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Strategies in Action

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Published by Just ASK Publications & Professional Development 2214 King Street Alexandria, Virginia 22301 Toll Free 1-800-940-5434 FAX 1-703-535-8502 email info@justaskpublications.com www.justaskpublications.com

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ŠCopyright 2009 by Just ASK Publications

All Rights Reserved

No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced, translated, or transmitted in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or any information storage system and retrieval system now known or to be developed except for non-commercial use in the districts of the practitioners whose work is represented in this text. Any other use of these materials requires written permission from Just ASK Publications & Professional Development.

Printed in the United States of America ISBN-13: 978-0-9797280-3-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2009925672 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Š Just ASK Publications, 2214 King Street Alexandria, VA 22301 www.justaskpublications.com (v) 800-940-5434 (fax) 703-535-8502


Strategies in Action

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ABC to XYZ Anticipation/Reaction Guide Artists in Residence Biopoems Cake Walk Checking for Understanding Class Mind Maps Complete Sentences Consensogram Corners Fact and Folklore Five Card Draw Formative Assessment Frame of Reference Framing the Learning Frayer Method Graffiti Graphic Organizers Grouping Strategies I Have the Question, Who Has the Answer? Inside-Outside Circles Interactive Notebooks Jigsaw Journals Learning Buddies Line-Ups The Look Numbered Heads Together Questioning Paragraph Predictions Pre-Assessment RAFT Ready…Rotate! Scavenger Hunt Signal Cards and Cups Sort Cards Sticks Stir the Class

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Table of Contents

1 3 7 8 9 10 14 15 21 22 23 23 24 29 31 33 34 39 41 42 45 48 51 53 56 60 61 62 64 65 66 69 75 77 78 80 85 88

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91 92 93 95 96 98 100 104 106 108 112 118 123 124

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Student Choice Talking Tokens 10:2 Theory Text Frames That’s True about Me! Think Alouds Think-Pair-Share Three-Column Charts 3-2-1 Tic-Tac-Toe Ticket to Leave Walking Tour Word Splash Word Walls

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Introduction This collection of classroom applications of strategies found in Why Didn’t I Learn this in College? and Instruction for All Students represents the work of thousands of educators across the country as they participated in multi-session workshops based on the above two books.

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The school districts represented in the April 2009 edition are: • Appleton Area School District, Appleton, Wisconsin • Greece Central School District, Greece, New York • New Bedford Public Schools, New Bedford, Massachusetts • New Trier High School Township District #203, Winnetka, Illinois • Prince William County School District, Manassas, Virginia • Public Schools of Northborough-Southborough, Massachusetts • Rush-Henrietta Central School District, Henrietta, New York • St. Vrain Valley School District, Longmont, Colorado • Weld RE-5J School District, Milliken, Colorado • West Irondequoit Central School District, Rochester, New York

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The following two pages present a table that cross-references the entries in Strategies in Action with the pages on which descriptions of the purposes, process, and application of the strategies appear in the two primary texts.

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The entries in this text are organized by strategy and then by level (elementary, middle, and high school) under each strategy. An attempt has been made to include a balance of elementary and secondary examples as well as entries representing the use of strategies with second language learners, accelerated learners, and students identified as needing special education services. All readers should send a special thank you to all the teachers represented here who used these strategies in their own classrooms and then analyzed and reflected on the implementation, effectiveness, and possible adaptations of these strategies. Their work and thoughtful analysis can help all of us help more students learn more, more of the time.

© Just ASK Publications, 2214 King Street Alexandria, VA 22301 www.justaskpublications.com (v) 800-940-5434 (fax) 703-535-8502


Strategies in Action

Cross-Referenced to Instruction for All Students and Why Didn’t I Learn This in College? Instruction for All Students

Why Didn’t I Learn This in College?

A-B-C to X-Y-Z Anticipation/Reaction Guide Artists in Residence Biopoems Cake Walk Checking for Understanding Class Mind Maps Complete Sentences Consensogram Corners Fact and Folklore Five Card Draw

119 110 129, 132, 183-188 X 93 154-156 X X X 90 109 97 57-62 17-18, CD-ROM 92 17, 66, 229-230 99-100

106 68 103 26, 70 87 140, 142-146 X 21 75 77 71 X 76, 138, 139, 140-158, 163, 174 47-52 123, 125 79-80 110, 118-121, CD-ROM 249-254

95, 155

85

93, 155 228 242-243 14, 143, 225-228 99-100, CD-ROM 101-102 X 103 157-158, 219, 231-239 X 88, 153 135-140, 183-194, CD-ROM

87, 123 83-84 105 81-82, 150, CD-ROM 252-253, CD-ROM 89 230 90 54-60 X 141 73-74, 102, CD-ROM

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23-24, 151-163

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Framing the Learning Frayer Method Graffiti Graphic Organizers Grouping Strategies I Have the Question, Who Has the Answer? Inside-Outside Circles Interactive Notebooks Jigsaw Journals Learning Buddies Line-Ups The Look Numbered Heads Together Questioning Paragraph Predictions Pre-Assessment RAFT

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Formative Assessment

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Strategy

© Just ASK Publications, 2214 King Street Alexandria, VA 22301 www.justaskpublications.com (v) 800-940-5434 (fax) 703-535-8502


Strategies in Action

Cross-Referenced to Instruction for All Students and Why Didn’t I Learn This in College?

79 26, 91-92, CD-ROM 144-145, 240 93-95 232, 251 96, CD-ROM X 256, CD-ROM 51, 82 116-117, CD-ROM 25-28 128, 134 98, 133, 142-143, 251 100, 123, 127, 150, 151, CD-ROM 99, CD-ROM 86 104 105 122, 125, 127 80, 122-123

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3-2-1 Tic-Tac-Toe Ticket to Leave Walking Tour Word Splash Word Walls

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92 104-105, CD-ROM 154 94, 155 X 106, CD-ROM 206-210, 212, 215 X 87, 263 X X 64 78, 88-89, 99, 112

17, 79, 88-89, 113, CD-ROM 114, CD-ROM 98 115 116-117 16-18 16-17

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Three-Column Charts

Why Didn’t I Learn This in College?

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Ready…Rotate! Scavenger Hunt Signal Cards and Cups Sort Cards Sticks Stir the Class Student Choice Talking Tokens 10:2 Theory Text Frames That’s True about Me! Think Alouds Think-Pair-Share

Instruction for All Students

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Strategy

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Graffiti

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Middle School World Languages: I used Graffiti with my 8th grade, Introduction for Language students. The topic chosen was French-speaking countries. The standards addressed were: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and perspectives of the French Cultures, and Students demonstrate an understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons between French culture and their own. The learning experience was very successful since students were able to relate the culture of the different countries, and they enjoyed their contributions to the different posters. In so doing, six posters with six different French speaking countries were displayed in the classroom. Students were grouped in fours and they had to move from poster to poster adding information or pictures about the different countries. Once students reacted to all the countries, posters were displayed and opinions were shared. Finally, students made use of all the information collected in the posters to prepare a brochure about one French speaking country. I believe that students and I learned a meaningful way to relate content following a creative, cooperative and purposeful way of learning. I also learned that the spiral strategy is useful when checking students’ learning and previous knowledge. Carla Lassus, PWCS, VA

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High School Science: I used Graffiti during our genetics unit right after the students had learned about DNA structure, replication, and protein synthesis. I used this strategy as a link between our last unit (reproduction) and the new one by including old material like mitosis and meiosis and asexual/sexual reproduction along with the new more difficult material. At the end of the Graffiti, the students had to take one poster they had created, evaluate all the information to make sure it was correct, and then summarize it on another sheet of paper. I also had them create three quiz questions from that poster which I used on a formative assessment. It went better than I expected. The students really needed the extra time to process the information and make connections that had not been previously made. They were also able to discuss and communicate with others and share their ideas about the topics. I learned that I need to keep students in small groups (preferably two), otherwise there tends to be one or two who take over while the others just sit back and watch. I would also do the summary piece again because that forces the students to evaluate whether the information was correct. This made the discussions quite interesting! I will definitely do this again when there are many topics that can be tied together, or things that are difficult that need more processing time. I will also try this with new topics that students do know something about coming in, like human impact on the environment. I want to continue to put together activities where students are forced to do work on their own. I want to plan units/lessons with the idea that if they feel it is important to them and affects them, they will be more engaged and willing to put forth the effort. Teri Marsh, GCSD, NY

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RAFT Elementary Role: Audience: Form:

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Physical Education You are the coach of a basketball team. Your team consists of twelve 5th graders. You need to devise a plan of drills to work on during practice along with a playbook full of your top-secret plays. Include plans for 10 two-hour practices. Meghan Dannehy, GCSD, NY

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Elementary Physical Education: Pretend that you want to get a pickle ball game together and you need to recruit players for your team. Create a persuasive poster to encourage others to join your team. Role: You are a pickle ball player Audience: You are trying to attract other players to join your team Form: A persuasive a poster to encourage others to come play pickle ball Time: April 2008 Kerri Sholette, GCSD, NY

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Elementary Science: I gave the following directions to my 3rd grade class: Directions: Your task is to complete a RAFT activity that will show your understanding of capacity (the volume of fluid a container can hold when full). Role: Bill Nye, the Science Guy Audience: Elementary students Form: A video that outlines the steps that need to be followed to find the capacity of an empty container. You will demonstrate the use the science tools necessary to accomplish this task Time: Opening night is two weeks from today Danielle Schulmerich, GCSD, NY Elementary Science Role: You are a scientist working for the town of Southborough. Your mission is to explore your neighborhood looking for signs of weathering and erosion. Audience: You will be presenting your findings at the next town meeting along with other scientists to determine the most common forms of erosion for our town. Form: Your data will be presented in scientific journals with illustrations and/or photos of your findings. Time: 2009-2010 David Finneran, Northborough/Southborough, MA

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Think-Pair-Share

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Middle School Language Arts: One of my biggest challenges in teaching middle school inclusion classes has been the “Daily Oral Language” we do as a warm-up each day. DOL, as we call it, is a great tool for review, re-teaching, and repetition of basic skills. Every year I tweak it a little to make it work for that year’s classes. This exercise takes about 20 minutes and involves two sentences, which are corrected for grammar and mechanics. The students take turns, we use the board, they take their own notes, and on Fridays they have an open note quiz. EASY! Wrong –this has been a struggle because of extremely low skill levels. So I decided to try the Think-Pair Share with this process. The procedure now is that two of the students correct the sentences, and then we go over the corrections as a group. Instead of doing both sentences, we now stop after discussing and dissecting one sentence. After a week of doing this, the students acted as if they had been doing this forever. The students are in groups and a little friendly competition has developed to see which group can come up with the most challenging point of the sentence. The best part of this is that the grades on the DOL quizzes have picked up. The classes are paying more attention to the information now. One day, I forgot to go to the discussion and one of the students reminded me. They can talk and learn at the same time! Roni Dorman, PWCS, VA

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High School ELL Math: This is my first year teaching in high school. I have always taught in either elementary or middle school before this. I am a veteran teacher but new situations sometime provoke feelings of doubt even about beliefs that are tried and true. Other teachers often remind me that high school is different than elementary school and that I cannot expect the same techniques to work in both places. Think-Pair-Share is one of my favorite strategies and I have used it with many different ages of students. One of my current classes is a basic algebra class for students whose first language is not English. Another teacher works with me in this classroom. We share a very similar educational philosophy. This class is wonderful to teach because the students are very engaged and ask a lot of questions and want to learn. Working together comes very naturally to them because the stronger students often help the students who are still struggling with English. My ESOL class took to this idea right away. It was competitive for them but in a very good way. We were working on simple algebraic equations. I would give everyone a problem and they would first work on it individually. After a few minutes, the students would look at the problem and their individual solutions together. If they agreed, they would talk about the steps they took to solve the problem. If they disagreed, they would discuss (sometimes with great animation) each of their methods for solving the problem. Many times there was the “aha” moment where they would figure out how the problem should be solved. My co-teacher and I were able to facilitate and let the learning happen rather than driving the class every minute. Lynn Nemerow, PWCS, VA

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Walking Tour

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Elementary Library: I adapted the Walking Tour into a Library Treasure Hunt, which I used at the end of a 2nd grade unit on locating library books independently. The Treasure Hunt followed other lessons on using call numbers and finding fiction using alphabetical order. Students are first introduced to this concept in the spring of 1st grade, when most of our kids have an understanding of alphabetical order and how to use it. So in 2nd grade, I taught several lessons which were a review for 2nd graders who really “got it” in first grade. For the other students, it was an introduction and an opportunity to practice developing a new skill. The lessons framed the learning by explicitly telling students that what they are about to learn/practice would soon enable them to find books on the shelf that they searched for on the computer card catalog. Most students were clearly motivated by this carrot! I described the activities as a game, which excited students, so they came to the task with enthusiasm. After the lessons on finding fiction (both picture and chapter books), which are shelved alphabetically using authors’ last names, and practicing with fiction only, I went on to explain call numbers and talked about locating nonfiction books. (This is a harder concept for this age group, since the Dewey Decimal system is a foreign language to most 2nd graders and isn’t formally introduced until 3rd grade.) At the end of those lessons, which were taught over a two to three week period, we played the game! I created 5-6 clues per student, each requiring them to find a book in a different section of the library. Each section was represented by a different color cue; e.g. biography clues were blue, chapter books red, etc. Each student had his or her tally sheet, which listed each color. As they found a book using one of their clues, they showed an adult both the clue and the book that matched and then were instructed to check off that color on their sheet. If the book was missing from the shelf, they received credit if they found the spot where the book would have been shelved. After checking off each color, the game was over. We did this over two weeks, so that each student had time to complete his or her sheet. Students who finished quickly went on to a challenge using the computer, looking up a book, and finding it on the shelf by themselves! The Treasure Hunt was an exercise in active learning that enabled students to both access prior knowledge and make connections between concepts. The students processed information and used what they learned in meaningful ways that promoted retention and transfer. This was an excellent activity for 2nd graders, because it was hands-on and motivating and challenged all learners in the class at some level. Jan Herzog, PWCS, VA

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Word Splash

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Elementary Science: I used a variation on a Word Splash by creating a poster to further my students’ understanding of weather-related vocabulary. I began by recording words that the students already knew on a chart. Next, I created a Word Splash-type poster. I wrote the word “weather” in the center. As a class, we completed a reading and whenever we came across a key word in our reading that had to do with weather, we wrote it on the poster at an angle in a different color. At the end of each lesson, we use the words we record on our Word Splash to discuss the information we learned. Now my students use Word Splash to create sentences using key terms. They use this kind of poster to map out their ideas for informational writing. This strategy has had a profound impact on their learning. I plan to continue to use it throughout the year with my 2nd grade class. Marne Robinson, PWCS, VA

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Middle School English Language Arts: I created a Word Splash to set a purpose for reading and get students interested in a short story that we were about to read. Although I was sure that the story would be a high interest piece (lots of gore, rats and sneaky tricks played on the teacher), I also knew that several of my reluctant readers wouldn’t even open the book. I wanted to compare this story to one we had read earlier and I needed students to do the reading. I put the Word Splash in which I put the most interesting words on the overhead. I had the kids work in a group and use all of the words to create a prediction about the story. What amazed me was the different scenarios that the groups came up with. There aren’t two that were the same! The other piece that I found interesting was how engaged the kids were. Once they shared their ideas, I had them follow along as I read the story. I had actually decided to read the entire thing, but we ran out of time (sharing gory dead mouse stories in 7th grade tends to take a while), so I stopped at the “The Great Mouse Plot.” You wouldn’t believe the shouts and complaints. They all wanted to know what happened. Out of 115 students, only about 11 didn’t finish the reading and turn the homework in. This was exactly the outcome I needed, because the next part of the assignment was to create a Venn Diagram comparing the plot elements of “Boy” with “The Endless Steppe”, two seemingly very different stories, with lots and lots of similarities. I think the students “bought in” so readily because they had ownership in their predictions, and also had their interest peaked prior to reading. Mary Shaffer, SVVSD, CO

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Why Didn’t I Learn This in College?


Srategies in Action Volume I