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STUDIO AIR JOYCELYN UTOMO | A Journal


CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION __________ About Me + Previous Works

CONCEPTUALISATION __________ 005 Design Futuring 012 Design Computation 022 Composition / Generation 032 Conclusion 033 Learning Outcomes 034 Appendix

CRITERIA DESIGN __________ 039 Research Field: Sectioning & Tesselation 056 Case Study 1.0 060 Case Study 2.0 068 Technique: Development 080 Technique: Prototypes 088 Technique: Proposals 092 Learning Objectives & Outcomes 094 Appendix

TABLE


CONTENTS

DETAILED DESIGN __________ 098 Design Concept 112 Tectonic Elements 118 Final Model 124 Additional LAGI Brief Requirements 130 Learning Objectives & Outcomes 131 Further Potentials

BIBLIOGRAPHY __________ Part A Part B

TABLE


ABOUT ME

_______________ JOYCELYN UTOMO, 19 ARCHITECTURE MAJOR, UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE I was born and raised in the blissful city of Jakarta - a vibrant land with a diverse people and my many canine friends. I have loved everything to do with arts ever since I was little and my passion outside of Architecture doesn’t stray too far from it; from photography, travelling, to playing the piano. The past few years studying architecture were not always smooth sailing, and my inability to use any 3D software have limited what I could have achieved in terms of my designs and presentations. Unlike other species of Architecture students who drown themselves with caffeine in order to complete their CAD drawings and Photoshop it on time, my sleepless nights and MIA mornings were spent manually rendering all my drawings by hand. Truthfully speaking - or in this case, writing - Studio Air is hands down the most challenging class I have taken in Uni, since I - among many other 757 zombies had to push myself to not only learn Rhinoceros 5.0 within weeks time, but also Grasshopper, resulting in the occasional mental breakdowns and “I hate my life” moments. Nevertheless, I genuinely believe that this studio has given me the nudge I needed to break away from my comfort zone and appreciate parametric designs. PS: A tip to the next batch of Studio Air kids - I strongly advocate you to learn grasshopper beforehand! Save yourself.


Alexandria Garden Projection Site / Designing Environment [2012] Studley Park Boathouse / Studio Water: Tadao Ando [2013]


Studley Park Boathouse / Studio Water: Tadao Ando [2013] Top-Down: Elevations, Section


A

CONCEPTUALISATION


A.1 DESIGN FUTURING _____ A PRACTICE THAT AIMS TO MAKE TIME FOR HUMAN EXISTENCE BY NEGATING FORMS OF ACTIONS, GOODS, SYSTEMS, AND INTUITION THAT TAKES TIME AWAY (DEFUTURING).

In Fry’s (2008) reading - Design Futuring - he brought up an awareness of how designers often lack the sense that designs has the power to make or break the world in terms of its sustainability. Fry continues to argue that it is necessary to consider the means to secure and maintain a qualitative condition of being over time through our designs, thus saving humanity by saving what we collectively depend upon. Therefore, the issue of design futuring - slowing the rate of defuturing - will be discussed in this section of the Journal with the help of two precedents that may or may not go against these theories that Fry has put up. Although it is almost impossible to justify an argustrates well how good design can act as a reverse catalysts of defuturing.

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HOSHAKOSHI _____STATION KENGO KUMA / 2008

With the increase awareness of design futuring, it often creates a problem for designers to play with form. This does not mean that architects will have to halt experimenting with materials, but instead also consider how the forms they create will have to consider usage and wastage, and the overall life of the building (Schumaker, 2011). One architect with a distinct style Kengo Kuma - is known to play with materials in a way that often seems to be an over-ornamentation with an overuse of ingredients, however, Kuma has his own innovative approach to counter the effect of defuturing. In this case, this section will be analysing Hoshakoshi Station that was built in 2008 at Tochigi, Japan. At a glance, the parametric ornamentation of the Hoshakoshi Station might seem intimidating in terms of Design Futuring. “How much slabs of wood-piece were used to construct the station’s ceilings?” one may ask, and the answer is “lots!”. Nevertheless, Kuma is one designer that is aware of how his designs may often take up too much materials, spiking up the cost for the client and wastage of materials to create a small area of ceiling ornamentation. His approach to this is to preserve the station’s previous oya stone, then molding it to be used as the ceiling’s structural system. He also used recycled Lauan-made wood, with minimal weight and thin slicing, just enough to produce the aesthetics he wanted. In Tochigi, where resources were scarce and expensive, Kuma has made it possible to preserve the site’s natural resources, at the same time magneting visitors and tourists, making his design a catalyst to the succesfulness of the Station’s environment. and have even been called to lecture at Harvard and Colombia University among many others to raise awareness on how creative approaches to sustainability can help slow down the rate of defuturing. Later in the early 2010s, his design began emerging to a whole new level of sustainability movement, his ornamentation did not fade away but his methods to design futuring has evolved, making Kengo Kuma one of the greatest architect to have explored the possibilities of ornamentation yet preserving it despite the pull of gravity (Kuma, 2013). _____________________________________________________________________________________ Hoshakoshi Station, Tochigi, Japan KKAA.JP

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ORIBE_____ TEAHOUSE KENGO KUMA / 2005

Before the Hoshakoshi Station was the Oribe Teahouse, which was a temporary mobile Japanese tea room that only spans 8 m2. Once again, Kuma has revolutionized the idea of modern parametrism, a sleeker, Japanesque version of the mainstream. In this exhibit, Kuma mentioned that one of the challenges in building the project was to consider the amount of materials that is needed to construst a structure so small, yet so large in terms of its surface area. In context to the reading by Fry (2008): Design Futuring, Kuma was aware that in order to create this project with the visual aesthetic that he aimed for, he needed to compromise the use of materials as well. Kuma’s approach was to use recycable corrugated plastic boards, arrayed at 65mm intervals comes to an end, and each materials can be safely recycled). Once these bands are unfastened, the tea rooms would return to an assembly of cheap elements, making it extremely mobile and since the start of the project, his methods of arraying each piece and using recycable materials

This particular work by Kuma has magneted people towards the exhibition, changing their ways of viewing temporary exhibitions. Often viewed as a waste of time and material before, public installations had a bad reputation. Among many others who revolutionized the idea of it polycarbonat sheets of cardboards as the materials of choice, the Oribe teachouse did not fail to

_____________________________________________________________________________________ Hoshakoshi Station, Tochigi, Japan

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Oribe TeaHouse, 2005, Ceramics Park Mino KKAA.JP

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A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION _____ THE EVOLUTION OF DESIGN PROCESS AND ITS RELATION-

SHIP WITH COMPUTING

Architecture is currently experiencing a shift from drawing towards algorithm as a method to capturing and communicating design. This section of the journal aims to explore the ongoing relationship between design with computation, formulating an argument on the -

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Japan Pavillion, Shigeru Ban, 2000 ARCHSUPPLY.COM

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JAPAN _____ PAVILLION SHIGERU BAN / 2000

The Japan Pavillion, a temporary exhibition in 2000, designed by Shigeru Ban, is one of his many series of Paper Tube structures, and is a work that best exhibits a good use design computation to tackle architectural issues. The work itself is an art in its paper materiality, and with his programmatic commisions questioned, is also a work of art in the use of computation. The wave like structure as shown in the diagram on page 15, shows some steps that Ban & Associates have taken to construct the design on software, which would have otherwise been impossible in early 2000, if designed with simple mathematical tools of such (Ban, 2002). software and advancement in computational design tools have helped architects such as Ban to explore the forms of parametrism, and how it could be used further to construct a new form of both aesthetics and operational purpose. Having a wave-like form must have been a challenge in the design’s production to begin with, not yet considering how the ornmanetation on the building would have been constructed. Hebel (2012), in his study on Ban’s work, concluded that “with the engineering we are sitting on produce a structure such as the Japan Pavillion. Thus, further supporting the fact that it was precast, precustomed pieces of the structure, that only had to be assembled manually. Ban’s work was not the last of this kind, with the constant advancement in computational design tools, more complex designs that are similar in forms - such as the Metropol Parasol - is made possible to construct, and just like how industrialisation and advancement in production has led to the modernist movement, it is very much possible that continous progression in computational design tools could lead new generations of architect to move towards the digital age of design. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Japan Pavillion, Shigeru Ban, 2000

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Japan Pavillion, Shigeru Ban, 2000 ARCHSUPPLY.COM

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VM_____ HOUSE BJARKE INGELS (BIG) / 2007

When exploring the idea of design computation and how it could help act as a catalysts towards innovative forms and design, nothing could possibly compete with the VM House that was made in 2007. The residential block was designed by BIG Archtiecture with one main intent that is to create a unique experience for its tenants, where each individuals will have a different space with different units. The design of the rooms are meant to be different in space but same in area, while the balcony placed in a way where each resident can overlook all the other resident’s balcony, which is meant to become an encouragement of a friendlier and more social neighborhood. A person help of algorithmic software, that automatically calculates the forms as inputted, would reduce the time needed, making a complex design such as the VM House achievable to construct. The images on page 19-20 shows how computational design has pushed innovation of complex space seperation, and how each units are meant to have the same area yet different shapes, thus creating a custom room for each. Just as the Colloseum was an architectural and constructional wonder during the Roman’s ages, ongoing advancement with computational design could possibly create a new era of experimental architectures, leading to new forms that have only been in child’s play in the past. Design that are not possible to represent and communicate to in the past could be achieved with the help of architectural software, at the same time complex algorithm and parametric styles may evolve from simpler geometries towards forms that have never even been seen before (Rolakovic, 2003). process involves simple sketches and model making, proceeding to complex technical works in order to represent the visuals and operational needs of their buildings to the community, just as industrialisation has changed the form of architecture through new availability of mass produced material, so could computational design lead to a new era of architectural form. _____________________________________________________________________________________ VM House, BIG Architecture, 2007

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VM House, Bjarke Ingels, 2007 BIG.DK

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A.3 COMPOSITION & GENERATION _____ FROM SHAPES TO REPRESENTATION OR DATA TO GENERATION

As discussed in section A.2, computing has greatly affect tbe changing approaches of design, whether aesthetically or how it is constructed. However, design computing is limited to the fact that it does not produce new algorithm, and the users will have to generate or input the data to produce the form. Thus, this section will focus on the topics of algorithmic thinking, parametric modelling, and scripting cultures (Wilson, 1999).

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Serpentine Gallery, Toyo Ito, 2002 MOFAE.COM

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SERPENTINE _____GALLERY TOYO ITO / 2002

Toyo Ito was one of the many architects privilledged to design for the Serpentine Gallery in London (2002). And in this design of his, it best exhibits the idea of algorithmic composition as a tool to generate forms. As of knowledge, parametric design tools are limited only to the point where the user inputs data, it does not create a new set of algorithms or structure (Peters, 2013). In this case, Ito uses it to generate his imagination into the constructed form. Ito’s initial idea was decided on a volume with square plan and a height of 4.5 meters, and then considered what could be done with it. We began with two images: the image of a straight line continuing forever like the path of a billiard ball, and an aluminium honeycomb structure that was an extension of what had been tried in the “Bruges Pavilion” (Inui, 2004). Inui (2004) then further stated due to the lack of time for project completion, this initial idea was “inputed” as data to generate a parametric form as shown in the diagram on the right. In the case of “Serpentine,” it was simply spiralling of a square, but in “Selfridges,” which is being designed for Glasgow, the algorithm he proposed and we have adopted is based on what Ito (2004) calls ‘dancing columns’ – columns that slant at different angles depending on the design (as discussed in section A.2) does not only aid in the creation of a form, but with the necessary data, could generate an entirely foreign design on its own. Designs that uses computational design such as the serpentine gallery is just a piece of evidence that parametrism may become the new generation of architectural outbreak, that will become an essential tool just like a drafting board was in the 1990s to architectural design or education. In fact, with the constant and ongoing advancement in these tools, more complex forms than the Serpentine Gallery (considering it was constructed in 2002), would be developed, not only creating aesthetically pleasing designs, but also one that is functional and operational in nature. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Serpentine Gallery, Toyo Ito, 2002 MOFAE.COM

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Serpentine Gallery, Toyo Ito, 2002 MOFAE.COM

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EUREKA_____ PAVILLION NEX / 2011

After Toyo Ito’s 2002 Serpentine Gallery Pavilion London has been enriched by another beautiful outcome from the search of algorithms and their application in architecture. Trying to shorten the distance between architecture, nature and environment through creating algorithmic architecture, NEX has designed the 2011 Pavilion for the Chelsea Flower Show. Based on algorithms that mimic natural growth the pavilion’s geometry allows visitors to experience the patterns of biological structure at an unfamiliar scale (NEX, 2011). NEX production team stated, ‘We extended the design concepts of the garden by looking closely at the cellular structure of plants and their processes of growth to inform the design’s growth and is intended to allow visitors to experience the patterns of biological structure at an unfamiliar scale. The primary structure is timber sourced from sustainable spruce forests with a glass panelled roof.’ (Dempsey, 2011) In this case, biomimicry, the study of copying nature and its features into design, can be considered the data or input used to generate the form of the design. The design development of the pavilion focused on the ‘bio-mimicry’ of leaf capillaries being to form the basic shape and supporting structure of the pavilion, inset with secondary timber cassettes that hold the cladding. Following completion of the 3D modelling to meet architectural and structural needs, specialist timber fabricators undertook detailed analysis and digital manufacturing of the structure (Dempsey, 2011)(NEX, 2011). Whether a design is meant to be parametric or not, the constant advancement of computational design will expand the possibilities of constructing designs that were meant to only be a glimpse of imagination in the past. Even the load bearing capacity, accurate sun angle, or tidal waves, and even cyclones and hurricanes, could be algorithmically analyzed accurately by the use of computational designs (Oxman & Rivka, 2014). Therefore, focusing on our own brief on LAGI, the idea of taking an existing data and to create or generate a form would be apparent. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Eureka Pavillion, Nex, 2011 DESIGNBOOM.COM

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Eureka Pavillion, Nex, 2011 DESIGNBOOM.COM

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A.4 CONCLUSION _____ SUMMARISING PART A

In conclusion, Part A have explored various aspects of computational design, from the possibilities of advancement of software and design futuring, how design computation idea that by using existing data, computation could re-represent a particular shape or form. Although not every architect make use of parametric tools, chosing to stick to a certain honesty in geometry, computational design has revolutionised even the very idea of simplicity. It could even aid the development of ornamentation, or even more complex reasoning such as how a structure would remain sustainable in a certain site, how natural features of the area could affect the design and its form. Thus, with the from making use of the tool but also the community as a whole who may receive a new form of architecture as a gift. With what was dicussed in Part A and the LAGI brief, the main aim of this project will be to strive for a design that brings up the awareness of design futuring, a possibly interactive model and material, and making use every bit of computational designing energy and how to conserve it.

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A.5 LEARNING _____ OUTCOMES FROM SHAPES TO REPRESENTATION OR DATA TO GENERATION

Learning the theories and practice of Architectural computing have drastically changed the way I personally appreciate design as a discourse. In my previous classes or works, I have glued myself to the idea of simplicity, nothing spanning more from horizontal or vertical lines, no curves if possible, and especially no inspiration from parametrism. However, from studying the idea of design computation, I found out how even the masters of Architectural simplicity; Sou Fujimoto, Toyo Ito, and even Kengo Kuma (which are my personal favorite), have had their designs evolving from simple geometries to using computational tools to either aid in constructing their design, or even to generate the form of their work. Perhaps the fact that I lacked knowledge or less open-minded towards using software tools to experiment with forms and structures how computation could catalyze my design process.

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A.6 APPENDIX As I’ve stated in my introduction, I have never felt comfortable exploring parametric forms in my preceeding studios. Researching new shapes in grasshopper has allowed works. Most of the discovery I made with this new and foreign software is to create ornamentations on surfaces, as shown on page 31. ware tools that are usually very easy to navigate through, grasshopper is different since it does not provide visualization in 3D space, but instead, thinking about the shape in algorithm and data. Although I am currently on my knees when using grasshopper now, I realized how effective the tool is in creating unorthodox forms and especially designs that involves constant repetitions of some sort. In addition to the arguments made in Part A (A.4 Conclusion Summary), these algorithmic sketches demonstrated how the forms I created were not based on what I have imagined, but by manipulating existing data on the software. Also, even if I am an elementary when it comes to using software, and especially grasshopper, I was able to create forms unique as an individual, thus further supporting the idea that parametric tool is potentially an aid to design innovation. Although I am still far from becoming a grasshopper ninja, my new found love for and geometries.

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B

CRITERIA DESIGN


B.1 RESEARCH _____ FIELD In this section of the design progress, the aim is to investigate the most suitable material system for the concept the team has produced for the LAGI brief. Following the researchers and explorations of computational briefs in Part A of the Journal, the team has combined the information and decided to design a structure that encourages engagement and interaction between the user and the form in order to regenerate energy, in other word, an interactive design. The design is currently leaning towards the idea of Kinetic energy as it is the most relevant to the initial design concept. Although solar and wind energies have been considered, the idea of kinetic best serves the purpose of a user-engaging design, where audience could trample over the design that in a way or another, denotes the amount of kinetic energy that is being generated by the user, possibly in the form of gradienting lights. In B.1 Research Field, the journal aims to investigate the most appropriate system to the coning that it has to be aesthetically pleasing. And after careful deliberations of the list of material systems, the team has decided to research between Tesselation and Sectioning, which seems to be easily fabricated due to its nature of piece-by-piece assembly and component, at the same

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photosensor panels and similar technologies alike to be installed. At the end of section B.1, a

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TESSELATION of pieces without gaps or spaces (Iwamoto, 2009). In fact, tesselation could be in any shape as as an algorithmic tool but as an aid in designing as a solution. To begin with, tesselation can be dated back to the byzantine empire where it was used as an ornamentation in stained glass, however, as explored in Part A of the journal, the strategy to tackling this brief is to not simply equiping the material system as a source of decor but also as a tool to raising awareness of energy consumption and design futuring (Fry, 2008). With the resurfacing of tesselation along with the rise of computational design (section A.2A.3), it is possible to re-enact the use of it not just as a motif on a surface but to generate a new form, movement, and awareness in different areas of concern in architectural design. Over the period of exploration in part A, the team have come up with a design aim, which is to create an interactive design - with further research to be done in the energy generation - that may potentially change colors depending on the heat energy within its environment by trapping solar energy during daytime. Thus this section means to further look into the idea on how tesselating could aid in achieving these desired results. Iwamoto (2009) raised the issue that digital fabrication have reintroduced the interest in using unorthodox form of designing and construction such as tesselating and folding or stripping because they afford greater variation and modulation in through non-standard modulation and with the help of digitatl computation to aid in designing, it may even calculate accurately on material saving. By exploring various projects relevant to tesselation, it is possible to support this argument on how tesselation has various un-explored potential in producing a more ef-

_____________________________________________________________________________________ Origami Tesselations depicting the concpets behind its algorithms DEMAGAZINE.CO.UK

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VOUSSOIR CLOUD

(IWAMOTO SCOTT)

A good example of Tesselation being incorporated functionally into a design is this project by Iwamoto Scott, where it is used as a means of delivering an effective entry of light and Voussoir Cloud explores the structural paradigm of pure compression coupled with an ultra-light material system. As shown in the diagram to the right, each vault was comprised of a Delaunay tessellation that both capitalized on and confounded the structural logics — greater cell density of smaller, more connective modules, or petals, ganged together at the column bases and at the vault edges to form strengthened ribs, while the upper vault shell loosened and gained porosity. shaped masonry blocks that make up an arch — were here reconsidered, using thin paper material. The three dimensional petals were formed by folding thin wood laminate along curved seams (Iwamoto, 2009). Not only does this design address the issue of design futuring (As discussed in A.1), it also generates a form using the material system tesselation, digitally fabricating the the structure, and calculating each piece with computational tools, and physically fabricating it with the data gathered (Emphasis on A.2-A.3). However, with digital designs and especially with material systems such as tesselating, the issue is mostly regarding the area of fabricating the model. This issue will be further explored in the next tesselation case study (P.42). _____________________________________________________________________________________ Voussoir Cloud, Iwamoto Scott / Bruno Happold DEMAGAZINE.CO.UK

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Voussoir Cloud, Iwamoto Scott/ Bruno Happold DESIGNBOOM.COM

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HYPOSURFACE

(NED KAHN)

In this case study of the Hyposurface, it illustrates well the issue that tesselation has in regards to its fabrication. The hyposurface is an interactive wall, meant to be a temporary exhibition where it creates a wave-like motion, and the algorithmic idea of tesselation is applied in order to create an accurate, tion process of tesselation structures usually encounters two main issues; the joints of each shapes (which is also apparent in the previous example of Voussoir cloud), and also the calculation of making shapes that stacks or merges with each components succesfully. Thus, in order to create an effective design for the LAGI project, the idea of tesselation will be merged with the team’s newfound skills with grasshopper as a tool of manufacturing a design that not only addresses the brief but also aims to make use of tesselation as a potential material system that tackles the main objective of the design as discussed in A.5 - Conclusion and B.1 - Introduction of Tesselation as the choice of material system, in order to realize the design intent (Peter, 2013). ____________________________________________________________________ Hypersurface, Ned Kahn DEMAGAZINE.CO.UK

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SECTIONING Another material system that has tremendous potential in producing a design that meets the requirement of our concept is sectioning. In a sentence, sectioning is a material system that allows one whole surface or a product to be divided into compartments rather that one whole, and this often creates a ripple or repetitive effect on th structure (Iwamoto, 2009). As concluded in Part A of the journal, the aim of our design is to create an awareness of energy regeneration through the means of emphasizing on one energy component, and in to this stage, this would be the transfer of kinetic energy to light. its form, rather than exposing its constructional system, sectioning has a potential of becoming form. According to Lynn (1999), sectioning, as recently developed as material system of comoften other material systems could not achieve, or in short, sectioning is a design solution if the form is meant to stay loyal to its curved surfaces. Based on researches done on the topic of kinetic to light energy transfer, one possible way of achieving this is to produce a model that is able to move or sway in a way that light energy will thus exploring sectioning is a way of investigating which of the two material system is the most ous methods of sectioning makes it possible to create a form that retains its surface rather that breaking to rigid components.

be assembled (and in our case how to assemble it in a way that allows it to move freely while stability. And to counter these issues, it is necessary to research preceedent on sectioning that has countered these design concerns. _____________________________________________________________________________________ One Main SHoP, Decoi Architects DEMAGAZINE.CO.UK

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BANG RESTAURANT

(dECOi Architects)

A good example of sectioning being incorporated functionally into a design is this project by dECOi Architects, Bang Restaurant. This design best represents the complexity of assembling a sectioning structure into the overall site. As stated by Iwamoto (2009), the main concern of sectioning is to fabricate it and then to assemble it in a way where it could retain its intended form and structural stability. The sectioning of the Bang Restaurant not only hold an aesthetic purporse but also acts as a the complexity mentioned by Iwamoto regarding the fabrication of sectioning designs. As dising the least use of materials, maximize the time used to assemble each component, and such. Crossing over this concern, it is apparent that vertical sectioning such as the Bang Restaurant discussed further in B.6, the team’s design is tackling the idea of regenerating kinetic energy by encouraging users to engage with the form itself, creating movement. Therefore, at the case for movement by attaining the same shape all over one surface. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Bang Restaurant, Decoi Architects Assemblage DEMAGAZINE.CO.UK

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Bang Restaurant, DeCoi Architects DESIGNBOOM.COM

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AA DRIFTWOOD The AA Driftwood pavillion is used as one of the case study in order to exhibit how sectioning makes it possible to create form that retains its natural form as discussed in the previous case study of Bang Restaurant. In the AA Driftwood the method of sectioning is different from the Bang Restaurant. In the restaurant, sectioning is achieved by creating vertical components from the overall form of the design, whereas in the AA Driftwood, the form is obtained by a center curvature that is arrayed upwards (this will be further explore in the next section - Case Study 1.0). The team attempt to achieve a design with dynamism by creating section parts that could ove with the right joints and mechanism. Different sectioning tools (as shown in the next page), potentially create movement that would have been restricted with other material systems, therefore, it could be concluded that the most suitable material system for our design would be Sectioning. ____________________________________________________________________ AA Driftwood Pavilion DEMAGAZINE.CO.UK

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SECTIONING AS A MATERIAL SYSTEM the design that the team attempts to achieve (as discussed in B.6) for numnbers of reasons; 1. Sectioning does not restrict shapes. In comparison to tesselation that requires the use of the same shape repeated all over the form, sectioning’s compartments follows the curvature of the form. 2. Sectioning does not create angular surface in comparison to tesselation. As shown which allows the forms to be retained. 3. As shown in projects such as the Bang Restaurant or Design weave, the connections and also witholds its structural integrity. 4. With further iterations beginining in Case Study 1.0, it seems possible to achieve even more results of sectioning methods, from varying basic shapes to forms, as 5. Finally, with context to our design brief of energy regeneration, there have been numerous research on sectioning that have been done regarding how to fabricate it to the energy regeneration mechanism that has been researched. (Part B.5-6 shows research on piezoelectric generator). In summary, sectioning, the act of creating a three-dimensional form by connecting a skin (either actual or implied) over closely placed parallel ribs, has a long history in the construction of ships and airplanes. Of course architecture is a static object compared to ships and planes, so the shape of a building is not nearly dependent on kinetic forces as much as the shape of a ship that cuts through waves and a plane needing to create enough lift to become airborne. With sectioning, where the utilitarian methods for sectioning provided a means for minimizing the

____________________________________________________________________________________ Different Methods of Sectioning DEMAGAZINE.CO.UK

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B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 Surface

Lines

Graph Mapper

AA Driftwood Pattern

Curved Section

Solid

Section Planes

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nsity

Increased Inputs

Hybrid


SELECTION CRITERIA The script that was used for selecting the designs were the Driftwood Pavillion by the AA school of architecture and Bang Restaurant by dECOi Architects. The script is then extrapolated in order to create forms through experimenting beyond what is given. The selection criteria the team has decided on based on the concept for the design are; 1. A form that meets the LAGI brief 2. A form that blends in to Copenhagen’s landscape, keeping in mind the natural features of the site, especially the little mermaid. 3. A form that has potential aesthetic innovation 4. A form that could meet the team’s concept of movement, one that is safe to move on, allowing kinetic energy to be transformed through the installa tion of piezoelectric generator into light. 5. A form that encourages users to engage with the structure

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I. CURVED SURFACE + SECTION PLANES At a glance, the form seems to be moving towards an exhibition space rather than a landscape in comparison in form III-IV, nevertheless, it is considered a succesful iteration since it shows how the sections could use curved, pipe-like sections rather than one shown in dECOi Architect’s Bang Restaurant.

II. LINES + SOLID Similar to iteration I, however it uses a different system for creating its component. Instead of a curved line, this design is cross-sectional, and on it’s edge, it portrays a spring like shape, if this system could work, the springlike system could be used to allow more potential movement for the design.

III. SURFACE + AA DRIFTWOOD In this iteration, a landscape is produced (as explained in selection criteria 1-2, this design could be used to contour the topography of the site to create a natural landscape. The design follows the AA Driftwood pattern where the section begins in the middle and moves away outwardly.

IV. SURFACE + CURVED SECTION Similar to iteration III, but lines follows the surface curve rather than expanding outwardly from the center as shown in the AA Driftwood iteration. These two are picked in order to compare and prove which system is more effective (explored in prototype).


B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 DUNESCAPE/ SHoP Architectect The Dunescape was our choice for B.3 Reverse Engineering, for the very reason that it has a potentially similar script to the team’s possible design. The Dunescape is a temporary exhibition designed to provide a variety of ways to enjoy the summer weather, visitors can lounge, socialize, sunbathe, wade in pools, or walk through a spray of water mist to cool off. SHoP’s model of the proposed design was acquired by the MoMA in 2006. The idea behind dunescape’s design is to create a multi-functional space that encourages audience to interact with the design, similar to concept of our design. Nevertheless, the dunescape prioritizes structural stability over dynamism, or in short, it is meant to be a stationary design. In the through a series of interlocking linear placement (This will be further explored at the section regarding cull patterning), which the team is attempting to evolve its mechanism into one that curates kinetism, allowing movement that would eventually activate the energy generation. Five design elements, the cabana, beach chair, umbrella, boogie board, and surf, are placed along a continuous wood structure, comprised of over 6,000 individual 2”x2” cedar strips with a vinyl high in the air, it provides shade, when it is lower it provides inclined seating areas. When it is on its side, it becomes a thickened translucent wall, creating individual “cabanas” where visitors may change their clothing. As it twists onto the ground “lifeguard” stands also serve as “dancing” platforms. Water runs along the entire surface collecting in pools throughout the courtyard where the surface touches the ground. A mist garden disperses water throughout the air. In this section of Reverse Engineering, the objective is not meant to simply copy the structure of the Dunescape per se, but to imitate its system, trying to understand how each components are placed cohesively, and especially the algorithm and recipe behind the whole construction of the design. This will be further explored in the following pages, showing major steps behind the process of the design. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Dunescape, Shop Architects ARCHSUPPLY.COM

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Dunescape Cull Pattern Detail, SHop Architects DESIGNBOOM.COM

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I.

II.

III.

Creating a frame (ribs of the dunescape) for the design in Rhino. Then orienting section spaces to navigate the lines in later steps

Section Points are oriented into the ribs in order to join the lines in step III.

Lines are joined by joining each section points, depending on how it should start and end. In this case, it is line E to F.


IV.

V.

VI.

Lines drawn for each necessary points, this diagram shows all the necessary lines joined together

Cull Pattern (True-False) is used in order to not make lines join together straight, rather to create spaces for fabrication

Extrude the lines in X-Y to create depth and extend it on the ends in order to show joinings of the dunescape


PARAMETRIC TOOL = DESIGN DEVICE Before the reverse engineering of the dunescape, the team’s knowledge on scripting is limited to creating surfaces (whether it was sectioning or tesselating), nevertheless, by producing an existing design which is complex in nature using grasshopper, it seems possible in creating real-scale design with the tool despite our current level of skill. As explored in the the steps above, in order to produce a complex shape, a simple logic or recipe is necessary, and in short, grasshopper, although different in logic from other tools such as AutoCad, or Rhinoceros alike, grasshopformulas, and from the existing script of the dunescape, iterations will be further explored in the next part of the journal, keeping in mind the design intent of our team in regards to the brief. In summary of the outcome, the design was not perfect, missing several elements of the original dunescape, the image is photoshoped to the LAGI site in retrospect to the initial urban scape, however, with this script, especially the ther in order to apply it to our own future reference, therefore in the next part, the journal will be looking towards the expansion of density, cull patterning, and forms, among several others.

066


B.4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

Continuing with the Reverse Engineering of Dunescape, this section focus on similar to Case Study 1.0 and 2.0, the point of this excercise is to continue iterating the initial concepts into something unrecognizable and in attempt to

DENSITY VARIATIONS With density variation, the slider is controlled in order to produce several iterations displaying varying forms in terms of the number of sectioning components. In the dunescape engineering, every sections need to be joined to atleast one other, therefore if this variation is to be used, the designs with the bigger trol the density in a way that the form could achieve the same aesthetic intent such as the diagrams in the right while being achievable to construct.

068


CULL PATTERN Cull Patterning is probably one of the orignal dunescape’s most highlighted detail as it ensures each sections joins with another in order to create joinings. Nevertheless, with this part of the iteration, the joinings are set aside in order to create effective cull pattern iteration. The original dunescape uses a simple True-False pattern, and in this section of the iteration, these iterations are expanded to a large array from 7 sets of trues to a sudden false, among many in order to create variation, gradually moving away from the dunescape’s, and the cull patterning is explored as well along with extensions of the lines outwards. It could be seen on the diagrams that the iterations have resulted in very varying patterns, often resulting in large gaps between space. These sort of forms should be explored in the future, however, the joining would then have to be considered.

070


SECTIONING WITH CURVES Sectioning with curves manipulates the lines that were used to make the facade using curves instead, in these iterations, the attempt shows how shapes of timber stripes are explored from normal rectangular strips to curved ones. The reason for this iteration is to produce a form that would look back into our concept - a form that curates an involvement of the user towards the design and encourages engagement and interactions with it. The advantage of this iterapotential of using sectioning as a material system. In addition, using curves otherwise be impossible to achieve with other systems. Furthermore, curves

072


SURFACE PATTERNING The aim of surface patterning creating irregular forms that differs from the original Dunescape. This can be achieved by manipulating the curves in rhino which then later affect the overall shape of the script. We see potential in this dynamicity of landscape by playing with the form of the Dunescsape limited to the script. In the original dunescape they used curves to generate form but using surface patterning it is not limited to curves alone but other geometries and lines.

074


HYBRIDS This section is a mixture of all the iteration columns described previously, in order to create a form that is more dynamic rather than just utilizing one script that seems succesful. The hybrids that were most varying from the original dunescape were those that played with cull patterning and surface patterning, and often with densities, the overall look would change drastically. In comparison to the original dunescape script, it could be seen that the form is barely recognizable and also in contrast to the previous iterations, hybrids often create the most dynamic forms, rather that just working with one script that creates a “nice� shape, it is best experimenting with several in order to create a shape that may not even look aesthetically pleasing but still produce forms that would inspire in terms of looking back to the original concept.

076


FUTURE EXPLORATIONS With the iterations made in section B.4, it could be seen that one script could playing from no existing design. The dunescape have been changed so drastically that its original form have changed. The four succesful iterations on the order to create a form that best suits the LAGI site. Some points would be added to the selection criteria; begin exploring forms that actually curates users within the site, maximizing on not only the functionality of the structure, but also the experiential aspect. Hence, with these 50 itis that different sectioning system such as cull patterning could be produced in order to create innovative sets of designs.

078


I. At a glance, the form seems to be moving towards an exhibition space rather than a landscape in comparison in form III-IV, nevertheless, it is considered a succesful iteration since it shows how the cull patterning could be used to produce a varying assemblying process

II. This Iteration uses a different system for creating its component. Instead of straight lines, this design is curved, and on it’s edge, it portrays a spring like shape, and demonstrates how sectioning could follow a curved form rather than just lateral pieces of timber structure

III. The iteration here is succesful because it shows how the landscape could be manipulated with highs and lows. It has potential to form in the LAGI site, by following the contour of its natural topography

IV. Similar to iteration III, but lines follows the surface curve rather than expanding outwardly from the center. These two are picked in order to compare and prove which system is more effective (explored in prototype).


B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPE

1. A form that meets the LAGI brief 2. A form that blends in to Copenhagen’s landscape, keeping in mind the natural features of the site, especially the little mermaid. 3. A form that has potential aesthetic innovation 4. A form that could meet the team’s concept of movement, one that is safe to move on, allowing kinetic energy to be transformed through the installation of piezoelectric generator into light. 5. A form that encourages users to engage with the structure Therefore, with the above criteria selections for our design, the following are the prototype’s testing and production. MATERIALISATION The team has decided to utilize the wide expanse of natural woods from the Copenhagen, and in retrospect to the previously researched precedents, sectioning is most feasible when utilizing timber, as pieces of stacked materials could be cut at one go (best demonstrated by One Main Street by ShOP Architects). This refers back to Part A’s design futuring, therefore for all the smaller scale prototypes, MDF sheets were used to produce the models. ASSEMBLY As shown in the picture to the right labeled Prototype 1 & 2, it could be seen that the connections have varied. We have fabricated three holes, one for the base and two for the elongated part of the model in order to test which connection would produce a more succesful kinetic movement (which prototype 2 is). On the left shows a triple rubber connection, whereas on the right the base space uses a rigid structure that overall structure works better and cohesively, not making a springy-like effect on the model, thus ensuring structural stability and safety for users. The inspiration for this concept is derived from Jennifer Cheng’s Polymorphic Bench.

_____________________________________________________________________________________ PROTOTYPE 1 & 2, And its different joinings: Elastic or Rigid Boltings DEZEEN.COM

080


081


In addition to the assembly column, the model with triple rubber connection has tendencies to sag and collapse under small stress whereas the rigid base is less prone to damage thus this idea

COMPARTMENTS fabricate the prototypes. The repeated use of shapes (when in reference to sustainability) is very feasible and extremely quick to fabricate. Mass production of the materials allows easy maintenance of the structure if one part of it has damage and requires repair. The circle structure creates space or extrusion in between each component’s joint, and as presented could be replaced with a foam structure for cushioning. The longitudinal compartments were used to investigate and bottom compartment, similar to the previous systems, follows a curved and irregular structure to further push the boundaries of sectioning beyond just linear forms. FORM EXPERIMENTATION Shown in the portraits in prototype 3 & 4, the forms have been explored to break away from the linear structure. This is done by joining two of the same structure on different joints (prototype 3), and whether holes are to be placed or eliminated to produce the most aesthetically pleasing shape and form. Neverthelss, I personally believe that there has not been enough pushing of the boundary for this column, and forms as explored in B2-B5 could be produced through FabLab fabrication, not just digitally. TWISTING In summary, the most succesful prototype is model D, which best exhibits the twisting with minimal bending. This is shown in the next four pages and the design could be tested to higher level in order to produce an even more succesful structure.

_____________________________________________________________________________________ PROTOTYPE COMPONENTS

082


083


084


085


086


087


B.6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL In this section of the journal, the aim is to propose the overall concept of the team’s design while reaching near the interim presentation as well as continuing previous development, moving selection criteria. The design proposal had been presented during the mid-semester presentation, generating several constructive criticisms, which would be explored in B.7, but for now, this section simply summarizes the design intent and how the team attempts to achieve it in terms of its visual and technological aspects (Note that althogh the team has iterated several forms that has has been decided on for the LAGI site). In retrospect to the researches and prototyping that has been undergone up till date, this section tion. To begin with, the team believes that in order for the design to serve justice the LAGI brief, which is to raise awareness regarding energy regeneration, it is necessary to invite users to the design and interact and engage with it by themselves, or in short, the best way to understand a certain case is to experience it. Hence, although the site has potential in exploring several energy sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, among many others, kinetic energy has been chosen as the energy input, that would then be transfered into light energy. This is because when users and audience walks or touches and witnesses the light energy by itself, then they would become educated on how their movement aided in the production of these lights. As shown in the image to the right, is a piezoelectric generator, which is a device which has electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) where in response to applied mechanical stress, produces light. The material itself is easily obtainable and economic to construct and maintain, furthermore, it does not require any battery power, making it an effective motor device to ‘regenerate’ energy, instead of just lighting it up with electric cabels. The motor device is extremely sensitive to kinetic energy, where with a drop of water, would produce lights (note that the light power depends on the amount of energy produced).

_____________________________________________________________________________________ Piezoelectric Generator ARCHSUPPLY.COM

088


089


As discussed in previous sectioning precedents, this material system allows surface designs and any other 3D forms into divided compartments, thus allowing the structure to elongate and pro-

TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

and hence, this would initiate interaction that would then tilt the design in a way that it would

HOW IS THIS RELEVANT TO LAGI?

-

_____________________________________________________________________________________

090


I. USER INTERACTS WITH DESIGN

INPUT ENERGY: KINETIC

II. DESIGN BEGINS TILTING

III. ACTIVATES DEVICE

PIEZOELECTRIC GENERATOR

IV. DEVICE LIGHTS UP

OUTPUTENERGY: LIGHT

091


B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES + OUTCOMES As discussed in section B.6, the interim presentation follows the structure. The presentation itself stresses on the following issues in chronological order; 1. The design intent - what, where, why of the team’s concept The reason behind the idea of kinetics and light energy and what form the team is striving to achieve. 2. Sectioning as a material system How sectioning has the upperhand in producing a design that supports kinetic move tackle its cons - complexity in assembly. How it outweight other material systems such as tesselation. 3. Exhibition of the most succesful iterations and what it means - how these iterations were explored and the main reasons and learning sponged from them. Also, how these experimentation with the script would lead to a form that is suitable to the site. 4. The technological and logical system behind the design concept as displayed in the diagram in page 91. 5. Finally, which way the design is planning to take steer, the forms that will be explored From the beginning of Part A where students were to simply explore and familiarize themselves with the idea of Parametric Design tools to Part B where we were to become more involved with the design brief and how the tools learnt are able to produce innovative designs, it has made me to personally appreciate parametric designs, from the complexity of the script, and simplicity in producing complicated designs. Hence, during the presentation, these ideas were raise to question the honesty in the design presented.The overall presentation had satisfying reviews, nevertheless, there were several pointers of constructive criticisms that were provided from the crits.

092


CRITIQUE FEEDBACKS: Halt in exploring the technology and begin iterating new forms that would suite the site, this should take into consideration the purpose of the design and what it would function as - for instance if it serves as a public space, a communal area, etc. Two choices were given, either to sitting, dining, walking, etc. Also, further investigation of the joinings were to be done as some dangerous for users. Most of these criticisms were optimistic, and the design seems to be heading towards where the grass is greener, despite several systemic error that would have to be explored further. WHERE IS THIS DESIGN MOVING TOWARDS? The LAGI brief clearly states that a design that creates awareness of energy generation is to be produced. And considering the selection criteria the team has decided on, and the iterations and scripting that has been made, this design has great potential that could be explored in order to create a dynamic ambience to the site. Whether it is following the form of the topography, or fore, from this point onwards, the team will continue to iterate and explore the newfound ideas of energy regeneration.This is as the crits has suggested - that a form should not be randomized, since the site is sitting at a very advantageous spot in Copenhagen, right across the little mermaid, and also, the design should begin moving away from the technical matters and prioritize on the aesthetics, such as how it would impact the surrounding - in terms of its landscape and boost the sense of community within the area. More reasearch of the site would be conducted and further possibilities would be explored.

093


B.8 APPENDIX As I’ve stated in my introduction, I have never felt comfortable exploring parametric forms in my preceeding studios. Researching new shapes in grasshopper ties for me in my future works. In Part B, I managed to grasp the most out of grasshopper through iteration and constant experimentation of scripts. In the tutorials, we were taught to evolve our skills from merely the basic tools to creating complex geometries with it. In summary, grasshopper tools are like ingredients used to cook up a form with recipes, it is a matter of how to use it right. The most succesful application of the script in this part of the journal is the reverse engineering, where we were not simply iterating forms such as in Case Study 1.0, but instead creating geometries based on an existing design. Although prooven to be tough at the start, with simple commands such as line joints and cull patterning, we were able to replicate (if not accurate) the system and logic behind the dunescape. Hence, with this newfound skills with grasshopper, the team attempt to push LAGI site. Grasshopper would continue to serve functional in translating the site information into a parametric design.

094


C

DETAILED DESIGN


C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT KinetiSkape

THE DESIGN AS A WHOLE The LAGI brief has provided the group with the opportunity to produce a design that is meant to raise awareness the idea of energy-regeneration. The term ‘design futuring’ that was raised in part A explored how parametric tool and computational design can be used as a reverse-catalysts to slow the the ageing process of the environment, and with this in mind, the team has come up with a solid concept of a design that not only meet the LAGI brief of energy-regeneration, but also Despite the vast resources and information regarding the wind, hydroelectric, and solar among many other potential energies that could be gathered through the site, the design team has decided on creating a design that allows and challenges the audience to engage with the structure, and through this interaction, produce the whole concept of energy regeneration.The source of energy that has been chosen was kinetic energy - which could be harvested from the user’s movement - and the output energy would be electricity and light - that could be achieved by installing piezoelectrics generators within the joints of the design. Hence, with these researches backing up the form, the team has named the initial design Kinetiskape. Kinetisk - a direct translation from the word Kinetic from english to danish, and Landscape, is merged together in order to produce the idea of a kinetic landscape, a contouring design that is meant to challenge the surrounding with the land. In addition to the technique proposed in Part B, allows movements at safe points. Instead of creating one linear structure as proposed in Part B, the group has design a form through parametric iterations, that produces a more complex form that has intersections. This concept was what was presented during the interim presentation.

098


Mid-Semester Crit: Feedback that was solid, and we were able to provide evidence that our design can meet the tectonic requirements, despite all this, there were some concerns that were raised in context to our midsemester crits; 1. The team has taken several steps backward since Part B, which was the prototyping stage has explored more interesting forms of sectioning - whether it was in our itera 2. The one piece fabricating system is a concern and may counter the idea of design futuring since fabricating different shaped components on a piece of material would produce a large amount of material waste. Furthermore, the largest component of the design such as the canopy or the platform would not be possible to fabricate due to its size. 3. Finally, the form in general is not as dynamic as what was proposed in Part B. Further potential for this design and how the critiques could be tackled will be further explored nearing the end of section C.5.

099


7

100


6

101


FUNCTIONAL DIVISIION

PARTIAL CANOPY Meant to direct the user’s attention away from the less appealing sites towards important spaces

PLATFORM A viewing port towards the surrounding scenery

102


PARTIAL CANOPY Meant to direct the user’s attention away from the less appealing sites towards important spaces

WALKING - DYNAMIC CLOSE CANOPY To provide dynamic experience within the site, a feeling of being sheltered

A sectioning system that moves when interacted with, generating energy as a result

103


FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION

ATTRACT & REPEL The form is derived with parametric tools by providing an attraction and repel form in order to create a logical “journey� for users from the two access points towards the end of the site. The repel points are those facing towards the factory site

CONTROL POINTS The assumed route that the user is encouraged to take is drawn out within the site and points are dotted along it as reference or control points for iterations

ITERATIONS Among many forms, the ones on the left displays some of the best iteration results that has the possibility in producing a form that follows the function as shown in the previous page.

104


BEST ITERATION The form to the left was chosen as the most succesful iteration as it meets the selection criteria and design concept in a solid way. Which is the way it manage to make a stop by all the required spots within the site such as the water taxi and the point parallel to the mermaid, and also how the dynamism of the form creates a vided to several functional spaces as described in the previous pages

SIMPLIFICATION & CONSTRUCTABILITY in order to create a plan or form that is actually constructible and still allows the concept to not be abandoned

105


C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS The design of the prototype is based on the tectonic criteria of the design, which includes; energy through interaction into light 3. Structural stability, a design that is safe for the users interacting with it despite

COMPONENTS

ASSEMBLY

-

112


INPUT: KINETIC

OUTPUT: LIGHT

113


DETAILED ASSEMBLY DYNAMIC COMPONENTS

114


STATIC COMPONENTS

115


FACTORY TO SITE 1

FACTORY FABRICATION Sheets of pine woods are manufactured in the factory, presumably nearby, where each components are cut and numbered in order to navigate later assembly

2

TRANSPORTATION The sheets of pine could be transported in set through land vehicles or cargo or ferries to the site (water to the port site of the brief).

3

IN-SITU ASSEMBLY With all the numbered materials brought to the site, the assembly and excavation could proceed as shown in the step-by step diagram to the right.

116


IN-SITU ASSEMBLY

DYNAMIC COMPONENTS

1

STATIC COMPONENTS

1

2

2 3

4

3

5

6

4

103


C.3 FINAL MODEL


FABRICATION TEMPLATE

122


ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE FABRICATED COMPONENT The fabricated components as shown on the template to the right arrives from fablab and is arranged in numerical order.

PLACING THE PUZZLE Since the design is divided to different funtional elements, and large amount of pieces are to be arranged, a 1:50 Scaled paper is printed to arrange each pieces in the right angle

STUCK LIKE A GLUE The 1:100 scaled model is much too small to imitate the decided mechanism, hence glues are used to connect each component rather than bolt and lock system.

LAST BASE a rigid base in order to hold up its delicate structure.

123


C.4 Additional LAGI Brief Requirements

Kineti-SKape The LAGI brief has provided the group with the opportunity to produce a design that is meant to raise awareness the idea of energy-regeneration. The term ‘design futuring’ that was raised in part A explored how parametric tool and computational design can be used as a reverse-catalysts to slow the the ageing process of the environment, and with this in mind, the team has come up with a solid concept of a design that not only meet the LAGI brief of energy-regeneration, but also Despite the vast resources and information regarding the wind, hydroelectric, and solar among many other potential energies that could be gathered through the site, the design team has decided on creating a design that allows and challenges the audience to engage with the structure, and through this interaction, produce the whole concept of energy regeneration.The source of energy that has been chosen was kinetic energy - which could be harvested from the user’s movement - and the output energy would be electricity and light - that could be achieved by installing piezoelectrics generators within the joints of the design. Hence, with these researches backing up the form, the team has named the initial design Kinetiskape. Kinetisk - a direct translation from the word Kinetic from english to danish, and Landscape, is merged together in order to produce the idea of a kinetic landscape, a contouring design that is meant to challenge the surrounding with the land. In addition to the technique proposed in Part B, allows movements at safe points. Instead of creating one linear structure as proposed in Part B, the group has design a form through parametric iterations, that produces a more complex form that has intersections. This concept was what was presented during the interim presentation.

124


MATERIALITY

% OF FOREST OWNERSHIP in COPENHAGEN 65% of forests in Copenhagen are privately owned, which are most of the time passed down from previous generations Forest = Living Legacy

TIMBER CHOICES IN DENMARK Out of many indigenous species of timbers in Copenhages, the most feasible is PINE since it is durable with external weather and resistanct to moisture when coated in oil.

COATED PINE SHEETS (30mm thick) Each components will be joint with boltings and steel reinforcements

099


DESIGN TECHNOLOGY

LED: LIGHT EMITTING DIODES Life Span (average) Watts used [= 60 Watt bulb]

50,000 Hours

LED use less power (Watts) per unit of light emitted (lumens). This technology helps in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power plants and lower electric bills

6-8 Watts

Kilo-Watts of Electricity Used

329 kWh/year

Carbon Dioxide Emissions [30 bubls/year]

451 pounds/year

Lower consumption, decreases CO2 emissions, sulfur dioxide, and high-level nuclear waste.

126

Durability

Can Withstand jarring & Bumping

Sensitivity to Humidity

No

LUMENS

WATTS

450 800 1,100 1,600 2,600

4-5 6-8 9-13 16-20 25-30


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

REDUCED GREENHOUSE GAS

Greenhouse gases are reduced since carbon are stored within the pine materials

REDUCED WASTE THROUGH RECYCLING

Since the materials consist of simply compartmentalised timber parts and bolts for assembly, this could be easily recycled after the exhibition has ended, hence reducing material loss

LOW EMBODIED ENERGY

The total energy required to fabricate and assemble the system, at the same time to produce it is relatively low and putational tools

CARBON FOOTPRINTS

The reduction of greenhouse gas emission produced by factory waste and facilities surrounding the site

127


ESTIMATED ANNUAL kW

ENERGY PER PERSON/hour Ranging between 1-7 W/h 60-420 W/minute 3600 - 25 200 W/h 3.6 - 25.2 kW/h

ASSUMING 100 ppl / Hr during peak hour [3.6 - 25.2 kW/h] x 100 in relation to their body mass and actions = 36 - 252 kW/h

ASSUMING installation used 10 hr / day Energy produced annually = 12775 - 91980 kW/year

128


LIGHTING UP LEDs 5kW can light up a 15kW LED for 252 hrs = 15 days 120kW is needed to light up a 15kW LED for a year 91980 kW can cater 766 LED / year

DESIGN = ENERGY 900 kW is the average energy consumption for a household in a month, thus 9000 kW annually. The visitors and the longer they interact with the installation, the more energy is regenerated. These output energy can be stored to cater the amount required to light up nearby facilities

129


C.5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES As discussed in my personal introduction (page 3), I have noted that before this studio I only completely rely on hand sketches and drawings. Grasshopper was a complex tool to begin with, especially when I had to learn Rhinoceros concurentlly due to by inability to use any architectural software. Despite all this, the studio aims to introduce a new system of parametric design with grasshopper (that makes use of computing recipes called algorithms) and to critically think about how parametric modelling could become the future of architecture as a discourse. In Part A, while being introduced to parametric tools and computational design, we have begun exploring the possibilities of grasshopper to create complex forms that is otherwise impossible pressing on the issue of energy-generation, Iwamoto (2009), who is a reasercher on the future of parametric tools, have stressed how it could actually become a defuturing weapon. Never before in any studio classes were we required to make full-scale, and tectonic researches to our design, and in Part B, we were pushed to do so.by creating a prototype that displays the mechanism, and even researched about real technologies that makes our design feasible to make. In addition, out without the help of computational tools. design and how it is functional, in this studio, we were pushed to proove the tectonic mechanism, materiality, fabrication, and assembly of the design. Although sometimes being cynical that these tasks were the works of structural engineers, it manage to push our group - often to our breaking point - to think of design not only based on wether it was appealing visually, but how it is site futuring being raised), and also - feasible. Before this studio, my only interest was towards clean-cut designs that managed to save me stumbling stone that prevented me from exploring the possibilities further was probably my fear comfortable in utilizing grasshopper as a computational tool, and have managed to learn many expand this knowledge, which would serve useful for my proceeding studios, and especially in my future, at the same time appreciating the aesthetic possibilities of parametric design.

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FURTHER POTENTIAL

Kinetiskape < Sectioning Playground that was solid, and we were able to provide evidence that our design can meet the tectonic requirements, despite all this, there were some concerns that were raised in context to our midsemester crits; 1. The team has taken several steps backward since Part B, which was the prototyping stage has explored more interesting forms of sectioning - whether it was in our itera 2. The one piece fabricating system is a concern and may counter the idea of design futuring since fabricating different shaped components on a piece of material would produce a large amount of material waste. Furthermore, the largest component of the design such as the canopy or the platform would not be possible to fabricate due to its size. 3. Finally, the form in general is not as dynamic as what was proposed in Part B. With these concerns in mind, the team decided to push our design to its maximum potential given the little amount of time left, and these improvements will produced with more prototypes in order to prove how each functional system of the Kineteskape can be imrpoved, while experimenting with more sectioning system, especially those that has been part of our iterations in Part - Dunescape by SHoP Architects. Hence with these at heart, the next several pages will explore how these improvements could be achieved, and where it would be utilized within the form. Our design concept now shifts from Kinetic + Landscape towards Section + Playground that could help invite users to engage more wiht the structure.

131


A LESSON FROM PART B

Reverse Engineering: Dunescape -

-

132


FABRICATION TEMPLATE

-

-

-


DETAILED ASSEMBLY

CULL PATTERNING The system provides spaces in between by working in true-false manner. No two components are arranged beside each other, but extended long enough for nailing.

138


CANOPY COMPONENT As discussed in the original scheme, the canopy had tectonic problems since it is impossible to fabricate such a large piece of wood. With the dunescape system, a long piece of wood could be nailed together to form one component.

139


140


141


A LESSON FROM PART B

Case Study: AA Driftwood -

142


144


BIBLIOGRAPHY CONCEPTUALISATION

_______________________________________________________

Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 71 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Fujimoto, Sou (2013). Recent works of Sou Fujimoto (GA), pp. 42-45 Hebel (2012). Engineering and Architecture: Building the Japan Pavillion. pp. 8-15 Inui, K. (2004). Interview with Toyo Ito: Persuit of an Invisible Image. Architecture & Urbanism (U+A) , 11. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62 Nishizawa, Ryue (2008). Sou Fujimoto (El Croquis), pp. 26-30 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 Schumacher, Patrik (2011). The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 1-28 Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12


PHOTOGRAPHS

ARCHITONIC&KENGOKUMA|ILLUSTRATOR|http://www.architonic.com/ aisht/hoshakuji-station-kengo-kuma-associates/5100359

BJARKEINGELSGROUP(BIG)|ARCHITECT|http://www.big.dk/#projectsvm

GALLERY YUSTO | PHOTOGRAPHER | http://www.designboom.com/ art/dionisio-gonzalez-imagines-disaster-resistant-surrealist-structures-03-12-2014/ JDS | PHOTOGRAPHER | http://www.archdaily.com/970/vm-houses-plotbig-jds/

KENGOKUMAASSOCIATES|ARCHITECT|http://kkaa.co.jp/works/hoshakuji-station/

KENGOKUMAASSOCIATES|ARCHITECT|http://kkaa.co.jp/works/oribe-teahouse/

SHIGERUBAN&ASSOCIATES|ARCHITECT|http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com/works/2000_japan-pavilion-hannover-expo/index.html SHIGERUBAN&ASSOCIATES|ILLUSTRATOR|http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com/works/2000_japan-pavilion-hannover-expo/index.html

NEX | ILLUSTRATOR & PHOTOGRAPHER | http://designalmic.com/times-


BIBLIOGRAPHY

CRITERIA DESIGN

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Ferry, Robert & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies’’, Land Art Generator Initiative, Copenhagen, 2014. pp 1 - 71 Kolarevic, Branko and Kevin R. Klinger, eds (2008). Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York; London: Routledge), pp. 6–24 Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron’. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 56-61 Iwamoto, Lisa (2009). Digital Fabrication: Architectural and Material Techniques. New York: Princeton University Press. pp. 42-56 Woodbury, Robert F. (2014). ‘How Designers Use Parameters’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 153–170


PHOTOGRAPHS

AAARCHITECTS|ARCHITECT|http://aa.co./driftwood-pavilion-exhibition/ NED KAHN | ARCHITECT | http://golancourses.net/2010spring/01/17/looking-outwards-%E2%80%93-interactive-facades/

IWAMOTOSCOTT|ARCHITECT|http://www.dailytonic.com/voussoir-cloudby-iwamotoscott-with-buro-happold/

IWAMOTO SCOTT | ILLUSTRATOR | http://www.dailytonic.com/voussoircloud-by-iwamotoscott-with-buro-happold/

BRUNOHAPPOLD)|ENGINEER&PHOTOGRAPHY|http://www.dailytonic. com/voussoir-cloud-by-iwamotoscott-with-buro-happold/

SHoP ARCHITECTS | ARCHITECT | http://www.shoparc.com/projects SHoP ARCHITECTS | ILLUSTRATOR | http://www.shoparc.com/projects NEX | ILLUSTRATOR & PHOTOGRAPHER | http://designalmic.com/times-


STUDIO

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JOYCELYN UTOMO A Journal


Studio Air: LAGI,København