Centres of Culture for Marabastad By
Justin Mellis Submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree
MAGISTER TECHNOLOGIAE: ARCHITECTURE [PROFESSIONAL] In the Department of Architecture FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
TSHWANE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Supervisor: Prof. G. Steyn Co-supervisor: J. Jooste October 2006
The financial assistance of the Tshwane University of Technology towards this research is hereby acknowledged. Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at are those of the author and cannot necessarily be attributed to the Tshwane University of Technology.
I hereby declare that the dissertation submitted for the degree M-Tech Architecture: Professional, at Tshwane University of Technology, is my own original work and has not previously been submitted to any other institution. I further declare that all sources cited or quoted are indicated and acknowledged by means of a comprehensive list of references. Justin Thomas Mellis CopyrightďƒŁ Tshwane University of Technology 2006
The structure and composition of South African cities have been established by many historical events, with the most predominant event being that of apartheid with its practices and policies.
This has allowed the cultural landscape, and the separate expressions
thereof, to become a vital component within our urban structure that informs a cityâ€™s built environment and socio-economic conditions. In turn, each city has reacted in a different manner and attained a culture, represented through history and manifested in the way the city has been administrated, structured and functioned. Marabastad, one of four districts of the Pretoria Inner City, is a place with a rich heritage and cultural history, represented by a vibrant past community of diverse racial, religious, language and cultural groups who have lived in harmony, while being physically separated from the inner city whole. It is a place of struggle, robbed of its permanence and dignity, which has resulted in urban decay, and has led to insufficient public facilities and severe social problems within the area. However, despite this it still contains within itself an energy and the presence of an extraordinary culture and life. The design dissertation focused on harnessing, facilitating and promoting cultural activity within the area by establishing centres of culture, which will incorporate a library centre, music centre, visual arts centre, performing arts centre and craft centre. The centres will act as expression nodes within the urban landscape and will take the form of public cultural training facilities. They will be equipped with cultural media for promoting the primary modes of expression, namely those of language, sound, image, movement and object. The envisaged outcome of the cultural centres will be to initiate urban revitalisation of the area in the manner that is most beneficial and sensitive to the context. This will allow the integration of the community with the area, re-establishing the link between the community and its surroundings.
I should like to express my thanks to the following, who contributed to the completion of the design dissertation: Supervisor, Professor Gerald Steyn, Co-supervisor, Johan Jooste, Aziz Tayob Architects, for the information they provided, My fellow students, Jacques, Serfies and Tania, Monika for the proof reading of my document, My family for their continuous support throughout the years, And lastly, Thea my fiancĂŠ, for the encouragement and motivation.
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
Background of Marabastad
Future Development Context
South African Cities: A Manifesto for change
The BAT (Bartel Arts Trust) Centre
Parc de La Villette
Precedent of Typologies
Synthesis of Precedents
SITE DESCRIPTION AND APPRAISAL
BRIEF, PROGRAMME AND ACCOMMODATION
Programme of Typologies
Framework of Centres
Visual Arts Centre
Performing Arts Centre
Marabastad Images from the article “Marabastad an urban hell-hole” in Sechaba, Volume 9 No 4, captured by Disa Digital Imaging Project of South Africa (p. 4)
A Map showing the location of the informal Marabastad and Schoolplaats townships in the context of the natural landscape and Pretoria Inner City (p. 5)
Van Vooren and Oerder’s 1889 map of Pretoria, showing the location of Schoolplaats, to the northwest with eighty small structures arranged in six rows parallel to the Steenhoven Spruit (p. 6)
The first Black African township under governments control, surveyed and proclaimed by surveyor Gert Greeff in August 1888 (p. 6)
Photograph taken from the Daspoortrant mountain range to the southeast of Marabastad, dating back to about 1905 (p. 7)
Oblique view of the Asiatic Bazaar and parts of the New Marabastad in 1956 with prominent landmarks of the time, many of which are still extant today (p. 8)
Map indicating the locality of the New Marabastad Township, Asiatic Bazaar, Cape Coloured Location, Bantule and the Daspoort Sewage Works in the vicinity of New Marabastad as surveyed by British Military authorities (p. 9)
Aerial Photo from 1947 showing the New Marabastad Township, Asiatic Bazaar, Cape Coloured Location and the Daspoort Sewerage works to the North (p. 11)
Group Areas as per apartheid legislation for Non-European Group Areas (p. 14)
Mariammen Temple (p. 15)
Madrassa Mosque (p. 15)
Cosmopolitan Cultural Activity (p. 16)
Integrated Urban Design Framework proposed by Aziz Tayob and Meyer Pienaar Tayob Architects, 2002 (p. 18)
One of many dilapidated buildings within the Marabastad urban landscape (p. 19)
People of Marabastad (p. 22)
Various precedents studied by Dewar & Uytenbogaardt which incorporated within the environment physical relationships and principles that captured timeless qualities (p. 25)
Images from the BAT Centre (p. 28)
Information Folie of north-south Gallery (p. 29)
Folie R7: Jazz Club, Stage and Bar (p. 29)
List of Figures
Exploded View indicating the superimposition of points, lines, and surfaces (p. 30)
Site Plan of Par de La Villette within the surrounding Paris context (p. 30)
Figure indicating the primary modes of expression the associated building typologies and the chosen case study (p. 32)
Diagrams indicating the location of the study area in relation to the greater Gauteng region, the City of Tshwane and the Inner City of Pretoria (p. 39)
1995 aerial photograph of the Marabastad study area (p. 40)
Figure ground drawings showing the urban fabric of Marabastad (p. 42)
Path Analysis (p. 44)
Edge Analysis (p. 46)
District Analysis (p. 48)
Node Analysis (p. 50)
Landmark Analysis (p. 52)
Natural Landscape Analysis (p. 54)
Site location zone (p. 58)
Diagrammatic indication of the site positions in relation to the concept and observations carried out for the analysis of the built landscape. (p. 60)
The site locations in relation to the building typologies (p. 61)
Figure indicating the parameters of the brief (p. 66)
Concept Diagram (p. 76)
Photographs of Marabastad from which the contextual cues are drawn (p. 78)
Library Centre space relationship diagram, zoning plan and development model photographs (p. 80)
Music Centre space relationship diagram, zoning plan and development model photographs (p. 82)
Visual Arts Centre space relationship diagram, zoning plan and development model photographs (p. 84)
Performing Arts Centre space relationship diagram, zoning plan and development model photographs (p. 86)
Craft Centre space relationship diagram, zoning plan and development model photographs (p. 88)
Urban Layout (p. 91)
Library Centre, Context Plan, SE Perspective, SW Perspective (p. 93)
Library Centre, Ground Floor Plan (p. 94)
Library Centre, Basement Floor Plan (p. 95)
Library Centre, First Floor Plan (p. 95)
Library Centre, Section A-A (p. 96)
Library Centre, Section B-B (p. 96)
Music Centre, Context Plan, SE Perspective, SW Perspective (p. 97)
Music Centre, Ground Floor Plan (p. 98)
Music Centre, Basement Floor Plan (p. 99)
Music Centre, First Floor Plan (p. 99)
Music Centre, Section A-A (p. 100)
Music Centre, Section B-B (p. 100)
Visual Arts Centre, Context Plan, NW Perspective, SW Perspective (p. 101)
Visual Arts Centre, Ground Floor Plan (p. 102)
Visual Arts Centre, Basement Floor Plan (p. 103)
Visual Arts Centre, First Floor Plan (p. 103)
Visual Arts Centre, Section A-A (p. 104)
Visual Arts Centre, Section B-B (p. 104)
Performing Arts Centre, Context Plan, SE Perspective, NE Perspective (p. 105)
Performing Arts Centre, Ground Floor Plan (p. 106)
Performing Arts Centre, Basement Floor Plan (p. 107)
Performing Arts Centre, First Floor Plan (p. 107)
Performing Arts Centre, Section A-A (p. 108)
Performing Arts Centre, Section B-B (p. 108)
Craft Centre, Context Plan, SE Perspective, NE Perspective (p. 109)
Craft Centre, Ground Floor Plan (p. 110)
Craft Centre, First Floor Plan (p. 111)
Craft Centre, Section A-A (p. 112)
Craft Centre, Section B-B (p. 112)
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1.1 Aim The writerâ€™s aim in this dissertation is to design buildings that celebrate, facilitate and develop the various cultures within Marabastad by responding to the historical landscape, existing conditions, future development proposals and the vision of the Department of Arts and Culture. In essence, the dissertationâ€™s intention is to facilitate varied activities by means of facilities that will reintegrate its people back into Marabastad in order for them to learn, remember and once again experience the unique presence and character of the place. Simultaneously the designer also wishes to create a place of hope where its inhabitants can build a future and contribute to the development of the Inner City of Pretoria and the greater South African cultural landscape.
1.2 Background of Marabastad The historical background of Marabastad has played a significant role in the shaping of the social, built and cultural environment found within the area. It comprises a variety of ethnic groups incorporating Indians, Coloureds and Blacks. Although different in many ways, the people were united by the struggle against the practices and policies of the past, which resulted in a long history of social injustice and neglect. It is therefore important that before any urban-related projects are implemented, the area be placed in its historical, cultural and future development contexts, with reference to the events that have shaped and contributed to the current conditions of Marabastad. Once these have been researched, understood and taken into consideration, an appropriate design intervention can be considered.
FIG 1 Marabastad Images from the article â€œMarabastad an urban hell-holeâ€? in Sechaba, Volume 9 No 4,1974, captured by Disa Digital Imaging Project of South Africa.
1.2.1 Historical Context Schoolplaats When Pretoria was established, on the 16th of November 1855, legislation was adopted to control the movement, employment and lifestyles of Blacks within the area. This initiated the establishment of an Evangelical Lutheran Mission station in 1867 by the Lutheran Superintendent, Alexander Merensky, of the Berlin Missionary Society, that would provide land, housing and education to Blacks migrating to Pretoria in search of work. The station was located at the confluence of the Apies River and Steenhoven Spruit to the northwest of the town (Fig 2).
The mission station was named Schoolplaats (‘School Farm’) and
became Pretoria’s first African settlement.
FIG 2 Map showing the location of the informal Marabastad and Schoolplaats townships in the context of the natural landscape and Pretoria Inner City.
Adjacent to Schoolplaats an alternative ‘informal’ township took shape unnoticed, which catered for rural Black migrants and Blacks who wanted to escape the requirements of residence in the Schoolplaats township. But as the influx of migrants increased, space decreased and an informal settlement came into being. This area, located at the meeting of the Apies River, Steenhoven and Skinner Spruit (Fig 2), was initially inhabited by the Maraba village, a Mashashane section of the Ndebele group under the leadership of Chief Maraba. Later this area became an alternative settlement locality in order to accommodate the overcrowded conditions of the Schoolplaats township. The township was finally deproclaimed in the 1930s. Marabastad Proper (Old Marabastad) With the beginnings of industrial development in Pretoria, caused by the discovery and exploitation of the Witwatersrand goldfields in 1886, more work opportunities were being created that saw a large influx of the rural black migrants into urban areas. This situation put pressure on the Schoolplaats township, eventually leading to the overpopulation of the area and forcing the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR), in terms of the 1881 Pretoria
FIG 3 Van Vooren and Oerder’s 1889 map of Pretoria, showing the location of Schoolplaats, to the northwest with eighty small structures arranged in six rows parallel to the Steenhoven Spruit.
Conventions that concluded the First Boer War, to provide more land for black residents and accord more rights to Indian and Coloured communities in terms of movement and tenure of land. In August 1888 the first Black African township under the government’s control was surveyed and proclaimed by surveyor Gert Greeff. The area was bordered by the Apies River, Steenhoven Spruit and Skinner Spruit, on a site that is currently occupied by the Daspoort Sewerage Works (Fig 2 & 4).
This area was named ‘Marabastad’ after the
headman Jeremia Maraba, a chief constable and interpreter for the ‘landdrost’ of Pretoria. The proclaimed township consisted of 67 stands, ranging between 1400m² and 2400m², which were leased to residents at £ 4 per year. On the erven residents were allowed to erect their own dwellings with the option of using adjacent sites, if unoccupied, for growing crops.
The lease requirements imposed a temporary status on the area, resulting in
insufficient and unsuitable administration and infrastructure, which created appalling slum conditions.
FIG 4 The first Black African township under governments control, surveyed and proclaimed by surveyor Gert Greeff in August 1888.
FIG 5 Photograph taken from the Daspoortrant mountain range to the southeast of Marabastad, dating back to about 1905.
Asiatic Bazaar In terms of the implementation of the Pretoria Convention, which accorded more rights to the Indian and Coloured communities in terms of movement and tenure of land, the numbers of Indian migrants from Natal increased, and hence they established themselves in the Inner City of Pretoria. As their numbers within the city grew, the ZAR wished to restrict the rights and trading activity of the Indian community, primarily owing to the interference of Indian trade with white commercial business markets. The government did this by passing legislation, the Transvaal Law No 3 of 1885, which restricted ‘Coolies, Arabs, Malays and Mohammedan subjects of the Turkish Empire’ to specific streets, wards and locations where they were only allowed to rent but not own land. Between 1892 and 1893 the first Indian township of Pretoria was established. This area was situated south of Marabastad Proper and was bordered by Barber Street in the North, Steenhoven Spruit in the east, Struben Street in the south and Von Wielligh Street (currently DF Malan Street) in the west (Fig 7). The Township was named the ‘Coolie Location’ and 7
was characterised by a fine-grained urban structure consisting of 380 stands orientated north-south.
The erven were considerably smaller than the stands in the Marabastad
Proper township. But in spite of the proclamation of this township, specifically for the purposes of Indians trading away from white traders in the Inner City, the majority of the Indian population was still situated within the Inner City of Pretoria. In 1903 the ‘Coolie Location’ was resurveyed into 464 stands and named the ‘Asiatic Bazaar’. The fine-grained structure was still evident but because of the renaming of the area to a Bazaar the township was given a higher status than its adjacent neighbours. This allowed Indians in the area to trade, own buildings and express their culture, which resulted in some of the prominent historical landmarks of the present-day being established.
FIG 6 Oblique view of the Asiatic Bazaar and parts of the New Marabastad in 1956 with prominent landmarks of the time, many of which are still extant today.
FIG 7 Map indicating the locality of the New Marabastad Township, Asiatic Bazaar, Cape Coloured Location, Bantule and the Daspoort Sewage Works in the vicinity of New Marabastad as surveyed by British Military authorities.
Cape Location The implementation of regulations to provide separate locations for Coloureds can be dated as far back as 1847. But owing to the small numbers of such residents in the city before 1884 the Coloured community was no real threat.
When Coloured migrants
increasingly began to arrive from the Cape Colony, however, white residents began complaining about them, forcing the government to remove all of them from the inner city to the Asiatic Bazaar. Here the Coloured community occupied the southern section of the â€˜Coolie Locationâ€™ between Bloed and Struben Streets, which was proclaimed as a separate township in
1894, known as the ‘Cape Location’ or the ‘Cape Boys Location’ (Fig 7). In 1904 the area was later resurveyed with approximately some 80 stands in order to accommodate the removal of the remainder of the Coloured residents from the Asiatic Bazaar. As the population of the township grew, additional sections were added to the ‘Coloured Location’, which were taken from the Asiatic Bazaar between Boom and Bloed Streets, west of Second Avenue. Thereafter fifty houses were erected by the City Council between 1923 and 1925.
The township was later demolished in 1950, in terms of apartheid
legislation, to make way for a bus depot in line with the Council’s plans to redevelop the area into a transportation interchange zone, incorporating commercial and industrial business. New Marabastad On the British occupation of Pretoria on the 5th June 1900, at the conclusion of the Anglo Boer War, Black refugees began returning to the city after their departure at the beginning of the War, in October of 1899. The homeless Blacks developed informal settlements in Marabastad Proper, Schoolplaats, Brick Fields and a railway station, near the Artillery Barracks.
In response, the British Military authorities surveyed the ‘New Marabastad’
township in 1900, on a piece of vacant land between Marabastad Proper and the ‘Coolie Location’ (Fig 7 & 8). By 1901, 392 stands within the New Marabastad had been occupied and more stands needed to be surveyed in order to accommodate the ever-growing population of the area. The boundaries of Marabastad Proper and the New Marabastad were then resurveyed by the City Council in 1905, after the proclamation of ‘Native Location Regulations’, which established a single township consisting of 1 166 stands consisting of relatively small erven. Although the ‘Native Location Regulations’ were in place, the inhabitants of the township did not react as the Council intended, which resulted in the development of the area without proper municipal facilities and administration. From this situation a growing number of shacks emerged that resulted in the overcrowding and deterioration of the township.
The response of the Council to these conditions was to resettle the residents of Marabastad Proper to an alternative settlement so that the township could be abolished. In 1907 the resettlement was initiated by the decision to establish a sewerage farm located on the site of the existing Marabastad Proper township. Before the resettlement could take place an appropriate site had to be obtained, from which the Council chose an area on the southern slopes of the Daspoortrant mountain range to the west of Marabastad Proper, a site presently occupied by the Tshwane University of Technology (Fig 7).
FIG 8 Aerial Photo from 1947 showing the New Marabastad Township, Asiatic Bazaar, Cape Coloured Location and the Daspoort Sewerage works to the North.
Bantule (The New Location) From 1912 to 1918 the inhabitants of Marabastad Proper were resettled to the area chosen by the Council, and the dwellings of the township were demolished in line with the 1913 Natives Land Act. The relocation area was known as the ‘New Location’ (Fig 7), which was later renamed to ‘Bantule’ and formally proclaimed as a Location in 1925; it was later deproclaimed in 1959. Once the land had been cleared, the plans for the Daspoort Sewerage Works were implemented and the works was opened in February of 1913. Even though the residents who had moved to the ‘New Location’ received compensation, most refused to move and found alternative accommodation in the city, the Asiatic Bazaar or the Cape Location, becoming the victims of very high rentals. By 1925 this situation was leading to overcrowding in the New Marabastad township as well, causing the area to degenerate into a slum owing to inadequate services, creating unhygienic conditions. Removals By 1930 the overcrowded, unhygienic, poverty-stricken conditions of the New Marabastad township were being further aggravated by the squatter crisis of the 1930s and the removal of the residents of Schoolplaats to Marabastad, to make way for a Municipal service area. But because of the existing built-up conditions expansion was not possible, owing to the sewerage works to the North, the Municipal service area (Old Schoolplaats) in the East, the Asiatic Bazaar in the South, and the Von Wielligh Street Extension, currently known as DF Malan Street, in the West. In 1934 the ‘Slums Act’ was promulgated, which gave the Council the power to demolish rundown areas that were causing a threat to the Inner City. Thereafter the Council sought to relocate the inhabitants of the New Marabastad area, as well as of any other ‘wronglysituated’ townships, to Atteridgeville, a remote township that had been established in 1939. From July 1940 to 1953 Black residents from Marabastad as well as from ‘Bantule’ were relocated to Atteridgeville. All residents received financial compensation along with new houses, which had to be rented.
The New Marabastad area was eventually deproclaimed in 1950, in line with Apartheid legislation, and all dwellings were removed.
This area was later developed to
accommodate the Belle Ombre transport terminal, which currently serves as a gateway for commuters into the city. In 1948 the National Party came to power, bringing about a change in governance strategies that included the stricter enforcement of the previous administration’s laws and the implementation of principles and laws regarding the control of ‘Non-European’ people. These laws included the ‘Population Registration Act’ (1950), the ‘Group Areas Act’ (1950) and the ‘Bantu Self-government Act’ (1959) which essentially propagated the development of decentralised separate group areas for people in different race classifications, initiating the mass removals from inner city townships, such as the removal of the residents of the Asiatic Bazaar and the Cape Location to Specific ‘Group Areas’. The ‘Group Areas’ for Indians were Claudius and Laudium; for the Coloured population, Eersterust, a freehold township; and for the Black population Atteridgeville, Mamelodi and Soshanguve (Fig 9). Although the residents of the Asiatic Bazaar had been removed, the area retained its commercial and industrial activities, mainly because the Council recognised that such activity in the widely-separated ‘Group Area’ townships would be unrealistic owing to the distance from the Pretoria Inner City. This eventually led, after continual appeals from the Indian business community, to more land being made available for the use of industry and trade. During 1963-1970, the City Council approved the development of an Indian retail market on land north of Barber Street. Since the Coloured Location was essentially part of the Asiatic Bazaar, this area was not retained and was demolished to make way for a bus depot which, together with the proposed new train station, completed in 1981, made Marabastad into a modal interchange area for black commuters, forming a gateway from the detached Black townships such as Garankuwa, Mabopane, established in the 1960’s, Soshanguve (formally named in 1977), Atteridgeville and Mamelodi. These decentralised growth points for the ever-growing Black population provided the labour base for the Pretoria region.
FIG 9 Group Areas as per apartheid legislation for Non-European Group Areas
1.2.2 Cultural Context The cultural context of Marabastad, Asiatic Bazaar and Coloured Location was shaped by two cultural influences. Firstly, the formal culture of the various individual ethnic groups that included Christian, Hindu, Islam and Black independent Church groups, which initiated cultural events such as festivals and meetings for the purposes of religious lectures, discourses, stories, epics and seminars. Specific national historical landmarks such as the Mariammen temple and adjacent halls (Fig 10) and the Madrassa mosque (Fig 11) were constructed for these events. Secondly, the general cosmopolitan culture, which is essentially the collective culture of all the individual ethic groups realised in the day-to-day life of the residents. This culture was generally a reaction to the years of depression in which Marabastad and adjacent FIG 10 Mariammen Temple
townships found themselves.
It was the means by which the people expressed their
anxieties and was manifested in a variety of customs that were to be seen in the day and night life of the location. This included places of recreation such as the Star Picture Palace, later known as the Empire, and the Orient, John Dougall and Columbia Halls that served as general venues for a variety of activities. Besides the above-mentioned spaces where people congregated a wide variety of extraordinary activities also took place on the streets of Marabastad, which housed informal bars and shebeens forming the stage for the ‘Marabi Culture’. Marabi was a ‘syncretic’ style of music, blending the Afrikaans and coloured traditions with black music and Black American modes. But the Marabi culture was more than just this: ‘It Meant youth and modernity. It meant the freedom of the town not yet in the grip of the state. It meant hope FIG 11 Madrassa Mosque
and ambition not yet crushed. It was not all just shebeeny, smutty, illegal stuff. Some places it was where dreams were made of’ (Willi Faling, 1997). Besides the Marabi culture, sport, mainly in the form of soccer, occupied an important position in the activities of the area, seeing that matches were played in the township on a Sunday afternoon. From the Marabi culture the ‘Kwela culture’ evolved.
This culture was adopted by
homeless Black children in their struggle for survival and included selling newspapers, dancing and singing, scavenging, caddying and playing penny-whistle. It was one of the
causes of the crime which was often committed by juvenile tsotsi gangs whose members had been exposed to adult criminals in prisons. In summary, various cultures and the expression of the diverse cultural landscape constitute a vital component within all urban landscapes that informs a cityâ€™s socioeconomic conditions and its built environment. Therefore in respect to Marabastad, the Asiatic Bazaar and the Cape Coloured location their cultures and the expression thereof constituted the basis for the energy and vibrancy of these areas despite all attempts to control and destroy permanence in them.
Even once they had been removed the
inhabitants would still travel from their segregated townships to be part of the vibrant atmosphere that was expressed in Marabastad and adjacent townships.
FIG 12 Cosmopolitan Cultural Activity Photograph Source: Integrated Design Framework, Aziz Tayob Architects, Meyer Pienaar Tayob
1.2.3 Future Development Context Currently all development has been frozen within Marabastad and has in fact been static for the last thirty years. This was due mainly to the 1966 Community Development Act, which has contributed to the decaying urban conditions. Presently steps have been taken to rectify the conditions of the area, guided at present by the Pretoria Town Planning Scheme of 1974. This document on its own was identified to be inappropriate for the future development of the area. Therefore, several proposals for Marabastad have been prepared but only refer to the area in the broader context of the Pretoria Inner City and do not take the specific context of Marabastad into consideration. Hence the City Council of Pretoria, now known as the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, initiated a project to devise an Integrated Urban Design Framework for Marabastad. The commission was awarded to Aziz Tayob and Meyer Pienaar Architects who submitted the proposal in 1998 and then a further revised version in 2002. This document has been recognised by the council and provides the basis for the redevelopment of the area. The aims and objectives of the Integrated Urban Design Framework include the following: 1.
Re-integration of Marabastad into the Inner City of Pretoria.
Guidelines for the handling of squatters, illegal immigrants and hawkers.
Strengthening and enhancing the architectural value of Marabastad.
Development guidelines for vacant land on the periphery of Marabastad.
Guidelines for the Commission on Restitution of Land Rights with respect to the completion of land claims.
Enhancement of Marabastad as a unique tourist and shopping destination.
Finally, a framework for the implementation of the above aims and objectives of the integrated urban design plan.
The design dissertation will therefore take the proposal for the said Framework into consideration as regards the implementation of the cultural centres, since this will inform the design by emphasising the aims and objectives of future development in the area.
FIG 13 Integrated Urban Design Framework proposed by Aziz Tayob and Meyer Pienaar Tayob Architects, 2002.
1.4 Urban Problem In essence, Marabastad can be described as a high-intensity commercial zone, incorporating both formal and informal trading activities, but without a formal community. It is supported by various types of modal interchange, which, as mentioned above, act as a gateway for thousands of previously-segregated Black commuters into the Pretoria area. It is a place of struggle that has been robbed of its permanence, but despite this it still contains within itself an energy and the presence of the extraordinary life that was inherited from its historical background. This energy and life has been captured within the cultural landscape, embodied in which are the cultures of the various ethnic groups that have resided within Marabastad. Although public cultural facilities have in the past been erected to support the cultural activity of the area, the infrastructure, along with many other community facilities, is currently in an appalling condition or altogether non-existent. These deleterious conditions stem mainly from the clearly-evident urban decay caused by: – Past government practices and polices that initiated the forced removals of the residents to specific ‘Group Areas’. – The 1966 Community Development Act that has frozen development within the area for the past thirty years which in turn has led to squatting, unregulated informal trading and inadequate municipal administration and services that have resulted in the area being degraded into a slum. –The failure of the land commission to deal with land claims. Therefore, in order to develop Marabastad, so that it in turn can support and enhance the Inner City of Pretoria, a suitable public infrastructure needs to be provided. This must include cultural facilities for the rejuvenation of the previous energy and life and the remnants of the historical landscape.
These must be developed in conjunction with
housing and services in order for the community to be re-established in the area, keeping in mind the objectives of the Integrated Urban Design Framework discussed above.
FIG 14 One of many dilapidated buildings within the Marabastad urban landscape
1.5 Objectives The objectives of this dissertation are to focus on how culture, as an important component in the Marabastad urban landscape, can serve as a catalyst in the rectification of the present dysfunctional conditions, while simultaneously celebrating, facilitating and accommodating the diverse cultures within the area. This will enable the establishment of a sustainable multicultural environment that could enhance both the Pretoria Inner City and the greater metropolitan area of Tshwane. These objectives are as follows: 1.
Promoting and initiating urban revitalisation within the already
redevelopment plan for the area: thereby allowing Marabastad to develop so that it becomes an asset to the Inner City of Pretoria. 2.
Providing for cultural training facilities which will develop skills in a way that is sensitive to the historical context, by reinforcing the qualities of the area, therefore breaking the physical barriers that have formed.
Integrating the community with the area by re-establishing the link between the community and the location.
These objectives firstly complement the Tshwane city development strategy, which represents the mindset of the new democratic society. Its vision is to become the leading international African capital city of excellence that empowers the community to prosper in a safe and healthy environment. Secondly, they reinforce the vision of the Department of Arts and Culture, which strives to develop and preserve the South African culture in order to ensure social cohesion and nation-building by: ď‚§
Promoting arts and culture in South Africa and mainstreaming their role in development.
Developing and promoting the official languages of South Africa to enhance the linguistic diversity of the country
Improving economic and other development opportunities for South African arts and culture nationally and globally through mutually beneficial partnerships,
thereby ensuring the sustainability of the sector. Currently various actions have been initiated by the City of Tshwane and the Marabastad Development Forum to restore Marabastad to its former glory. With most of the issues pertaining to services and land restitution having been finalised, the area is ready for the implementation of projects that will regenerate and integrate the area with the inner city core.
FIG 15 People of Marabastad Photograph Source: Integrated Design Framework, Aziz Tayob Architects, Meyer Pienaar Tayob.
CHAPTER 2 Precedent
The precedents applicable to the present dissertation include normative urban planning theory, which focuses specifically on the context of planning in South African cities; complementary projects of cultural intervention situated in both local and international urban contexts; and specific cultural facility case studies, associated with the building typologies identified in chapter 4. The above have influenced the current project in terms of the urban intervention, programme, activities and associated spaces that would be incorporated into the present scheme in order for a responsive and appropriate design to be achieved.
2.1 South African Cities, a Manifesto for Change D. Dewar and R. S. Uytenbogaardt South African Cities, a Manifesto for Change, was a research project undertaken under the Urban Problems Research Unit of the University of Cape Town. It focussed primarily on the greater Cape Town region and aimed to arrive at universal principles, for all South African cities and developing countries, that are timeless and capture qualities which are “free and stimulate individual creativity, accommodate life and are enriched by time and change” (Dewar & Uytenbogaardt, 1991, p. 14). The manifesto bases its principles of urban planning on two pillars of planning consciousness. Firstly, the humanist, concerned with the making of human environment and, secondly, on natural conditions, the setting in which human life is played out. The planning consciousness is related to a ‘conservation ethic’ that evokes concepts of dynamic balance, regionalism and sensitivity to resources. These pillars constitute the basis for the approach to urban development, and are implemented by means of the methodological sequence of need, programme, idea and FIG 16 Various precedents studied by Dewar & Uytenbogaardt which incorporated within the environment physical relationships and principles that captured timeless qualities.
context which forms the foundation of all design decisions.
Need The need refers to the actual needs and requirements of urban dwellers that comprise the foundation of urban development. These needs include urban generation, access, the promotion of collective activities and contact, and individual needs. They constitute the qualities of a city as opposed to suburbia. Programme In this sense the programme represents the primary urban qualities which contribute to the fulfilment of the above needs. These include balance, freedom, equity, intensity, diversity and necessary complexity, integration and community. In essence the qualities of the programme celebrate life, enabling an efficient urban environment which defies standardisation and the predetermination of form. Idea The desirable qualities of the need and the programme can be achieved through arriving at and applying abstract and generic ideas. These ideas are derived by understanding the fundamental basis of urban life, which is reflected in the realities of time. Context The context translates generic and abstract ideas into a specific order, structure and form by means of the physical and social context of a particular area. Relevant points which inform the design 1.
The philosophical urban design principles based on humanism and natural conditions or a conservation ethic.
The implementation of these philosophical principles in terms of the methodological sequence of need, programme, idea and context.
2.2 The BAT Centre Durban, South Africa, 1995, Paul Mikula The BAT Centre, otherwise known as the Bartel Arts Trust, was established in 1995. The centre is an urban-based community arts centre situated on a small craft harbour, off Durbanâ€™s Victoria Embankment. The buildingâ€™s function is essentially that of an arts skills training centre which focuses on disadvantaged and emerging artists. The mission of the centre is to support the development of a vibrant artistic practice which celebrates Durban, KwaZulu-Natal and South Africaâ€™s rich cultural diversity, and builds respect for artists and their role in society. The centre concentrates on local arts, culture, crafts and entertainment that reflect the Zulu, Indian, and Western Heritage of the province.
The accommodation includes retail art
outlets, restaurants, a bar, a performance hall, art studios, exhibition galleries, music rooms, dance studio, a conference centre, a resource and information centre and spaces for independent arts organisations. The building was designed around a central courtyard onto which all the activity spaces of the centre spill.
The courtyard acts as a gathering space that can accommodate a
multiplicity of activities and forms a datum which connects all the various parts of the centre. All the activities are accommodated by the bare elements of enclosure, which allows and promotes spaces personalisation by the participants of the centre. This creates a building that is in a constant state of flux, changing its face in relation to the activities at hand.
Relevant points which inform the design 1.
A cultural centre as a revitalisation scheme for the harbour which has brought about development and upgrading.
It provides a platform for urban skills training, focussing on art and culture as the medium of education, promoting upliftment.
It recognises the rich cultural diversity of the people both locally and throughout South Africa, thereby enhancing and promoting community development.
It acts as a tourist attraction for both local and international tourists, helping to reinforce and contribute to the local economy.
The building is not an isolated entity but promotes interactivity between the teacher, user and visitor.
FIG 17 Images from the BAT Centre.
2.3 Parc de La Villette Paris, France, 1982 -1997, Bernard Tschumi Parc de La Villette was developed as an urban renewal scheme for the north-eastern corner of Paris, between the Metro stations of Porte de Pantin and Porte de la Villette, on a 15-acre site that incorporated a meat-market and slaughter-house. The main objectives of the project were to “mark the vision of an area and to act upon the future economic and cultural development of a key area in Paris.” (Giovanni Damiani, 2003, p. 42) Tschumi was given the commission for the park by means of a competition that was organised by the French Government in 1982, from which his scheme was chosen out of 471 entries. The brief for the competition was an “Urban Park for the 21st Century” which was required to incorporate a complex programme of cultural and entertainment facilities. The point of departure for the park was not that of recreation but rather the integration of FIG 18 Information Folie of north-south Gallery.
the people into the park through their participation in cultural activity that would lead to urban revitalisation within the adjacent areas. The design proposal for the park was based on Tschumi’s theories of architecture, which he formulated in the 1970s by means of installations, texts and advertisements for architecture, which focussed on society’s disjunction between use, form and social values. The basis of the scheme lies in the superimposition of three different ordering systems, namely Points, Lines and Surfaces, in terms of which thirty-five red follies, sport and recreational areas, a science and technology museum and music centre area ordered. The ‘Points’ form a point grid coordinate system onto which the follies are placed. The ‘Lines’ create a secondary coordinate structure that supports pedestrian movement across the site linking the Porte de Pantin and Porte de la Villette, from north to south, and Paris to its western suburbs, from east to west. The ‘Surfaces’ form the spaces between the points and lines and incorporate large green areas which accommodate activities such as sport and mass entertainment that require larger spaces.
FIG 19 Folie [sp.?] R7: Jazz Club, Stage and Bar.
Relevant points which informed the design 1.
The role of revitalisation which the Parc intervention played by fostering cultural activity that provided a base for the economic development of the area.
The means by which the users are integrated into the Parc through the variety of â€˜eventsâ€™ that can take place owing to the adaptable multifunctional architectural space.
The Parc structure firstly consists of points, which constitute the order and image. Secondly, lines that provide movement corridors for pedestrians to specific areas of the Parc and allow access to the most-frequently-used activities and locations. Lastly, surfaces that form the datum onto which the points and lines are superimposed while at the same time providing alternate multifunctional spaces for larger activities.
FIG 20 Exploded View indicating the superimposition of points, lines, and surfaces.
FIG 21 Site Plan of Parc de La Villette within the surrounding Paris context.
2.4 Precedent of Typologies The following research into the established building typologies (Fig 22), identified in terms of the primary modes of expression discussed in chapter 4, underlies the specific programme, accommodation schedule and design criteria which would be incorporated into the design of the buildings. The research for the building typologies was gathered from case studies the sites of which were visited, and from supporting guidelines and regulations published by statutory bodies. The researcher examined the programme, accommodation and the associated design considerations and subsequently presented these in a table matrix (Table 1).
FIG 22 A figure indicating the primary modes of expression the associated building typologies and the chosen case study.
TABLE 1 Table matrix of the various case studies researched.
2.5 Synthesis of Precedents The research presented in the precedent studies served to enlighten the researcher about the various levels of the design process, ranging from the urban design concept to the design and implementations of the individual building typologies. The normative precedent of D. Dewar and R. S. Uytenbogaardt furnished the principles for the urban design of the scheme. As mentioned above, these principles are based on two pillars of planning consciousness, namely on humanism and on natural conditions. The precedents of the BAT Centre and Parc de La Villette informed the brief, the broader programme, as well as the accommodation and implementation of the individual building typologies. These schemes encouraged cultural activity as the main programme fostering the urban revitalisation of the area. In the case of the BAT Centre the building took the form of a single centre offering education into and the carrying-out of the diverse cultural activities of South Africa. The Parc de La Villette architectural solution provided several expression platforms placed at specific nodes within the urban landscape of Paris. The aim of the scheme was the integration of the people into the park by means of participation in cultural activity and in the creation of an â€œUrban Park for the 21st Centuryâ€?. The precedents set by the case studies of the specific building typologies influenced the building-specific programme in relation to the context of cultural educational facilities within a South African environment. These precedents were employed to formulate the brief, design considerations, and building objectives as regards the cultural centres.
CHAPTER 3 Site Description and Appraisal
FIG 23 Diagrams indicating the location of the study area in relation to the greater Gauteng region, the City of Tshwane and the Inner City of Pretoria
In this chapter, Marabastad will be analysed in terms of its locality, built, social and natural landscapes, which will constitute the basis for the identification of the specific sites as regards the design intervention. This section will also serve to strengthen and complement the â€˜genius lociâ€™ for Marabastad, building on the historical and cultural background discussed in chapter 1.
3.1 Locality Marabastad is situated in the metropolitan area of Tshwane, which is part of the greater Gauteng region (Fig 23). Within Tshwane, Marabastad forms part of the Inner City of Pretoria (Fig 23), which comprises four districts, namely the high-density residential areas of Sunnyside and Arcadia in the east, the central main core or CBD, Marabastad to the north-western side of the Inner City and a service industry zone to the west. Within the greater Inner City area, the CBD and Marabastad represent the main activity nodes, carrying with them a historical and cultural significance combined with the inherited dysfunctional legacy of the past. Linkage The main means of access to Marabastad, for the population which makes up the present commuter-orientated community of the area, is via the Belle Ombre train station. Thousands of daily commuters entering the Inner City of Pretoria, who originate from the various decentralised Black townships that were originally established by the Apartheid government, use this station as a gateway.
These townships include Garankuwa,
Mabopane, Soshanguve and Atteridgeville. Study Area For the purposes of this dissertation Marabastadâ€™s boundaries will be defined, as per the Integrated Urban Design Framework for Marabastad by Aziz Tayob and Meyer Pienaar Tayob Architects, by the railway line in the north leading to Belle Ombre Station, Potgieter Street in the east, Church Street in the south and DF Malan Drive in the west (Fig 24).
FIG 24 1995 aerial photograph of the Marabastad study area
3.2 Marabastad Urban Analysis As discussed with respect to the research problem in chapter 1, Marabastad’s current situation can be summarised in terms of three categories, namely the physical isolation of the area in relation to the surrounding suburbs, the continuing urban decay that has created negative social conditions, and the non-utilisation of natural resources. The following urban analysis will serve to substantiate the current state of affairs in Marabastad while simultaneously offering a more comprehensive look at the structure of Marabastad in terms of its built, natural, and social landscape. This analysis will also offer a foundation for justifying the specific sites of intervention in the design proposal.
3.2.1 Built Landscape The built landscape was analysed according to the principles of Kevin Lynche’s ‘Image of the City’. These principles of analysis incorporate the elements of paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. They are essentially the physical qualities that create identity and structure in the built landscape so as to establish a mental image of the environment to which the urban dweller can relate. Lynch (1960, p.9) refers to the ‘mental image’ that is formed by physical form as ‘imageability’. The built landscape of Marabastad is unique and it can be compared to historical urban areas such as District Six and Sophiatown. However, owing to Marabastad’s history it is the only area out of the three that was not razed and that therefore bears proof, through its existing built landscape, of a previous community controlled by the laws and regulations of the Apartheid era.
Therefore, in terms of its existing physical built history it is vitally
important to the present community of the area and to South Africa. It is essentially a rainbow community that has withstood the injustices of the past as well as the present and serves as an icon to many of the adjacent developing districts.
FIG 25 Figure ground drawings showing the urban fabric of Marabastad.
Paths Paths are defined as the “channels along which the observer customarily, occasionally, or potentially moves” (Lynch, 1960, p.47) and form the datum along which edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks are arranged and related. This enables a structure and hierarchy for the environment to be developed or identified. The paths of Marabastad, with specific reference to the streetscape, form a vital component within historical and present context of the area. Due to the fine grained urban grid, houses and shops were built to the boundary of the sites which provided definition and a unique character to the streets, which promoted pedestrian activity. The unique spatial character of the streets along with the neglect of public open space, allowed the streets to develop into public community space, which were used for both recreational and general community life. Currently, trade is the main activity that is present on the streets, mainly due to the transformation of the area into a commercial zone. In the analysis paths are divided into three categories: 1.
Primary Movement Corridors – the paths that link Marabastad to both the greater Metropolitan Region of Tshwane and the adjacent CBD.
Secondary Movement Corridors – the paths forming the main circulation routes within the study area.
Pedestrian Movement Corridors – include established ‘pedestrian streets’ and active pedestrian movement corridors.
FIG 26 Path Analysis
Edges “Edges are the linear elements not used or considered as paths by the observer. They are the boundaries between two phases, linear breaks in continuity” (Lynch, 1960, p.47). These boundaries define districts emphasising transitional spaces within the urban fabric and were formed primarily through the development history of Marabastad. This history, as discussed in chapter 1, contains within it significant events that lead to the area’s current urban status. Influential events include: –
The implementation of Apartheid legislation.
The removal of the Black population from the New Marabastad township.
The removal of the population of the Asiatic Bazaar and Cape Coloured location.
The establishment of the Belle Ombre Train station.
The 1967 Freeway Scheme proposal for Pretoria (Establishment of the Putco Bus Depot).
The development of the Marabastad Shopping Centre.
The development of the Fresh Produce Market.
In the analysis, edges are separated into two categories: 1.
Major Edges – define boundaries of the Marabastad district. They are essentially the segregating elements which separate the Marabastad township from the Pretoria Inner City and surrounding suburbs and define Marabastad within the context of the Pretoria Inner City region.
Minor Edges – the internal edges of Marabastad, which form the boundaries of the various districts currently present within the township.
FIG 27 Edge Analysis
Districts “Districts are the medium-to large sections of the city, conceived of as having twodimensional extent, which the observer mentally enters ‘inside-of’, and which are recognizable as having some common, identifiable character” (Lynch, 1960, p.47). As stated in the previous section districts are formed and defined by edges; therefore the historical events that led to the current edges are equally applicable to districts. Marabastad in itself comprises one of four districts within the Inner City of Pretoria. The districts listed below represent the various zones of different character that are found within Marabastad. These districts are defined as follows: 1.
District 1 – incorporating the Maraba Shopping Complex and the Indian Retail Fruit and Vegetable Market. These developments are mass structures, which are insensitive to the historical fine-grained context and sense of place that is present within the historic area of district 2.
District 2 – this is the only surviving historical built landscape of the area. It incorporates the original fine-grained urban fabric, housing the historic commercial shopping street strung along Boom Street, which stretches from the east, of the study area, to the west. It is an area of conservation owing to its historical significance to a past community.
District 3 – is an area that formed part of the Asiatic Bazaar and Cape Coloured location. It was demolished to make way for the 1967 Freeway Scheme proposal, which was abandoned and is now occupied by the PUTCO Bus Depot.
District 4 – this district is characterised, like district 1, as an area insensitive to the historical fine-grained context because of the Belle Ombre Mass Structure and its accompanying bus terminus and taxi rank.
District 5 – a mixed-use zone that forms part of the periphery of the CBD and incorporates small business, light industries, high-rise flats and vacant land.
District 6 – an area comprising vacant land, municipal depots and workshops, the Heroes’ Acre Cemetery and a community tennis club. This area acts as a buffer zone for district 2.
FIG 28 District Analysis
Nodes “Nodes are points, the strategic spots in a city into which an observer can enter, and which are the intensive foci to and from which he is travelling.” (Lynch, 1960, p.47). Essentially nodes represent the main places of activity within defined district areas. The nodes within the Marabastad context have come into being mainly around arrival and departure points, owing to the commercial nature of the area and the fact that it is a gateway for several thousand commuters everyday. These nodes are supplemented by formal and informal trading activities as well as places of worship that support the more formal permanent Indian community within the area. In the analysis nodes are seperated into three categories: 1.
Modal Interchange Nodes –these include train, bus, formal and informal taxi nodes.
Formal Shopping Nodes – destinations lending support to the modal interchange nodes.
Religious Nodes – these nodes offer gathering spaces for the immediate Indian community, which comprise the greater part of the formal commercial sector in the area.
FIG 29 Node Analysis
Landmarks “Landmarks are another type of point-reference, but in this case the observer does not enter within them, they are external” (Lynch, 1960, p.48). Currently all the elements are in a degraded state mainly due to the lack of municipal administration and various problems with land restitution that has put a stop to all development in the area. If the area is to function successfully, landmark elements must be enhanced to allow it to develop into valuable tourist destination promoting and enhancing the Marabastad district as essential component within the Inner City of Pretoria. In the analysis landmarks are separated into two categories: 1.
Building Landmarks – these landmarks include the Mariammen Temple, Ismaili Mosque, Empire Cinema, Orient Cinema, Tamil Hall and specific adjacent building that enhance the character of the area and are of historical significance.
Natural Landmarks – are natural elements within the urban landscape of irreplaceable value, which can serve as enriching elements for the Marabastad district. These elements include the Daspoort mountain range to the north, which allows the formation of important vistas form specific streets in the area, and the Steenhoven Spruit, now a storm water canal, unutilised in its ability to form a magnificent feature within the context of the area.
FIG 30 Landmark Analysis
3.2.2 Natural Landscape The natural landscape forms the base upon which the built and social landscapes are established. It is the primary point of departure for all development and gives incentives to the general characteristics of the area. Marabastad is located on land that falls at approximately a 1:36 gradient from the southwest of the study area to the north-east. It incorporates within it valuable natural elements that are not used to their full potential and need to be incorporated into the redevelopment plan of the township so as to enhance the latter’s character and broaden the development possibilities. In the analysis landmarks are separated into three categories: 1.
Topography – elements that are within and adjacent to the study area, are as follows:
The Daspoort Ridge Mountain, which is part of the Witwatersberge.
The Apies River located between the southern foot of the Daspoort Mountain and the study area.
The Steenhoven Spruit in the east section of the study area, which creates a natural barrier between two districts.
Treescape - constitutes an important element in the visual linkage of the area to the Inner City of Pretoria and adjacent suburbs. Important tree lines include the historical Boom Street precinct (District 2 within the analysis), scattered parts of Seventh Street, both of which have well-established Jacaranda trees, areas along the Steenhoven Spruit watercourse, which boasts well-established bluegum trees, and Tipuana trees situated on Proes Street.
Open Space - All open space within the study area is either undeveloped or the result of the forced removals.
These areas include the sites along the
Steenhhoven Spruit, the PUTCO bus depot and the wasteland directly below it, and various sites within the historical district of the township.
FIG 31 Natural Landscape Analysis
3.2.3 Socio-Economic Landscape The diverse vibrant community that comprised the socio-economic landscape of Marabastad in the past has been significantly lost.
Currently the area, as previously
discussed in chapter 1, is the result of various actions by the past and current government administrations. This has created a commercially-orientated environment with the absence of a permanent community which has resulted in the area becoming characterised by slum conditions. These conditions have largely shaped the socio-economic environment with its inadequate and inappropriate health, education, religious and cultural facilities. Furthermore, formal business within the area has been greatly affected by the deteriorating conditions, which has led to large numbers of informal traders and micro-enterprises. The informal traders presently exert a negative influence on the conditions of the area. However, if appropriate measures are implemented to support and control informal traders they will be able to better the environment rather than contribute to the deteriorating socioeconomic conditions. Therefore, if public services are provided as well as an infrastructure which supports a permanent community, the socio-economic landscape could be enhanced and once again a unique, diverse community might come into being and flourish.
3.3 Site Locations The site locations in this study were determined by means of the urban analysis of the built, natural, and social landscapes, presented in the previous sections. Subsequently the positions for the sites were reinforced by the concept of the design intervention, which took into consideration not only the historical and future development contexts as presented in chapter 1 but also the precedents in chapter 2. In discussing the site locations for the various cultural centres the zone of intervention is identified, motivated and appraised, concluding with specific site locations for the individual building typologies. 3.3.1 Site Location Zone The zone identified for the implementation of the dissertation is situated in district 2 between Boom and Bloed Streets (Fig 32). This area was chosen for the following reasons: 1.
It is in close proximity to the existing historic fabric, which is the generator of the character of the area and encapsulates within its boundaries the essence of Marabastad.
The area is central both to the existing, developed, Marabastad and the land that has been made available for future development proposals within the study area.
It allows the designs to respond directly to the context, respecting and building on the historical significance of the area.
3.3.2 Zoning and Land-Use Rights Currently the erven between Boom and Grand Streets are zoned ‘Special” for rights and conditions as granted and imposed by the Minister of Community Development. The erven between Grand and Bloed are zoned “Undetermined”. All erven have an FSR of 2,0 with a maximum building height restriction of 19m. All occupied sites have business rights. With respect to the integrated development plan the zoning was adapted to business, allowing a site coverage of 80% and an FSR of 2,0 with a maximum building height of three storeys.
FIG 32 Site location zone
3.3.3 Individual Site Locations The positions for the individual sites and their related building typologies were determined by the following: 1.
The design concept. The design concept is an instance of infill architecture that will create strategic nodes of culture within the area, serving as a catalyst for the revitalisation of the area and initiating the development of a cultural activity corridor.
The conclusions reached from the analysis of the urban landscape. The sites are placed off high-activity secondary movement corridors. Specific positions are determined by the proximity of the adjacent decaying urban fabric.
The surrounding commercial activity. The buildings requiring a formal space were situated to the west, complementing the small formal businesses accommodated in the urban fabric. The buildings requiring more industrial-type space were positioned to the east, complementing the workshops businesses in the adjacent area.
Library Centre This centre is located in the eastern portion of district two, positioned at an intersection between the proposed pedestrian street and Second Street, a high-activity secondary movement corridor, which links to a modal transport interchange. Current adjacent areas are predominantly open with scattered informal trading activities. Music Centre This is situated at an intersection between the pedestrian street and Jerusalem Street, the main high-activity secondary movement corridor of the area. This street was in the past the central road that linked the various districts of Marabastad together. Jerusalem Street culminates in a square to the north and incorporates, adjacent to the centre of the site, an informal taxi rank. The site is a high-priority site, which will form one of the main nodes in the area; therefore, the music centre was situated here as music comprises the main mode of cultural expression within Marabastad.
Visual Arts Centre This centre is sited at the intersection of the proposed pedestrian street and Seventh Street, a high-activity secondary movement corridor which includes along its route an informal taxi modal interchange adjacent to the railway station. The area is characterised by more industrial-type building typologies and business activity. Performing Arts Centre This is positioned between Tenth Street and the Steenhoven Spruit, a green corridor for the area which will constitute an important node that will supplement the green square directly to the northeast of the site. The green square will serve as a gathering and activity space, complementing the pedestrian activity corridor and the greater Marabastad area. Craft Centre This centre is located on the edge of Marabastad, at the intersection between Potgieter Street and the pedestrian spine. This is the final node of the cultural precinct and acts as a gateway for the five cultural centres.
FIG 33 Diagrammatic indication of the site positions in relation to the concept and observations carried out for the analysis of the built landscape.
FIG 34 The site locations in relation to the building typologies established in Chapter 4
CHAPTER 4 Brief, Programme and Accommodation
This chapter will discuss the parameters of the brief, the envisaged programme with its associated activities, and the accommodation schedule, influenced by the case studies, researched in chapter 2 of the specific building typologies.
4.1 Brief The design dissertation brief was established by means of the research presented in chapters 1, 2, and 3 and simultaneously developed in conjunction with the concept in chapter 5. The above formulated the parameters to which the design needed to respond in order that the set objectives be achieved. The objectives fundamentally focus on the rectification of the dysfunctional conditions of the area in terms of building interventions which celebrate, facilitate, and accommodate the unique cultures. The parameters of the brief include the following: 1.
The acknowledgment of the historical urban and cultural landscape, which acts as the foundation on which the community was built and shaped.
The acknowledgment of the existing conditions in terms of the remnants of the built, socio-economic and natural landscape: the result of past policies aimed specifically at the marginalisation of the various ethnic groups within the community.
The acknowledgment of future development proposals, which indicate the direction into which the area is to develop.
The context of culture within the South African landscape with respect to the vision of the Department of Arts and Culture.
The urban planning principles of D. Dewar and RS. Uytenbogaardt as found in their published book â€˜South African Cities: A Manifesto for Changeâ€™.
principles are based on the philosophical approaches of humanism and awareness of natural conditions implemented in the methodological sequence of need, programme and context. 6.
The integration of the cultural facilities within the context of the immediate needs of the community and the other public facilities and activities in order to maximise the development of the community and the associated urban revitalisation.
FIG 35 Figure indicating the parameters of the brief
4.2 Programme Cultural centres cannot be defined by a single building typology owing to the multiplicity of activities that are associated with such facilities.
Therefore, in order that a specific
programme of activity regarding the cultural centre be established, the needs of the immediate and greater community and the context in which they are placed should be taken into consideration, in conjunction with the parameters of the specific design brief. As discussed in chapter 1, the aim of the dissertation is to design cultural facilities which facilitate, enhance and develop the cultural attributes of Marabastad.
Acting on this
premise, the programme focussed on multifunctional educational facilities that offer opportunities for the teaching of, participation in and promotion of creative activities that are common between the different ethnic groups residing in Marabastad. The facilities, furthermore, aim to incorporate other cultural groups and communities within adjacent areas and the greater South African landscape.
This intention allowed an integrated
approach to be achieved, which incorporates the public facilities into a wider community and orientates the facilities to a greater area of influence, promoting efficiency in relation to other activities within the urban landscape. The activities forming the commonality between the various cultures were identified by establishing the primary modes of creative expression. These include expression through language, sound, images, movement and objects, which constitute the basis of the expression of the everyday culture of the different cultural groups. These primary modes of expression then influenced the associated activity and the final building topologies, being a library centre, music centre, visual art centre, performing arts centre and craft centre. The building typologies were placed at strategic nodes, informed by the design concept, on the various sites discussed under â€˜site locationsâ€™ in chapter 3. The table on the following page summarises the primary modes of expression together with the associated activity and building typology.
TABLE 2 The table indicates the primary modes of expression with their associated activity and building typology
4.3 Programme of Typologies The objective of devising specific programmes for the building typologies, was established in line with the vision of the National Arts Council of South Africa, instituted by the Department of Arts and Culture. In line with this objective these facilities strive to provide educational facilities, as the base programme of the centres, which inspire, enrich and provide incentives for development within the community, through facilitating the free and creative expression of the various South African cultures. All the centres will essentially function as one entity, within the urban landscape, becoming extensions of each other, and provide for the wide range of cultural needs in the community, while simultaneously allowing adaptability in the programmes.
respond directly to the developing needs of the community, optimising their performance and influence on the Marabastad urban landscape. The programme outlined in the table on the following page was guided by the writerâ€™s research into the case studies of the various building typologies presented in chapter 2. These programmes are separated into the educational and the community services that will be provided through the centres to the community.
TABLE 3 Programme for the individual building typologies.
4.4 Accommodation schedule For a detailed accommodation schedule, refer to annexure A.
LIBRARY CENTRE Primary Space Reception & Entrance Foyer
Open Access Information System
1 213 m²
MUSIC CENTRE Primary Space Reception & Entrance Foyer
1 341 m²
VISUAL ARTS CENTRE Primary Space Reception & Entrance Foyer
Visual Art Studios
1 319 m²
TABLE 4 Accommodation schedule for the various building typologies.
PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE Primary Space Reception & Entrance Foyer
Performing Art Studios
2 281 m²
CRAFTS CENTRE Primary Space Reception & Entrance Foyer
GRAND TOTAL AREA
1 476 m²
7 630 m²
CHAPTER 5 Design Concept
The brief, programme and associated accommodation schedule took into consideration the historical landscape, existing conditions, future development proposals, the vision of the Department of Arts and Culture and the urban planning principles of D. Dewar and RS. Uytenbogaardt. These parameters, in conjunction with the aim of the design dissertation, promoted a cultural programme based on creative public educational facilities supporting the primary modes of expression. This enabled a holistic approach to the design problem, providing the foundation of a sustainable, integrated design proposal.
5.1 Concept The resulting design intervention was conceptualised in the form of an urban infill project which sought to promote cultural facilities as a means for the revitalisation of the area, while responding to the various parameters of the brief. This intervention created strategic catalytic nodes of culture (Fig 35), promoting urban stitching and the establishment and reintegration of the lost community. The intention in designing these nodes of culture was that over time they would expand their area of influence, initiating the development of a cultural activity corridor, which should create a framework for the development of a cultural precinct that would enhance the existing conditions in terms of its â€˜genius lociâ€™, and furthermore support future development by becoming the heartbeat of the area. The precinct will aim to offer a place of learning, hope, remembrance and experience where the local community can build a future and contribute to the development of the Inner City of Pretoria and the greater South African cultural landscape. The cultural activity nodes are positioned in a zone, as discussed in chapter 3 that is strategically placed between the historical urban fabric, with its associated commercial activity, and open land awaiting development.
FIG 36 Concept Diagram
5.2 Concept Framework Linkage The streets of Marabastad are its lifeblood and form arteries to which all activity is common, a datum and binding element for the various parts of the area. Therefore the cultural centres are strung along an existing street which was pedestrianised to form a pedestrian spine. This allowed the street to act as an exterior activity room for the greater scheme, building on the role of the street in the historical context of Marabastad and linking the various nodes together to form essentially a single building. Tectonics The tectonics of the building respond directly to the contextual cues present in the built landscape of the area, the various design considerations stated in chapter 2 and the design concept with respect to the buildings as nodes within the urban landscape. The nodes essentially function as distinct landmarks, which create an identifiable image for the precinct, within the confines of Marabastad’s general characteristics.
embodied within the contextual cues of the existing urban fabric and include the following: 1. The urban grid – Characterised by the fine-grained urban structure. 2. Building form – Relating to height, typology and the building’s relationship to the street. 3. Streetscape – In terms of activity, landscaping, street furniture and signage. In essence the building is a functional response, designed around its context and activities. From this a basic shell was designed, supporting the activities with their specific design requirements. The aim of the tectonics was to represent the building as a cultural activity platform, exhibiting the building-specific activity to the street, which creates a visual link between activity an place. The building activities are further supplemented by an interactive skin which forms a layer on top of the building’s facade. The interactive skin acts as an exhibition board for images, products and programmes related to the building activity, which will simultaneously provide passive solar control to the 77
FIG 37 Photographs of Marabastad from which the contextual cues are drawn.
buildings. It will be composed of a synthetic fabric manufactured and designed by the local community, thus allowing the opportunity for the building to be personalised so that it can be visually incorporated within the area. Planning The plan layout of the buildings is primarily dictated by the fine-grained grid present in Marabastad. All the activity spaces of the cultural centres are positioned towards the street so as to allow maximum exposure of the cultural activity, promoting a one-on-one interaction between the building, the street and the adjacent surroundings. Hence the buildings are structured into distinct activity and service zones. These areas are positioned in relation to internal and external courtyards, which become the resting and meeting places for the community and the specific users of the buildings. All planning is based on the space relationship diagram indicated in the framework of the various centres, which expresses the underlying principles of the ways the different buildings function. General design considerations Common design considerations for the design scheme include: 1.
Space Adaptability â€“ To accommodate changing needs.
Passive Solar Design â€“ Responding to the specific site conditions, natural lighting, ventilation and shading. This was achieved by making use of the adjustable screens placed as a second skin on the buildings and of roof lights capturing south-reflected light.
Image â€“ building tectonics as catalytic landmarks.
5.3 Framework of Centres Library Centre The objective of the library centre is to act as a gateway for knowledge and information, promoting the development of the individual, the greater community, and the democratic society within which they reside. The programme of the library centre is consequently that of a community library facility focusing on educational facilities which enable literacy, facilitating access to knowledge and information. The library collection is determined by the local needs and cultures within the community and will focus on the preservation and promotion of the local cultures. This could take the form of history collections, exhibitions and story-telling. The library centre is positioned at an intersection between the pedestrian spine and Second Street, a high-activity secondary movement corridor which Is linked to a bus modal interchange.
The urban grid determines the building’s orientation: east-west.
warranted specific solar control measures being taken as regards the main activity spaces of the building. The activity space of the library is fronted by a high-activity secondary movement corridor and the pedestrian street from which one would enter the building. The service core was therefore placed against adjacent buildings to allow maximum visibility of the library activities. This space consists of the book collection, computer facilities and multi-media room, which incorporates within it courtyards which act as light wells and transitional spaces between the building activity and the services core. The main book collection space of the library, located on the ground floor, is inspired by Alvar Aalto’s concept of the ‘sunken book pit’ which refers to literature as being the person’s underlying spiritual foundation.
78 FIG 38
Library Centre space relationship diagram, zoning plan and development model photographs
Music Centre The music centre is designed to promote, facilitate, and develop creative expression by nurturing the various forms of music and verbal communication, specifically focussing on the indigenous South African music which is common to the area. The accommodation therefore encompasses rehearsal facilities, a radio station, a recording studio and a music library complementing the educational function of the centre. It is located at an intersection between the pedestrian spine and Jerusalem street, the main high-activity secondary movement corridor of the area. The site is a high-priority locality which constitutes one of the main nodes for the area, facilitating the main mode of cultural expression for which the area is known. The building is orientated in a north-south direction: the space for the main activity of the building faces the pedestrian street. The various programmes in it are differentiated by a central circulation and courtyard area. This forms a pause area and transitional space between the building and the adjacent urban fabric. Important considerations included sufficient space being made available for services and the acoustic treatment of specific activity spaces within the centre. The building aimed specifically at displaying the musical activities within the parameters of the acoustic considerations of the activity spaces.
80 FIG 39
Music Centre space relationship diagram, zoning plan and development model photographs
Visual Arts Centre The visual arts centre is designed to promote, facilitate, and develop creative expression through the various art forms associated with the visual arts.
This encompasses a
programme which incorporates education and practice in art history, fine arts and information design. The centre is located at the intersection of the pedestrian spine and Seventh Street, a highactivity secondary movement corridor which includes along its route an informal taxi modal interchange, adjacent to the railway station.
The area is generally characterised by
industrial-type building typologies and similar industrial business activity. The building is orientated in an east-west direction with the main activity space being to the west, incorporating graphic art, painting, printing, still-life and lecture studios. As with the library centre, the western faรงade warranted specific solar control measures being taken for the main activity spaces. An internal courtyard creates an exhibition and gathering space for the centre and provides a light well of natural light for the exhibition area and adjacent activity spaces. The design responds to the given considerations by making available reflected southern light through roof lights and the faรงade, as well as flexibility of space through allowing open, adaptable areas and storage areas, accommodated in the basement of the building.
82 FIG 40
Visual Arts Centre space relationship diagram, zoning plan and development model photographs
Performing Arts Centre The performing arts centre is intended to promote, facilitate and develop expression through the various categories of the performing arts and therefore incorporates a programme which focuses on educational and practice facilities supporting opera, drama, and the various styles of dance. The centre is situated between Tenth Street and the Steenhoven Spruit, a green corridor for the area, which will create an important node that will supplement the green square directly to the northeast of the site. This square will serve as a gathering and activity space complementing the pedestrian activity corridor. The building is orientated in a north-south direction, with the main activity space being situated directly off the pedestrian spine. The planning for the centre incorporates existing buildings, on adjacent sites, into the programme of the centre. The main activity spaces include dance, drama, opera and lecture studios. All spaces are positioned around an internal courtyard, with the services core of the centre forming the transitional zone between the new and existing buildings. The design responds to the various requirements of performing art studios by providing barrier-free adaptable space, complemented by natural lighting and ventilation. General storage for the centre is located in the basement, complemented by storage and workshop facilities in the adjacent urban fabric.
84 FIG 41
Performing Arts Centre space relationship diagram, zoning plan and development model photographs
Craft Centre The craft centre functions to promote, facilitate, and develop creative expression through the various categories of small craft design. This will include training and practice in ceramics, steel craft, bead craft, wire craft, embroidery, fabric craft, waste craft and jewellery craft. The centre is located on the edge of Marabastad, at the intersection between Potgieter Street and the pedestrian spine, comprising the final node of and gateway to the five cultural centres. The building is orientated northâ€“south; the activity workshops for the various crafts are placed around the central service and administration core. All workshops are directly exposed to the adjacent high-activity movement corridor and pedestrian street. All space within the centre is designed to be open, flexible and adaptable, allowing the functions of the areas to switch between training, manufacturing and retail space. Courtyards are brought into the building to provide light and ventilation to the various workshops, while simultaneously making available exhibition and pause areas for the various users of the centre.
86 FIG 42
Craft Centre space relationship diagram, zoning plan and development model photographs
CHAPTER 6 Design Resolution
6.1 Urban Layout
FIG 43 Urban Layout
1 2 3 4 5 6
– – – – – –
Library Centre Music Centre Visual Arts Centre Performing Arts Centre Craft Centre 92 Pedestrian Spine
6.2 Library Centre
FIG 44 Library Centre Context Plan SE Perspective SW Perspective
FIG 45 Library Centre Ground Floor Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Entrance Foyer & Exhibition Control Counter Office Lift Children’s Collection Main Collection Library Assistants Staff Rest Room Male Toilets Female Toilets Paraplegic Toilet Fire Escape Stair Pedestrian Street Second Street Existing Buildings
FIG 46 Library Centre Basement Floor Plan
FIG 47 Library Centre First Floor Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Entrance Foyer & Exhibition Control Counter Office Lift Children’s Collection Main Collection Library Assistants Staff Rest Room Male Toilets Female Toilets Paraplegic Toilet Fire Escape Stair Pedestrian Street Second Street Existing Buildings
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Reading Area Storage: Administration Storage: Book Storage: General Music Collection Multi Media Room Kitchen Unisex Toilet Computer Room Atrium Computer Manager’s Office Financial Marketing Office Library Assistant’s Office Main Librarian’s Office Reference Collection
FIG 48 Library Centre Section A-A
FIG 49 Library Centre Section B-B
6.3 Music Centre
FIG 50 Music Centre Context Plan SE Perspective SW Perspective
FIG 51 Music Centre Ground Floor Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Reception Waiting & Exhibition Lift Female Toilets Lift Male Toilets Paraplegic Toilet Admin Offices Vestibule Individual Rehearsal Escape Stair Meeting & Sitting Area Kitchenette General Storage Instrument Store Group Rehearsal Courtyard Pedestrian Street Existing Building
FIG 52 Music Centre Basement Floor Plan FIG 53 Music Centre First Floor Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Reception Waiting Area & Exhibition Lift Female Toilets Lift Male Toilets Paraplegic Toilet Admin Offices Vestibule Individual Rehearsal Escape Stair Meeting & Sitting Area Kitchenette General Storage Instrument Store Group Rehearsal Courtyard Pedestrian Street Existing Building
FIG 54 Music Centre Section A-A
FIG 55 Music Centre Section B-B
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Double Volume Foyer Radio Station Reception Computer Room Sound Lock CD & General Store Equipment Store Vestibule Control Room Broadcasting Room Unisex Toilet Cleaners’ Room & Storage Recording Studio Control Counter Audio Stations Music Collection Sheet Music Collection
6.3 Visual Arts Centre
FIG 56 Visual Arts Centre Context Plan NW Perspective SW Perspective
FIG 57 Visual Arts Centre Ground Floor Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
– – – – – – – – – – – – –
Reception Fire Escape Stair Exhibition Space Lift Male Toilet Paraplegic Toilet Female Toilet Graphic Art Studio Painting Studio Printing Studio Seventh Street Pedestrian Street Existing Buildings
FIG 59 Visual Arts Centre First Floor Plan
FIG 58 Visual Arts Centre Basement Floor Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Reception Fire Escape Stair Exhibition Space Lift Male Toilet Paraplegic Toilet Female Toilet Graphic Art Studio Painting Studio Printing Studio Seventh Street Pedestrian Street Existing Buildings Material Store Product Store
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
– – – – – – – – –
Cleaners’ Room Administration Storage General Storage Double Volume Staff Office Administration Office Still Life & Theory Studio Printing Room Sitting & Meeting Area
FIG 60 Visual Arts Centre Section A-A
FIG 61 Visual Arts Centre Section B-B
6.4 Performing Arts Centre
FIG 62 Performing Arts Centre Context Plan SE Perspective NE Perspective
FIG 63 Performing Arts Centre Ground Floor Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Reception Waiting Area & Exhibition Lift Drama Studio Dance Studio Fire Escape Stair Male Change Room Male Toilet Female Toilet Female Change Room Paraplegic Toilet Meeting & Sitting Area Courtyard Makeup Room Makeup Store Temporary Props Store Opera Studio Multifunctional Studio Needle Work Room Needle Room Administration Needle Room Store Needle Room Product Store Pedestrian Street
FIG 64 Performing Arts Centre Basement Floor Plan FIG 65 Performing Arts Centre First Floor Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Reception Waiting Area & Exhibition Lift Drama Studio Dance Studio Fire Escape Stair Male Change Room Male Toilet Female Toilet Female Change Room Paraplegic Toilet Meeting & Sitting Area Courtyard Makeup Room Makeup Store Temporary Props Store Opera Studio Multifunctional Studio
FIG 66 Performing Arts Centre Section A-A
FIG 67 Performing Arts Centre Section B-B
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Needle Work Room Needle Room Administration Needle Room Store Needle Room Product Store Pedestrian Street Equipment Store Cleaners’ Room Lobby Props & Scenery Store Administration Store Cleaners’ Store Electrical Room Makeup Room/Store Double Volume Management Offices Meeting Room Open Plan Admin
6.5 Craft Centre
FIG 68 Craft Centre Context Plan SE Perspective NE Perspective
FIG 69 Craft Centre Ground Floor Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Reception Exhibition Area Male Toilets Paraplegic Toilet Female Toilets Lift Material Store Product Store Weaving Workshop Wiring Workshop Waste Craft Workshop Multifunctional Space Pedestrian Street Potgieter Street Existing Buildings
FIG 70 Craft Centre First Floor Plan
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Reception Exhibition Area Male Toilets Paraplegic Toilet Female Toilets Lift Material Store Product Store Weaving Workshop Wiring Workshop Waste Craft Workshop Multifunctional Courtyard Pedestrian Street Potgieter Street Existing Buildings
16 17 18 19 20 21
– – – – – –
Meeting & Sitting Area Administration Sewing Workshop Jewellery Workshop Embroidery Toilets Double Volume
FIG 71 Craft Centre Section A-A
FIG 72 Craft Centre Section B-B
In the execution of the design proposal two options were investigated. The first, a direct, integrated approach relating to the current conditions, manifested itself as an extension and reinforcement of current activities. This option would have taken the form of a cluster of activities forming a cultural node within the historic fabric. The second possibility which emerged was that of an indirect, parallel development strung along a street with formal context-based links to the remnants of the existing urban fabric. The latter avenue was selected as it focused on a broader, more holistic perspective, which incorporated the historic, present and future contexts. It also promoted a greater area of influence for the project within the boundaries set by the context of the area. With this in mind the proposal can be described as embodying a link between existing and future development, incorporating public facilities catering for the primary cultural modes of expression in Marabastad. It took the shape of a cultural precinct, which would function as a transitional layer between the already-established commercial area and future development, tapping into the vibrancy and energy of the district, established by means of links to the existing historic fabric. It is important to state that the scheme will form part of a greater redevelopment strategy and that complementary and additional steps need to be taken in order for a sustainable, integrated redevelopment approach to be realised. This includes community participation in the execution of the idea; and further in-depth research and exploration concerning the various other completing layers of public infrastructure to be implemented in conjunction with the proposal. These include among other matters the elements of education, housing, health, and transport. The proposed redevelopment strategy will, it is hoped, help to reawaken the slumbering cultural heritage of Marabastad and restore it to its rightful place within the South African landscape.
AZIZ, TAYOB PARTNERSHIP ARCHITECTS & MEYER PIENAAR, TAYOB ARCHITECTS. 2002. Integrated Urban Design Framework for Marabastad. Unpublished Report. DAMIANI, G. 2003. Tschumi. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd. DEWAR, D & UYTENBOGAARDT, RS. 1991. South African Cities: A Manifesto for Change. Cape Town: Mills Litho. FALING, CW. 1997. Squatters in Marabastad: Complexities, Controversies and Contradictions. University of Pretoria: Unpublished BT & RP Thesis. FRIEDMAN, M. 1994. A History of Africans in Pretoria with special reference to Marabastad. UNISA: Unpublished MA Thesis. LOROTHOLI, L. 2005. Creative Expression Care Centre. TUT: Unpublished MTech Thesis. LYNCH, K. 1960. The Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press. VAN DER WALT, G. 1998. Marabastad, Fountain of life, A Diversity of Cultures Creating New Opportunities. Pretoria: Pretoria Inner City Partnership. Internet Sources: Department of Arts and Culture. http://www.dac.gov.za.htm. Accessed on 10 July 2006 The BAT Centre. http://www.batcentre.co.za. Accessed on 17 April 2006 Newtown Cultural Precinct. http://www.joburg.org.za. Accessed on 2 March 2006 Tshwane University of Technology. http://www.tut.ac.za. Accessed on 15 August 2006 University of Pretoria. http://www.up.ac.za. Accessed on 15 August 2006
LIBRARY CENTRE Primary Space
Control Counter Exhibition Space Open Access Information System
513 Children’s Collection Adult’s Collection Music Collection Reference Archives Services Areas (Photocopying, Catalogue searching station, Reading)
Multi Media Room
43 Lectures Video cassette/DVD Viewing
48 Printing Internet Search & Research Catalogue Reference Searching
462 Ablutions Stairs, Lift & General Circulation Kitchen & Staff Rest Room Storage
87 Main Librarian Library Assistants Computer Facility Manager Financial & Marketing Support Staff TOTAL AREA
MUSIC CENTRE Primary Space
Reception Waiting Area Exhibition Area Rehearsal Facilities
425 Foyer Individual Rehearsal Group Rehearsal Meeting/Sitting Room Kitchenette Administration
153 Broadcasting Studio Directors’ Studio Meeting Room Kitchenette Administrative Office Computer Room Equipment Store Administration Store
153 Recording Studio Meeting/Sitting Room Administrative Office Computer Room Equipment Store
213 Music Literature collection Sheet Music Collection CD/Tape Collection
MUSIC CENTRE [Continued] Primary Space
Music Library [Continued] Control Counter Administration Office Storage Service Areas
358 Ablutions Stairs, Lift & General Circulation TOTAL AREA
VISUAL ARTS CENTRE Primary Space
Reception Waiting Area Exhibition Space
104 Art Gallery Gathering & Evaluation Space
400 Graphic Art Painting Printing Still Life Theory
68 Lecturers’ Offices Support Staff Financial Administrator
719 Sitting Area Ablutions Stairs, Lift & General Circulation Kitchen Storage Maintenance Facilities TOTAL AREA
PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE Primary Space
Reception Waiting Area Exhibition Area Studios
756 Dance Drama Opera Multifunctional
132 Lecturer Offices Support Staff Financial Administrator
1343 Sitting Area Ablutions & Change Room Stairs, Lift & General Circulation Kitchen Props Store Sewing Room Dress & Makeup TOTAL AREA
CRAFTS CENTRE Primary Space
Reception Waiting Area Exhibition Area Workshops
648 Weaving Sewing Wiring Waste Craft Jewellery Embroidery
252 Sitting Area Ablutions Stairs, Lift & General Circulation Kitchenette Raw Material Storage Product Store Exhibition/Open Plan Studio
144 Management Staff Technical Staff Support Staff TOTAL AREA