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Professional Experience (NIUA)

Baseline Exercise for Master Plan Delhi-2041

I was particularly involved with the Transport & Environment Sector.

Sectors - Environment & Transport Strategic Planning + Policy | Delhi | 2019



Master Plan Delhi-2041 (MPD) is underway and is targeted to be formulated by December 2020.

My work included extensive liasoning with stakeholder agencies, data mining and crunching, analysis, report-writing and creating spatial maps to communicate tabular data.

Aim : To bring all line departments under both central and state government as well as municipalities together and create an exhaustive data set for the city.

Due to Delhi’s administrative complexity & institutional labyrinth, availability of urban data has always been an issue. In the 5 decades of strategic planning in Delhi, no master plan has attempted to take a stock of the existing urban situation in Delhi or have a baseline dataset to inform the MPD.

The baseline was carried out for 9 sectors namely - Land, Transport, Shelter, Economy, Environment, Heritage, Social Infrastructure, Physical Infrastructure, and Water.

NIUA supported the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) to create a baseline for the first time, that would effectively inform the MPD-2041.

The exercise was carried over a period of 6 months and actively engaged stakeholders from over 170 government agencies.

RESULT 9 exhaustive study reports pertaining to the 9 sectors were created. These reports will form the basis for the next stage of the Master Plan, i.e Strategy Formulation.

Sample Maps created for Environment Sector





Sample Maps created for Transport Sector








Professional Experience (NIUA)

Sector Layout for Greenfield Site Based on Form-Based Codes Mukhmelpur Village | Delhi | 2019

SITUATION In January 2019, the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) declared 3 Planning Zones in the outskirts of Delhi as greenfield sites for a voluntary ‘land pooling’ model. NIUA developed the Form-Based Codes which shall be applicable in these areas. Once all privately-owned land within a delineated sector is pooled, the ‘Developer Entity ‘(Owners Consortium / Developer) must develop the sector using these codes. The project was a demonstration exercise for one such low-density sector with a considerable area under forests & natural drains.

TASK 60% of the land thus pooled, will be returned to the Developer Entity while 40% of it shall be retained by the DDA for provision of public facilities and social infrastructure like healthcare, schools, green spaces, etc. Of of the 60%, 53% is to be residential, 5% commercial and 2% is to be public-semi public facilities (like convenience shopping, montessories, day-cares, etc.). The design aim was to retain the low-density character of the sector by maximising public greens and experimenting with low density housing typologies of detached and semi-detached housing units, apart from podium-towers and walk-ups.


Strengthening the green-blue network using the sector’s existing green assets like Forest Land and using their edge conditions with the built to define various Character Zones for the proposed neighbourhoods.

Structure Plan

RESULT A low density development with a variety of residential typologies ranging from detached, semi detached housing to walk-up and tower typologies.

Locating the Neighbourhood facilities within 500m walking distance in all neighbourhoods and providing access to District and Community facilities from major roads.

Making pedestrian and cycling interlinkages between neighbourhoods through community greens, that also integrate with Neighborhood Greens through a continuous 6m pedestrian/ cyclist only. network.

Professional Experience (NIUA)

Transit Oriented Development (TOD)Concept Proposal


Government owned 28 Ha of Land at the intersection of two metro lines (Blue and Pink). Context : Situated at the state boundary between Delhi and Uttar Pradesh and just a station before Anand Vihar- which is a major multi modal hub with a National Railway Station, a state Metro station, and an inter state bus terminal. Is a large parcel of vacant land in the otherwise congested part of East Delhi.


Many high density development proposals have been rejected due to the low carrying capacity of the area. Aim : To use the site as an asset that can be given back to the city, as green open spaces with a cultural hub to create an iconic identity.

Propose an Integrated Mobility Hub Create Anchors within site that respond to Neighbourhood, City, & Region

Hand -Drawn Sketch by Self Medium : Black Ink on Tracing, Digital Colours

Develop 50% of the site as “Green Lung� given back to the city.

Site Strategies

Karkardooma Station | New Delhi | 2019


Structure Plan

RESULT A thriving cultural hub that integrates city and regional transit, and acts as a breathing space for the community as well as the neighbourhood scale of the surrounding existing developments. Ground coverage is as less as 16% and Public Open Spaces constitute 56% of the plot area.

Hand -Drawn Sketch by Self Medium : Black Ink and Colour Pens on Tracing

Mix of Uses & Building Typologies

Professional Experience (NIUA)

Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Modelling for TOD Regulations- MPD-2041 Saket | New Delhi | 2018


TOD Policy Forms a part of Master Plan Delhi 2021. Using the development norms in the policy. The exercise was to test the feasibility of TOD development norms in the given site from a urban design perspective. Site Context : Existing low density residential housing within the influence zone (500m radius) of Saket Metro Station.

TASK Redevelop low density areas within the influence zone of Metro Stations to high density, mixed-use developments. Development Control Norms for TOD as per MPD-2021 : • Plot Area required to qualify for TOD : Min 2 Ha • Ground Coverage : Min 40% of Plot Area • Floor Area Ratio (FAR) : Max 3-5 • Setbacks : Front-0, Sides- Max 3/6m • Green Area Requirement : Min 20% of Plot Area • Distribution of Mix of Uses (as % of FAR) : - Residential = Min 30% Commercial = Min 10% Social Facilities = Min 10% Social Housing = Min 15%

ACTION Identify potential residential clusters with area >2Ha Establish built vs. green footprint. Place building blocks using TOD norms and site planning principles Redesign access streets to these developments to make them pedestrian and cyclist friendly. Use a mix of built typologies (perimeter blocks, tower blocks, etc.) to create a volumetric balance. Enhance pedestrian permeability through sites with a continuous green network

Mix of Uses & Building Typologies

RESULT Built Up Area (BUA) : Not only the Residential BUA is doubled, but the mandatory Commercial and Public/ Semi-Public (PSP) component adds additional 552 thousand Sq.m. of floor space that is of mixed use.

Access to Green Spaces Parking : 48% reduced parking supply in TOD influence area. 50% of the this total parking to be used as Public Parking (as per the policy).

Professional Practise (ITDP)

Land Use and Transport Integration Global Best Practise CASE STUDIES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY : The National Transit Oriented Development Policy (NTODP) was released by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) in February 2017. The NTODP acts as a guiding document for states to formulate their respective state-specific TOD policies. Currently, only Delhi and Jharkhand have formulated and adopted a state-specific TOD policy. The Development Plan 2021 for Ahmedabad city consists of a chapter on norms specific to the TOD Zone. However, the approach to TOD varies enormously across cities, both in principle and in the proposed regulations. The goal of this study is to establish a position on possible approaches to inclusive TOD by reviewing norms that favour TOD and Transit-first goals and policies across global cities. The Land Use and Transport Integration (LUTI) Case Studies is a compilation of presentations for the selected cities of Singapore, Hong Kong, Seoul, Delhi, and Ahmedabad, with high population densities and comparable geographies. The study involved a secondary analysis of City Master Plans and adopted transit-first policies, which were assessed on the following parameters : • Geography and Demographics Population Population Density Land Area Projected Population • Previous and Current Concept Plans • Land Use Distribution • Transit First Goals Current and Target Modal Share Goals for Access to Transit (Persons near Transit, Jobs near Transit) Goals for City Bus Systems and BRT Goals for Heavy and Light Rail Systems Goals for Non-Motorised Transport • Transit-First Policies • Land Use and Transport Integration / TOD Policy TOD Zone Delineation (applicable for Ahmedabad and Delhi) Land Use Zones Mix of Uses

Students were familiarised with CASE STUDIES as a part of the Elective Course / Workshop ‘TRANSIT ORIENTED CITIES’. It was taught to Urban Fellows in Anant National Univeristy (ANU), Ahmedabad, Masters students from Sushant School of Art and Architecture, Gurgaon and Bachelors students from Janki Devi Memoral College, DU. Plot Amalgamation Street Network FAR and Density Building Heights Urban Design Guidelines - Setbacks

- Compound Walls - Active Frontages

• Parking (On-Street and Off-Street) • Affordable Housing

Key Findings :

Unlike Delhi and Ahmedabad which have separate norms in the Transit Oriented Zones (TOZ)1 from the rest of the city, the international cities lack a specially delineated TOZ. This can be attributed to their planning history which over the years, has by default created compact cities characterised by high density and good accessibility to high-quality transit. One of the major differences between Indian and International case studies is the clear setting-out of specific long-term goals for parameters such as Persons Near Transit, Jobs Near Transit and Affordable Housing near Transit. While these parameters are identified as a proportion of either population or allocated floor space for the cities of Singapore, Hong Kong and Seoul, the Indian cities (Ahmedabad and Delhi) do not acknowledge these metrics of Access to Transit as a component of master plans2. 1 2

TOZ is delineated along a 500m buffer on either sides of the transit corridor for Delhi, and 400m for Ahmedabad The MPD-2021 sets out a Target Modal Share for Public Transport to Private Vehicles, i.e. a proportion of 80:20 (for motorised

Strengthening of Public Transport (Bus + Rail) and Non Motorised Transport (NMT) Infrastructure forms another aspect of Transit-first goal setting in the international case studies. This is planned in terms of bus fleet expansion, added kilometres of Rail / BRT Network and NMT tracks, target ridership for bus / rail, and expansion of the pedestrian and cyclist realm3. In principle, TOD advocates better walkability, cyclability, better street connections, mixeduse and high density development, presence of high-quality transit and discourages parking, implying that any norms pertaining to TOZs should address the same. Ahmedabad, however, is a classic example of a how TOD is perceived as a tool to increase FAR alone. Norms relating to Urban Design (setback, building heights, active frontages), permissibility of uses and parking are the same as in the base zone. This defeats the purpose of creating a compact and walkable TOZ and exacerbates issues relating to gentrification. While Delhi has different FAR as well as urban design norms for TOZs, cities like Singapore and Hong Kong have gone a step ahead by contextualising building heights, setbacks, active frontages, etc. at a micro level. In Hong Kong, density is determined by building heights, which are specified for each plot, while FARs for residential zones only act as a guiding principle. In the case of Singapore, height restrictions only exist in certain central regions and residential FARs vary as per the intended townscape4 of the neighbourhood. In Seoul, FAR norms vary according to the land use zones. Cities like Delhi and Singapore also recommend a specific proportion of Mix of Uses. The proportion is specified in terms of built-up area. Most zones in Singapore prescribe a 60% Predominant Use (same as the base zone) and a 40% Ancilliary Use (other permissible uses that are complementary to the predominant use). Delhi on the other hand, follows a 50% Mandatory and a 50% Flexible Use criteria within the TOZ. The mandatory component ensures that all buildings in TOZ allocate at least 30% FAR to Residential uses, 10% to Commercial and 10% to Community uses, irrespective of their base zones. The permissible uses in the remaining 50% is flexible and depends on the base zone. Plot Amalgamation within TOZs is incentivised in Delhi, while restricted in Ahmedabad. In Delhi, discontiguous plots can submit an integrated TOD scheme proposal even if they are separated upto 500m from each other. However in Ahmedabad plot amalgamation is allowed only for plots abutting a minimum road width a specific plot ratio.5 Ahmedabad has a separate zone for Affordable housing (R-AH), which was pooled through the Gujarat State Town Planning Scheme and is located along SP Ring Road. trips), while the India Climate Action Plan from the post-Paris world has very specific targets for Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. As essential as it is to have these targets, especially integrated with City Master Plans, it is also desirable to acknowledge Access to Transit as a major metric for creating transit-friendly cities. 3 For instance, Seoul targets to double the area of footpaths (from 1m2/ person in 2015 to 2m2/ person in 2030), and the Ratio of Bicycle Way (from 8.3% to 16.6%). 4 Maximum FAR for a low density neighbourhood is 1.8 while the minimum FAR for a very high density neighbourhood is 2.8. 5 Amalgamation is permitted for plots abutting a road with RoW ≥ 18m, if the depth of the plot is not more than three times its frontage..

However, it pushes affordable housing to the peripheries wherein only 2% area is within walking distance of MRT. In the case of Delhi, the provision for affordable housing within the TOZ, is mandated through the 30% mandatory residential FAR component, as these should wholly comprise of LIG and EWS units (less than 65m2 in area). This not only ensures a uniform distribution of affordable housing units in close proximity to transit but also regulates affordable housing stock in privately owned land within the TOZ. Such regulations are not deemed necessary in the case of Singapore, where 90% of land is owned by the government6 and 80% of the population already lives in subsidised public housing. Hong Kong and Seoul also have set targets to increase the proportion of population living in subsidised public housing units by 20307. Based on Parking demand, Seoul and Singapore have demarcated special Parking Management Districts (PMDs). However, the biggest critique for Seoul’s PMDs is that the parking threshold within PMDs is the same as that for rest of the city, regardless of the intended use of the land, buildings, and surrounding areas. This runs counter to the fundamental purpose of identifying high-demand zones and pricing them heavily. Seoul’s parking districts only restrict norms relating to parking minimums for residential and commercial zones8, which are set lower than the rest of the city. In Delhi, although the parking minimums for uses within TOZ is set lower than in other use premises9, the Equivalent Car Space (ECS) per 100 Sq.ft. is as high as 1.33. For a TOZ wherein parking is to be discouraged, the norm also restricts buildings from not providing parking at all. Ahmedabad also has some of the most stringent parking norms within TOZ, with a minimum of 35% FAR allocated to parking in commercial mixed-use buildings10. While cities like Seoul and Mexico City are moving towards abolishing city-wide parking minimums, Indian cities need a more progressive approach to off-street parking norms, at least within TOZs. One of the biggest drawbacks of the Delhi’s TOD norms is the number of exceptions which make its implementation inefficient. The TOD norms are not applicable to various special zones11 which constitute a large area of the TOZ. Moreover, the minimum scheme area for development by Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) agencies such as DMRC, Rapid Rail Transit System (RRTS) and Railways is only about a third of the minimum scheme area requirement for other developers. They are also exempted from providing the mandatory 30% residential component which is applicable to other Developers. 6 Land was acquired through the Land Acquisition Act of 1967. 7 In Hong Kong, it is targeted to increase the proportion of population living in public housing from 56% in 2015 to 60% in 2026. For Seoul, the targeted jump is from 5% in 2013 to 12% in 2030. 8 Parking maximums are at 50%, and minimums at 10% of the usual minimums for the rest of the non congested areas of the city (Barter 2014). 9 Minimum ECS per 100Sqft. is 1.33 for TOZ, 2 for Residential and PSP Facilities, 3 for Commercial and 1.8 for Government use premises. 10 According to ITDP’s Review of the Ahmedabad DP-2021 in 2015, the proposed parking requirements for commercial buildings in Ahmedabad are one of the highest in South and East Asia. 11 These are Lutyens’ Bungalow Zone, Chanakyapuri, DIZ Area, Matasundari Area, Civil Lines Bungalow Area, Monument Regulated Zones (as per ASI guidelines), Flight funnel zones, Environmental Protection Zones, and Seismic Zones such as fault lines

Postgrad Dissertation

Pedalling through Partnerships : Role of Private & Third Sector in Active Travel in Delhi May - July 2016

Abstract : India is home to fifteen of the twenty most polluted cities of the world, with Delhi topping the chart (WHO, 2015). Often the causes of pollution are attributed to growing population and traffic congestion. Delhi’s situation is unique because of the complex governance that complicates planning processes in the capital. This makes tackling local pollution problems even more difficult to achieve, and makes the need for solutions even more pressing. The dissertation studied the relationship between state-led efforts and some of the newly emerging private and third-sector or voluntary organisations, in promoting Active Travel. It also aimed to study public receptivity to pro-cycling policies before delving into doable strategies for want of an effective partnership model.

Presented at the 9th Urban Mobility India (UMI) Conference , Ahmedabad, November 2016 RESEARCH AIM The dissertation aimed to investigate the Role of Private and Third-sector organisations in promoting Active Travel in Delhi; and explores potential of their collaboration with the public sector to combat car-dependence and formulate sustainable transport policies in Delhi. This was achieved through a set of Objectives which are as under: 1. Understanding existing issues around air-pollution and mobility pattern in Delhi using secondary data analysis. 2. Exploring cycling promotion policies in World Cities from developing countries. 3. Exploring recent cycling promotion initiatives in Delhi and analysing the Role of Stakeholder Organisations. 4. Reviewing previous and current policies with respect to existing governmental or authoritative structures in Delhi. 5. Mapping resident receptivity to possible NMT promotion strategies. 6. Assessing practitioner views on cycling, NMT promotion and policy. METHODOLOGY The research used qualitative and quantitative methods in achieving these six objectives in six chapters as given :

INTERVIEWS Practitioners with significant contribution in NMT promotion, design, and implementation were identified from all sectors and interviews were conducted to dwell their understanding of the transport planning process. Themes extracted from the interviews were rationalised into a theoretical framework of stages/processes in NMT planning - Promotion / Design-Consultation and Implementation, which was further used to develop a partnership model of possible collaborations between Public, Private and Third Sector.

SURVEY - Pedal Up Delhi An online survey branded ‘Pedal-Up Delhi’ was created to understand resident receptivity to pro-cycling policies and the future of bikes in Delhi. The survey was circulated on popular social media platforms and was deemed successful with a sample size of 172.

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Selected Projects_Jyoti Vijayan Nair  

Portfolio of professional and academic works in the urban space.

Selected Projects_Jyoti Vijayan Nair  

Portfolio of professional and academic works in the urban space.

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