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Dear Counselor, On a hot day in June, 430 young men wearing the same shirts, exhausted from work and sleepless nights and surrounded by new friends sang a song that has been sung for more than half a century: “Louisiana Boys State sing your song, Louisiana Boys State thousands strong …” The next line goes on to say they are “the pride of Louisiana, and there’s a mighty crowd of us …” This year, Boys State will enter its 71st year since its inception in 1940. In that time, the program has altered the lives of thousands of young men in Louisiana, and you are a part of that mighty crowd. In 2007, Boys State moved from LSU in Baton Rouge to Northwestern State University in Natchitoches, La. The faculty, staff and students of NSU welcomed Boys State with open arms and have worked closely with the American Legion and Boys State Staff to ensure the program continues the tradition of excellence associated with training young men through the experience of creating the “mythical 51st State.” It is with great pride and pleasure that the American Legion and Louisiana Boys State Staff welcomes you to Louisiana Boys State 2011. This year you will be tasked with continuing a tradition, serving as a mentor and friend and, ultimatly, changing lives. This binder will serve as your guide throughout the program.

“Louisiana Boys State sing your song, Louisiana Boys State thousands strong. Pride of Louisiana, there’s a might crowd of us. And we’re proud of Louisiana, and she’s mighty proud of us. We’re the best, we have been bleesed. We past the test, we beat the rest. Louisiana Boys State — the BEST!”

Counselor Information • 1

CITIZEN ORIENTATION OUTLINE INTRODUCTION The following is an outline to use as a guideline in orienting your citizens on the first day. It points out the essentials that must be discussed. The rest is up to you. NOTE

Do not rush orientation. Give them time to unpack, meet others, relax. Tell them your names, PCs names and Staff’s names. This should take a hour to two hours. Explain topics briefly. Maintain a relaxed mood, use this as a chance to get to know the mentality of your citizens. Use this as a chance to determine if you will need to be more firm ... expect Respect, and do so in a respectful way. Set the mood for a FUN, COOPERATIVE week.

I. General Format A. Purpose of Boys State 1. Learn about Government 2. Learn Leadership 3. Learn to work together for a common goal B. Method 1. Boys State is “Learn by Doing” 2. Forming Mock Government a. City - Mayor and Council b. Parish - Sheriff and Legislature c. State - Parties and Elections d. Judicial System C. City and Parish Projects 1. Explain competition between cities and parishes for a winner. 2. Stress Creativity and Innovation 3. Stress learning and cooperation, not winning D. Elections 1. Brief on how they will run - filing, short speeches, etc. 2. Tell them to be thinking about what position they want to run for — they can look up job descriptions in their Handbooks. 3. Briefly mention that everyone will have a job. E. Logistics 1. Get from place to place quickly - Moving in Cities by Parish. 2. Muster, 4 Abreast 3. Head Counts!!! 4. Mention how quickly the program runs. Eat quickly, walk quickly, Think and React quickly. It’s essential. 5. STAY HYDRATED! Tell them to keep their water bottles and refill them at EVERY opportunity.

II. Other Aspects A. Concessions B. Laundry 1. Legion will have a basket each night, put your shirts in there. Try to swap out shirts. Wash in the sink if you need to. C. Cheer Contests — cheer while walking, emphasize the ‘spirit’ of Boys State. D. Song Contest — City - fun and upbeat; Parish - slower and meaningful E. Banner and Mascot — hopefully they will have chosen these by now, or at least close to it. F. Trash — keep area clean

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Name Gentry Pearson

# of Shirts Size 4


CITY: _____________

Amount Owed

Amount Given






Counselor Information • 3


# of Shirts

Small Medium Large X Large XX Large XXX Large

Change Needed:

Try and make change within your city.


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CITY: _____________



# of Pepp

# of Chee

Amount Owed

CITY: ___________________ Amount Given



Counselor Information • 5


# of Pizzas

Pepperoni Cheese

Change Needed:

Try and make change within your city.


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CITY: _____________

DAMAGE REPORT Please report ANY and ALL damage in rooms prior to the beginning of the Boys State Program. This is to ensure that Boys State will not be charged with unnecessarily for these damages after the program has ended. Please note even minor damage in rooms, hallways AND bathrooms. CITY ________________________________

Room Number

PARISH _______________________________


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Room Number

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COUNSELOR MEETINGS Part I: What they are and how they work. At the end of each day, with few exceptions, counselors meet to give “reports” on various aspects of the program and to receive instructions from Staff. Not every counselor will attend every meeting. There are two groups A and B. Each group will have one counselor and will rotate in order to ensure that the group of counselors not attending the meeting is with their cities and parishes. Counselor meetings are held in ____________________ on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, after citizens have returned to their dorms. There is no counselor meeting on day 6 (dance). One day 7 ALL counselors will attend the BIG meeting. The group of counselors scheduled to attend the meeting for that night should offer rides or walk in groups so that everyone arrives at the meeting safely and on time.

Bring these things with you EVERY meeting. White Cards- VERY IMPORTANT. Keep these cards with you at all times and update them frequently. Be Discreet and do not let citizens see these. Notes on the progress of your city. Also, take note of other “outstanding boys” in other cities so you can know them for the BIG meeting. Pen and Paper for note taking! It is imperative that you take good, DETAILEED notes. WRITE EVERYTHING DOWN. Much of the info given during these meetings is given ONLY at this time. You will need to communicate everything at this meeting to your other counselor once you return to the dorm. YOU ARE THE ONLY SOURCE OF THIS INFO. So you must take notes.

Part II: The “Counselor Reports” Counselors should arrive at the counselors meeting with a written report to be presented to the staff. Counselors report on two different aspects of the program. PEOPLE AND PROBLEMS. ALL REPORTS ARE LIMITED TO BE 1 MINUTE. Under the “people” category, you will list possible counselors and/or possible awards. For POSSIBLE COUNSELORS, mention only the citizens who are “counselor material” and should be invited back next year as a counselor. “Counselor Material” is generally defined as those citizens who are confident, but not arrogant, academically strong, respected by their fellow citizens and have good leadership and “follower-ship skills.” Citizens who will make good counselors are not necessarily the cheerleaders and state officials. For “possible awards” you need only to mention the citizen who has done an outstanding job in his particular office. When you are nominating people for possible awards consider those citizens who are innovative and exceptionally creative in carrying out their duties, as well as those who go above and beyond the “required” responsibilities. You may withdraw the name of a nominee under the PEOPLE category at any time, if you, your co-counselor and parish counselor see fit to do so.

Counselor Information • 9

COUNSELOR MEETINGS cont. Under the “problems” category, mention problems citizens, academic problems, and/or those citizens who have left the program. When you are reporting problems, do not report the names of citizens who visited the infirmary for that day and returned to the city. Finally, do not fell pressured to invent “people” or “problems” where there are none. When presenting the report, you should: 1. State your city and your name 2. State the category, the sub-category (i.e. people or problems), the number of persons under that sub-category, their names, offices held (to date), and then give brief comments. Remember, all information concerning offices, should be kept on individual white chards. A COUNSELOR REPORT WILL LOOK LIKE THE FOLLOWING: __________(YOUR NAME)_____ reporting for ______(your city)______ People: A. Possible counselor: #, Name, offices (to date), brief comments B. Possible Awards: #, Name, specific office, brief comments Problems: A. Problem Citizens: #, Name, offices (to date), brief comments B. Academic Problems: #, Academic Area, brief description of problems C. “Left the Program”: #, Name, district #, first elected office

EXAMPLES: -Lane Pace reporting for Ascension City PEOPLE: none PROBLEMS: none -Lane Pace reporting for Ascension City PEOPLE: Possible counselors, one: Ben Jumonville (Ben B-e-n Jumonville J-u-m-o-n-v-i-l-l-e) City Council, works extremely well with others, has an excellent understanding of the city project, works hard and is confident in his citizens. PROBLEMS: Problem Citizens, one: Rhett Hamernick (Rhett R-h-e-t-t Hamernick H-a-m-e-r-n-i-c-k) City Clerk, he has a bad attitude and brings down the morale within the city. He likes bears also. Left Program, one: Chas Kelly (Chas C-h-a-s Kelly K-e-l-l-y) District 6, Sheriff [Note*: When reporting those citizens who leave the program, give only their first

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COUNSELOR MEETINGS cont. elected office.] UPDATING YOUR REPORTS Once you have mentioned someone as a “Possible Counselor” or for a “Possible Award” you must continue to give updated reports at every counselor meeting. The same is true for “Problems.” Updated reports are given by providing newly elected offices, and any new information that had bearing on the nomination. Part III: The BIG Meeting The BIG meeting is held on the last night of the program (DAY 7), after the capitol program. The purpose of the BIG meeting is to: (1) Decide awards for all offices; (2) Decide awards for citizens; and (3) evaluate the program. DO NOT DISCUSS COUNSELOR MEETINGS OR AWARDS WITH YOUR CITIZENS. ALL counselors will attend the BIG MEETING. Immediately upon returning to the dorms, all counselors should report to the where they are told to be. Once you are dismissed from the BIG Meeting, you MUST return to your dorm. Encourage your citizens to end their “celebration” at a decent hour and to clean up their dorm rooms. You should complete the following forms before the BIG meeting. 1. “Nomination for Outstanding ____(office)____.” Filed under: Day 5. Complete this form on Day 5 and turn it in to your PC. Parish Counselors should turn this form in at the BS Office by 8:45 a.m. on Day 6. 2. “Nomination for A.R. Choppin” Filed under: Day 5, PC’s only. PC’s should complete this form on Day 5 and return it to the BS office by 8:45 a.m. on Day 6. 3. “Rookie Recommendations” Filed under: Day 6. Complete this form on Day 6 and turn it in to your Parish Counselor by 10:00 a.m. on Day 7. Parish Counselors will bring this form to the BIG meeting. 4. “Counselor Comments” Filed Under: Day 7. 5. White Cards a)White cards should be divided into groups according to your lists made from — 1st list, 2nd list, 3rd list, 4th list. Each group should be in alphabetical order, as should the remaining cards from your city. REMEMBER, if you mention someone under “people” during the BIG meeting whom you have never mentioned before at the nightly Counselor Meetings, we will question you on it. In other words, you should never nominate someone for an Outstanding Office Award, if you have not nominated him during nightly Counselor Meeting. The only exceptions may be Postmaster and Engineer. You may still nominate persons for this office, but the final decision may be made by staff. Finally, you need to refer to your daily “checklist” for daily preparations and for other forms and task that need to be completed on a day-to-day basis!

Counselor Information • 11

HOW TO CORRECT YOUR ALPHA ROLL 1. As your citizens arrive, check off their names. EX. Pace, Lane 2. Have the citizens make sure his information on his registration card is correct. 3. Write any corrections ABOVE the line being corrected on the alpha roll. Also make the correction on the registration card. In some instances, complete first names are not indicated on the white card or alpha roll due to space limitations. PLEASE BE MINDUFL WHEN MAKING CORRECTIONS THAT ALL FIRST NAMES MAY NOT NEED CORRECTIONS. (Examples: The name Connor Broussard may appear on the card as “Broussard, Conn”). 4. Have the citizen sign the registration card that the information is correct. Take the citizen’s registration card. 5. An “ALTERNATE” is a citizen who has come to the program in the place of someone else. The alternate’s registration card will be stapled on top of the original delegate’s card. 6. If a citizen (Ben Jumonville) who is an alternate for Lane Pace arrives, do the following: a) Put a line through Lane Pace’s name and information and in the left margin write Alt Jumonville. Alt Jumonville 1001 Pace, Lane 200 Holly Grove New Orleans LA 70065 504-696-9696 Orleans NG 1000 b) At the bottom of the alpha roll write in ALL the correct information for the alternate (including the computer number, city number and dorm room of the original delegate). In the margin write. Alt for Pace. Alt for Pace 1001 Jumonville, Ben 6969 Fairytale Lane Baton Rouge LA 70819 318-999-8756 Orleans NG 1000 7. A “NO SHOW” is a person for whom there is no replacement. A NO SHOW cannot be determined until after registration is complete. By the opening convocation, all NO SHOW’s (vacancies) that can be filled with local alternates will be filed. 8. If a citizen or an alternate for that citizen does not show up by the opening convocation, mark “NO SHOW” in the left margin by his name on the roster. Example NO SHOW 5019 Chas Kelly P.O. Box 534 Many LA 75637 14 SG 231 318-775-8847 IMPORTANT!!!! YOU HAVE TWO CITY ROLLS. THE FIRST COPY IS FOR YOU TO MAKE YOUR MISTAKES. THE SECOND VERY NEAT COPY IS FOR THE SECRETARIES. COUNSELORS SHOULD TURN IN THEIR CORRECTED ALPHA ROLLS TO THE SECREATRIES AT THE 4 P.M. CONVOCATION ON THE FIRST DAY.

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OATH AND BOYS STATE SONG I HEREBY SOLEMNLY PLEDGE MYSELF TO SUPPORT AND DEFEND THE CONSTITUTION AND LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE STATE OF LOUISIANA, AND OF THIS STATE: I WILL obey all its statutes, rules and regulations; I WILL participate to the best of my ability in all of the activities which my duties as a citizen may require; I WILL carry out, to the best of my ability, the function of any office to which I may be elected or appointed; I WILL protect the dignity and honor of my country and strive to make my community a better place in which to live; I WILL. do my utmost to safeguard and transmit to posterity the principles of justice, freedom, and democracy; So help me God.

LOUISIANA BOYS STATE SONG By Paul L. Abel Louisiana Boys State sing your song, Louisiana Boys State thousands strong. Pride of Louisiana, there’s a mighty crowd of us And we’re proud of Louisiana, and she’s very proud of us, We’re the best, we have been blessed. We pass the test. we beat the rest. Louisiana Boys State - the BEST!!

Counselor Information • 13

JOINT CONVOCATION PREAMBLE OF THE CONSTITUTION This will be a continuous flow of words. The only pauses will be where commas are indicated. Podium Speaker will begin alone:

“We the people

Platform guests will stand and join the Podium Speaker:

“Of the United States

SC’s stand:

“In order to form a more perfect union

PC’s stand:

“establish justice, insure domestic tranquility

JC’ s/CC’ s stand:

“provide for the common defense/ promote the general welfare/ and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United States of America”

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE DANCE I. RULES FOR COUNSELORS • First JC should be at their post as soon as their city gets into the facility. • When the dance begins, all counselors must go and find their post so when it is time for your shift to start you know where to go. • If you have no assigned post you will “float.” Be heads up at ALL TIMES. • Counselors must remain at their post for the whole shift. Do not leave your post until your replacement arrives. • Be on time for 2nd, 3rd and 4th shifts. II. SPECIFIC DUTIES • POST LEADING OUTSIDE THE DOORS: be aware of people trying to sneak in. If they do not have a button on they are not to enter. PEOPLE WILL TRY TO SNEAK IN. • DOOR & LEDGE PERSONNEL: Be polite to anyone coming in. Many legionnaires and girls state chaperones may arrive. • If you are unsure or run into trouble send the Girls State counselor for help. • FLOATERS: Keep your eyes out for people that look suspicious or look like they are not with the program. Look for buttons. • Do not play cop if you run into someone not with the program. Ask them politely to leave and if they do not then send the Girls State counselor for a staff member. III. RULES FOR CITIZENS • Limited contact. • Act as gentlemen should. • Tell your city if they see something strange to report it to a counselor. • They may not leave the dance. DANCE MISCELLANEOUS • Line up as normal. No one is to run. You do not want to get sweaty before the dance. • Enter facility where told and nowhere else. • JCs must keep everyone moving at a steady pace. Do not slow down and talk. • Be aware of people trying to sneak in the column while walking to the dance. THIS HAS HAPPENED BEFORE. • Girls State may run a little different but stick to what you are supposed to do. • When the dance is over no talking when lining up. • All counselors must wear counselor shirts.

Counselor Information • 15

THE CAPITAL PROGRAM The Capitol Program is the climax of the week at Boys State. It is something that can be both an educational and emotional experience for citizens at the end of the fulfilling week. The time you take preparing your citizens for this afternoon can shape their final feelings about our program and the friends they met during the past few days. The following is a list of occurrences that you should review and understand before the night of the Capitol Program. • Have your city prepared for the Program and ready for muster on time. After reaching the program area, escort your city to the proper place and get a head count. • After the cities are in place, the new state officers will be introduced and will walk to their predetermined area in the building. • After the officers have departed, excuse the House, Senate and Court members when you are so directed. When directed to go into the Ballroom with your city, make sure they know where they are to go. The choice is either the Senate/House chambers for the ceremonies or to the Courts. • If you have a specific assignment then you should go there until citizens are dismissed. • Upon returning to the dorm area, escort citizens to rooms and they will stay there the remainder of the night.

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ROOKIE RECOMMENDATIONS INTSTRUCTIONS Directions: READ THIS ENTIRE SHEET BEFORE DOING ANYTHING!!! Then follow each step very carefully. 1. Before compiling your Rookie Recommendation List, re-read “Counselor Meetings.” 2. On a separate sheet of notebook paper, make four lists according to the following guidelines. Make sure that the final lists are product of a collaborative effort between you, your Co-counselor and your PC. If you are unsure about someone, consult your PC. List 1: OUTSTANDING COUNSELORS. In a condensed version, THESE COUNSELORS WILL HAVE THE QUALITIES LIST BELOW: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Is sharp academically and learns quickly and eagerly Follows directions; plans ahead, and is organized Is a good leader, but not a dictator Is alert and anticipates problems Is compassionate and friendly Is in good physical condition Is dedicated to Boys State

List 2: GOOD COUNSLEORS — These counselors will have FOUR OR MORE CHARACTERISTICS ABOVE. List 3: IN A PINCH COUNSELORS. These guys were good solid citizens with good attitudes. While they possessed many qualities listed above they were sometimes inconsistent. Given a year of maturity, they would be a “good risk” if we found ourselves out of counselors. List 4: PROBLEM CITIZENS. The boys on this list will not be invited back as counselors under any circumstances. These citizens were a “problem” throughout most of the program. For example, this list would contain the names of: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Citizens who were hostile to other citizens Citizens who were severely homesick and cried every night. Citizens who spent most of the program in and out of the infirmary. Citizens who had a negative attitude about Boys State.

3. Do not for get to include the names of the boys who were recommended at nightly counselor meetings. Locate their names and place them on the appropriate list. 4. Not everyone in your city will appear on the list. In fact, the majority of your citizens will not be on any list. For example, you may have two boys on LIST 1, three on LIST 2, four boys on LIST 3, and five boys on LIST 4; or you may have three boys on LIST 2 and none on any other LISTS. The most important thing to remember is to read the list guidelines and write down the names of the people who fit the “good counselor” criteria. “ENERGETIC” CHEERLEADERS OR STATE OFFICERS DO NOT NECESSARILY MAKE GOOD COUNSELORS. However, many of them do. You must use your judgment and recommend only those boys who would make good counselors. If you are unsure about someone, discuss it with your PC. Counselor Information • 17

ROOKIE RECOMMENDATIONS INTSTRUCTIONS cont. 5. Copy the names for LISTS 1, 2 and 3 on to the attached sheet. Please be careful to spell the names correctly . LIST THE FIRST NAME AND THEN THE LAST NAME OF EACH BOY. DO NOT WRITE ANYTHING ELSE. ALPHABETIZE EACH LIST. 6. List the names of all LIST 4 boys, if any, in the bottom section. After each name, include the reason why the boy is on LIST 4 (For example, excessive illness, disciplinary problems, extremely bad attitude, etc.) 7. Remember to put “CITY” and “COUNSELOR” names where indicated. 8. Before you turn in your lists, you will need to divide your white cards into 5 groups. The first group of cards will consist of those boys in LIST 1; the second group will correspond with LIST 2; the third group with LIST 3; and the fourth group with LIST 4. The fifth group will consist of the boys who are not on any list. Make sure that your white cards are divided in this manner before coming to the BIG meeting on Day 7. Also, alphabetize each group of cards. You will be asked to turn in your white cards by LISTS. 9. When completed turn the LISTS in to your PC BY 10:00 A.M. ON DAY 7.

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REPORTING TO YOUR SPONSOR Instructions to delegates: Our sponsors help to make Louisiana Boys State successful. After you return home, offer your services as a speaker to the group that sponsored you. If this is not possible, write a letter to your sponsor. The following are suggested guidelines in writing your letter or speech. Address the presiding officer, then the assemblage. Make your presentation short, precise, and factual. Express your appreciation to them as your sponsor. I. Purpose of Louisiana Boys State The purpose of Louisiana Boys State is to educate us in the duties, privileges, rights and responsibilities of American citizenship. (Use your own words) II.

Classroom instruction on: A. Political parties, their organization, history, and place in a democracy B. The legislative system in Louisiana C. The democratic form of government D. City government E. Policy Jury system F. District Attorney duties G. District Judge duties H. Sheriff duties I. Assessor duties


Elections A. City B. Parish C. State


Governmental functions and duties preformed A. Executive (Governor and Mayors) B. Legislative (Senates and House, City and Parish projects) C. Judicial (Trials)

V. Express your opinion of Louisiana Boys State. Explain how your experience will assist you in the future. Also, tell your classmates the advantages and benefits of Louisiana Boys State.

Counselor Information • 19


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NOMINATIONS FOR A.R. CHOPPIN OUTSTANDING CITIZEN AWARD This award is given to the one boy who has exhibited outstanding performance in all areas, served as an example to his fellow citizens, and has personified the ideals of the Boys State Program. CITIZEN NAME_____________________________________________________________________ CITY ________________________ PARISH ___________________ PC _______________________ JC _______________________________________________________________________________ 1. OFFICES HELD: A. CITY/PARISH OFFICE________________________________________________ SPECIAL C/P OFFICE ________________________________________________ (Pres PJ, Pres SB, Mayor Pro-Tempore, Speaker or Clerk of House, Pres or Secretary of Senate, Court Bailiff, Clerk of Court, Chief Justice)


PARTY OFFICES: Which Party? ________________________________________

[ ] WAYS AND MEANS/CAMPAIGN [ ] PPC [ ] SPC For the office of _____________________________________, he was elected:

[ ] 1/11 [ ] ½ [ ] Keynote Speaker

3. RANKING FOR “OUTSTANDING CITIZEN” In City… [ ] 1st [ ] close 2nd In Parish….[ ] 1st [ ] close 2nd

[ ] Candidate

[ ] State Office

[ ] distant 2nd [ ] distant 2nd

other ______ other ______


Briefly describe how he functioned in his city/parish office on the backside of the page.


Give an overall evaluation of his performance at Boys State. Include outstanding qualities and comment on his interpersonal relationships with the other citizens. SPECIFIC EXAMPLES ARE A MUST! (On back of page)



[ [ History _______(25) [ ] Need __________ (20) [ ] Budget/Fin _______(25) [ ] Descrip _______(60)

CITY PROJECT RANK ________ [ ] Mayor Conc. __________ (50 [ ] Need _________(15)

OVERALL PARISH RANK ________ PJ PROJECT RANK __________ SB PROJECT RANK _______ COURT PERFORMANCE __________________________________________ LEGIS PERFORMANCE ___________________________________________

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NOMINATIONS FOR OUTSTANING ____________________________ FOR OFFICES OF: Mayor, City Council, City Clerk, Director of Finance, City Engineer, City Health Officer, Public Relations Office, Fire Chief, Police Chief, Sheriff, Registrar of Voters, Lobbyist, Legislative/Judicial; Aide, Coroner, Police Juror, School Board Member CITIZEN NAME______________________________ OFFICE__________________________________ CITY _______________________ PARISH ______________________ PC _________________________ JC _______________________________ _______________________________________________ 1. RANKING FOR “OUTSTANDING CITIZEN”: In City… [ ] 1st [ ] close 2nd In Parish…. [ ] 1st [ ] close 2nd 2. DID HE SERVE AS: [ ] Pres PJ

[ ] Pres SB

[ ] distant 2nd [ ] distant 2nd

other ______ other ______

[ ] Mayor Pro-Tempore

3. If his primary job function was work on the City Project, describe which parts he worked on the most: 4. Check the following qualities that most accurately describe your nominee in relation to his job performance in the office:

[ ] very organized [ ] took initiative [ ] Motivated others [ ] great problem solver [ ] enthusiastic [ ] did everything himself

[ ] creative in job implementation [ ] could make lemonade out of lemons [ ] encouraged others to participate [ ] respected by fellow citizens [ ] delegated by fellow citizens [ ] had little help from citizens

5. Give specific examples of each area you checked off in #4. Continue on back. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ FOR STAFF USE ONLY OVERALL CITY RANK _________ CITY PROJECT RANK ________

[ [ History _______(25) [ ] Need __________ (20) [ ] Budget/Fin _______(25) [ ] Descrip _______(60)

[ ] Mayor Conc. __________ (50 [ ] Need _________(15)

OVERALL PARISH RANK ________ PJ PROJECT RANK __________ SB PROJECT RANK __________ COURT PERFORMANCE __________________________________________ LEGIS PERFORMANCE ____________________________________________

Counselor Information • 23

24 • Counselor Information

COUNSELOR COMMENTS NAME:____________________ Assignment:

[ ] JC / City


[ ] PC / Parish


[ ] Other


1. Comments: (feel free to write on the back or attach more paper) How would you improve the program? What did you like best / least?

Counselor Information • 25

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“in the case of elections, voters alternate between being the rulers of the country and being the subjects of the government. The act of voting, the people operate in a sovereign capacity, acting as “masters” to select their government.”

Elections are the first encounter the Citizens have with the programming of Louisiana Boys State. It is essential that you treat the process with respect while making it fun. If you act enthusiastic about the process, it will legitimize the first part of the program and set ground work for the entire week. Take extra time studying this part of your binder so you are familiar with the different types of elections and their respective processes.

“From time to time, life as a leader can look hopeless. To help you, consider a man who lived through this: Failed in business at age 31. Defeated for the legislature at 32. Again failed in business at 34. Sweetheart died at 35. Had a nervous breakdown at 36. Defeated in election at 38. Defeated for Congress at 43. Defeated for Congress at 46. Defeated for Congress at 48. Defeated for Senate at 55. Defeated for Vice President at 56. Defeated for Senate at 58. Elected President at age 60. This man was Abraham Lincoln.”

Elections • 1



2 • Elections

CITY AND PARISH ELECTIONS PHASE 1 - FILING FOR OFFICE: Filing for office is to be done in your dorms on Day 1. 1. Each Citizen selects one City or Parish position to run for: On the first night, each citizen must select one city or parish office to run for. Counselors should be familiar with the city/parish job descriptions in the handbook and be prepared to answer questions or further explain the positions. However, each citizen must decide on his own what to run for. Do not recommend an office or imply that one position is more important than the other. Counselors will set up a FILING DESK in the dorm and distribute a NOTICE OF CANDIDACY form to each citizen. Explain that this is a formal expression of his intention to run for a specific city or parish office. It must be filled out and witnessed by two other members of his city or parish and filed with his JCs. Each citizen will bring his completed NOTICE OF CANDIDACY to the filing desk. Counselors should explain to the city that elections will take place tomorrow morning and each citizen will make a 1-2 minute speech of political nature come election time. *This is one of many opportunities a counselor has to remind his citizens that they are creating the “Mythical 51st State.” Encourage citizens to consider the challenges facing each elected office and speak on these important issues. 2. Sort Notes of Candidacy Lights out – After counselors have collected all notices of candidacy, the sorting process begins. • Separate city offices from parish offices. JCs keep the city office stack. Give the parish office stack to the PC. • Sort notices by office. Make separate stacks for Mayor, City Council, City Clerks etc. • After separating the notices by office, sort each stack alphabetically by the candidate’s last name. • Make a written MASTER LIST which indicates each office “in election order” and the candidates first and last names (alphabetically) who are running for that office. If there are no candidates for an office, list the office and write “NONE – COME BACK TO AT FILL-INS.” *The Election Order can be determined by looking at the Election Return forms. • Note to the PCs: On your master list, also indicate the candidate’s city next to his name for the offices of Senator, Representative, School Board, and Police Jury. (These are plurality elections requiring representation from both cities.

Elections • 3

CITY AND PARISH ELECTIONS cont. PHASE II - CITY ELECTIONS: City Elections are to be held in the city rooms on Day 2. ROOM PREP- One JC will be the recorder and write the position/candidates on the board. The recording JC will then calculate the SM (Simple Majority) for the city and writes this number on the board as well. This same simple majority number will be used throughout City Elections. It should not change unless a citizen goes to the infirmary and will not return to elections. ELECTION PROCESS BEGINS: • Other JC, acting as the coordinator, will make sure all citizens are seated and quiet. This JC should begin by establishing a professional and dignified atmosphere for voting. He should announce, “Welcome to the _________ City Elections. We will start with the office of the Mayor.” • Recorder JC writes Mayor in the OFFICE box and a 1 in the “Number to Be Elected” box. • Recorder JC writes the names of all candidates for Mayor on the board as they appear on the master list. • Coordinator JC will call on each candidate one at a time in this same order to come to the front to give his speech. After the candidates give their speeches, the JC will call their names in that same order. • Vote using the “heads down, hands up” method. Maintain secrecy for voting integrity. Use a scratch sheet to tally the votes in secret. • Erase the names that lost the election from the board. HEADS STAY DOWN UNTIL NAMES ARE ERASED. If there needs to be a run-off, the names of the candidates who are running off should remain on the board until someone is elected to fill the position. The last name(s) on the board is (are) the winner(s) of the election. • After counselors have determined a winner, coordinator JC announces “Congratulations to the ______ City Mayor, _______.” Record JC writes his name on the board by “Mayor.” • One JC takes the new Mayor in the hall for preliminary briefing. This should only consist of a quick lesson in the rest of the elections. (He will attend the afternoon Mayors briefing session for specific job details.) • While the Mayor is being briefed, recorder JC revises the Office box and Number to Be Elected box and immediately begins the City Council election. • When the Mayor returns, he will preside over the remaining elections with the City Clerk. Once the Mayor takes over, recorder JC remains at the board as elections progress. Coordinator JC is seated on the floor in front out of the line of vision but close enough to carefully follow the elections and assist when necessary.

4 • Elections

CITY AND PARISH ELECTIONS cont. ELECTION PROCESS CONTINUES: • Move through the list of city offices as efficiently as possible. AT ALL TIMES there should be either a vote or a speech going on. • Recorder JC continues to revise boxes before each election and writes the winders names next to the respective offices they are elected to. If there is NO candidate for any particular office, Recorder JC shall write FILL-IN next to that position. • Coordinator JC begins to fill out City Election Returns. DO NOT turn in these sheets until COMPLETE. • When finished with the election of each city office, one JC texts a Staff member. • Contact counselor in your sister city to see how close they are to finishing the first run through. PHASE III – PARISH ELECTIONS: Parish elections are to take place in your parish room on Day 2 • When both cities have finished the first run through of city offices, one city moves to join the other city in the designated parish room. • If desks are available, please seat everyone. If not, part the desks to allow the entering city to sit on the floor in the center. DO NOT have the entering city sit in the back and out of line of vision for parish elections. • When everyone is seated, remember what the atmosphere is supposed to be like during elections. Announce, “Welcome to the _________ Parish Elections.” • Designate a recorder counselor who will recalculate the Simple Majority for the parish and revise the board. Begin with the election of Sheriff. The PC will act as the coordinator, and the election procedure will follow just as it was in Phase II. After citizens have elected the Sheriff for the parish, he will be brought outside for briefing while the parish continues to vote. When the Sheriff returns, he will preside over the elections. The PC will stand at the side in front of the room to assist the Sheriff if need be. The other counselors should be out of line of vision and spread throughout the room to assist anyone if necessary. Make sure the citizens move through the parish offices as efficiently as possible. As elections progress, the recorder will write the winners to their respective offices. If no candidate applies for the position, write “fill-in.” After each election, revise the board for the next office. Indicate your progress on the progress poster throughout. PCs – begin filling out Parish Election Returns.

Elections • 5

CITY AND PARISH ELECTIONS cont. PHASE IV – RE-FILINGS: Re-filing takes place immediately following parish elections. • Remain assembled as a parish in the same room. • Go back to the list of parish offices on the board and let citizens without an office know that they can run as many times as they want until elected. • Sheriff will preside over the meeting. Have him announce, “We will now conduct the _____ parish fill-in elections to fill any vacant parish positions.” • Sheriff will then start with the first fill-in office and accept nominations for the office. Recorder writes the names on the board as a citizen is nominated. No citizen is to be coerced into a position he does not want. STRESS the importance that for a parish and city to run efficiently that all positions need to be filled, and that all positions are worth of any citizen. • Follow the same election procedure. • PC continues to fill out Parish Election Returns Parishes will then split back up into their cities in their city rooms. Go through same process for refilings with the cities. Follow the same election procedure. • JCs continue to fill out Election Return Forms During re-filing, citizens may be tempted to rush through the election process by appointing the only citizen who appears willing to run. Maintain the integrity of the elections process by not allowing this to happen. If it looks like there is only one nominees for an office, be certain to follow the process for acclamation. If citizens understand that the strict formality will be followed no matter how many candidates there are, the incentive to discourage more nominations is minimized. Remember that as counselors, you set the tone of professionalism from filing on night 1 all the way through the elections. Procedures for Acclamation, Simple Majority and Plurality Elections Acclamation Procedure: candidate’s name - one candidate elections ONLY - is written on the board, and the presider calls the candidate to the front of the room. The candidate gives his speech (even in an election won by acclamation, the candidate is to give a speech) and someone shall motion to elect the candidate by acclamation (a second is needed to secure the acclamation). The presider says, “It has been moved and seconded that ______ shall be accepted by acclamation to the office of ________. All those in favor say ‘aye’…opposed ‘nay’… Congratulations to Mr. _______, our new ____________.”

6 • Elections

CITY AND PARISH ELECTIONS cont. Simple Majority Procedure: while candidates’ names are written on the board, the presider calls each candidate to the front of the room. The candidates must give their speech before voting begins. Then, each candidates name is called in order and the voting process begins. Voting – presider tells citizens to put their heads down and to vote for only one candidate. He will also repeat the names of the candidates in order to assure the names of the people running to the voters. While votes are going on, JCs count the votes (shown by raised hands) for each candidate and write them down. If one candidate has the simple majority or greater in votes, he is the winner. BEFORE HEADS COME UP, ERASE ALL LOSING NAMES AND VOTES. If no one candidate reaches simple majority in the first round, a second ballot is necessary. • Add the votes of the highest candidates until it reaches the SM number. These candidates will be placed on the second ballot. • Reintroduce the second ballot candidates and have them stand at the front and make brief remarks on their candidacy. • Follow the same voting procedure. The candidate with the highest vote wins the position. • A third ballot is necessary only if there is a tie for first place on the second ballot. Plurality Procedure: Candidates names are written on the board (be sure to note their city next to their name for parish-wide plurality elections). Each candidate then gives a speech, and after speeches, the ballot will be ran just like the previous noted ballots. If election by acclamation is called for, then use the Acclamation Procedure as a group. If a vote needs to be taken, then use the Voting Procedure. For City Council, the top five candidates with the most votes are elected. In case of a tie, FOR LAST POSITION ONLY, use a SM run-off election. For parish-wide plurality elections, use the maximum number per city guidelines that have been established. If (after the first ballot) another ballot is needed, then continue the election procedure as necessary.

Elections • 7

PLURALITY ELECTIONS EXPLAINED Plurality elections for city and parish offices frequently cause many JCs unnecessary anguish. However, by carefully following the guidelines on this sheet, you can successfully run plurality elections without confusion. The first step in plurality elections after voting is to rank the candidates in the order of votes received. Then simply declare the top (x) candidates to be elected. However, the following scenarios may arise during this process. If they do, simply follow the instructions on this sheet. • A tie for the last spot may occur. Fill in the last spot by majority election of the tied candidates. • Three candidates may tie for the last two spots. Fill these last two spots by plurality election. Anyone who finished ahead of the three candidates is elected. Procedure is the same with situations like: four candidates tie for three spots and/or six candidates tie for four spots. Fill these spots by plurality election procedure. • Elections where each city must have (y) winners (e.g. House and Senate, Parish Party Committeemen) rank the candidates. Instead of simply declaring the top (x) candidates as elected, remember that each city must have (y) winners. If ranking shows the top (x) candidates overall yield AT LEAST (y) winners from each city, those candidates are elected. If not, take the top (y) candidates with the most votes from the city with fewer winners in all circumstances. Ties are broken the same way as above, but having the proper number of winners from each city takes precedence over any other results. • The elected group in a plurality election must have a majority of the total votes cast. This will always be the case unless AT LEAST three times as many candidates of the number of spots run for office. Even then, add up the totals before making a final decision. In simple terms, don’t worry about the winning candidates having a majority. It virtually always happens. If you have any problems during the elections, FIND A SENIOR COUNSELOR OR STAFF MEMBER. Elections for the House, Senate, School Board and Police Jury are conducted by plurality vote as well. A plurality vote means that four candidates with the highest number of votes are elected as Senators. If there is a tie between two candidates for the fourth position as Senator, a run-off must take place. Remember, there is a requirement that at least one Senator and at least four Representatives come from each city (no more than three Senators or no more than six Representatives may come from a single city). Elections for the School Board and the Police Jury members are to be held by the same procedure. At least three members of each body must be from the same city (no more than five from one city).

8 • Elections


CITY: ____________________ JC ___________________ JC ___________________





PC __________________

City Council Members (5) ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Director of Finance


City Engineer


City Police Chief


City Fire Chief


City Judge


City Attorney


City Public Defender


City Clerk


Elections • 9


10 • Elections


PARISH: ____________________ PC __________________




1. ____________________________

Parish Police Jury (5)

1. ____________________________ 2. ____________________________ 3. ____________________________ 4. ____________________________ 5. ____________________________

Parish School Board (5)

1. ____________________________ 2. ____________________________ 3. ____________________________ 4. ____________________________ 5. ____________________________

Elections • 11


PARISH: ____________________ PC __________________



District Judge

1. ____________________________

District Attorney

1. ____________________________

Parish Public Defender

1. ____________________________

Supreme Court

1. ____________________________


1. ____________________________ 2. ____________________________ 3. ____________________________ 4. ____________________________ 5. ____________________________ *no more than 3 from each city.


1. ____________________________ 2. ____________________________ 3. ____________________________ 4. ____________________________ 5. ____________________________ 6. ____________________________ 7. ____________________________ *no more than 4 from each city.

Coroner / Reg. of Voters 12 • Elections

1. ____________________________

Elections • 13

14 • Elections

NOTES FOR THE MAYOR’S BRIEFING SESSION OVERALL DUTIES • Pacing - Don’t peak too early or too late. Sit down with a realization of when everything is due and plan backwards. Be conservative in all estimates. For example, if someone assigned to write the history finishes tonight (or the day it is assigned), you know something is not quite right. Try to pace yourselves to reach a mental and emotional peak the day before the project is due, so all the work can be completed on time. • Quality Control - Don’t overlook a single element of the project. A project can have the most imaginative history since Boys State began, but if the financial report is only two paragraphs long, the project as a whole carries little quality. The duty of the Mayor is to check on each aspect of the project and keep it up to high standards. • Division of Labor - See that everyone in the city is doing something constructive. Constructive is a term defined broadly because chanting is as constructive for the city as calculating the millage for the project. Your duty is to continually check around to see that every member of the city is doing something for the city. On the other hand, citizens will need moments of quiet with themselves, which you should allow. Moreover, do not let one person take on more than he can handle. • Leadership - Be the figure head of responsibility. Command respect, but be judicious and fair. Be always understanding, but firm when the situation calls for it. THE PROJECT • The Committee System - Recommend the committee system for the project. One group being assigned to the history, one group under the finance commissioner assigned to financial report, etc. Printing and proof-reading should also done by the committee method when the project is ready to go. See page 16 of the Handbook for the requirements of a project. (This explains the requirements in more detail). Committee system allows you to circulate around each committee and be the head decision maker if a high level of decision is necessary. • Grading the Projects - Projects are judged mostly on the required aspects (finance, history, etc.). Imagination is important, but a project will be graded on other elements too, i.e., models. Encourage them to triage within the project. RELATIONS WITH CITIZENS • Dickens one said, “It was the best of times, and it was the worst of times.” Problems with members of the city are common, but in most cases they are solvable. Assert your authority and stress the common good. The mayor and the city need each other. Without coordination an unnecessary amount of meaningless ideas occur. The city should work together as a unit and work with one another. A citizen is obliged to participate in not only his project, but in other projects within his city. Work with the mayor.

City Projects • 1

NOTES FOR THE MAYOR’S BRIEFING SESSION cont. LOGISTICS • Assume any responsibilities the JC assigns to you. Stay heads up. Make sure the JC’s know where you are at all times. (to the mayor) FOR THE CLERKS (Not necessary for the clerks to attend this meeting) • They should be the mirror of the city by writing everything down -- minutes of meetings so ideas suggested will be on paper in case they are valuable at a later date for the project or anything else. In addition to regular duties, he should be available to assist the mayor; the mayor should utilize all possibilities of the clerk’s job. Because when things are on paper, they can be retrieved more quickly for reference. • At this point pose a series of hypothetical problems to different mayors and discuss their answers. One problem can address the traditional clique and how to deal with it. Another can concern a person trying to usurp the authority of the mayor. • End the meetings with short summary and a positive conclusion. MAKE THEM FEEL IMPORTANT.

2 • City Projects

PROJECT CHECKLIST The following items SHOULD BE addressed in your project proposal. This list does not include all the items that CAN BE put in your proposal. • City Population • Rural or Urban City • Focus on life • Location of current landfill • Environmental problems if any • Waste stream analysis • Plan to reduce waste flow by 15% using an “integrated waste management” • Projection of future risks • Long-term vision • Plan to build or improve some facility funded by a bond issue • Current city budget • Projected cost of facility • Size of bond issue • Number of mills • Public education program concerning recycling • Voting results of city project

City Projects • 3

FINANCING THE PROJECT The principals involved in financing any bond issue are: 1. The amount or principal sum that must be raised by the bond issue. 2. The amount of interest that must be paid over the term for which the bonds are issued and called. 3. The total amount of revenue that must be raised by taxes to pay off the principle sum and total interest. 4. The total amount that must be raised each year to make the yearly principle and interest payments. 5. The millage required on existing assessments to raise the amount of money needed in item #3 above. In order to finance a project of the above consideration and to set up a mathematical formula to guide the persons responsible for the issuing of a bond issue, the following pertinent facts must be considered. The total interest in calculated from the following algebraic formula: I=(PRT)/2

(This assumes simple interest with a stable periodic installment payment.)

4 • City Projects



The total interest



The total cost to build the project (principle)



The interest rate



The number of years in which bonders will be retired



The tax revenue yielded by one mill. This is equal to .001 (value of a mill) times the taxable base of the real property.



The total yearly payment. This includes the payment on the principle and the yearly interest. It is equal to Y= (P + I)/T

EXAMPLE OF FINANCING THE PROJECT The project considered below is a building that will cost $5,000,000. The Fair Market Value of property in the city is $2,000,000,000. The assessed value of this property is $20,000,000 (Fair Market Value multiplied by an assessment rate of %10). The debt must be repaid in twenty years. A. Equations

P= 5,000,000 R= 8 T= 20 years

B. To Get Total Interest (I) (Over the entire 20 years) I= (PRT)/2 I= (5,000,000 X .08 X 20)/2 I= 8,000,000/2 I= 4,000,000 C. Total Cost of Project P + I = 9,000,000.00 D. Determine Total yearly Payment (Y) (Total Cost of Project/T) = {(P+I)/T} = Y Y= 9,000,000/20 Y (Yearly Payment) = 540,000 E. Determining Millage 1. Using the total assessed value, determine what a one mill tax would yield from the total (M). M= .001 (value of one mill) x 200,000,000 (assessed value) M= 200,000 2. Determine how many mills will be needed to play for this project. (Y/M) = (450,000/200,000) = 2.25 mills

City Projects • 5

EASY 5 STEP MATH 1. Variables for Equations: T = 20 and R = .08 → ALWAYS P = depends on how much improvements costs 2. Equations for Total interest:

I = P x R x T = P (cost of project) x .08 x 20 2 2

3. Total Cost of Project:

P + I [ P = cost of improvement; I=interest (calculated on a step 2)]

4. Total Yearly Payment (Y):

total cost of project = P + I = step 3 = Y T T 20

5. Determine how many mills will be needed to pay for this project.

a) Using the total assessed value [10% of fair market value of property], determine what a mil tax would yield from the total (M).

b) Determine how many mills will be needed to pay for this project.

6 • City Projects

M = .001 (value of mill) x ______________________ (assessed value)

Y = step 4 = ___________ mils M step 5a

TYPICAL SMALL CITY BUDGET Each city in the program may choose in its history to be one of 3 sizes: population below is for a small town (60,000). To be a medium sized city, you may multiply ALL figures by 3 (population = 180,000) or for a large city, multiply ALL figures by 8 (population = 480,000). Items listed below are optional and merely examples. You may add or delete as you wish. Population: 60,000

Balance in general funds:

Assessed Value: $200,000,000 (10% of F.M.V)


Receipts: 7 mill tax 440,000 Street improvements (2 mills) 180,000 Licenses 350,000 Beer and Tobacco tax 450,000 Transferred from utilities 375,000 Miscellaneous tax 125,000 Miscellaneous receipts 110,000 TOTAL RECEIPTS………………………………………………2,480,000 Expenditures: General Government 375,000 Police Department 600,000 Fire Department 325,000 Health and Sanitation 245,000 Streets and Parks 462,000 Utilities 220,000 Miscellaneous 130,000 TOTAL EXPENDITURES…………………………………….-2,357,000 Balance


City Projects • 7

8 • City Projects

POLICE JURY PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Background Information Boys State is comprised of 7 parishes each with its own unique characteristics: Between them, there exists a wide diversity of economic, educational, recreational and structural resources. Each parish is controlled by a police jury which has the authority to create and enforce laws, to impose taxes, and to maintain an environment that best serves the citizens of the parish. One of the major responsibilities of the police jury is to recruit new and expanding businesses into its parish in order to generate jobs for its citizens as well as to generate increased tax revenue for the parish. This increased income for the parish is used to fund such capital improvements as roads, sewers, law enforcement, fire protection, health care, and education. The police jury, therefore, plays a vital role in guaranteeing a superior quality of life for its citizens. B. The Situation As a police jury, you have just been informed by the Governor’s economic development team that Hyundai, a Korean auto manufacturer is searching for a site within one of the Boys State parishes to construct and operate a new plant. In this plant, the top-selling vehicles (trucks, jeeps, and mini-vans) for Hyundai would be assembled. Because of the state of the economy at this time, this plant would be a tremendous asset not only to the parish in which it locates, but to the entire state of Boys State as well. Your task as a police jury is to prepare an “incentive package” which describes the outstanding attributes of your parish and also outlines any financial concessions that you would be willing to make in order to attract this plant to locate in your parish. You will present your parish’s “incentive package” to the Hyundai site selection team in the form of an oral presentation and a written proposal at the end of the week. The most outstanding proposal will be chosen as the new site for a Hyundai plant within Louisiana Boys State! Parish Party Caucus – Each parish party then reassembles for a meeting called a Parish Party Caucus. In this caucus, parish citizens plan and discuss who from among them would like to run for a state office. Elections are held to determine who will be their Parish Party nominees for each of the state offices.

Police Jury • 1

TYPICAL POLICE JURY BUDGET Each Police Jury in the program must use the population and assessed value figures below, all other items are optional and merely illustrative. Population: 150,000

Assessed Value: 5,000,000,000.00

Receipts 2 mill ad valorum


Acreage Tax $.05


Sales Tax 0.5%


Alcoholic Beverage Tax - per barrel


License, Permits and Fees

$10,000 $1,200,000

Severance Tax Allocation






Misc. Receipts

$150,000 $2,700,000

Expenditures General Government


Streets and Roads


Sheriff’s Office


Coroner’s Office


Health and Sanitation


Tourism/Economic Development




Total Expenditures



$2,475,000 $225,000

2 • Police Jury

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND SUMMARY As members of your parish Police Jury, you have been asked to develop and present an economic development proposal. The following information is a summarization of the information you will need to consider in designing your proposal. I. Parish Information Demographics - a description of the different characteristics of the parish population Ex. urban Vs. rural high income VS. low income population density educational levels of the population of your parish racial distribution School System - a description of available facilities, such as major universities, junior colleges, trade schools, public schools, and the quality of such

Transportation - a description of the major highway, air, rail, and water transportation features that can make it easy to go to work, to deliver goods, and just to get around.

Public Safety - a description of the local police force, fire department, and medical services and facilities. Lifestyle - a description of the many features -that would enhance the quality of life in a community such as a ballet or opera company, professional symphony orchestra, recreation opportunities, professional sport teams, etc. II. Cost-Benefit Analysis The following elements should be considered and discussed in your proposal: Jobs • How many total jobs will be created? • What is the total estimated payroll and how much money will this bring into your community • Will this enable more people to spend more money, thereby causing more businesses to be successful? • Will the jobs be high-paying, or minimum wage? • How will this affect unemployment in your parish? • What will this cost your parish? Tax: • If more jobs are created; thereby putting more spending money in people’s pockets, will this give them more buying power? • Will increased buying power generate more money for the parish in sales tax?

Police Jury • 3

METHODS OF FINANCING POLICE JURY OPERATIONS AND PROJECTS Listed below are some of the important means by which Police Juries finance both day-to-day operations and special projects. The Louisiana Constitution explicitly authorizes most of these methods; others are legitimized by virtue of their existence prior to the adoption of the 1974 document. • Ad Valorem Taxes. The Police Jury of each parish nay levy annual taxes not to exceed in anyone year, 4 mills on the dollar of the assessed valuation of taxable property in the parish. Millage rates may be increased above the 4 mill rate in any parish when approved by a majority of the electors voting in an election held for that purpose. These taxes are exclusive of and in addition to public school and special taxes. (For more details on ad valorem see material on city finance). • Acreage Taxes. Police Juries may levy, without voter approval, an acreage tax of not more than 2 cents per acre of forest land not lying in cities or used for agricultural purposes. The Police Jury may call an election for levying up to 50 cents per acre tax to fund bonds for public improvements. • Alcoholic Beverage Taxes. Police Juries may impose a tax on beverages of low alcohol content of not more than $1.50 per barrel (31 gallons). • Sales Taxes. Sales taxes must be approved by a majority of voters in an election held for that purpose, and excluding state and including other local taxes may not exceed 3%. • Severance Tax Remittances. A fraction of state severance taxes (taxes of natural resources) is returned to the parish in which the production occurs: one-third of the sulphur severance tax, not to exceed $100,000; three-fourths of the timber severance tax; and one-fifth of the severance on all other resources, not to exceed $500,000. • Royalties Allocation. One tenth of the royalties from mineral development shall be remitted to the Police Jury in which severance or production occurs. • Licenses, Permits and Fees. Police Juries may require annual fees or permits under the alcoholic beverage control law, applicable to establishments located in the parish. The fee may not exceed $500 per year. Other $25 annual licenses may be required of manufacturer, distributors and importers. • Leases. With the approval of the State Mineral Board, a parish may lease its property for a wide variety of uses. For example, a parish may allow an oil on its land. However, land may be leased through competitive bidding. The state may also choose to let the State Mineral Board handle the arrangements. • Prohibited Taxes. The Constitution prohibits a Police Jury from levying its own severance tax, income tax or gas tax, nor can a Police Jury a license fee for motor vehicles.

4 • Police Jury

CONSIDERATIONS FOR BENEFITS AND COSTS BENEFITS FOR THE PARISH 1. LAND -The land that is used to build the plant will generate money for the parish. The way the land generates money is that you, as a parish, will decide if you want to waive all property taxes to be paid by the business, or to waive only a portion (0% to 10%) for a period often years or less. If you do this at the end of ten years, all property taxes will start. 2. X # of jobs -gives X $ in buying power = due to money from sales tax, this money is put back into the community. 3. Infrastructure yielding to other “spin offs” (ways for community to make additional money) attracting other industries. 4. X $ profits = X $ corporate income tax COSTS FOR THE PARISH 1. Job Payroll- Job Training (for I” year only) 2. Industrial cost - Since 100 acres of land needed, and $1000/acre tax, it will be $100,000/year and $1 million/year. 3. Enterprise Zone (3 %) - Construction cost: If construction cost = $100 million, then the parish will be giving away $3 million in sales tax. FACTS 100 acres $30 million $450 jobs for the first 18 months Economic turnover rate Economic turnover 700 Permanent Jobs Economic turnover rate Economic turnover

= $9.5 million payroll = 4X = $38 million payroll $14 million / 1st year = $12 million 7X $98 million $84 million

Police Jury • 5

6 • Police Jury

SCHOOL BOARD PROJECT: REAP Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) The Louisiana Boys State Board of Education noticed a quandary in which rural schools tend to lack the resources and extra personnel needed to effectively compete for federal and corporate grants. Consequently, the allocations normally received are inadequate to fully fund and sustain new programs. The Board’s solution amended Title V, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of Louisiana Boys State to include an intrastate School Board competitive REAP grant in the amount of $1,000,000.00. The Louisiana Boys State Board of Education stated it would award the grant to the most creative and innovative bid. The grant will result in: 1. An increase in the awareness for future federal and corporate grant proposals 2. An increase in the parish school board’s activity in rural and urban communities One rural school is found in every parish of Louisiana Boys State under the terms and conditions that 20% or more of the children between the ages of 6 and 17 are from families with incomes below the poverty line. Therefore, your mission as a parish School Board is to create a proposal to receive the REAP Louisiana Boys State grant. STEP ONE: ELECTION OF YOUR PARISH SCHOOL BOARD PRESIDENT A School Board President’s duties will consist of the following: 1. Preside over school board meetings 2. Delegate tasks of the project 3. Communicate daily with your Counselors on the progress of project 4. Oversee and complete Step Two. (See Step Two for details) This person should have qualities encompassing leadership (but not dictatorship), organization and abstract thinking. STEP TWO: THE QUALITY EDUCATION MODEL (QEM) The next stride in the process of writing an excellent proposal is to realize, as a group, what your school board philosophy is. In doing this, consider these questions: 1. What is education? 2. What consists of a quality education? 3. How can a school board transform these ideals into a reality within schools? 4. How will the grant, if received, continue to develop this model? The School Board President is responsible for overseeing and completing The Quality Education Model. The School Board will brainstorm on answers to the above questions. After these answers are discussed, the final answers will be voted on. The President will vote only in the case of a tie. Based on the votes, the President will then produce an overall theme that will direct the project. The President is also responsible for compiling the questions, answers and themes into a report (to be included in the beginning of the proposal).

School Board • 1

SCHOOL BOARD PROJECT: REAP cont. Remember that the grant will be awarded to the most creative and innovative proposal. This is your chance to create an “ideal” school, which is most likely, not a rendition of your high school. So think, “OUTSIDE OF THE BOX.” There is one restriction: keep in mind that our constitution is based on the separation of church and state. Even though it may appear abstract, Step Two is a very important element of proposal. Your proposal will lack unity without this section creating the direction for the other areas. However, if you as an individual do not agree on the overall theme, which is voted, you can still show your creativity or idea in some form that still relates to the overall theme of the project. The outcome results in the proposal appearing both unified and creative. You will see how this can be done in Step Three. STEP THREE: UTILIZATION OF THE FUNDS The grant will actually be split into four equal areas ($250,000 each), which are listed below. Funds under REAP may be used for new ideas in the following areas: 1. Teacher Recruitment, Retention, and Professional Development — What can be implemented to attract, inspire and maintain top-quality educators in your rural school community? • NOTE: Louisiana Boys State teacher salaries are regulated by the State. Therefore, an increase in an educator’s salary is not to be included incentives or programs. 2. Enhancing Education through Technology and Innovative Programs — What can be executed to boost the students’ interests in one or all areas of science and technology? • NOTE: Generic computers and software programs are already being provided by another grant received from Dell Computers and Microsoft, Inc. In other words, do not allocate money in buying new computers. However, this is not limited to specific software for explicit activities. 3. Parental Involvement — How can you integrate parents and education in a positive manner? 4. Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities — What are reliable methods to help students realize the dangers of drugs, violence, unwanted pregnancy, and unhealthy eating? How can you lead them on a path to a healthy and fulfilling life? STEP FOUR: PROJECT AREA EXPLANATION REPORT Each of the four areas above requires a report describing the section’s details and reasoning. It should include (but is not limited to): 1. Answers to “How, when, why, where, and who” 2. Explanation of the purpose, by stating how it ties in with the QEM 3. Reasoning of why these activities will help with that area 4. Explanation of the Bill of Materials (which should be similar to the ones listed in Budget Projections, Step Four) 5. Any visual models to help conceptualize your idea 6. Permits required by other citizens within your parish or city (Sheriff, Fire Chief) 7. Time charts and explanation 8. Future theories on ways to maintain the activities of this area There is no restriction on which grade level the project is intended for. The rural school is K-12, however, 2 • School Board

SCHOOL BOARD PROJECT: REAP cont. you may want only a certain maturity of students to experience certain areas of the project. Please justify your reasoning on which age group you wish to target. STEP FIVE: BUDGET PROJECTION Now it is time to transform your ideas into realities by creating a budget for each of the four areas. Remember that each area will receive $100,000. Your budget projections should include all foreseeable project costs to implement the new ideas for one year (see next paragraph for explanation). This will include items such as equipment, salaries (only if extra personnel are needed), and transportation costs. Assume that the rural school (kindergarten through 12th grade) has approximately 800 total students. Because one of the purposes of the grant is to raise awareness of other federal and corporate funding, the state assumes that the parish school boards will continue to find funding from other sources for the continuation of projects and programs (See #8 in step four). Consequently, the time period to expand the money is one year. If the grant money is not fully used within the one year time period the state will reclaim the excess money. Your budget should show all money being used for each area, unless you can justify a reason otherwise. If you have surplus funds, you may want to consider having multiple projects/ programs for each area. Provide educated estimates for all costs. The layout of the Budget Projection is up to you. It should include the Bill of Materials (List if items/ people needed to implement your ideas) and the costs of each summing to the total costs of the project. Keep in mind that others will be trying to understand your work; therefore it should be reader-friendly. SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE REAP GRANT PROPOSAL 1. ELECTION OF SCHOOL BOARD PRESIDENT. 2. QUALITY EDUCATION MODEL -Theme and purpose of the project is discussed and decided -Report created by the President 3. UTILIZATION OF THE FUNDS -$1,000,000.00 into four equal parts for four different areas 4. PROJECT EXPLANATION REPORT -Each area should have a report containing the details, justification, reasoning visualization and purpose of that project area 5. BUDGET PROJECTIONS -Bill of Materials to carry out project/programs -Educated estimates of the pertaining costs 6. EVALUATION OF THE SCHOOL BOARD PROJECT -Include any comments (positive or negative), on how the project can be improved for future citizens of Louisiana Boys State 7. SMALL PRESENTATION ON THE DAY PROJECT IS DUE -5 minute presentation given to Boys State staff explaining the highlights of proposal

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4 • School Board


The Louisiana Boys State Judicial System 2 Distinct Jurisdictions

Louisiana Boys State Criminal Code BREAKABLE LAWS Police Jury writes Parish Ordinance

City Council writes City Ordinance


Arrests Made By


Police Chief


District Judge

Case Tried By

City Judge

District Attorney

Prosecuted By

City Attorney

Parish Public Defender

Defendant Represented By

City Public Defender


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COUNSELOR ORIENTATION INTRODUCTION The following is your introduction to the Louisiana Boys State Judicial System. It covers City Courts, District Court and Supreme Court - highlighting officials, tips and trial procedures. Encourage your Citizens to work together on Cases. All parties involved in the Judicial Branch of a city or parish should be - at the very least - aware that a case is being prepared. CITY COURTS City Court A (Caddo - LaSalle) City Court B (Orleans- Tangipahoa) Both City Courts function in trying cases for offenses committed on the city level. The officials for the City Courts are as follows: City Judge (elected) Prosecuting Attorney (elected) City Public Defender (elected) Clerk of Court (elected) Bailiff (appointed by staff) Jury (7 Citizens randomly chosen by counselors) DISTRICT COURTS 1. District Court at Boys State is run according to the same procedures used in City Court, except the offenses tried have been committed on the parish level. 2. In real life, the District Court has appellate jurisdiction; however, at Boys State it does not. In Louisiana each parish has its own District Court. From the District Court, a case goes to one of four State Courts of Appeal. The next highest court would be the State Supreme Court. From this court, a case would go to the United States Supreme Court, the highest court in the land. On the Federal Level, there also exist District Courts and Federal Courts of Appeal. 3. The official for City and District Courts are the same, only the Clerk of Court District Court is elected. SUPREME COURT 1. The Supreme Court shall consist of one justice from each parish. 2. The Chief Justice is elected by the Justices of the Court. 3. Two-thirds of the elected Justices shall constitute a quorum. 4. A majority vote is necessary for every decision. 5. A case reaches the State Supreme Court when an error is found in the District Court. In a criminal suit, only the defense (i.e. not state) attorney may appeal a case. In a civil case, either party losing may appeal. Only the attorneys representing the parties in the case may appear before the Supreme Court. Each presents his case and a verdict is rendered. 6. All appellate courts have several options. They may refuse a case, thus, affirming the holding of the lower court, or they may hear the case again. 7. The Supreme Court at Boys State will hear appellate cases from both the City and District courts. 8. The function of the Supreme Court is to decide if the given verdict is just. If the majority of Supreme Court Justices decide that is was not, then the defendant is acquitted or the Supreme Court REMANDS the case back to the lower court. If the Supreme Court decides that the verdict was just, but the sentence was cruel and/or unusual punishment then the Supreme Court can remand for resentencing.

2 • Courts

TRIAL PROCEDURE As the Judge enters, the Bailiff says, “All Rise. Oyez, oyez.” (pronounced “o yay”) the (name of the court) is now in session. The Honorable Judge _____________ presiding. Order and silence are commanded. God save Louisiana Boys State and this Honorable Court.” The Judge says, “You may be seated” and then calls upon the Prosecutor to read the Bill of Information. Once the bill is read, Judge asks the Defendant if he understands the charge against him. If he does not, the Judges explains the nature of the offense. Once the Judge is certain the Defendant understands the charge, he asks the Defendant to enter his plea. “Mr.________ how do you plead?” 1. If the defendant pleads guilty, the judge sentences him. 2. If he pleads not guilty, the trial begins. Prosecution’s Opening Statement Always begins with “May it please the court, opposing counsel ... “ Briefly outlines the elements of the crime and what evidence he will introduce to prove them. Defense’s Opening Statement Always begins with “May it please the court, opposing counsel … ” Briefly outlines his version of the facts. Prosecution calls it witness. Bailiff swears him in: “Raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?” When witness says, “I do,” judge tells him to be seated. Prosecution begins his direct examination. Begins with preliminary questions such as witness’s name, his office, etc. • Lays foundation for witness’s testimony by asking him question, which will show that he has direct knowledge of the facts about which we will testify. For example, if an eyes witness, the question should place the witness at the time and place of the alleged crime and show that he saw and happened. • Questions witness about the facts relevant to the case. Defense cross-examines the witness. • Attempts to cast doubt on the witness’s truthfulness or credibility • Probes weaknesses in his testimony or his memory of the event. Repeat the above steps for all Prosecution’s Witnesses Defense calls its witness. Bailiff swears him in: “Raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?” When witness says, “I do,” judge tells him to be seated. Defense begins his direct examination. Begins with preliminary questions such as witness’s name, his office, etc. • Lays foundation for witness’s testimony by asking him question, which will show that he has direct knowledge of the facts about which we will testify. For example, if an eyes witness, the question should place the witness at the time and place of the alleged crime and show that he saw and happened. • Questions witness about the facts relevant to the case.

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TRIAL PROCEDURE cont. Prosecution cross-examines the witness. • Attempts to cast doubt on the witness’s truthfulness or credibility • Probes weaknesses in his testimony or his memory of the event. Repeat the above steps for all Defense’s Witnesses Prosecution’s Summation — summarizes facts and evidence in the Prosecutions’s favor, points out weaknesses in Defense’s case, and calls upon the court find the Defendant guilty. Defense’s Summation — summarizes facts and evidence in the Defendant’s favor, points out weaknesses in Prosecution’s case, and calls upon the court to acquit the Defendant. The Prosecution has the option of giving a short rebuttal to Defendant’s closing argument. The Jury steps aside and deliberates for 5 minutes. Should they require more time, one Juror may ask, “Your Honor, the Jury requests an additional ___ minutes for deliberation.” The Jury returns to their seats, and one member rises to read the verdict: Judge: “Has the Jury reached a verdict?” Juror: “We have Your Honor. Judge: “Will the Defendant please rise.” Jury: “We the Jury find _________ (guilty/not guilty) on the charge of ____________. If guilty, Defendant is sentenced by the judge. *If found Guilty, the Defense Attorney should immediately file an Appeal with the Supreme Court.

ADDITIONAL NOTES TO COUNSELORS • Citizens should be encouraged to use their imagination and to be professional. Our goal is to learn basic courtroom procedure, but we want it to be fun. • It is suggested that cases be placed on the docket, as they are ready to be presented. As case #1 begins to wind up, one of the attorneys for case #3 should go get witnesses, clerk of court, and bailiff for his case. • The following should be posted on the blackboard in each courtroom. 1. The docket 2. The name of the Defense and the Prosecuting Attorneys, Presiding Judge and Clerk of Court. • The Court Rules (Section III) should be read and explained at the briefing session and reviewed again at the first courts sessions.

4 • Courts

SUPREME COURT PROCEDURE NATURE OF SUPREME COURT 1. The Supreme Court does not try cases. Instead it hears appeals of decisions of the lower courts and decides whether the cases were decided in accordance with the law. 2. The Supreme Court is the only court of appellate jurisdiction at Boys State and it hears direct appeals from both the City and District Courts. In Louisiana (but not at Boys State), the District Court can hear appeals from the City Court, and there are five Circuit Courts of Appeal, which hear civil and criminal appeals from the District Courts. The Supreme Court of Louisiana only hears from the Courts of Appeal. 3. In Louisiana, the Supreme Court is a court of discretionary jurisdiction that is, it gets to decide which cases it is going to hear. On the other hand, each criminal defendant has an absolute right to appeal his conviction to the court of appeal. *At Boys State, since there are no courts of appeals, each convicted defendant has an absolute right to appeal his conviction to the Supreme Court. PROCEDURE 1. The Bailiff calls the first case on the docket” The Supreme Court of Louisiana Boys State will now hear the case of The State versus (Defendant). The attorney for the State and the attorney for the Defendant will now draw neigh and be heard before this honorable court.” 2. The Chief Justice asks each of the attorneys if he is ready to proceed with oral argument. 3. Defense gives his oral argument- 3-minute maximum. 1. Gives his name and the name of the person he represents. 2. Briefly explains the facts of the case: type of crime, list of events leading up to the arrest, length and type of sentence imposed. 3. Concisely and logically sets out why the Court should overturn the decision if the trial court. Each reason that he gives for doing so is called an “Assignment of Error” Recall that the Court can only reverse a case if its decision was incorrect under the law. At Boys State, a trial court decision can be overturned only for one or more of the following reasons: a) The Statue of ordinance under which the defendant was convicted was unconstitutional. b) The trial court admitted evidence, over any objection by the defense that is inadmissible under Boys State Rules of Evidence. c) The trial court violated Boys State Trial Procedure in a way that hurt the defendant. d) The court misread the statue or ordinance, applying it to conduct which it was not designed to cover or which, by its terms, it died not expressly cover. e) The court gave the defendant a sentence, which was not authorized by the statue or ordinance. 4. Since the Supreme Court gives deference to (that is respects) the decisions of the trial courts, in order to win, the defense must show the trial court decision was clearly wrong. 4. Prosecution gives his oral argument- 4-minute maximum. 1. Gives his name and the name of the parish or city that he represents. 2. Either agrees with the defense version of the facts, or (only if the difference is important), explains his version. 3. Refutes the defense’s assignments of error.

Courts • 5

SUPREME COURT PROCEDURE cont. 5. Defense Attorney gives a one-minute rebuttal. 6. The Justices confer and agree on a decision. The Chief Justice or a Justice assigned to him reads the decision and the Court’s reasons for reaching that decision. • The Court can: 1. Affirm the decision. This means that the Court agrees with the decision of the trial court and will get the conviction stand. 2. Reverse the decision. This means that the Court finds that the trial court decided wrongly. A reversal results in the defendant’s acquittal – double jeopardy prevents him from ever being tried again for the same offense. 3. Reverse and remand the decision. This means the Court has decided to overturn the conviction and give the trial correctly. When the Supreme Court reverses and should do to correct the mistakes. • Decisions are by majority vote. If one or more justices disagree with the result reached by the majority (affirm, reverse, or reverse and remand), he or they may write a dissenting opinion, explaining the disagreement with the majority decision. A justice who agrees with the result but disagrees with the reasons for the result may write a concurring opinion, explaining the disagreement with the reasoning of the majority. Votes to concur in the results are counted as votes for that result in computing the majority, but if a majority does not agree on the reasons for the decision, those reasons are not law.

6 • Courts

CITIZEN BRIEFING 1. When the citizens arrive, determine that the correct people are there. They are the city and parish judges, prosecuting and defense attorneys, clerks of court (NOT CITY CLERKS); Supreme Court Justices. 2. Give a brief outline of the court system at Boys State as compared to the actual system in Louisiana. 3. Explain the following concerning Criminal and Civil Cases: In real life, there are two types of cases tried in the courts: civil and criminal cases. Both types may be based on disobedience of a city or parish ordinance. A civil action is one committed against an individual citizen. Some examples would be car wreck, malpractice, defamation of character, battery, you tripping on the rug in my house. Civil actions are usually compensatory, that they compensate the victim through monetary settlement. Criminal actions, instead are usually punitive. At Boys State, since we will have no monetary compensations, all of our cases will be considered as criminal cases. A criminal action is one committed against a prosecuted by the state. Some examples would be speeding, peddling dope, rape. 4. Explain briefly the general procedure of an entire case beginning with the ordinance and going through the crime, arrest, trial and sentence. The basic courtroom procedure will be posted in each courtroom. In explaining the procedure, it might be helpful to use a model case. 5. Read a list of rules in section C of the guide. Court member, especially attorneys and judges should take notes. 6. Be sure and read the relevant pages in the handbook. 7. The presiding judge is from the same city as the defendant. The other four judges are chosen alternatively from the remaining cities by the bailiff. 8. No legislators may be summoned or arrested while the legislature is in session. (However, in real life this is not the case of a felony.) 9. The cities must first have ordinances before they can develop a case. (The court counselors stress this at the briefing.) 10. A subpoena need not be issued unless a witness or arrested person refuses to appear in court. 11. Most cases should last approximately 15- 25 minutes. 12. The judge can cite someone for contempt of court for either not showing up or for misconduct in the courtroom. 13. All members should address the judge as “Your Honor.” 14. Only the defense attorneys may call the defendant as the witness. 15. Witnesses may be called in any order and may be recalled at any time. 16. When an attorney “rests his case”, he has no more witnesses to call to the stand. 17. No new evidence may be presented in the closing arguments. 18. Objections may be based on the following: 1.Immaterial questioning (Irrelevance) 2. Leading the witness 3.Badgering the witness 4. Hearsay evidence Courts • 7

19. The basic defenses are after the crime has been proven:

1. An alibi


3. Violation of constitutional guarantee

4. Elements of the crime (ex. Weapon)

20. Distribute the warrants to the City Judges and the Docket sheets and subpoena to the Clerks of Court. 21. Questions and Discussions.

8 • Courts










Outstanding CITY ATTORNEY:




SUPREME COURT JUSTICES Instructions to Legal Counselors: This form is your compilation of Supreme Court Justices. Put an asterisk beside the name of the Chief Justice. ATCHAFALAYA ____________________________ BOGAFALAYA ____________________________ ____________________________ CANE ____________________________ MISSISSIPPI PEARL ____________________________ ____________________________ SABINE ____________________________ TCHEFUNCTE

Courts • 9

10 • Courts

LOUISIANA BOYS STATE HOUSE AND SENATE RULES OF ORDER GENERAL 1. All members should conduct themselves with courtesy and dignity while the House and Senate are in session. 2. Members are to address the presiding officer as “Mr. Speaker” in the House and “Mr. President” in the Senate. 3. When members refer to each other, use the term “Previous Speaker.” For example, “I am opposed to this bill for the same reason as a Previous Speaker.” 4. Members are to confine all remarks to the substance of the matters that are before the assembly and to procedural matters. Any other remarks, such as personal insults, disparaging comments or offensive language are out of order. 5. The Speaker or President has the sole responsibility for maintaining order. HE IS TO BE SHOWN RESPECT. 6. The function of the House and Senate is to debate bills and resolutions and to vote on them; therefore, members should concentrate on discussion of the merits of the legislation before them. TIME SPENT ARGUING ABOUT TRIVIAL POINTS OF PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE IS A WASTE OF LIMITED TIME YOU HAVE. ARGUMENTS ABOUT PROCEDURE ARE TO BE KEPT TO A MINIMUM. GETTING RECOGNIZED 1. No member shall speak without being recognized by the chair. 2. In order to gain recognition, a member must raise his placard. After he is recognized by the chair he is to rise and stand motionless in place. If the member wishes to make a motion and the motion is in order, the member shall be recognized to make the motion. If the member wishes to speak for or against a measure before the assembly, and if such a speech is in order at that time, the presiding officer shall recognize the member for the proper period of time. 3. When the member rises to speak after being recognized, he shall speak in this fashion, “Charlie Coleman, Atchafalaya Parish. Mr. Speaker/President I stand in opposition/proposition/move e member should stand state his name, his parish and the reason for which he stands. DEBATING A BILL OR RESOLUTION 1. A bill or resolution is introduced by submitting a neat, printed copy to the clerk in the House or the secretary in the Senate. The bills should be submitted to your JC and he will in turn hand give them to the clerk/secretary. The Legislative Counselors will determine which bills are to be debated and in what order. 2. When a piece of legislation comes up for debate, the clerk or secretary will read it out loud to the assembly. 3. After the bill or resolution is read, its author or one of its authors shall be recognized to speak in favor of it. In the Senate, the author shall be recognized for 5 minutes; in the House for 3 minutes. 4. After the first speech, the presiding officer shall recognize speakers from alternating sides. Therefore, the next speech should be against the bill, the one after that in favor and so on. Each of these speeches will have a 5 minute time limit in the Senate and a 3 minute limit in the House. 5. Debating is ended by a motion for final passage. To make this motion, get recognized and say, “I move final passage of the bill.” This motion requires a second and is approved by a two-thirds vote, thus cutting off debate. Once final passage has been approved, the author gets a three minute summation speech in the Senate and two minutes in the House. Once he is finished, the bill is reread to the

Congress • 1

RULES OF ORDER cont. assembly and a vote is taken. A bill must have majority votes to pass. If the motion for final passage is defeated, then the debate continues. 6. Yielding time to the floor- If a speaker has not used up all his allotted time and wishes to yield that time to another, he may do so, provided that the person to whom he yields wishes to speak on the same side of the issue. 7. The speaker may yield even without being asked to do so simply by saying, “I yield the remainder of my time to Representative Pace.” A member may ask a speaker to yield the floor by standing for recognition. When the presiding officer asks him why he has risen, the member replies, “Will the speaker yield the floor?” The presiding officer then directs the question to the speaker. If the speaker replies “yes”, then the remainder of that speaker’s time is given to the other member. If the speaker does not agree to yield the floor, then he continues to speak as before. SOMEONE TO WHOM THE FLOOR IS YIELDED MAY NOT YIELD THE FLOOR TO ANOTHER. YIELDING TO QUESTIONS 1. Once a member has completed his speech and if time remains, he may yield to questions from other members. To ask a question, gain recognition and ask, “will the speaker yield to a question?” the presiding officer will then ask the speaker if he will yield to a question. If the speaker agrees, then the presiding officer will instruct the member to proceed. The member may then direct ONE question to the speaker. THIS MUST BE AN ACTUAL QUESTION AND NOT A SPEECH DISGUISED AS A QUESTION. The speaker may also agree to yield to a follow-up question if a follow-up question is asked BEFORE the member asks his first question. The speaker has the privilege to refuse to answer any questions or only answer questions from certain members. AMENDMENT PROCEDURE 1. All amendments to bills and resolutions must be submitted in writing. Print them on a slip of paper and signal to the Sergeant-at-arms to pick up your amendment. The written copy of the amendments should include the name of the author(s) of the amendment, his parish, the number of the bill or resolution being amended, the sections(s) and line(s) being amended, and the text of the amendment. 2. To introduce the amendment, you must stand to be recognized. When the presiding officer recognizes you and asks why you have risen, reply, “Mr. Speaker/President, I have an amendment on the floor.” The amendment is numbered by the Clerk/Secretary. The presiding officer will then have the Clerk/Secretary read the amendment. Amendments are in order any time after the opening speech on the bill. 3. Debate on the amendment then proceeds much like debate on a bill, with the author of the amendment having the first and the last word in the debate, and with debate alternating between those in favor and those opposed. All speeches on amendments will have a three minute time limit in Senate and a two minute limit in the House. 4. Debate on the amendment takes precedence over debate on the bill itself. The bill may not be discussed until the amendment has been disposed of. 5. It is possible to amend an amendment. However, only one amendment to an amendment is allowed at a time. The original amendment is called the primary amendment and the amendment to the primary amendment is called the secondary amendment. Just as no action may be taken on the original bill while an amendment is still pending, no action may be taken on the original bill while an amendment is still pending, no actions may be taken on a primary amendment while a secondary amendment is pending. Once the secondary amendment has been voted on, debate returns to the primary amendment, and once the primary amendment is disposed of, debate returns to the original bill.

2 • Congress

RULES OF ORDER cont. 6. Debate on an amendment is ended by passage of a motion for Final Passage of the amendment. This motion works just like a motion for the final passage of a bill. 7. A majority vote is required to pass the amendment. After the vote, discussion returns to the bill pending on the floor (as amended if the amendment has passed.) 8. An amendment may: • • • •

Add a section into the bill Insert a word, words or line into a section Strike out a section, line or words in a line Strike out and insert or strike out and add

9. Amendments should strengthen the bill by making changes which make it better or more precise. Therefore, an amendment is out of order if it: • • • • • •

Is irrelevant Reverses the intent of the original measure Destroys the effect of the original measure Repeats a question previously voted on concerning the same bill Is absurd or frivolous THE PRESIDING OFFICER CAN DECLARE AN AMENDMENT OUT OF ORDER IF ONE OF THE ABOVE POINTS IS MET.

VOTING 1. In regular sessions, all votes on bills, resolutions, and amendments shall be by standing vote. During the Capitol Program, all voted shall be by electronic device. 2. During regular sessions, votes on motions but not on bills or resolutions may be by voice vote. The presiding officer will decide which side has prevailed. If there is a doubt as to which side carried a voice vote, ANY MEMBER MAY SHOUT “DIVISION”. “Division” may not be called after the presiding officer has ruled on the vote and has banged the gavel. If “Division” is called before the gavel is banged, the presiding officer must conduct a standing vote. OTHER MOTIONS 1. ADJOURN. • At Boys State, this motion is in order only at the end of the House and senate sessions at the Capitol Program. It dissolves the Boys State House and Senate sessions for the year, requires a second, and passes by majority vote whish may be taken by voice. 2. TO RECESS. • At Boys State, this motion is in order only when one of the legislative counselors has indicated to the chair that time allotted for a particular meeting of the House or Senate has expired. A recess interrupts the session until the next meeting is called to order. This motion requires a second and passes by a majority vote which may be taken by voice. 3. TO APPEAL THE DECISION OF THE CHAIR. • Ordinarily, the decisions of the chair in parliamentary matters are final. However, if a member feels that a serious error has been made in a ruling by the presiding officer, he may appeal the decision of the chair. This motion must be made immediately after the ruling and may interrupt the speaker or presiding officer. Simply rise and say, “I appeal the decision of the chair.” The presiding officer will then ask you to state the decision appealed from and the reasons and justification for your appeal. Once you have done so and once the chair has explained his Congress • 3

RULES OF ORDER cont. position, a second will be called for and a vote will be taken. A majority vote is required to overturn the decision of the chair. USE THIS MOTION SPARINGLY. 4. POINT OF INFORMATION. • The purpose of this motion is to clarify and inform a member of the legislative body of a procedural matter or question of information. The form of the motion for point of information shall be, “point of information.” PLEASE do not flood debate with this motion. 5. POINT OF ORDER • If an error in procedure is made which will serve to confuse the transaction of the assembly’s business or which infringes on the rights of member, any member may raise to a point of order. A point of order may be asserted at any time by any member. It interrupts any speaker or the presiding officer. To raise to a point of order, rise and say “Point of order.” When the chair asks you to state your point, sate your objections clearly and briefly. The chair will then rule on the point. With the exception of the foregoing motion, his decision is final. Points of order are never to be debated or argued. Simply state the point and allow the chair to rule on it. Once he has ruled, unless you more to appeal, sit down. Do not use the point of order to argue with the chair. USE POINTS OF ORDER VERY SPARINGLY!!!! IF YOU ARE HERE TO DEBATE BILL, NOT QUIBBLE ABOUT PROCEDURE. 6. TO WITHDRAW A MOTION. • When you make a motion, it is “yours” until the chair presents it to the assembly be stating, “it has been moved that. . . “Until the motion has been presented to the assembly, the maker of the motion may withdraw the motion on his own authority. After the motion has been presented, it is the property of the assembly and may be withdrawn only by consent. Any member may gain recognition to move to withdraw the motion. The motion does not require a second when made by a member other than the one who made the original motion but does require a second when made by the member who made the original motion. It is not debatable or amendable and is approved by a majority vote. Passage of the motion removes the motion from consideration. Since a bill or resolution is a kind of motion, this motion applies to bills and resolutions also. 7. TO TABLE • Any bill, amendment, resolution or main motion may be tabled. Gain recognition and say, “I move that the bill be tabled.” The motion is not amendable or debatable and passes by a majority vote. It requires a second. The motion to table removes its object form consideration by the assembly until a motion to take from the table is introduced and passed by a majority vote. 8. MOTION FOR FINAL PASSAGE • This motion is discussed above, but here is where it ranks in order of precedence with other motions. 9. TO MOVE THE PREVIOUS QUESTION • The form of the motion for the previous question shall be “I move the previous question.” This motion shall be applicable to any motions, amendments or other items subject to passage. This motion is not debatable. When adopted, its effect is to put an end to debate and to bring the legislative body to a vote on the motion, amendment or the main question. This motion requires a second and a majority vote to pass. 10. POSTPONE TO A SPECIFIED TIME • This motion works just like the motion to table except that this motion removes its object from 4 • Congress

RULES OF ORDER cont. consideration by the assembly until a specified time which is stated in the motion. That time is amendable. Note: These motions are the only ones recognized by Boys State Parliamentary Procedure. All other, even if recognized by Robert’s Rule of Order or any other rules of procedure, are out of order.

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BILL FORMAT BILL  FORMAT     Sponsor________________________       Bill  #________   Co-­‐Sponsor______________________       City  and  Parish_________________                                                                                                   AN  ACT     TO:…….(This  is  where  the  title  should  be  placed.    The  title  of  the  bill  is  a  concise   statement  of  the  object  of  the  law.)……..  BE  IT  ENACTED  BY  THE  BOY’S  STATE   LEGISLATURE.  (This  is  the  Enacting  Clause  and  must  appear  on   every  bill  title).       SECTION  I-­‐  SEVERABILITY     BODY  OF  THE  BILL:  The  body  of  the  bill  contains  the  intentions  of  the  bill  stated  as   clearly  and  briefly  as  possible.    It  should  include:   A.  Restatement  of  title  if  necessary  -­‐  any  action  stated  in  the  title  must  be  restated  in   the  body.   B.  Definition  of  terms,  if  needed  -­‐  Example  #1:If  you  use  the  term  "hazardous  material,"   you  will  need  to  indicate  the  criteria  necessary  to  classify  substances  as  hazardous   material.   C.  The  provisions  of  the  bill  should  include  some  or  all  of  the  following:     1. Changes  to  be  made  in  the  law  either  by  revising,  repealing,  or  adding  to  a  law.   2. Procedures  and  standards,  means  of  implementation.   3. Penalties  for  violators,  means  of  financing,  effective  date.   4. Do  not  write  paragraphs  that  seek  to  prove  the  need  or  merit  of  the  bill.       SECTION  ____     SEVERABILITY  CLAUSE:  The  second  to  last  section  of  your  bill  should  read  as  follows:     "If  any  provision  of  the  Act  or  the  application  thereof  to  any  person  or  circumstance  is   held  invalid  the  invalidity  does  not  affect  the  other  provisions  or  applications  of  the   Act  which  can  be  given  effect  without  the  invalid  provision  or  application,  and  to  this   end  the  provisions  of  the  Act  are  severable."     SECTION  ____     REPEALER  CLAUSE:  The  final  section  of  your  bill  should  read  as  follows:    "All  laws  or   parts  of  laws  in  conflict  herewith  are  hereby  repealed."   6 • Congress



Congress • 7

8 • Congress

PARTIES PROCEDURE At Boys State, Political Parties operate on a two-party system: the Nationalist Party and the Federalist Party. The purpose of the Political Parties is to elect state officials. Each party will choose nominees for each of the seven state offices who will run against each other in the General Election. The Political Party System allows citizens the opportunity to either run for a state office or support the candidates of their choice as they experience the enthusiasm of party unity, the realism of campaign wheeling and dealing, and the determination and effort required to rise from a local official to a state official. OUTLINE OF BOYS STATE POLITICAL PARTY ACTIVITIES Dividing into Nats and Feds – At a designated point in the program, each parish will be divided so that half of its citizens become Nationalists (“Nats”) and the other half become Federalists (“Feds”) to form parish parties. Three Committeemen – Three boys, called Committeemen, are elected to lead each of these parish parties. These include: The Parish Party Chair, or PPC, Ways and Means Chair and the Superdelegate. State Central Committees – The Committeemen from all of the Nat Parish Parties collectively form the Nationalist State Central Committee. The Committeemen from all the Fed Parish Parties collectively form the Federalist State Central Committee. Parish Party Caucus – Each parish party then reassembles for a meeting called a Parish Party Caucus. In this caucus, parish citizens plan and discuss who from among them would like to run for a state office. Elections are held to determine who will be their Parish Party nominees for each of the state offices. Platform Commission – consists of the Superdelagtes from each Parish. They meet during the Party Conventions to form the Party Platform, which they present at the conclusion of the Party Conventions. While they are in session, they relinquish their vote to the PPC. Convention – Nationalist Party members from all parishes and Federalist Party members from all parishes then gather separately to hold a meeting to select the best nominee from the parish party field for each of the state offices. This meeting, called the Convention, is led by the State Party Chairman and includes a series of speeches, campaigns, and ballots. General Election – The seven Federalist candidates meet the seven Nationalist candidates who each make a speech before all of Boys State. All citizens then go to the polls to vote for the candidate of their choice.

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2 • Parties

PARTIES: GUIDE FOR BRIEFING CITIZENS NOTE: ONLY USE THIS GUIDE TO BRIEF YOUR CITIZENS ON BOYS STATE PARTY PROCEDURE AFTER THEY RETURN TO THE DORM ON DAY __. DO NOT RELY ON IT AS A GUIDE WHEN YOU ARE ACTUALLY CONDUCTING PARTY BUSINESS. I. After the citizens return to the dorm on the night of Day __, hold a briefing session on the parties. A. The purpose of this session is to: 1. Instill enthusiasm in the citizens for the upcoming party activities. 2. Let them know what they will be doing and the procedures which they will be following for the next few days.

B. Therefore, in this meeting, you should be enthusiastic and brief. Unless you are responding to specific questions, do not go into procedures in more detail than this outline.

II. Parties are fun! A. Many citizens, yourself included, found the parties one of – if not the – most enjoyable aspects of the program. B. It is something different – a break in the routine. III. Dividing into parties – explain that each parish is to be divided equally and randomly into two parties, the Nationalist and the Federalist. The parties will select candidates for state office in several steps.

Step One: Election of the State Party Central Committee A. Parish is divided into parties. All of the Nationalists from the parish will meet in one of the parish’s city rooms while the Federalists from the parish will meet in the other. This meeting is called the Parish Party Caucus. The Caucus will meet twice. The purpose of the first meeting is to elect the Parish’s members of the State Party Central Committee. B.Explain duties of the offices. NOTE: all of these officials are eligible to run for state office. There is only one person in each party who cannot run for state office – the State Party Chairman. 1. Parish Party Chairman • Presides over Parish Party Caucus • Counts/announces parish’s votes at Convention • Speaks for parish at Convention whenever necessary • Manages campaign strategy for parish’s candidates • Meets with other PPC’s to draft party platform and approve keynote speaker 2. Ways and Means Committeeman • Acts as PPC when PPC is unable to do so • Prepares two parish rolls to be turned in to SPC at convention • Helps campaign for parish nominees during Convention 3. Superdelegate • The 7 Superdelegates in each party form the Platform Commission. • While the party nominations and speeches are going on, they leave the main area to form the Party Platform - made of 10 Planks. Parties • 3

PARTIES: GUIDE FOR BRIEFING CITIZENS cont. C. Very briefly explain mechanics of election of committee. 1. Counselors conduct nominations for State Party Central Committee. 2. Each person votes once. 3. Top vote-getter is PPC, second is Ways and Means, third is the Superdelagate. V. Inform citizens that Central Committee will then meet to select the State Party Chairman. A. He has the hardest job at Boys State: presiding over the State Party Convention. B. Therefore, the SPC cannot run for state office. VI. Parish Party Caucus then meets again to select parish candidates for state office. A. Caucus will nominate candidates for state office in the following order: 1. Governor 2. Lieutenant Governor 3. Secretary of State 4. Attorney General 5. Treasurer 6. Commissioner of Agriculture 7. Commissioner of Insurance B. Procedure 1. PPC presides over Caucus 2. Nominations taken from floor 3. Candidates may nominate themselves 4. Candidates selected by simple majority 5. Absolute 2 minute time limit on speeches – can be shorter 6. Candidates who lose for one office may refile immediately for the next office and may continue to run for as many offices as they wish. Stress that it is in the best interest of the parish and the party for good candidates to continue to run, regardless of the number of times that they are defeated, because that creates the strongest slate of candidates. VII. The Convention. Purpose: to reduce the number of candidates to one. A. PPCs will be called on by SPC to announce parish candidate for Commissioner of Insurance B. Each candidate will give a short campaign speech C. Short campaign period will follow D. PPCs will poll their delegations E. SPC will call on PPCs to announce their vote tallies F. Process continues until one candidate gets simple majority G. Same process for all state offices – follow reverse order of Caucus VIII. Final elections. Purpose: to elect state officials. A. Nominees from each party will address all of Boys State. B. Keynote speaker from each party will deliver the party platform, drafted by the State Party Executive Committee (all of the PPCs). 4 • Parties

ELECTION OF STATE PARTY CENTRAL COMMITTEEMEN NOTE: THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES THE PROCEDURES WHICH JCs ARE TO FOLLOW DURING THE FIRST PARISH PARTY CAUCUS. FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS EXACTLY AND WITH AS MUCH SPEED AS POSSIBLE. As soon as you get in your party rooms and pass out wristbands, give a VERY SHORT review of the procedure about to be followed. Your review will cover ONLY the following points: • You are about to elect the three Committeemen. • They will meet with the Committeemen from the other parishes to elect the State Party Chairman. • If you want to be SPC, you must run for the Central Committee. • Speeches for Committeemen are to be 3 minutes long. • SPC cannot run for state office, but everyone else (including the PPC) can. You will begin taking nominations for Central Committee within three minutes and thirty seconds of the whistle sending you to your party rooms. Cheers, water/bathroom runs, and more in-depth orientation on party procedure MUST wait until after the Committeemen are selected. I. Election Procedure A. JCs preside. B. Nominations are taken from the floor. 1. To nominate, the citizen gains recognition from the JC (chairman), rises, and says, “Mr. Chairman, I nominate _____________ for the office of State Party Committeeman.” 2. Nominations do not need to be seconded. 3. Citizens may nominate themselves. 4. Write the name of each nominee on the board. 5. Closing nominations: • Requires a motion from the floor – “Mr. Chairman, I move that nominations be closed.” • Motion must be seconded • Two-thirds vote required to close nominations • C. Speeches 1. Candidates speak in the order nominated. 2. Absolute maximum length of 2 minutes. Counselors will time the speeches and cut off those citizens who exceed the time limit. As time is of the essence, time limits are to be strictly enforced. 3. After the last speech, all candidates are reintroduced. D. Voting 1. All candidates remain in the room and cast ballots. 2. Citizens will put down their heads and vote by raising their hands. 3. Do not write vote tallies on the board; write them on a sheet of paper. 4. Election is by plurality (Oh, no! Not that again!) with the requirement that there be at least one Committeeman from each city. Parties • 5


Rank the candidates in order of votes received: Top vote-getter is Parish Party Chairman Second-highest vote-getter is Ways and Means Third-highest vote-getter is Publicity For procedure for ties, run-offs, and other problems, consult your PC or the Staff Academics Coordinator.

5. Give the paper with the results of the voting to your PC. The results should include the names of the citizens with the four highest vote totals. If your PPC becomes the SPC, then everyone on the list will move up a notch so that the fourth name will become the Publicity Committeeman.

E. Check off completion of election on the check off grid and immediately send the Committeemen to the designated room (accompanied by one JC).


Teach and practice party cheers and finish any necessary party orientation until time for lunch.

6 • Parties

NOMINATION OF STATE OFFICIALS NOTE: THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES THE PROCEDURE TO BE USED IN SELECTING THE PARISH NOMINEES FOR STATE OFFICE IN THE SECOND PARISH PARTY CAUCUS. As soon as you get back in the party rooms after lunch, QUICKLY brief your citizens on party caucus procedure. If your briefing last night was thorough, all of this will be review to your boys. Do not stop for cheers, water, or bathroom breaks until you have a Governor nominated (your citizens will hurry more if they see the break as an interruption rather than a postponement). 1. Nomination will begin with Governor and work down. 2. People defeated for one office may refile immediately for the next. This is to allow nomination of the strongest possible slate. 3. Nominations will be taken from the floor. No seconds are required. 4. There is an absolute 2-minute time limit on speeches. The time limit will be STRICTLY ENFORCED and those who run over will be cut off. 5. The Parish Party Chairman presides 6. The parish need not have a candidate for each office. However, it is encouraged, both to give a larger number of people the experience of running for state office, and because each nomination can be a political bargaining chip during the convention.

Conducting the Caucus: 1. Enthusiastically introduce the new Parish Party Chairman to the Caucus, and turn the proceedings over to him. 2. PPC calls the Caucus to order and opens the floor for nominations for Governor. “The Federalist Party Caucus of the great parish of____________ is called to order. The floor is now open for nominations for the office of Governor of Louisiana Boys State. Are there any nominations?” • • • • •

Citizens may nominate themselves. Nominations need not be seconded. Closing nominations requires a motion, a second, and a two-thirds vote. JCs will write the names of the nominees on the board in the order nominated. If there is only one nominee for an office, he will give a speech and the PPC will take a voice of acclamation.

Speeches 1. PPC will call on each candidate to speak in the order nominated. 2. Speeches must not exceed two minutes. PPC will time all speeches and cut off those that exceed the time limit. 3. After speeches, PPC will re-introduce the nominees in the order nominated.

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NOMINATION OF STATE OFFICIALS cont. Voting 1. 2. 3. 4.

Nominees remain in the room and cast ballots. Voting is by show of hands. Election is by majority vote. See C-1, Election Instructions. Do not announce vote totals or any results except to give the name of the winner.

Follow the same procedure for all offices. Be sure to nominate in the following order. 1. Governor 2. Lt. Governor 3. Secretary of State 4. Attorney General 5. State Treasurer 6. Commissioner of Agriculture 7. Commissioner of Insurance If the PPC runs for an office, the Ways and Means Committeeman will preside over that election. After nominations have been completed for all state offices, one JC must go to the office and check off the correct box on the completion grid.

8 • Parties

RULES FOR PARISH PARTY CHAIRMAN Mr. Chairman, these are the rules that you are to follow during the meeting of the State Party Central Committee as well as during the primary ad convention. 1. Making a Nomination • When the State Party Chairman asks if your parish has any nominations, rise and say, “Mr. Chairman, ____________________ Parish places in nomination the name of ___________________.” • The nominee then goes to the front of the convention hall. You are responsible for filling out the State Primary Nomination form and for seeing that the candidate carries it to the front of the convention hall with him to give to the counselor working the board. • If you have no nomination, rise and say, “Mr. Chairman, _______________________ Parish has no nomination.” 2. Announcing Votes • When the Chairman calls on you to announce your votes, say, “Mr. Chairman, _________ Parish, casting a total of ______ votes and ______ abstentions, casts its votes as follows: For Candidate NAME, ______ votes, for Candidate NAME, ______ votes, etc ... - Although it is not cast for a candidate, an abstention is a vote. A person is abstaining when he is in the room and votes to abstain. Therefore, abstentions count as votes and are included in your vote total. VOTES FOR CANDIDATES + ABSENTIONS = TOTAL - Give the name of the candidate before you give the number of votes received. That way, the counselor working the tally board can find the right square to write the number in more quickly. - For that same reason, announce the candidates’ totals in the order that their names appear on the board. - IT IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR YOU TO SPEAK LOUDLY, SLOWLY AND DISTINCLY. 3. Campaign Periods • During campaign periods, only members of the Central Committee and the candidates are allowed to more around the floor to campaign. OBSCENE LANGUAGE AND OFF COLOR REMARKS ARE ABSOLUTELY OUT OF ORDER AND WILL NOT BE PERMITTED UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES.

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10 • Parties

Boys State Binder 2011