordinated with Vladimir Nikolayev, who was the chief-architect in building department of kievan town council… Vladimir Nikolayev (1847 – 1911) was graduated from St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. In three years he worked as kievan

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ENGLISH VERSION

eparchial architect of Kiev Pechersk Lavra. Monuments to Bogdan Chmelnitskiy and emperor Nikolay (placed in park near University of St. Volodimir), Voznesenskay church on Buykov cemetery, a complex of Pokrovskiy convent with Pokrovskiy Cathedral, Nikolayevskiy Cathedral with hospital, frater house, Merchant Guilds building with concert Hall (today it is National Philarmonic) were built under his direct authority This prominent and very gifted architect was buried in Kiev. Archive documents say that architect Gekker projected the forge and built it. There is a document that proves the fact: “Architect Adolf Gekker signs this document on the basis of clause 337 of building acts and states that he has the right to build according to clause 195 of building acts and is responsible for construction of the stone forge on the territory of Kucherov’s country-seat at Bezimyaniy alley according to plans approved by town-council (year

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1881, 13th November). His authorship explains the originality of the main front of the forge. It is built in the style of old eclecticism of the end of the19th century with a characteristic combination of different historic architectural forms. Rectangular windows are finished with brick arches (a simplified version of one of the styles called “brick style”). The cornices were run above the windows of the forge

KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

(that is a variation of Russian classical style of architecture). The composition of the front of the building is not typical for the architecture of the forge. This refinement can be explained by the planned usage of Kucherov’s forge as manufactory enterprise. Only by this hypothesis we can explain its expensive construction. The archive general plan of his country-seat proves the fact of his financial possibilities. According to this plan merchant Kucherov built simultaneously a forge, a shed and a wooden wing. These facts prove merchant’s financial possibilities to create a manufactory enterprise on the territory of the country-seat. Our hypothesis could also be proven by documents about building a forge at Kusnechnaya Street on the territory of kievan merchant woman Augustine Fram (photo 4). She also had a lot of buildings on her territory such as: a wooden one-storey house, a wooden one-storey wing, a stone cellar,


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citizen Samoylov to build a forge”. You can see it on photo 6. The architecture of the front of the building (as in projects mentioned above) was expressed in the eclectic style of the 19th century (photo 7). A broad entrance to the blacksmith’s workshop was made in the yard of the countryseat. Gekker was the head of the construction. Steps to manufactory.

and wooden sheds. On June 25, 1880 this merchant woman applied to the building department of kievan town council with such an application: ”Filing here the plans and fronts of the building I would humbly request to allow me to build a stone forge”. The architectural project was also approved by architect V. Nikolayev (photo 5). Unfortunately his signature can’t be seen on the document. The building was constructed in a professional and talented way. The architecture of the front of the building was expressed in eclectic style with some classical traditions. This building was one of the first manufactory enterprise. The last archive document (also approved by kievan town council) is about “giving permission to

Let’s think how our hypothesis about the usage of the mentioned blacksmiths workshops, as the first manufactory enterprises, by rich Kievan people, can be proved by other archive documents. Kiev in the 19th century was a complex and controversial panorama, where plants and factories produced goods worth 24.8 million of rubles, and still handicrafts existed. There were 8 guilds in Kiev in 1881. They included 1700 masters, but the actual number of blacksmiths was 10 862. Commenting this impressive statistics, most researchers tend to think that there were small craft manufactories in Ukraine in 1885. More than 24,2 thousand workers worked on such enterprises. Thus the transformation of a number of blacksmiths workshops to manufactory enterprises was a characteristic trend of socio-economic development of Kiev at that time. In this context it is not surprising that rich merchants built blacksmiths workshops. They wanted them to become manufactory enterprises.

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ENGLISH VERSION

KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

in one word

House is a reduced model of the universe. A place where people feel safe. And in our own, sometimes surprisingly short time, this “tamed Cosmos” is reduced to the standard quadrature

Usually, it is 58 square meters, which fit a kitchen, a corridor, three rooms, a bathroom and a small closet. It is minimized to the limits, but due to the rational needs a man tries to arrange it in the best possible way. In this case there are different plans of action: someone, having read books on “Feng Shui” uses the compass, someone does not depart from the traditional one: a sofa on the left, opposite the TV, but someone al-

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lows himself to fly on the wings of imagination. Having “Straddled” it that someone rushes to the forge. That’s when love affairs of the apartment with fire and metal begin. The triangle, like love, can offer quite unexpected scenarios. Steel bamboo, which is not distinguishable from the original, becomes the basis for the chandeliers, and then it becomes a little grove, the task of which is to hide aesthetically the radiator. The last is a must, because winter still can

not be canceled, and we don’t speak now about its beauty. To perform such a task, you must pay particular attention to painting. Since these are interior objects, we can take nitro dopes, which can dissolve acrylic dyes. As Alex Balov says («VIP-Forge Kiev):” Choose a natural sample, and then conjure over a color. We succeeded. Although we are not competitors to the nature, but we can try. Alternative way of the triangle interactions - apartment-iron-fire


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– can be unusual flowers. It could be algae or lilies, which are transformed in illuminating devices of your apartment. The method of working with metal here is to create a vertical texture and to tighten it around the pipe, where a cable is hidden - it is the usual requirement to reduce the risk of the lamp exploitation. There is also rather real opportunity to place in the kitchen a copper hood made in a forge. That is to say once started loving goes on... Of course, you can reproduce the color of copper on steel. But the apartment dictates other conditions. It is a kitchen – there

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are fluctuations of temperature regimes. In some time there can appear rust on the steel. It is not difficult to hide it under a new cover, but that will be wrong. It would be better to have real copper. You can wash it or dry and the older it is, the better it looks. To create such a masterpiece we use sheet copper that is shaped to the appropriate form. In this very situation, to preserve the integrity of the interior a Japanese house was chosen. The difficulty of working with selected materials is to combinate the parts of the object between each other. Small items can be soldered, and large elements of

construction can be collected by means of rivets. Then they are hidden under the superposed corners, which, where necessary, stress the side. Thus, these decorative laps create the shape. The bar can be made more vivid with the help of forged chairs. They are turning on two bearings that are hidden in the middle of the metal legs. Risked only once, a person became the master of a single space. That is the apartment where metal takes its own place. It does not violate the harmony of the apartment, but stresses it. A space that is placed in one word - a house, that is in his own time.

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ENGLISH VERSION

KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

With a medalist from Mariupol Yuri Shevyakov we met at the autumn exhibition of artists. Perhaps only real masters have such tranquility and peace of mind - no fuss or trembling hands, just soft voice. Copper is the most favorite material of the master. It is not accidental, that it trusted him - because copper is not interested in winning numerous prestigious exhibitions, and even in participation in FIDEM, it is interested in patience, confidence and accuracy. A true lady of fire, she submits only internally strong man - a master. FIDEM - International Federation of Medals, founded in 1937 in Paris by directors of the seven largest world mints to promote the art of medal. Congresses and International Exhibitions of medals are held under the auspices of Chapter power.

Depicting the soul

ART IN METAL

For every person, except the outer, the inner world is important. Trying to express it, a person uses different tricks, one of them - the art. In essence, it is individual and this very individuality creates the artist. Mr. Yuri is master of applied arts, as well as of the creating the medals. The medal, except round classical forms, can be oval, rectangular or unusually shaped (Placket). Unlike the coins, which also show the emblem of the State, its ruler, the medal is never used in the circulation. According to its mission medals are: memorable; personal - in honor of the eminent persons; anniversary - made in honor of the “round date; souvenir - not related to a specific date, but associated with the memory of visiting a country or a city- they are given as insignia. The beginning of master’s career

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can be considered as 1980. During this period he participated in 15 Ukrainian art exhibitions. His works were displayed at First commercial exhibition in St. Petersburg (Russia), medal art exhibitions in Tallinn (Estonia), in Moscow (Russia), at the first Republican medal art exhibition of Ukraine, etc. After Participation in international exhibition of medal art, organized by FIDEM in August 2004, the author was asked to participate in a non-commercial exhibition in the gallery of ornamental art in Paris. At this time it became possible to propose for the presentation abroad an artistic form of medal art - decorative item “Kumanets”, which combines sophisticated medal plastic and applied purpose of the product. So, this year’s spring in France an exhibition took place, where the only work

from Ukraine (Donetsk region) was presented. And one of the smaller room galleries of the French capital was given to display “Kumanets”. The product of red copper is decorated with four colorful national genre scenes. As a result it was marked by high professionalism of technology implementation, by the national character of the work and the original design solution of the composition. Now, the magazine “KM” can offer the reader a brief analysis of art works with artistic metal, the result of creative exploration of the author - George Shevyakov. It is very difficult to surprise someone with something nowadays as there are a lot of exclusive works intended for realization. Everyone has already understood in Europe that exclusive unique products are not


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sold in stores, they can be purchased only at prestigious exhibitions and auctions, where the art critic makes an appropriate explanation. Such works are chosen in the prestigious catalogs or bought directly from the author. As time passes, and processing quality, high technology manufacturing, with a circulation still does not mean that you have got an exclusive thing. Nowadays, mechanical methods of work are using more frequently for manufacturing the medals, and the results are mediocre. Medalists manufacture the model several times larger than the size of the original in future, and then reduce it to the required size with the mechanical methods. This is an undesirable way to get figure pictures, as shapes, sculpted in large models, come close to the relative proportions of nature. And on the medals in their reduced form, they will seem insignificant. If you look at the antique coin, you can immediately notice that hands are relatively large, you are immediately struck by its head, facial expressions, you can notice that the figure stands firmly on its feet and preserves the balance of monumentality despite its small size. If you do not keep to these terms, then after zooming, your figure will seem unrealistic, devoid of force. Firstly it is necessary to transmit a type in the metal. In other words, it is necessary to idealize the figure using typical conventional conditions. On the oldest medals “type” was not a human head, but not a living object or a symbolic animal. Thus the “type” is called an imprint of any image or symbol on the medal. Unlike coins, where the relief on the plane should always be identical so that the coins could be put into a rouleau, there are no such rules in the art of the medal because they are not manufactured for bankers and money changers. As for the quantity and size of the medals, when exploring the beautiful Greek, Roman medals of the Renaissance one can see that greatness does not depend on the size, because it is -

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the quality of the soul of the sculptor. Considering the antique models and products of small forms, pay attention to their size, admiring the shape, feel its monumentality. Nowadays most of the works of small plastic and even large sculptures have lack of monumentality. They are full of small details that destroy its monumentality. A lot of people, looking at the items, admire - delicately done, instead of saying - how small and trivial it is. A person visiting the exhibition, hopes to see something that will eat his mind, affect his outlook, will force to smile, to think, to enjoy what they have seen. But what he/she can see new and interesting, if the artist has already so “literally told” and “chewed” everything and now is sitting waiting for the praise and admiration of the public. Tasks of real art - to show, to inform about human passions and human will, that attracts the viewer. Art of the Medal should always be interpreted broadly. But this should not mean the brutality, as it often happens now, though more in painting than in sculpture. The medal should show style. By style I mean the simplified truth, freed from all minor details. There is nothing more complicated than to reproduce a meaningful life. You can not just fake it. But an inspired artist can portray even the soul. We must catch the specificity and expression of nature, which should be embodied in a medal. Modern low relief is far from the Greek. It was influenced by painting, which introduced linear and aerial perspective to transmit distances. Bronze monolithic background bares vanishing lines and illusory distances. Manufacturing of medals does not tolerate hassles. A lot of advertising and production companies manufacture a lot of mediocre souvenir medals. And, despite their high-tech production, they do not have a “creative basis,” remaining at a low level production of medals. The author must not forget the quiet majesty and dignity of his work. That is the sense.

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ENGLISH VERSION

KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

Different metals keep there own secrets. But there are a lot of contradictions that appeared with the discovery of copper. The increase of producing capacity associates with this very metal. We can say a lot about copper. But what is it? A beauty, the only of seven metals the chemists associate with Venus?

Venus

red beauty from

The history of Ukrainian copper civilization Bare listing of facts. Copper is a chemical element, metal of the orange red color, malleable and soft, a good conductor of electricity. It is used in heavy industry to produce chemical apparatus. The practical aspect of copper is its imperfection of a hard metal (it combines mercury that is why copper has its red color). This metal was known from ancient times. The epoch of

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copper is 8000-4000 years B.C. But the discovery of mines on the left bank of Kalinovsk River proves that 6000 years ago our ancestors obtained copper and made some things from it. The discovery proves the fact that copper industry existed earlier than copper mines on Cyprus. The name Cyprus originated from Cuprum (one of the names of metal). We had our own copper here on the territory of Ukraine. Our ancestors traded with Western Europe when ickle (the name originates from Smechkiv River). This sickle is considered to be one of the oldest sickles in Ukraine. So this sickle is more ancient than Tripillian culture. The quality of goods from copper and bronze was rather high on the territory of Ukraine. A lot of researchers state that Ukraine supplied Europe with bronze. A lot of discoveries are connected with studying the Tripillian metal articles. The scientists proved that Tripillians used pure copper, bronze alloys appeared much later. It is a fact that Tripil-


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DIALOG • STYLE • METAL

lians used copper awls, swords and axes. They used cold and hot smithing. The fundamental works of researcher N. Rindinoy helped to identify the blacksmith’s techniques of our ancestors. In Karbunskiy treasure a copper axe was found (12, 2 cm) made by cold smithing. Another axe (14, 6 cm) was made by hot smithing.

Ancient blacksmiths of Kievan Rus knew a lot of technological methods such as smithing, cutting, sawing… There existed nearly 16 blacksmith professions. Blacksmiths worked mostly in Kiev, Lvov, and Vladimir. They produced bells and crosses. Copper generations The importance of copper and bronze in the history of mankind is rather big. The stages of our development are closely connected with metals (neolithic stage, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age). Antique authors (e.g. Hesiod) state that copper articles were used at the times of 3rd (Hesiod’s opinion) “copper generation”. “The copper buildings“appear in some time. That could be temples with copper roofing. These facts prove that copper has changed the world outlook of a human, its life, and its feelings. Copper was one of the epochs of human development.

Taming the copper Even today Ukraine is a country of many copper achievements. 3000 years ago a lot of technical articles were made of copper for doctors and chemists shops, also copper plates and dishes ( Mesopotamia). As copper withstands high temperatures, a lot of articles were used as utensil for cooking. Copper frying-pans could be polished because of the hard covering with red color. Such utensil could be a source of pride for ancient families. Surely we can’t know everything about this metal. But the only thing we can do - we can try…

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ENGLISH VERSION

FIRE AND METAL

CHRISTIANISED BY

A lot of fortresses and castles are real witnesses of history, and their reality is connected with its restoration. And only some of such buildings still serve people. They are not military objects anymore. Nowadays people struggle there to be the master of some art.

East Moravia. There is a castle Gelfstin not far from village Tin. Each year the best blacksmiths come here to take a part in this center of “fire and metal”. A smoke twists above its walls one can hear a sound of a hammer. During the last 23 years one of the biggest blacksmiths Symposiums is conducted here on the end of August. Blacksmiths, artists, architects and all who want come here during those three days of Symposium. Blacksmiths from all over the world have the opportunity to show there skills. Hundreds of exhibits made of iron surround you here. Last year there were 600 participants from 23 countries. Thousands visitors came to see the show. But this year the situation changed a little bit. There were some disadvantages connected with organization of the meeting. It was decided not to build a tent camp where the participants usually lived (both students and prominent masters). Here you could sit by fire speaking with blacksmiths from all over the world. The sponsors changed their decision to build the camp just before the festival. A lot of participants were not informed about it and they decided to ignore the festival. A lot of blacksmith masters from Germany, Netherlands did not come. The festival exists from many years and this situation can’t be considered as a catastrophe but a time out needed fro new ideas. The history of the festival dates back to 1980-s of the 20th century. “Gefeisten” was not planned as a festival that could be conducted every year. Nobody even thought

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about such a possibility. The sponsors of the festival just wanted someone to help them fix up the castle. Blacksmiths were invited. And after the meeting the interest to the festival increased rapidly and the administration of the festival understood they must continue. Nowadays the festival has its own status

The history of the festival dates back to 1980-s of the 20th century.

that is why real masters are wanted here (but students and young blacksmiths are also welcome). Тhe festival is not only a demonstration of works but also a competition. There are such categories as: demonstrative work, classical blacksmithing, plastic blacksmithing, weapons, student’s works, jewellery. Blacksmith masters can also show their skills in the category of “demonstrating blacksmithing” (2 hours show on the territory of the castle on Saturday and Sunday). All the works are left as a rule in the castle. On Friday a seminar-conference is conducted where the one can see the results of theorists’ and historians’ of art work. There are also exhibitions of artistic articles from metal. This year it is the exposition of ancient clocks. On Sunday the best blacksmiths are awarded. A lot of masters and students from Ukraine (Lvov) are among constant participants of the Festival. Ukrainian masters often win a lot of awards. This year Alex Buyvidt and Constantine Kravchuk were awarded in the category “Jewellery’ and Yuri Severinenko was awarded in the category of plastic blacksmithing. Ukrainian masters are welcome on other blacksmith festivals. Ukrainian blacksmith is rich in ancient traditions

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ENGLISH VERSION

KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

FORGE

THE SPIRIT Iryna Vyrtosu

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lowers are the eternal witnesses of love. In every settlement there is its own area, where the people in love gather. To my mind Donetsk couples are the lucky once, because the place for their reverent rendezvous was created by smiths from different workshops of Ukraine. Forged arbor for the enamored is the ocean of flowers, light butterflies, birds, even the bat shyly hid under the roof of the arbor. It seems that it secures all the secret whispers of the

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young couples. In each forged flower and leaf one can feel the heat of the hearts and furnace of smiths from one side and the charmed glances of the visitors – from another side. Fragile petals of live flower, picture of the leaves, even almost unnoticeable sigh of the wind, caught by the forgers, are accurately imaged in their iron twins. They didn’t forget of the color of Vakula: the pith is dark like the real flower, and the edges are covered by light shadows...


DIALOG • STYLE • METAL

The flowers are various: near the sophisticated lilies, roses and anturiums, shy poppies and sunflowers the chimerical fantastic plants grow and create the romantic mood. Perhaps the hearts are connected here, and after that it is not long for the marriage. This year the bunches in national style were very popular, especially for weddings – yellow gerbera, which is very similar to sunflower, red arrowwood. Halls were decorated in ethnic style: cornflower, iris, sunflower. The plants, which implemented the folklore motifs in colors, or which form was similar to the flowers of our area, were used, for example, anemone, the bulbous plant, which is like poppy. Very often the heads were added. Combination of forged and living flowers is an interesting creative tandem, especially if the cut flowers will accurately reduplicate the set of the iron once. The feeling is that one part of the flowers lives, and another part petrified in time or exists in the parallel world. Then on the base of compositions of cut flowers the clay form was made and the bunch was casted.

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The first impression is that the live bunch was silvered, because the flower elements were reduplicated very accurately. There is one more solution of combination of fragile flowers and severe iron. One can made of iron the certain elements: jugs, dishes and some forged details, which will accompany the live flowers composition. Many people follow superstitions choosing the flowers. In other countries people don’t buy more than ten flowers, but in Ukraine even number is only for funerals. Even number is consequent and perfect. The third flower in composition is excessive. But not all people perceive it adequately. If a husband want to present his beloved wife a bunch – symbol of their love – for anniversary of their marriage, two flowers are very beautiful (they are two and don’t need the third one). Why not? The smiths also face this problem very often – even elements are per ceived negatively. For this reason one has to buy a decent plantlet for the flower duet.

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There is also a bias concerning the color. The yellow color suffers first of all as the significator of separation. But it is associated with a bright spirit, sun, rye, prosperity. In western countries florists-designers pay more attention to the compatibility according to the type, color, seize of the flower etc. The common French customers, for example, prefer bright multicolor flowers. They don’t think about compatibility, because they agree with anything and in great amount. The Americans understand symbolism of flowers. They can a play a little bit snotty trick: one manager, to which another one lowered the boom on, straightly presents his opponent daisies. All employees in the office will smile cunningly, because daisy is a symbol of secret love. Decoration of interior by artistic forging is a very expensive pleasure. But it is worth that money. Forged racks, decorative fence on the wall, lattices etc... Everything may be done compositionally, but, surely, one

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KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

should take into account the illumination of the room, its style and purpose. In respectable office with leather furniture coffee table with forged foots and live flowers in the centre of the table will look very original. In the room with high ceiling the second pseudo-floor is often made. The forged banisters of the staircase are decorated with the garlands of the plants. On the wall of style a la “old stones” the forged cage flowers in special pots may be fixed. They may be not only the roughly noticeable once, but also the modest flowers. On the semispherical lattice with the attached supports in form of forged leaves of manstera one can plant the parvifoliate living flowers. Unlike the “bare” one the forged fence with plant elements around the house looks more aesthetical... The florists say that they sell not flowers but a high spirit. And the smiths forge it.


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DIALOG • STYLE • METAL

Lily It is a symbol of innocence, sign of the sophisticated taste, luxury, refinement, symbol of death in some countries. The Greeks ascribed to it the divine origin from the drops of the mother of gods – Juno, who feed little Hercules. Lily was known to ancient Persians; even their capital was called Suza, the city of lilies. That’s why in its emblem there were

several of these flowers as the symbols of innocent beauty. In the New Testament it is mentioned, that the Lord praises the beauty of lily and appreciates it more than the wonderful clothes of Solomon: “Look at the lilies of the valley, how they grow – don’t work and spin. And I say you, that even Solomon in all his glory wasn’t dressed like them.”

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KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

Rose Wonderfully beautiful and one of the most favorite flowers of the world is rose. Every nation has its own legend about it. For example, the Indians thought, that the goddess of fertility was born from the petals of rose. Ancient Greeks considered that rose appeared from the white sea foam. In an-

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other legend the Greek god accidentally poured some nectar to the ground, and on the place, where the drops of the god’s drink touched the ground, flowers appeared. The goddess of love Aphrodite passes through them and decided to pick them, but she pricked and her blood painted the


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DIALOG • STYLE • METAL

Tulip The first mentions about this wonderful flower are found in Persian chronics. In Persia, the country of legends and songs about the rose tulip in form of lantern or chalice couldn’t maintain unnoticeable and was called dulbash (Turkish wrapper, from which the word tur-

ban and Slavonic name of the flower– tulpan derived). The flower was praised by numerous Persian poets and particularly by Hafiz, who said that tender movements of cypress and absolute beauty of rose can’t be compared with innocent attractiveness of tulip.

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KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

Poppy Poppy first of all was connected with dream and death. Roman goddess Ceres walked along the earth and a fire flower appeared with her every step. Having gathered a bunch of flowers, the goddess got asleep. Greek mythology depicts the image of handsome young man Mi-

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con, who was turned into a poppy after his death. Poppy anthodium was considered to be the symbol of fertility and quietness, attribute of Aphrodite and Hero. In addition it symbolized immensity of star world, Sun, calm, in Christianity –innocently spilled blood.


DIALOG • STYLE • METAL

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Sunflower According to the Greek myth love of Klitia, daughter of king of Babylon, to the god-sun Apollo was not mutual. The slender handsome man preferred her sister Leucotia. Jealousy of Klitia was the reason for Leucotia to waste away and to turn into sunflower. During the whole day the enamored with wreath from godsun is looking for her beloved on the sky. Modern symbolism treats sunflower as the symbol of devotion and sincerity.

Albert the Great wrote: “Gathered in August, when Sun is in the sign of Virgo, this grass has very useful properties. Thus, if one brings with himself the flower, wrapped into the laurel leaf (Sun) with the wolf tooth (Mars), this will protect from slander against those, who has such an amulet, and, to the contrary, makes everybody speak well about him and to make him the good.

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ENGLISH VERSION

KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

One yearr earlier e people of Ukraine did not accept ts of presidential elections and drank hot the result results nt camps. That was a historical event for tea in the ten tent p Ukrainian people. A lot of monuments were built in commemoration of that events.

Ringing with Orange w shade

The first monu monument um was built in Vinnitsa. It wa was as placed on cathedral square. The Th initiator and sponsor of the w wor work was Roman Larin, the const constructor tru – local sculptor Vladimir Vladimiir Smarozov. At the heart of the monument m mon one of the characters of Gr Greek mytholomb of trade) is. gy- Mercury (sym (symbol The monumen monument nt p presents a girl standing on th the he orange (3, 37 m height,, 77m of pedestal). The Th monument was no not opened on thee Independence Day Day of Ukraine, ass it was planned, due du to its size. d It was opened only on 650 o anniversary of a the t city. The name of the the monument chaan changed a lot; fi it was “Revofirstly lutionary gi lutionary girl on the Orthe citizens c ange who calls the on the

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meeting”. Later when emotions went down it became “A song”. The orange symbolizes the Globe (during the Revolution the whole world learned about Ukraine). A new monument was also built in Kiev. It was placed near Podolskiy fountain where Revolution began. A new monument appeared in a week; computer version of the future composition was made by Vladimir Demin. And the director of the restaurant “Captain Nemo” Viktor Timchenko sent it to the Presidential Administration where the model was approved. By the way the Engr. Model of the monument was presented to the President and his wife. The idea was to build three spears and a bell above them. Why? Once exhausted Cossacks put their spears into the ground and threw some clothes on it to have a tent. What about ringing – the bell could ring for help if some unexpected situation. On the top


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of the composition there should be three flags: Ukrainian (because it is a state flag), European (as the aspiration for democracy), and the orange flag (the color of Revolution). The state gave no money for the monument’s construction; the money was given by volunteers. The monument was built from details that were easy to get. That is why the bell became not so big as it was planned. The monument became too expensive. The frame was made by blacksmiths but it was filled with plastic and wood. The bell was hung on an anchor chain found in a forge. The volume of the composition became smaller. A wheel was added. What about the symbolism, it seems to be found out during a construction. The results are not so bad: a bell is a connection of the present with our history. Formally the bell helped gather people to solve some important problems. What about the wheel – it is like the wheel of our History, when it turns - everything starts form the very beginning. If you ask about the meaning of the monument, the creators will answer that it is a symbolic memory to the first tent of the Revolution (a memory to the students, real Cossacks, who struggle for their rights (the right to have another better future). Honestly, the monument was subjected to criticism by Vyacheslav Brash: “the monument did not impress me; such a mishmash of wheels, spears and pipes – too many symbols that are very difficult to combine”. Although a lot of time has passed, the monument is a sign that revolution still continues. We still must clang the bell. We can discuss long about the revolution. But we are speaking now about the monument. And maybe if the historic event took place, it must be set in stone But… One morning I was walking along the street in the center of the city, asking people what they think about it. It was sad but people didn’t even imagine that the monument was in some way connected with the revolution.

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KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

At first I’ve heard a voice of the architect Anatoliy Ihnaschenko. I arranged with him about meeting. Having knowledge of the fact, what figure he is in the field of architecture, I was nervous and began to look trough references in the goal-looking system, to reread articles about him... Here is the information, which I’ve learnt. Anatoliy Ihnaschenko projected La-Vilet district in Paris and Alley of Personalities of Global Civilization in NewYork. He is the author of the monuments: to Taras Shevchenko in Paris, Lesia Ukrainka in Saskatun (Canada), Vasyl Poryk, a hero of the French Movement of resistance in Normandy. For the last work he got the grand-prix of Paris Academy of Fine Arts. In addition there are the museum complexes: to Shevchenko in Kaniv, to Dovzhenko in Sosnytsa, to Berezovskyi and Bortnianskyi in Hlukhiv. Furthermore, Anatoliy Ihnaschenko designed historic museum of Trypilska culture on the place of diggings.

A SECRET OF A BLACK DOT TIE Meeting... This strong grey-headed old man looked like Archimedes. In spite of this I understand, that in front of me there is the Ukrainian author of 260 world concepts and projects. I ask, if it is hard to bear such artistic burden. “Not easy, – Anatoliy Fedorovych confesses, – when I began to think over a new idea at the wheel, I forget, where I am going, and can even overthrow a trolleybus.

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Why Ihnaschenko is not the Budyonny Commissar Artistic activity of Anatoliy Ihnaschenko began from opposition. His mother Yaryna, the Polish by nationality, was the librarian in Budyonny troops and taught needlework and painting in women coteries. Father Todos, Indian Gipsy, was the Budyonny commissar. The parents were sure that a man should brandish with a sword, and there Tolik modeled from bread and clay, painted, embroidered. Being a young man he became a student of architectural faculty of Kyiv Construction-Engineering Institute. There he and his two friends were noticed by Yosyp Karakis, the architect, who overbuilt the whole Kyiv before the war. “He took us to his house, – Mr. Anatoliy recollects. – Imagine a large 70 meters room, in the centre of which there is retro grand piano with a bulk of books on it. And, staying near this grand piano, Yosyp Yuliiovych

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constantly repeated: “If you don’t take part in tournaments like a sportsman in the Olympic Games, than how can you know for sure, if you are the first or the last one”. Thus he accustomed us to work for international contests”. Anatoliy Ihnaschenko created his own way of depicting a new idea – on the black background. “The technology is the following, – the interlocutor began.- I paint over a thick carton and make drawings on it. Then I cut necessary elements from a bright magazine, for example a fashion journal, and glue them. Such application on the black background reflects the concept of the project: if I don’t like anything in it, it’s always easy to recompose. It takes a lot of time to trace and paint on white piece of paper – technical moments may kill the idea which desires to be embodied.” In the workshop the speculator turned my attention to the big yellow ball: “What is a galaxy if not a sphere? The same is for the planetary system, sun, earth, molecule,

atom, electron, neutron... and a cell, from which people appear. Where is the border between the galaxy and a man for the creator?” It is vision of the world of Anatoliy Fedorovych. Pigs are in Icons, and People are Like Pigs? The shortest way from concept and intention to creation is the work of smith and bricklayer: you take a stone and in a few minutes create a Scythian statue or a sphinx. The smiths embody a model of the idea forging a piece of work. Anatoliy Fedorovych has been cooperating with them for 40 years already. In our talk Ihnaschenko mentioned a smith Stasiuk with a particular warmth and showed a frame, which was forged by him according to the draft of maestro. This frame was created specially for Cossacks in a Battle, the picture by Fedir Tetianych. Soon Scandinavia bought the picture, and on its place the master of the workshop

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put three icons with depiction of the church of Musin-Pushkin on the North of Chernihivskyi region. But these icons were used as the gates of the pigs’ fence. “I came as soon as I learnt about this fact. There I saw a snow, ice, gleet, the pigs are above the icons, and are fenced by the poles – such a “church’. Having heard this story, Larysa Skoryk, architect, the deputy of Verkhovna Rada of 12th convocation, prophetically said: “We are building the same state: pigs are in icons, and people are like pigs.” “I have the icon, which was created by the nature itself, – Mr. Anatoliy absorbedly retells. – Here is the juniper root. The waive washed it away to the sea during the storm. The root was washed for several decades and became white. In this root I saw the crucifix of Jesus Christ in all details – the expanded hands, tumbled hair, even a band on the “hips”... Regardless of the fact, what Anatoliy Ihnaschenko created, his works reflect the image of Jesus Christ, sorrow, some tragic splendor. Maybe it happens due to the fact that monuments are the closed doors to the afterworld. When the question is the tragedy of the mankind – it is the cry

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of consciousness. The current Babyn Yar, one of the concepts of the architect, is the bright illustration of the today indifference. It’s hurtful, that the place of the innocently spilled blood was turned into the “cozy park”. The author didn’t dream about this. It should be the wound: on each side of the ditch – the thorn branches; special cable railway across the whole gill, to Kyrylivska church (one shouldn’t step to the blood!). According to the conception, to the chairs of the sight cabin the polyscreen should be incorporated in order to show the visitors the tragedy of Babyn Yar. Finally, the last order of President of Ukraine Viktor Yuschenko on the memorial this variant was approved. One of the supports of the cable railway will be the pole, on the top of which there is the forged Gipsycart with garlands of metal flowers, chains and the Gipsy crucified on the shaft. This speaking detail in the complex is the monument for honor of the shot people, particularly the Gypsies. This Gipsycart was going to be installed in Babyn Yar, but in result of political biases it was installed in Kamianets-Podilskyi. The smiths

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will forge a new Gipsy-cart, but nobody knows, if this project will be embodied. In Dreams and in Reality “Where do you take so many concepts from?” – I ask my interlocutor. “I work like a spike: I gather all the troubles, go to sleep, and at night that idea, which I want to solve, dreams to me solved” – here was the answer of Anatoliy Ihnaschenko. Then he told me the story, which happened to him during the contest of projects concerning the creation of


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Taras Shevchenko World Culture Centre. By the way, Jacque Chirac pulled for win of Anatoliy Ihnaschenko. The day before the Soviet participant of the contest studied organization of museums and couldn’t sleep at night because of the cold. Energetic crises of France predetermined the permanent economy: the photocell shut off the heating, and then switched them when the thermostat showed 0 °C in order to prevent the pipes from freezing. “And here I am, not accustomed, trembling of cold. I tried to cover myself with the mattresses, but it was even worth. Then I tried to accumulate the whole bath of hot water and to get a warm. I went to the bath... But the damned economy of energy caused the fact, that water wasn’t heated to the temperature of 40 °C, and after the two used buckets of water its supply was finished. I was chilled, irritated, and got asleep thinking: “If I will loose the contest, then why did I come here?” In my dream I saw Pysanka church, Shevchenko solars, millstone, mile stones, where it is mentioned how many miles is to the house of the writer... Then

we won the contest of UNESCO. On the shelf near this model is another, dedicated to New-York tragedy. In 70-s Anatoliy Ihnaschenko observed the construction of four floors of the World Trade Centre for a day. Destructibility of the building was obvious for the architect. He expressed his pessimistic forecasts to the author of the frameworks of the Twins. In the day of the tragedy the “prophet” created the project of the memorial. Nothing should be restored, a laser generator will be installed at the foot and the roll captions with the names of died will run in the sky through an arc with 100 meters diameter. The second half will be reflected in the Atlantic Ocean – and the circuit will be closed. How Strong is the Ragged Nerve! After death of the poet Volodymyr Vysotskyi the idea to create the monument to the artist, “The Ragged Nerve”, appeared in Tahanka Theatre. Different projects were offered, but the work of Ihnaschenko was acknowledged to be the best one. He decided to put a pole of the crumpled rusty iron, which embodied the ragged nerve. The original of the first model was stolen during the demonstrational exhibition. Then, the architect in association with smiths Serhiy Polubotko and Volodymyr Diomin decided to change a concept of the memorial to some extend. They decided to carve the name of Vysotskyi as the line of the telegram along one edge of the pole, at the same way to put the name of Ukrainian poet Vasyl Stus to the second edge, the name of David Sikeiros from Mexico to the third edge and the

name of Victor Hairom from Chili to the last one. Such poles will stand in four points of the world: the question concerning the place in Moscow, on Tahanka near the church, and in Paris, near Oleksandr Nevskyi Cathedral, have been agreed, and the question concerning the future grounds in Mexico and Chili is being settled now. Such dispersion of the parts of the monument throughout the world isn’t occasional: there was a nerve, and it was ragged. Only a root left... Ihnaschenko is recollecting: “I got down to business with Stetsiuk. The birthday of Vysotskyi is celebrated on January 25: in Kyiv was 40 °C below zero, icy drifts... The smiths put a piece of iron to the not very hot furnace and welded four cores to it. Four strong men had to strand iron with them and to bring it the form of the nerve... When they began to work, the core cracked and shot in such a way, that it broke a perforated brick compartment through. Even the experienced smiths were surprised with the force of the piece of iron! So Diomin and Polubotko determined, that for implementation of the project with the fixed parameters (one meter length and width and three and a half meter height) they needed metallurgy!

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KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

Look at the calm heaven, At your country, Love by sincere heart The great ruin Release yourself, fraternize! In the foreign land Don’t look for and ask For something that doesn’t exist... Taras Shevchenko

icy y drifts of consciousness or

FANTASTIC FAIRY A sudden telephone call of our correspondent put into a flutter the whole editorial staff of “KM”: Viktor Petrovtsi, director of Gamora water smithy, was going to Kyiv from Transcarpathia. Coincidence of circumstances or good luck, because exactly at the same time in Lysychevo village of Irshavskyi district KM simultaneously communicated with the employees of smithymuseum and with its own eyes saw the only in Europe operating water hammer...

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owadays it’s hard to surprise somebody with the scraps of the hammer, which was moved in the remote past by energy of falling water. Installations called “iron smithies” appeared in European metalworking industry in 13th century and caused the real breakthrough in mining practice. The letter, received from director of German museum of instruments in Remscheid Herr Ulrich Horz, is full of respect to the historical past of his country: “Territory of Helpetal – the cradle of instruments manufacturing – now continues to be the saved nature corner. The water mill exists and operates not in the capacity of point of equipment production, but as the demonstration part of German museum of instruments. The main buildings of the late are situated at two kilom-

eters from Steffenhammer (water hammer), but in remote 18th and 19th centuries there were a lot of such hammers. Thus, in Helpetal on Helpe River there were water mills in every 200 meters...” Today we can’t here the voices of laborious “iron mills”, there employees also went away to the past. According to the legends already Emperor Charlemagne (714–768) got his armor from Remscheid territory...Echo of the glorious traditions sounds from the letter waiting for continuance... But fairytales exist. Are they really fairytales? Maybe it’s rather a silent love, which has awaken the water hammer in remote Irshavskyi district of Transcarpathian region and turned it into the operating and working smithy from the museum of forging history. There, almost in the heart of


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European world, in Ukraine, the wheels of Gamora fly round and the steel is quenched. The red-hot forge radiates heat, delivering the household instrument under the blows of hard wooden hammer.... It could look very romantic except for the “Slavonic” travails to trample the disobedient or desire at least to deject spirits. Once spring flood nearly destroyed the smithy, then administration of the own district decided to deny a tenant right of those, who had reconstructed the museum – how one can sleep in such the situation! The name of the smithy, Gamora, is has been transferred from one generations to another from time immemorial. There was a founder with a surname Gamor, the Austrian by nationality, who found the whole settlement of the Austrians and Hungarians. In the 18th century the paper factory was built and one hundred twenty six packs of paper. In the 50-ies of the 19th century it was redesigned for manufacturing of manufacturing of farming equipment. Now it is maintained in its primeval form. Hammer of the smithy works according to the common technical principle. It is wooden like the constructions, floors and piers. The wood is hidden at a depth of two and a half meters under the ground and comes in a meter outside. It takes about onetwo weeks to dig a hole when the tide isn’t on the flow, because it’s a very labor-intensive process. Oak and beech are primarily used, but only those, which rise on this territory. In winter the hammer doesn’t work only in great frosts, because then the river and the channel freeze and water don’t arrive. But it continues for about

month. If the hammer works, it is better preserved. Without work or working with intervals wood is ruined and falls out. The hammer works according to the general technical principle: near the village a mountain river Lysychanka is flowing. In one and a half kilometer from the building of the smithy there is a channel. Water is surpassed by the dam on the level of about 4-5 meters. Water flows from the main channel to the gates-gauges of the smithy itself. Due to water supply the wheel, which turns the rod, is moving. On the rod there are the blades-collars, which move the hammer while turning over. It has four horse powers and almost 150 kg of total weight. Wooden and fossil coal is used as a fuel. This is the environmentally sound manufacturing. Wooden coal is prepared by the employees and it is expendable. The flood of 1998 almost deprived Gamora of life having destroyed 70 per cent of the building, the dam and the channel. That time it was transferred from ownership of one instance to another. Its last owner was Uzhanskyi state forestry enterprise, until the smithy has found its saver and permanent owner – the Petrovtsi family, which restored the smithy for two years with the help of oldtimers....Today four smiths work in Gamora. The smithy requires basic repair, so in order to maintain it the employees began to make forged fences, hedges in order to retain everything in the appropriate state. They also produce various items of household equipment: pickers, spades, and saps. Now the annual festivals usually on the last Sunday of May or on

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the next Sunday of June are arranged. The festivals are visited by guests from Slovakia, Hungary, folk groups of the region and famous actors: Ivan Popovych, Stepan Hiha, Viktor Hrybyk. About 5-7 thousand of people come to the festival. The residents of the village consider this festival to be the next holiday after the Dedication day. The employees of the smithy are happy, that the new government doesn’t detain, though it doesn’t also help, but the old government detained in force. When Gamora was on the wane, nobody needed it, and when it was restored – pretensions began. Many people wanted to nail it, they said that the state needed it. Now the owners of the smithy have a lot of plans: to build a coffee house, a hotel. People understand that the tourists will not come to us without the developed tourists’ infrastructure. By the way, here there is a lot of worth seeing: art, Carpathian household-museum, dendro-park. In village there are

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860 households, 3600 inhabitants, woodworking handicrafts. It is a traditional art for the region. Recently the museumsmithy is visited by numerous foreigners. Really, in Europe there is no such operating old smithy, there are only preserved or demonstration museums. It is a fairy, which is situated nearby and may be touched. It is so easy to break, ruin or destroy it. One even doesn’t have to do anything for this – the human indifference is enough to make the water hammer, which is more than 300 years, not to call for work daily and to praise its history near the mountain river. It is sad, isn’t it? Is our consciousness is covered by the thawless icy drifts? But it seems to me that a little bit attention to the historic heritage and that respect, which is inspired by the letter of German museum, and silent love, proved by the actions concerning the Ukrainian sources of handicrafts, will write the happy beginning of my story.

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One should have measure in everything, even in modesty. Anatole France

EGOCENTRISM

WITHOUT REDUNDANCY

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KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

Once an artist thought: “How are they taught there that all the graduates are geniuses? You may choose everybody – all of them are geniuses.” It is about the graduates of VAAIC and about our interlocutor. Oleksandr Bezruchko changes the world around him and likes to create a beauty from the metal scrap. He, as the real master, is sure that material doesn’t matter, because the main thing is what you insert into your work

T

he first meeting with Mr. Oleksandr took place in Kyiv, and then his Owl flowers support produced a great impression. Its strength was in lightness, metal was similar to flourish of the graphic artist. The author says that his painting is a little bit poor and he prefers graphics The Owl was highly appreciated not only by my reach imagination, but also by maitre of metal Oleh Bankovskiy, who said, that he didn’t posses enough patience for creating of each feather. The next meeting took place in a half of the year. It was not less impressive – the pictures, which combine metal and stone, gave the feeling of perspective and depth. The next meeting was hold in Dnipropet rovsk, where Oleksandr lives and creates his works... With a cup of coffee in the coffee house, which was decorated by not less famous metal artist Oleksiy Papushnikov, we were speaking about everything: sense of life, capability to change him and the art. “I know for sure” – not everybody can say these words, but he can. He is Oleksiy Bezruchko, sculptor, who has been conducting a dialogue with metal on Axon enterprise (Dnipropetrovsk) for two and a half years al-

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ready. In his hands the material turns into the painting of actions, where each detail is the part of the whole, but has its own identity. It is brightly felt, though everything has its source. Yes, the things here were not done without Destiny, right for choice, its realization and own identity. КМ: Where have you study and why have you chosen this establishment? Oleksandr: The situation is absolutely uncommon... In general, I was born in the family of the sailor and my parents took an obligate decision to send me to the military academy: merchant or military fleet. But I positively said that I would be rather shot than become a sailor. I had to show blindly the line in the reference book of the educational establishments for year 1975. In such way I entered Vasnetsov Abramtsevske Art-Industrial College (VAAIC). I had been studying for four years and defended a diploma work. КМ: And what was then? – Then there was a military service in air military forces and trips... I painted here and there... I painted in Moscow, St. Petersburg, even in Vyborg. It happened that I changed my direction for several times in a lifetime


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– I worked with a wood, made molded paperboards... The last was made in the a little bit untraditional way, not from the mould, because I deflected wet carton. Then there were new changes, because metal came to my life. КМ: And how are you? – I have the base, it’s easy to me. КМ: Does iron give the possibility to implement your artistic conceptions? – Yes, but stone is more congenial to me. Stone has another plastic. But recently the ideas to represent them together come to my mind. КМ: But its character requires a certain approach, doesn’t it? – Yes, it does. When the stone is cold, it’s hard to work with it, and when it is heated, it may be overmastered by your own wishes for some time. КМ: Do you “forge” your own destiny? – It’s a rather difficult question... Though I have my own attitude to the Lord, but I understand Krishna, Allah and Buddha. Concerning the destiny... I am an egocentric. You see, I’ve chosen my destiny by myself, and nobody knows what it will put to my cup of tea tomorrow. КМ: Is there any slogan, which leads you through your life? – The question is that different people change their life credo for each 10-15 years. And I know a very little number of people, who evolved a certain slogan in there early youth maximalism and followed it for all their life. But in such case a person is a real genius or fool. I had different life stages. Once I was even a hippie, I was indifferent to everything and even thought that one should

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leave without affections. Then I understood that the sense is in these affections. КМ: You’ve said that you know for sure, and what exactly do you know? – I know for sure what I should do in order to make my works be bought. Understanding came with time. I realized what to do according to my works, which were bought. People are impressed by something deep, for example by childhood, the place, where you were growing, your environment and companions. If you have engaged something inside – it may be totally insignificant thing – it is the essence. Then the work will be bought. КМ: And what about the tastes? – To my mind the more good works I make, the higher cultural level of people will become. The ratio is directly proportional. But now there is a trend for improvement of tastes. The works shouldn’t lie somewhere in the obsceneness, left and forgotten. People should have a possibility to see them. The good works should be displayed! To my mind more than 50 per cent of works are not implemented, and we will not see them because of the fact, that their authors are not wellknown or appropriately appreciated. But they shouldn’t stop. КМ: But they say, that art has to be hungry, is it really so? – I am sure that when a person becomes mature for creation, he or she feels it and hunger isn’t worth speaking. Hunger provokes, but hungry art calls angry associations, and it is wrong. КМ: May a scrap metal be considered a piece of art? – A skill to present it is the art.

photo: Art works of Oleksandr Bezruchko and “Akson” Company’s masters. Dnipropetrovsk

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KOVALSKA MAYSTERNYA

Carbon is such a common and complex element. Its properties influence the extension of sphere of its usage. One of characteristic features of this chemical element is the state with unregulated structure – amorphous carbon (smut coal, charred coal, wood coal). Under the common conditions it is inert. Under the high temperatures it combines with many elements and displays strong renewal properties. Carbon plays an important role in space. On the Sun it is the 4th according to the spread after hydrogen, helium and oxygen, takes part in nuclear processes. In addition it plays an exclusive role in formation of all organic combinations and live organisms. Who can imagine a beauty without the diamonds? Carbon is in their base. It is so common, but it has so many hypostasises...

CARBON DIAMONDS or wood charcoal without secrets

without secrets From Philosophy to Labor Among them there is a charcoal. Without it one has nothing to do in the smithy, because “black father” gives life to “golden” fire. After that the changes of content and form begin. Surely, one may use in the furnace gas or charred coal, but they are absolutely not renewed resources. Unlike the wood charcoal, because according to Bogdan Popov, who practices the traditional smith work, it is the 99 per cent of carbon and the whole story. Bogdan tries to work in harmony and bal-

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ance with nature, that’s why in his work he uses the charcoal of his own production. He is sure that everything origins from the wood charcoal and all the smiths should be accustomed to it. “Many people want to become the smiths”smith Bogdan says, “but there are a lot of romantic people among them. They are captured by entourage, but actually the 90 per cent of the whole work is the preparation to it.” When people come to smithy for instructions of Bogdan, among all the other things they learn to sore the charcoal. This process is not easy, but it is in-

teresting. One should put to the capacity the firewood of the appropriate size (about 3-5 sm in diameter) in the right way in order to make everything even; in the result the charcoal will be qualitative. The charcoal shouldn’t be overburned or underburned; the smith should do everything in a right way and to get the necessary for the smith “black gold” – wood charcoal. When the main stage is finished and fire slakes, the place where the wood was burned (for example a hole or a metal barrel) is closed in order oxygen doesn’t have access to it, and the stage of cooling


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begins. Next day there is a sack of charcoal and 3-4 hours of intensive forging. It depends on your skill, how much you will manage to do for this time. Own and Now! Black coal is the same wood charcoal, but it has been lying in the ground for millions of years. Why one should use that, which was sometime, if it is possible to make the own and now? It is possible to use the solar energy and to get a result! During the procuring works the pupils begin to understand the functioning of ecosystem, the part if which we are. “It is obvious that it is not necessary and practical to align mass production using the wood charcoal”- Bogdan says. But if you work with steels and make a certain instrument (from axe to the smiths pincers), it’s better to use the wood charcoal. It doesn’t have alloys, for example sulphur and phosphor, and doesn’t make harm for the metal. The main thing during the work with the steels is to make steel as clean as possible. Sulphur causes heat frangibility and phosphor causes cold frangibility. These phenomena are not very pleasant. In addition, wood charcoal gives the possibility to use the least blaster. Even the bellows provide the sufficient quantity of air in order to fix the normal temperature. It burns in case

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of the least access of air, and it is what the metal really needs. Minimal quantity of air provides the preservation of crystal structure of metal, which is destroyed in case of its surplus. Alternative without negative Wood charcoal is a good alternative not only for smith, but also for ecosystem regardless of the point of view. Using the dead-wood for its production, people clean the forest. It is a sanitary help with pleasure and not without moral. Communication with nature during the procurement influences the psychical health of the urbanized individual in a positive way. In addition one can fry meat during the burning of wood on the charcoal. It is also a great pleasure. Smoke of the fire also positively influences the visual apparatus. According to the statement of oculists people, who have regular contacts with smoke, almost don’t suffer a cataract. Furthermore, trees better grow on the cleaned territory. According to the data of State Forestry Committee the index of woodiness on the territory of Ukraine is 15,6 per cent, and in majority of European countries the norm is 20 per cent. For reaching of this figure 2 million hectares of new plantings should be created in Ukraine.

Procuring the wood charcoal for the purposes of smithy, they make an adequate contribution to the territories landscape gardening. As you see, carbon gives us pleasure not only in diamonds...

photo: Sheshory. Blacksmith Bogdan “conjures” in front of the wood charcoal...

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Blacksmith's Journal of Ukraine