of Blackhawk County July 14, 2008
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Vol. 1, Issue 3
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TIDBITS TALKS ABOUT TAPING
“THIS IS A RECORDING…” by Stanley Drummond
t a e r G ates! R
Today, we are so accustomed to singing cell phone tunes, voice mail, and even musical greeting cards that ������������������� we take sound recording for granted. But think back to what it must have been like on that date in 1877, when Thomas Edison tested a new gadget he’d been tinkering with, and heard the sound of his own voice being played back to him for the very first time. • Thomas Edison patented the telephone in 1876, but he didn’t stop there. Almost immediately, he began working on an idea that combined the technologies of The both the telephone and the telegraph. His ® Little Ever Read. idea was to Paper imprint voice messages onto paper tape which could repeatedly be sent over telegraph lines, eliminating the need to use Morse code. • To accomplish this, Edison used components from a telephone mouthpiece along with a machine of his own invention that featured a cylinder covered with paraffin waxed paper. The machine housed two needles, one for scratching the voice message into the cylinder, and one for playing the message back. Edison was so excited during the first test of his machine that he recited the first thing that ������������������� came to his mind, “Mary Had a Little Lamb.” turn the page for more!
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“THIS IS A RECORDING…” (continued): • Edison’s phonograph, as he dubbed his new machine, proved that sounds could be recorded and played over and over again. But could it be put to any practical use, or was it just a novelty item? Edison showed remarkable vision, actually, when he listed possible uses for his phonograph in 1878: dictation without the need of a stenographer, audio books for the blind, reproduction of music, and even toys that could make sounds. • Of all the uses envisioned by Edison for the phonograph, the first one that became a reality was recorded music. For the first time, an orchestra or singer could be heard whenever the listener chose, rather than having to rely on an in-person performance or a live radio broadcast. The key problem was that there was no way to duplicate the wax cylinders that held the recordings. To make multiple copies of a recording, an artist had to perform the song additional times for each instance. • Until the 1930s, recording studios were acoustical, not electrical. That is, there were no microphones or amplifiers. An orchestra simply gathered in a soundproof room around a large acoustic horn (similar to the horns atop old Victrolas) and played. That’s why any recordings you hear today of that era sound tinny and shrill; there was no “separation” of the different instruments and/or voices, and no volume control, either. • Today, whether it’s a full orchestra or a fourpiece rock band, most musicians wear hightech headphones while recording. This allows them to hear the backing music while they’re playing along. The recording engineer is thus able to record each segment of the song separately. Then, it’s left to the producer to take each individual recorded track and “mix” it together in the proper sequence and volume to make a finished song. • In 1898, Danish engineer Valdemar Poulsen developed a machine that could record sounds onto tautly stretched piano wire. Two years later, he combined his recorder with that other recent invention, the telephone, and produced a very early prototype of the modern answering machine.
Dogs Need Love, Not Treats By Samantha Mazzotta
DEAR PAW’S CORNER: I just read your column about rewarding dogs with “treats” for good behavior. Treats are fine if you’re teaching them to sit up, roll over or jump through a hoop. In my almost 80 years I’ve had many dogs that were all well-mannered without giving them treats. A pleasant voice, a big hug, a pat on the head and “good dog” work nicely as a reward. My reasoning is that you don’t give your children candy when you are teaching them proper behavior. My dogs get treats when they least expect one. That’s a “treat”! I’ve shown dogs in dog shows and never “baited” them with treats. Being in the show was a treat, because we were having fun. We won many ribbons and “Best of Breed” without them. Being a champion is its own reward!
Dogs are smart, and they sense your feelings, whether it’s fear, anxiety or pleasure, and react to your attitude and body language. Kindness, patience and consistency work well without using treats. The real reward for a dog is being loved and cared for. Sincerely, -- K.H.S., Fairport, N.Y. DEAR K.H.S.: Well, I can’t argue with that. Great advice, and something to consider when training your dog, whether for basic obedience or for a show. You said it all, and I thank you! Send your tips, questions and comments to Paws Corner, c/o King Features Weekly Service, P.O. Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475, or e-mail them to firstname.lastname@example.org.
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For Advertising Call 1.319-721-2447 “THIS IS A RECORDING…” (continued):
• Poulsen’s Telegraphone Company went bankrupt just a few years after he first introduced his recorder, mainly because there was no real practical use (at the time) for a machine that recorded telephone conversations. Too bad Poulsen couldn’t have held on just a few years longer. Once the condenser microphone was introduced in 1916, a whole new market opened up for telephone recorders – that of wiretapping. • Yes, as is the case with any type of technology, the usefulness of voice recording was embraced by folks involved in espionage and other notso-above-board activities. In 1943, at the height of World War II, Germany developed a brand new recording medium that was unknown elsewhere; high-quality magnetic tape. They used the improved technology to broadcast Nazi propaganda over European radio stations around the clock. • When Germany fell to the Allies, a U.S. Army Signal Corps engineer named Jack Mullin was quick to realize the potential of the newfangled magnetic-tape recording equipment. He secured two recording machines in Germany and brought them back to the United States, where he spent two years perfecting a new version of the reel-to-reel magnetic tape recorder. Although the Germans had used this technology strictly for military purposes, the first U.S. group to show interest in Mullin’s acquisition was the entertainment industry. Soon, the Ampex company bought the rights to Mullin’s Magnetophone. • Ampex eventually became one of the leading names in magnetic recording tape. One of the first stars to take advantage of recording live musical performances on Ampex tape – which could then be edited for radio broadcast or vinyl records – was crooner Bing Crosby. In fact, Der Bingle was so pleased with the results of his recorded shows that he chose to invest heavily into the company. • The eight-track tape is rarely heard of today unless someone is making an Edsel-type joke about a useless product. It’s easy to forget that, in its day, the eight-track tape format sold millions of units and was a resounding success. Until its invention in 1964, most tape recordings were of the reelto-reel variety, which was useless for portable ������������������� listening. Cassettes were new, and the auto-reverse cassette player had yet to be invented, so it was necessary to eject them and turn over once one side had finished playing. And cassettes only had two sides, while eight-track tapes were (naturally) made with eight tracks. • Bill Lear, of Lear Jet fame, was the force behind the eight-track system. He used his engineering skills to develop an endless loop tape – one that would automatically start over after it had finished playing. He believed that such a tape would appeal to car manufacturers, since drivers could focus on the road while an album repeated over and over. The key reason that the cassette tape format eventually took over the market is that eight-track machines were ill-suited for home recording. • Today, of course, recording is all about digital ® technology. CD sales first surpassed LP sales in 1988, and now the Internet, downloadable music, and iPods are all poised to make CDs obsolete in the not-too-distant future. And to think, it all started with Edison reciting “Mary had a little lamb…”
t a e Gr ates! R
The Neatest Little Paper Ever Read.
ITALIAN TUNA SALAD In a medium bowl, combine salad I can just picture the “two of you” on greens, cucumber, carrots and tuna. In a picnic with this salad and a bottle of a small bowl, combine Italian dressing, bubbly. Life can’t get any better than mayonnaise and Splenda. Drizzle dressing mixture evenly over salad that! mixture. Toss gently to coat. Serve at once. Serves 2 (2 cups). 3 cups purchased mixed salad greens 1/2 cup finely chopped unpeeled cucumber 1 cup shredded carrots 1 (6-ounce) can white tuna, packed in water, drained and flaked 1/4 cup Kraft Fat Free Italian Dressing 2 tablespoons Kraft fat-free mayonnaise 1 tablespoon Splenda Granular
• Each serving equals: 184 calories, 4g fat, 22g protein, 15g carbs, 929mg sodium, 94mg calcium, 4g fiber; Diabetic Exchanges: 3 Meat, 3 Vegetable; Carb Choices: 1. Visit Healthy Exchanges at www.healthyexcha nges.com, or call toll-free at 1-800-766-8961 for more information about the only national food newsletter for diabetics, heart/cholesterol concerns and healthy weight loss.
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PROTECT YOUR INVESTMENT
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Tidbits® of Blackhawk County
FROM START TO FITNESS By Andrea Renee Wyatt, M.S.S., C.S.C.S.
Prepare Your Body for Active Vacation Q: My family and I have a trip planned this summer to Europe, where we will be walking and hiking a lot more than I had planned. What can I do to prepare for this trip so I do not spend the entire time sore or, even worse, injured?
it will prepare your muscles for the endurance required for days and days of activity. If you plan to walk or hike carrying a backpack, practice walking with it so your legs, shoulders and back can get accustomed to the added weight. You may be used to walking at home in the neighborhood, but the added weight of the backpack and its contents could make it more challenging. Don’t forget to wear the proper clothes and shoes. The wrong shoes can cause blisters and make your vacation miserable. Break-in any new shoes prior to the trip -- don’t wait to wear them the first day of your trip. Taking care of your body to prevent injuries is a top priority. Know your limitations and handle any small issues as soon as possible. Stretch when needed, ice if necessary and rest if possible. Remember that although you are on vacation, the activities you will be completing are just like a workout at the gym. Let your hard work exercising pay off by having an enjoyable and safe vacation.
A: Preparing for vacations that might be physically demanding can be just as important as remembering to pack everything. Taking time to prepare your body for the trip to come should be on your list of things to do prior to leaving. Being able to enjoy your vacation injury-free is important. Begin at least a month before the trip to give yourself enough time to condition your body. If you are not currently exercising, you might need to start even earlier. Although starting to exercise a week before the trip is better than nothing, you want to give yourself enough time to allow your body to adjust. Working hard for a few weeks before the trip might make you even sorer, but that shouldn’t discourage you. Get moving, but pace yourself. If you are accustomed to working out, keep up your currently workout schedule and add a few exercises to prepare for walking and hiking. If you’re using a treadmill, try walking at an incline; if walking outside, try to find hills to prepare for walking uphill. Strength training is always a plus, as
Always consult a physician before beginning an exercise program. If you have a fitness or training question, write to Andrea in care of King Features Weekly Service, P.O. Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475
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Vacations Promote Healthy Heart If you hope to get in a short vacation before the end of summer, there’s still time. And if you’re like me, the idea of an inexpensive getaway is most appealing. To avoid driving long distances (and incurring all that expense for gas), I’ve decided to spend a long weekend camping out at a national park. Besides, a short time away is easier to justify when even Harvard University says that vacations are good for us, and that those of us who get away are less likely to develop heart disease. Do you have a senior park pass? These are lifetime passes to national parks for U.S. citizens age 62 and over. The only place to get a pass is at a park. Some of the benefits include free admission for you and a few others in your car, and a 50 percent discount for you only on expanded amenities such as camping and swimming. The old Golden Age Passports for park admittance have been discontinued,
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and the replacement is called America the Beautiful -- National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Pass. Cost is $10 each. Have a photo ID handy when you buy one. As I was preparing for my short vacation, a handy booklet caught my eye at the Harvard Health Publications Web site: “10-Minute Consult -- Healthy Travel.” It’s full of helpful tips on preparing to travel, but the most important concern being prepared with all medications you take and others that might be needed, such as laxatives and antacids. The same Web site carries low-cost special reports that can be purchased on a wide range of topics such as high blood pressure, Alzheimer’s disease, home safety, osteoporosis and nutrition. Check www.health.harvard.edu and click on Special Reports for the whole list of topics. Or call 1-888-386-7220 for customer service.
Matilda Charles regrets that she cannot personally answer reader questions, but will incorporate them into her column whenever possible. Write to her in care of King Features Weekly Service, P.O. Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475, or send e-mail to email@example.com.
• If your take-home pay leaves something to be desired, you probably won’t be surprised to learn that the English word “salary” is derived from the Latin word for the allowance provided to Roman soldiers to buy salt. • It was Academy Award-winning comedian and actor George Burns who made the following sage observation: “You know you’re getting old when you stoop to tie your shoes and wonder what else you can do while you’re down there.” • Tablecloths today are lovely linens that enhance the appearance of a table, but that wasn’t originally their sole use. At one time, tablecloths were meant to serve as towels; after dinner, guests would use it to wipe their hands and faces.
• If you were to dine at an ancient Roman feast, you might find flamingo tongues on the menu -they were considered a delicacy. • In 1981, two minor-league baseball teams, the Rochester Red Wings and the Pawtucket Red Sox, played what might be the longest game in baseball history -- a full 32 innings. And after all that, there wasn’t even a winner: The game ended in a 2-2 tie. • If you needed more evidence that we live in a materialistic society, consider this: Statistics show that more people in America go to shopping malls every week than attend churches and synagogues. • The long tails that are spread out in the sky behind comets are vapor trails, but the vapor is spread pretty thin. In fact, if you condensed all the vapor in a 10,000-mile vapor trail, it would take up less than 1 cubic inch.
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BICYCLES (continued): • In the 1890s, the first “modern” bicycles appeared: chain-driven vehicles with similarly-sized tires. These were safer than the high-wheel models (and were even called “safety bicycles” as a result), but proved a step backwards in comfort. While the long spokes of high-wheel bikes absorbed bumps and ruts, the smaller wheels on these new bikes, particularly when coupled with the hard-rubber tires of the era, made for jarring, unpleasant rides.
1. In 2008, Omar Vizquel set the record for most games played at the shortstop position. Whom did he replace at the top spot? 2. Name the major-league starting pitcher who finished the 1994 season with more wins than walks. 3. How many Big Ten Conference championships did Michigan football coach Lloyd Carr capture outright or share during his 13-year tenure? 4. Who was the first 40-year-old NBA player to grab at least 20 rebounds in a game? 5. In the 2007 NHL playoffs, one team featured the top three players in NHL playoff scoring. Name the team and the players. 6. True or false: Each time Jeff Gordon has won NASCAR’s Coca-Cola 600, he started from the pole position. 7. How many grand-slam titles did Justine Henin win during her tennis career? (c) 2008 King Features Synd., Inc.
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• More than a million bicycles were sold in the United States by the time 1895 rolled around, but one last improvement would propel the bicycle into the must-own category: the pneumatic tire. Under the guidance of the Pope Manufacturing Company (which made bicycles), the Hartford Rubber Works produced America’s first pneumatic tires in 1895. Providing a much softer ride, they soon became a standard feature on all bicycle models. • Dozens of smaller-scale improvements boosted the speed, comfort, longevity and performance of bicycles during the 20th century. As women began to find them as necessary as men, two varieties of bicycle were made. Men’s bikes were built with an extra stabilizer bar across the top of the bike. Women’s bikes omitted the bar, providing for easier mounting and dismounting of the vehicle when wearing skirts. • The 1970s saw the development of two bicycle extremes. First came bicycles that took you nowhere. Otherwise known as exercise bikes, these training aids first hit the home market at the beginning of the decade. Then, as time went on and the energy crisis sent fuel prices skyrocketing, mopeds appeared. These bicycle/motorcycle hybrids, most popular with city-centered business workers, could either be pedaled like a regular bike or powered using a small, low-powered gasoline engine.
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ALL THE PRESIDENTS’ TIDBITS
While George Washington was an Army general and certainly an adept leader, our second president – John Adams – was a man of thoughts and words as well as deeds. He served in the Continental Congress, and assisted in the composition of what are considered the most important documents in our nation’s history: the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. • John Adams was born in Braintree, Mass., just south of Boston, on October 30, 1735. (You won’t find his birthplace in Braintree today, however; that part of the town is now known as Quincy.) A good student, John entered Harvard at the age of 16. Upon graduation, he began to keep a journal, which he added to for the remainder of his life. He took a job as schoolmaster for the town of Worcester, and studied law as well. • In 1761, Adams’ life began to change. As the eldest son of his family, he inherited property from his father, who died in May. He also began to court Miss Abigail Smith, the woman who would become his wife three years later. John was well aware of the growing movement in the Colonies to fight “taxation without representation,” and used his knowledge of law to pen documents to that effect for the Massachusetts legislature. • Adams’ efforts spearheaded the repeal of several laws that were unfairly taxing Americans. In 1768, King George III sent troops to Boston. Two years later, during a skirmish later dubbed the Boston Massacre, five civilians were shot and killed while protesting against the British. The Crown asked John to represent the responsible soldiers at trial. • John Adams agreed to take on the soldiers’ defense, maintaining that they deserved a fair trial. Surprisingly, the public seemed to understand and respect this decision. Even more surprisingly, all but two of the Redcoats were acquitted of charges. Adams joined the state legislature, where his popularity led to an appointment as one of Massachusetts’ representatives in the First Continental Congress. • As the Revolution began, Adams found himself in the middle of much of the action. He nominated George Washington to be commander-in-chief of the Colonial forces, and also tried to enlist the aid of other European nations in the American struggle for independence. When the War ended, Adams signed the Treaty of Paris, in which England formally recognized the United States as a nation. He spent several years in Europe as a well-respected ambassador before returning home to help draft the Constitution.
• To deter grass from growing in the crevices of patio stones, sprinkle the stones with a little salt, then sweep it into the cracks. Be careful not to use too much, though. • “I mash my guacamole with a whisk instead of a fork. It does a super job.” -- O.L. in North Carolina • To make potatoes last longer, don’t store them with onions. The onions give off a gas that can speed deterioration of the potatoes. • “Whenever I walk my dogs, along with doggie bags for cleaning up their messes, I also bring an extra plastic grocery bag with me. I often see empty bottles, cans and other trash that has been haphazardly thrown to the side of the road by environmentally unfriendly motorists and passersby. I’ll pick up what I can along the route and throw the bag of garbage away in the Dumpster when the dogs and I return home.” -- C.E. from Florida • Another great icepack idea: Keep a bag of unpopped popcorn kernels in the freezer to use as an icepack for bumps, bruises and swelling. It’s easy to mold to any body part, and there’s no melting!
• If you have an old rubber glove that has just about outlived its usefulness, don’t toss it yet. Cut off the fingers and slip the tips over the handles of brooms and mops. When leaned against a wall, the handle won’t slide down -- it’s instant nonslip. You also can cut strips from the wrist portion and use them as large rubber bands for bundling newspaper or other materials. Send your tips to Now Here’s a Tip, c/o King Features Weekly Service, P.O. Box 536475, Orlando, FL 328536475 or e-mail JoAnn at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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JOHN ADAMS (continued): • Adams served as vice president under Washington for eight years, and then defeated Thomas Jefferson in the 1796 election to become president. Almost immediately, he came under fire. France went to war with Britain, and the president had to walk a fine line to keep America from having to choose a side and become involved in the conflict. As newspapers published rhetoric promoting Jefferson and his Republican views, Adams worked to limit anti-government speech. • Jefferson managed to thwart Adams’ reelection bid, and John retired from public life. He was there when his eldest son, John Quincy Adams, was inaugurated as president in 1825. He passed away on Independence Day, July 4, 1826, only a few hours after his political rival, Thomas Jefferson. To learn more about Adams, check out the recent HBO miniseries John Adams, starring Paul Giamatti.
Want to increase your advertising exposure? Ask us about sponsoring this section. Avoiding Debt For Young Adults College students often enter adulthood with more than a degree -- all too often they enter the adult world saddled with debt. Student loans average $20,000, with credit-card debt reaching nearly $3,000 -- more than double that for graduate students. Here’s a statistic: Less than a quarter of students polled felt prepared to handle finances after college, and 30 percent of freshmen said they weren’t prepared to manage their money. Here’s a book to tuck into the backpack: “Please Send Money, A Financial Survival Guide for Young Adults on Their Own,” by Dara Duguay (Sourcebooks). “Please Send Money” opens with a comparison of young adults to ostriches: believing that if you ignore a problem, it will go away. All too often, that’s the first step toward leaving school weighed down by debt and going on to a young adulthood of money mismanagement. The book shows how to break that cycle. Among other things in the book that young adults need to know: • Tax chart showing what take-home salaries really look like after taxes are deducted. • A credit-card chart showing how long it takes to pay off a credit card if paying only the minimum each month. • Tips on buying a car: buy an inexpensive car, bank the money you didn’t spend, and watch it turn into a million dollars; don’t buy the first day you’re
out looking; comparison shop; read the paperwork before you sign; don’t accept an adjustable interest rate; and get the cost of insurance before you buy. • Credit-card debt in college can impact a future career: Run up debt, take on more hours at work, leaving less time to study and lowering grades, putting scholarships at risk, and possibly leading to dropping out. • The real costs of setting up a first home after college -- don’t forget to calculate the cost of paying back student loans. • Marital debt and setting up a budget. • The growth of a small investment. • Avoiding the path to bankruptcy. • Understanding Wall Street. Parents, if you buy this book for your young adult, read it first before you hand it over. Seventy percent of students polled said they learned money management from their parents. There’s something for everyone in this book. David Uffington regrets that he cannot personally answer reader questions, but will incorporate them into his column whenever possible. Write to him in care of King Features Weekly Service, P.O. Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475, or send e-mail to email@example.com. (c) 2008 King Features Synd., Inc.
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QUIZ BITS 1. What musical instrument did Amy Irving Don’t Toss That Paintbrush play in the Mazzotta 1980 film By Samantha The Competition? Q: I enjoyed your recent article on techniques that legendary make it easier to restore 2. What paintbrushes. You didn’t Swedish band got mention oilbased paints and varnish. What would you its start by winning recommend? -- Mario F., via e-mail the 1974 Eurovision Song Contest? A: Naturally, the best way to keep
ULY 27 JULY CEDAR FALLS
ENJOYING THIS ISSUE OF TIDBITS®? another solvent such as turpentine. These thinnersTHANK put out aTHOSE lot of fumes and are very WHO ADVERTISE flammable, so use only in a well-ventilated areaBY (away from common GIVING THEM living areas) and well away from all other flammable YOUR BUSINESS! materials.
Dip the dried brush into the solvent and keep it in just long enough to saturate the bristles. Then, either place it on a flat surface (protected by newspaper) WORD POWERor suspend it bristles-down by passing a wire through the holeUnscramble in the handle and thishanging word...the wire up. Don’t soak the brush in the solvent container, A Hrest Athe N brush M OonRitsTbristles. and don’t __ __ __ __ __ __the __brush __ to see if Periodically check the driedThis paint is softening word means:up. Dip it in the solvent again if necessary. an endurance contestWhen the paint begins to soften, carefully run the spiky side of a cleaner tool (available at paint stores) through the brush, being careful not to tug out bristles. Repeat this process as needed. Brushes that have become misshapen NEXT WEEK: can be very difficult to straighten out. The only TIDBITS thing to doSHINES is cleanWITH them thoroughly, store properly, and then use on your next JEWELS & GEMSTONES job. The painting action often works the bristles into a somewhat straight position.
1. PIANO 2. ABBA
1. Luis Aparicio, with 2,583 games. 2. Bret Saberhagen of the New York Mets (14 wins, 13 walks). 3. Five titles (1997, ‘98, 2000, ‘03, ‘04). 4. Houston’s Dikembe Mutombo had 22 rebounds versus Denver in 2007. 5. The Ottawa Senators, with Daniel Alfredsson, Dany Heatley and Jason Spezza each tallying 22 points. 6. True -- he did it in 1994, 1997 and 1998. 7. Seven -- four French Opens (2003, ‘05, ‘06, ‘07), two U.S. Opens (‘03, ‘07) and an Australian Open (‘04).
paintbrushes in top shape is to clean them immediately after use. But even the most disciplined painters will leave a brush out too long or store it bristles-down, so that it becomes misshapen. It happens. Brushes with dried oil-based QUIZ BITS paints should be dipped into a container of paint thinner, ANSWERS mineral spirits (also called white spirits) or
FILLER PAGE 1 3Q06 WEEK 33 AUG 13 – AUG 19
WORD POWER ANSWER
A man entered a local newspaper’s pun contest. He sent in ten different puns, hoping that at least one of the puns would win. Unfortunately, no pun in ten did.
When rock band Queen recorded the operatic sector of their classic hit “Bohemian Rhapsody,” they’d over-dubbed their voices so many times that that particular section of the tape was transparent - they’d worn all the oxide off.
Paint thinner, mineral spirits Nuggets of and solvents can be reused. Let the thinner rest in KNOWLEDGE a closed container until the solid In Canada, a game of materials have settled to the chance is considered bottom. Carefully pour the clear a thinner lottery. Ininto Canada, another container toand run asave lottery, youthe next job. it for need a special license. That’s why all sweepstakes and random Send questions or home-repair tips to hom firstname.lastname@example.org, drawing contests have a or write This Is a Hammer, King Features Weekly Service, provision c/o stating that if P.O. Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475. a Canadian citizen is the winner, he has to answer (c) 2008 King Features Synd., Inc. a skill-testing question in order to claim his or her prize.
Famous Birthdays THIS WEEK
Danny Bonaduce – 08-13-59 Steve Martin – 08-14-45 Ben Affleck – 08-15-72 Madonna – 08-16-58 Sean Penn – 08-17-60 Rosalynn Carter – 08-18-27 Tipper Gore – 08-19-48