__MAIN_TEXT__
feature-image

Page 1

VOL.5 No.1, 2019. Terakreditasi Sinta 4

P-ISSN 2541-0229 E-ISSN 2541-0237

JOURNAL OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY, LITERATURE, AND CULTURE

SIA

English Education Department Universitas Advent Indonesia


Copyright Ă“ By LPPM, UNAI January, 2020 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced, Stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in Any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, Photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without Permission in writing from the publisher. PRINTED IN INDONESIA

INDEXED BY

Universitas Advent Indonesia Jurnal.acuity@unai.edu


Chief Editor: Caroline V.Katemba, PhD (TESL) – Universitas Advent Indonesia, BandungIndonesia ( Scopus ID: 57207466743), SINTA ID : 257167, https://scholar.google.co.id/citations?user=Axj2GukAAAAJ&hl=en

Peer Reviewers

1. Dr. Tanzil Huda Google Scholar profile Universitas Muhammadiyah Jember, Indonesia. Scopus ID: 57200408403 2. Bill G. Wullur MA (TESOL) Ph.D. Candidate - Curtin University, Australia, Scopus ID: 57188556492 , https://scholar.google.com.au/citations?user=iD71qg8AAAAJ&hl=en 3. Emmanuel Songcuan., Ph.D. Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University South La Union Campus Agoo, Philippines. Scopus ID: 56368590100. 4. Ronny Kountur, Ph.D. Asian-Pacific International University Thailand, Scopus ID:57191170029 5. Anne M Hendriks MM., Ph.D. Candidate, Adventist International of Advanced Studies, Philippines 6. Joseph L. Tobing MSc, Washington Adventist University, DC, United State of America 7. Debora C. Simanjuntak , MA.Ed, Universitas Advent Indonesia 8. Nur Hafiz Abdurahman, University of Leicester, U.K. 9. Pearl Villamarzo, Ph.D. (TESL) “ University of Santo Thomas, Manila-Philippines 10. Nelson B. Panjaitan, MA “ Universitas Advent Indonesia, (UNAI). Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?hl=id&user=pqRM8OsAAAAJ 11. Ronald Elicay, Ph.D. (Research) – University of Ateneo de Naga, Philippines 12. Linda Mallen, Ph.D. (TESL)- AMA Computer, Manila-Philippines 13. Jocelyn Ully L Tobing.BA.Eng, MA (English), Washington Adventist University, DC, United State of America 14. Wiji Zubaedah Lestari, Universitas Islam Nusantara (UNINUS), Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?hl=id&user=7C_neKsAAAAJ 15. Jenny Pakasi, Dip.TESL.MA, Universitas Sam Ratulangi Manado -Indonesia. Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?hl=id&user=yPdgDUIAAAAJ


16. Arnel Gonzala, Jiling University China 17. Marlin Marpaung, Universitas Advent Indonesia, Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?hl=id&user=xqZCq8kAAAAJ 18. Ian Kyle Wahagheghe, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), USA. 19. Joppy Rondonuwu, Universitas Klabat, Manado 20. Ate Gueen Simanungkalit, Ph.D. Universitas Klabat Manado. Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?hl=id&user=Akew5FUAAAAJ


Message from the Editor Welcome to the fourth issue of the ACUITY : Journal of English Language Pedagogy, Literature, and Culture (Jelpedlic). I want to thank the English teachers and students who have contributed to our this issue of the Jelpedlic 2020. This is the 3rd year Jelpdlic is accredited by Science and Technology Index (Sinta 4). Journal of English Language Pedagogy, Literature , and Culture (Jelpedlic) is the research journal for the Teaching of English, Literature & Culture. It publishes research-based articles, reviews and poems, which reflect on every aspect of English teaching. The journal also considers new developments in literacy, drama, film, literacy studies, literature, language, media, and new technologies as they pertain to the teaching of English. It also seeks to provide a forum for an open exchange of ideas, based on research and serious professional reflection on both the theoretical underpinning of practice and practical applications of theory. English Pedagogic welcomes contributions from all English teachers nationwide as well as fresh voices with something new to contribute to the community Cordially yours, Caroline V Katemba,PhD.


PEDAGOGY Mentoring Style, Self-Description, and Academic Achievement in English Class Ate Gueen Simanungkalit, Joppi Jacobus Rondonuwu, DOI : https://doi.org/10.35974/acuity.v5i1.2219 pp. 1-11 Building 10th Grade Students’ Vocabulary through Reading the Newspaper at SMK 45 Lembang Caroline Victorine Katemba, Rafael Randy Parilia, DOI : https://doi.org/10.35974/acuity.v5i1.1089 pp. 12-27 Enhancing Teachers’ Competencies through Professional Development Program: Challenges and Benefactions Dewi Listia Apriliyanti, DOI : https://doi.org/10.35974/acuity.v5i1.2042 pp. 28-38 A Comparative Study Between Frayer Model And Concept Mapping Strategy to Enhance Students’ Vocabulary Acquisition Nelson Balisar Panjaitan, Hana Monica Sihotang, DOI : https://doi.org/10.35974/acuity.v5i1.2221 pp. 39-66

CULTURE Tracing the Epic Tradition in The Fantaserye: GMA 7’s “Encantadia” As an Epic Ralph Edward Paulo Sekito, DOI : https://doi.org/10.35974/acuity.v5i1.2165 pp. 67-84


Mentoring Style, Self-Description, and Academic Achievement in English Class. Ate Gueen Simanungkalit, Joppi Jacobus Rondonuwu Faculty of Education, Universitas Klabat agsimanungkalit@unklab.ac.id DOI 10.35974/acuity.v5i1.2219

ABSTRACT The study intended to examine student mentoring, self-description, and academic achievement in a selected private university in Jakarta, Indonesia. There were 150 respondents in the study. The 2 instruments used for collecting data were adopted from Cohen (1995) for identifying the mentoring style of the mentors of the students, and from Marsh (1999) for identifying selfdescription of the students. The analysis of data employed descriptive statistics (independent t-test) as well as Chi-square, One-way ANOVA, and two-way ANOVA. The research inquiries focused on the following issues: (1) identifying the mentoring style, self-description, and academic achievement of the students; (2) the relationship of mentoring style, self-description, academic achievement, and demographic profiles; and (3) the interactive effects—individual and joint—of mentoring style, self-description, and student academic achievement. The findings of the study showed that 2 mentoring styles were predominant among their mentors: relationship emphasis and mentor model; students perceived themselves with a self-description focused on spiritual values, and students had high academic performance. Both male and female students perceived similar mentoring styles among their mentors, while, 1st year and 2nd-year students perceived mentoring style to be different among their mentors. In selfdescription, differences were found between genders while there was no difference found between 1st and 2nd-year students. There was no difference found between gender and year of study in the academic achievement, the students showed high performance. Mentoring style and self-description did not have a significant individual or joint difference in academic achievement. Since the students, as a whole had high academic achievement, this study seemed to suggest that the different mentoring styles did not have a difference in their academic achievement. However, that did not mean that mentoring did not work. On the contrary, it seemed that mentoring, regardless of style—based on the high academic achievement scores— did work. However, there was also the possibility that high achieving students might not need mentoring for improving their academic achievement. Keywords: mentoring style, self-description, academic achievement

INTRODUCTION Amid global competition in education, "teachers are thus instructed to better prepare students for the new world of work" (Flynn, 1995, p. 53). Indonesian colleges and universities, facing global competition in education, have been reported as being ranked as one of the lowest in their performance (Asiaweek, 2000). This makes Indonesia a particularly appropriate place to do this study since differences created by mentoring might be more visible. Also, Indonesian colleges and universities in some way could benefit or be challenged by the findings of this study, and it might help them improve in facing the global competition of education.


With the improvement of the student mentoring services and self-description, the students of the selected university, in particular, would be better guided or directed to achieve success in their academic and social life. As a result, the university would also benefit in terms of increase in student enrollment and proficient graduates, more specifically in curriculum awareness and students' holistic development. In general, other colleges or universities of similar characteristics might find the results of this study useful for their improvement. Student academic achievement, which is regarded as one of the major indicators of student success, has been traditionally associated with student mentoring and self-description, in spite of the controversial findings. It has also been identified as one of the relevant indicators of quality of schooling (Cleary, 2001). The present study primarily investigated student mentoring and self-description in a selected private university in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specifically, it examined the extent of the effect of mentoring style and self-description on student academic achievement. It also investigated the effect of mentoring style on student achievement based on self-description. Mentoring Experts on mentoring have identified various mentoring style. It is important to choose a style of mentorship that works best between the mentor and the mentee. A set of mentoring style suggested by Anderson and Shannon (1988) present a continuum that ranges from (1) directing (where the mentor tells the mentee exactly what to do in a situation; this type of mentorship is more formal) to (2) coaching (where the mentor gives suggestions and examples, encouraging the mentee to practice the lessons; the relationship between the two is friendly and rather casual) to (3) support (where both the mentor and mentee work together, with the mentee praising the mentee’s success experiences; the mentor may even assist the mentee with certain selected tasks) to (4) delegating (where the mentor gives more freedom to the mentee to work on his/her own with the mentor giving advice in certain crucial situations; the mentee is expected to make most of the decisions on his/her own). Another mentoring style that meets the needs of adult learners is suggested by Cohen (1995). He developed the following six discrete mentor functions, which he named the Principles of Adult Mentoring Scale: 1. Relationship Emphasis, in which the mentor genuinely understands and accepts the feelings of the mentee through active and empathetic listening. The purpose of this relationship is to establish a psychological trust in which they honestly share and reflect upon their personal experiences (negative and/or positive) as adult learners. In this case, the mentor is expected to practice skills such as (a) listening responsively, (b) understanding and using verbal and non-verbal reactions, (c) asking open-ended questions, (d) providing descriptive feedback based on the observation rather than inferences or motives, and (e) using perception checks to ensure comprehension of feelings. (Adapted from Cohen, 1995, pp. 20, 48) 2. Information Emphasis, in which the mentor offers suggestions or advice to the mentees about their current plans in achieving their personal, educational, and career goals. The mentor's advice is based on the information given by the mentee. In this case, the mentor is expected to (a) ask questions to understand the factual current condition of the mentee, (b) review relevant background to develop adequate personal profile, (c) probe questions which require concrete answers, (d) offer comments and solutions to the current problems, and (e) make decisions based on facts. (Adapted from Cohen, 1995, pp. 21, 60) 3. Facilitative Focus, in which the mentor facilitates the mentees through review and exploration of their interests, abilities, ideas, and beliefs relevant to academia or the workplace. The purpose of this facilitation is to assist the mentees in considering alternative views and options in making their own decisions. In this case, the mentor is


expected to (a) pose hypothetical questions to broaden individual views, (b) make assumptions based on experience and information, (c) offer multiple viewpoints before making decisions and choices, (d) examine the seriousness of commitment to goals, (e) analyze reasons for current pursuits, and (f) review recreational and vocational preferences. (Adapted from Cohen, 1995, pp. 22, 74) 4. Confrontative Focus, in which the mentor challenges the mentees' explanations for their decisions and actions concerning their academic development. This is to help mentees attain insight into unproductive strategies and behaviors and to evaluate their need and capacity to change. In this case, the mentor is expected to (a) assess carefully the psychological readiness of the mentee to benefit from different viewpoints, (b) reveal the possible negative consequences of constructive feedback on the relationship, (c) confront the primary goal of self-assessment of apparent discrepancies, (d) focus on most-likely strategies and behaviors for meaningful change, (e) use only the carefully stated feedback necessary for change, and (f) offer comments (before and after confrontative remarks) to reinforce belief in a positive potential for mentee future growth. (Adapted from Cohen, 1995, pp. 22, 91) 5. Mentor Model, in which the mentor shares appropriate life experiences and feelings as a role model to the mentees to personalize and enrich their relationship. The purpose is to motivate the mentees to make decisions and take the necessary action. In this stage, the mentor is expected to (a) offer personal thoughts and feelings to emphasize the value of learning from unsuccessful or successful experiences; (b) select relevant examples and experiences from his/her own life or other people's; (c) provide a realistic assessment and positive belief in the mentee's ability to attain goals; (d) express a confident view of appropriate risk-taking as necessary for personal, educational, training, and career development; and (e) encourage the mentee to act in order to attain the goals. (Adapted from Cohen, 1995, pp. 22, 107) 6. Mentee Vision, in which, the mentor stimulates the mentees' critical thinking concerning envisioning their future and to developing personal and professional potential. The purpose is to encourage the mentees to function as independent adult learners. In this stage, the mentor is expected to (a) make statements which require reflection on present and future educational, training, and career attainments; (b) ask questions to clarify perceptions about his/her personal ability to manage change; (c) review individual choices based on a reasonable assessment of options and resources; (d) make comments on the analyses of problem-solving and decision-making strategies; (e) express confidence in carefully thought-out decisions; and (f) encourage mentee to develop talents and pursue dreams. (Adapted from Cohen, 1995, pp. 23, 121). From a search of the literature (Cohen, 1995; Foster, 2001; Otto, 1999), the most common model of student mentoring is a one-to-one relationship between a more experienced mentor and a less experienced mentee, who needs the mentor’s support to achieve personal, academic and social development, and career goals. There was a variety in mentoring models, but the two basic categories of models related to student mentoring are formal and informal. Floyd’s (as cited in Brewster & Fager, 1998) three general types of mentoring might overlap with each other in a given student mentoring relationship. The present study focused on two of Floyd's three types of mentoring: academic and personal development mentoring, leaving aside the idea of career guidance mentoring since the respondents were the fulltime university students. It also explored mentoring style using Cohen’s six principles of adult learner mentoring.


Self-Description The terms self-esteem and self-concept which stand for self-description have been used interchangeably and inconsistently (Reasoner, n.d.; Strein, 1995), when they may relate to different ideas about how people view themselves. Self-description is the information that someone has about himself or herself, the perceptions of himself or herself which is based on experience and interpretations of the environment including ideas, feelings, and attitudes about self (Zahra, Arif, & Yousuf, 2010). Thus, self-description is the sum of both self-esteem and self-concept. The difficulty here is that the meanings of these terms have changed over time depending on the particular definition and measure used in the analysis. The global view of self-concept is self-esteem or general self-concept. It is an overarching, global characteristic of an individual or a set of self-evaluations specific to different domains of behavior. The famous Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (n.d.) is a very good example of showing the essence of the global self-concept idea. On the other hand, self-concept refers to a conscious, cognitive perception of how one sees oneself. So, it could be said that an individual had multiple self-concepts with academic, social, physical, and religious aspects (Reasoner, n.d.; Strein, 1995). Marsh, Craven, and Debus (1999) have developed three multidimensional measurements of self-concept based on the model proposed by Shavelson, Hubner, and Stanton (1976): SDQ I, II, and III. The SDQ-I questionnaire has been designed to measure multiple dimensions of selfconcept of preadolescent primary school students, SDQ-II for adolescent high school students, and SDQ-III for late adolescents and young adults. Each of the three instruments is made up of the following 13 scales: math, verbal, academic, problem solving, physical ability, physical appearance, same-sex peer relations, opposite-sex peer relations, parent relations, emotional stability, spiritual values/religion, honesty/trustworthiness, and general esteem. Self-concept is important because it is viewed as a desirable outcome of education (Snow et al., 1996; Tracey, 2002). When self-concept was improved, it would yield improvement in the student motivation for learning, and thus academic performance.

METHODS Research Design This is a cross-sectional survey research design. Data was collected through questionnaires in the same period. The study investigated the responses of college students to a questionnaire to determine their perceptions about mentoring practices and further to identify the practices and other background factors that were associated with establishing high self-description and high academic achievement. In particular, this study investigated the strength of associations among student perceptions of student mentoring, student self-description, and student academic achievement. Overall, several statistical tools were employed to answer the three research questions stated in this study. The statistical tools included descriptive as well as inferential statistics. Respondents The sample of this study was the undergraduate students enrolled for the second semester of school year 2010-2011 school year at a selected private university in West Indonesia. The university was selected purposively due to its mentoring program, an important criterion to serve the purpose of the study. This study conveniently selected students who were involved in the mentoring program. There were 400 questionnaires distributed equally to males and females (200 males and 200 females). Instrument The questionnaire consisted of the following sections: Respondent’s Identification Number, Mentoring Style Questionnaire, and Self-Description Questionnaire. The instrument provided to each respondent had a cover page, a letter to briefly describe the purpose of the study, and


instructions on how to complete the instrument. Since English is the medium of learning in the university where the respondents studied, it was not necessary to translate the questionnaire into the Indonesian language. The respondent’s Identification Data (ID) is needed because it would reveal the student's academic achievement. In the Mentoring Style Questionnaire, the responses to the questionnaire items were indicated by a 5-point Likert-scale with the following description: 1 (Never), 2 (Infrequently), 3 (Sometimes), 4 (Frequently), and 5 (Always). The mentoring questionnaire was about the way the respondents perceive the mentoring relationship. The mentoring style section was the instrument from Cohen’s (1995) Principles of Adult Mentoring Scale: Postsecondary Education instrument. It was designed to measure six behavioral factors with 55 items. The six behavioral functions were made up of the relationship emphasis (10 items), information emphasis (10 items), facilitative focus (6 items), confrontative focus (12 items), mentor model (6 items), and student vision (11 items). Cohen (1995) reported that the reliability coefficient of the whole original scale was .95, which meant that as a whole the instrument was used to measure the complete mentor role competencies. The self-description instrument was adopted from Marsh’s (1990a) Self-Description Questionnaire III (SDQ III) had 13 factors with 136 items. Ten of the 13 factors consisted of 10 items in each factor, and the remaining three of the 13 factors consisted of 12 items in each of the factors. The 10 factors with 10 items each were the following: math, verbal, academic, problem solving, physical ability, physical appearance, same-sex peer relations, opposite-sex peer relations, parent relations, and emotional stability. The three factors with 12 items each were the following: spiritual values/religion, honesty/trustworthiness, and general esteem. Negative and positive items were included in each scale. As a whole, the questionnaire was designed to measure how people describe themselves and to find the most important characteristics of how people thought and felt about themselves (Marsh et al., 1999). The reliability coefficient of the SDQ-III was high, with Cronbach alpha = 0.89 and the correlation coefficient between the factors was low, r = 0.09 (Marsh & O’Niel, 1984). An 8point Likert scale used in the original Self-Description Questionnaire III was indicated as follows: 1 (definitely false), 2 (false), 3 (mostly false), 4 (more false than true), 5 (more true than false), 6 (mostly true), 7 (true), 8 (definitely true). Data Analysis and Interpretation The data was analyzed by using the software StatistiXL to firstly find the frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation which described the respondents. In testing the hypotheses, inferential data analysis techniques of t-test, chi-square test of independence, and ANOVA were used. The chi-square test of independence was found to be suitable for this study of nominal variables—self-description, and mentoring style. If the sample data in the contingency table, the expected frequency count is less than 5, it must be removed, or the expected frequency must be 5 or more. In the data analysis where the expected frequency count is less than 5, it was removed. Levels of mentoring effectiveness were based on the mean scores of the students’ perception for each of the six factors as suggested by Cohen (1995). A score that fell in the category of not effective and less effective indicated a need for professional improvement. A score in the effective category indicated a general competency with opportunity for improvement, and very effective and highly effective as indicating positive mentoring behavioral competency (Cohen, 1995, p. 168).


RESULTS Pallant (2007) asserted that a two-way ANOVA can be used to “look at the individual effect and joint effect of two independent variables on one dependent variable” (p. 257). Hence twoway ANOVA was used to test the effect of mentoring and self-description on academic achievement. The results of this test will be presented as follows: The individual effect of mentoring style on academic achievement and the individual effect of self-description on academic achievement The Effect of Mentoring Style on Academic Achievement The null hypothesis was formulated and there was no effect of mentoring style on academic achievement and was also tested using a two-way ANOVA. Two-way ANOVA is appropriate when you have one measurement variable and two nominal variables. The assumption was variance was homogeneous among variables. However, since two-way ANOVA is robust, though heterogeneity, "variation among the results beyond that expected from chance alone" (Engels et al., 1999, p. 4) was found, it did not affect the result. For a 3 X 5 between-subject factorial, ANOVA was calculated to find out the effect of mentoring style on academic achievement. Out of the six categories of mentoring style, three categories were removed. This reduction of categories from six to three was due to few factors of mentoring styles in the removed categories. The remaining categories were mentor model (35), relationship emphasis (33), and information emphasis (22), which all in all had 90 respondents out of 150. The findings showed that there was no significant effect of mentoring style on academic achievement F(2) = 0.38, p = 0.68 (see Table 1). This indicates that none of the mentoring style had a different impact on the respondents’ academic achievement. Since the respondents had high academic achievement, one can assume perhaps that the different mentoring styles worked for these students. The effect of mentoring style on academic achievement was seen as not significant implying that the six categories in mentoring style did not make any difference in respondent academic achievement. No study was found that indicated the effect of mentoring style on academic achievement. The closest studies to this finding (Campbell & Campbell,1997; Lechuga, 2011; Santos & Reigadas 2005; Sorrentino, 2006) all show positive correlations between mentoring and GPA. Table 1. Test of Effects of Mentoring Style and Academic Achievement Source Mentoring style

Df

F

Prob.

2

0.384

0.682

The Effect of Self-Description on Academic Achievement It was hypothesized that there was a significant effect of self-description on academic achievement. The null hypothesis was formulated that there was no effect of self-description on academic achievement. The null hypothesis was tested using two-way ANOVA. The assumption was that variance was homogeneous among variables. However, two-way ANOVA was robust. For a 3 X 5 between-subject factorial, ANOVA was calculated to know the effect of selfdescription on academic achievement. Out of 13 categories of self-description, eight categories were removed. This reduction of categories from 13 to five was due to few factors of self-


description in the removed categories. The remaining categories were spiritual values/religion (34), parent relations (18), general esteem (16), physical ability (13), and same-sex peer relations (9), which all in all was 90 out of 150. The finding shows that there was no significant effect of self-description on academic achievement F(4) = 1.86, p = 0.13 (see Table 2). This indicated that none of the self-description affected the respondents' academic achievement. It implies that the way the respondents described themselves did not make any change in their academic achievement. Their academic achievement was still high. Table 2. Test of Effects of Self-Description and Academic Achievement Source Self–description

Df

F

Prob.

4

1.863

0.126

The Interactive Effect of Mentoring Style and Self-Description on Academic Achievement The final hypotheses highlighted the interactive effect of mentoring style and self-description on academic achievement and stated that there is no such interactive effect. The null hypothesis was tested using ANOVA and is described below. For a 3 X 5 between-subject factorial, ANOVA was calculated to know the effect of mentoring style and self-description on academic achievement. After removing three categories, the remaining categories were spiritual values/religion, parent relations, general esteem, physical ability, and same sex peer relations. The findings show that there was no significant interactive effect of mentoring style and selfdescription on academic achievement F(8) = 0.67, p = 0.72 (see Table 3). This indicates that neither the mentors’ mentoring style nor the respondents’ self-description affected the respondents’ academic achievement. It implies that respondents were already smart, even without mentoring style or ability to describe themselves. The mentoring style and the way they describe themselves did not make a difference to their academic achievement. Table 3. Test of Effects of Mentoring Style and Self-Description on Academic Achievement Source Mentoring style*self-description

Df

F

Prob.

8

0.666

0.720

DISCUSSION As one of the significant indicators of student success, student academic achievement has had contentious findings related to student mentoring and self-description. This present study was an endeavor to investigate student mentoring and self-description about student academic achievement in a selected private university in Jakarta, Indonesia. Undergraduate students enrolled for the second semester of school year 2010—2011 at a selected private university in Indonesia were the population for this study. The purposively chosen university closely followed a mentoring program, which was an essential criterion for this study. The students were selected using convenience sampling and numbered 400 (200 males and 200 females). During the research procedure of data gathering and data processing,


some respondents were eliminated as outliers. The final number of respondents used for the statistical analysis was 150 with 100 females and 50 males. The three parts of the instrument were information about self (the demographic profiles), mentoring style which was adopted from Cohen (1995), and self-description which was adopted from Marsh (1990a). Mentoring Style of Cohen (1995) contained six factors with 55 items was used to study the variable of mentoring. The SDQ III of Marsh (1990a) had 13 factors with 136 items and was used to study self-description. Due to some limitations of this study, several recommendations are made for further studies: 1. Use purposive sampling for selecting the respondents than by other sampling types to get individuals with certain selected criteria with mentoring. Fraenkel and Wallen (2003) specified that in purposive sampling the researchers "use their judgment to select a sample that they believe, based on prior information; will provide the data they need" (p. 105). Even though in purposive sampling there is weakness in the researcher's judgment, a proper number of respondents can be directly taken based on the need for the study. 2. For improved outcomes, the administration of the questionnaires needs to be reconsidered. Attention must be given so that respondents can clearly understand the items in the questionnaire, feel more comfortable during the process of filling out the questionnaire, and have enough time to answer the questionnaire. 3. Select a larger population for the study that includes several tertiary institutions where mentoring is practiced. Generalization can be more definitely possible with much larger groups. 4. In this study, it is not clear whether it is mentoring that helped to produce high achievement. Taking tertiary institutions with lower academic admission criteria to see the effect of mentoring on academic achievement would be helpful to find this.

CONCLUSION Several significant findings were identified in this study. Mentoring style, the focus of this study, was investigated from the vantage point of the students, the mentees, unlike most studies that reported the data from the mentors themselves. That the students in the study showed high academic achievement pointed out different possibilities about the mentoring style. One possibility is that students achieved well whatever the mentoring style of their mentors be, proving that mentoring style seems to have differentiated and inclusive characteristics. In other words, mentoring helps in high achievement through the use of different mentoring styles of the mentors or it does not matter at all when the students are really good in academic achievement. This would be true if the academic achievement was proven to have improved compared to before mentoring. But this study did not focus on that aspect. Therefore, the other possibility could also be true. That is, the students in the mentoring program started as high achievers and remained so in spite of the different mentoring styles. Whichever it is, the findings are significant, and for high student achievement is the acid test of quality education. Therefore, this study indicated that mentoring is a practice that must be encouraged in tertiary levels, whatever the mentoring style of the mentors.

REFERENCES Flynn, P. (1995). Global competition and education: Another sputnik? The Social Studies, 86(2), 53-55. DOI: pdf/10.1080/00377996.1995.9958370


Asiaweek. (2000). Asia’s best universities 2000: Overall ranking. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/ASIANOW/asiaweek/features/universities2000/schools/multi.o verall.html Cleary, T. S. (2001). Indicators of quality. Retrieved from http://www1.scup.org /downloads /portfolio/SCUP-TOC-Assessment-Quality.pdf Anderson, E. M., & Shannon, A. L. (1988). Toward a conceptualization of mentoring. Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 38-42. Cohen, N. H. (1995). Mentoring adult learners: A guide for educators and trainers. Malabar, FL: Krieger. Foster, L. (2001, March). Effectiveness of mentor programs: Review of literature from 1995 to 2000. Retrieved from http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/01/04/01-004.pdf Otto, P. E. (1999). Mentors and mentoring: A classic concept comes of age. Retrieved from http://www.foodproductdesign.com/archive/1999/0599rd.html Brewster, C., & Fager, J. (1998). Student mentoring. Retrieved from Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory’s Information Service Web site http://www.nwrel.org/mentoring/pdf/mentoring.PDF Reasoner, R. (n.d.). What is self-esteem? Retrieved from International Council for Self-Esteem Web site: http://www.self-es-international.org /content/1-what_is.htm. Strein, W. (1995). Assessment of self-concept. ERIC Identifier: ED389962. Retrieved from http://www.ericdigests.org/1996-3/self.htm Zahra, A. T, Arif, M., & Yousuf, M. I. (2010). Relationship of academic, physical, and social self-concepts of students with their academic achievement. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 3(3), 73-78. Retrieved from http://journals.cluteonline.com/ index.php/CIER/article/view/190 Marsh, H. W., Craven, R., & Debus, R. (1999). Separation of competence and affect components of multiple dimensions of academic self-concept: A developmental perspective. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu .au/99pap/deb99416.htm Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., & Stanton, G. C. (1976). Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research, 46, 407-441. Snow, R. E., Corno, L., & Jackson III, D. (1996). Individual differences in affective and conative functions. In D. C. Berliner, & R. C. Calfee (E.Ds.), Handbook of educational psychology. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster Macmillan. Tracey, D. K. (2002). Self-concepts of preadolescents with mild intellectual disability: Multidimensionality, measurement, and support for the big fish little pond effect. Retrieved from http://self.uws.edu.au/Theses/Tracey/Chapter3.pdf Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual. Berkhire, England: McGraw-Hill. Engels, E.A. Schmid, C.H., Terrin, N., Olkin, I., & Lau, J. (1999). Heterogeneity and statistical significance in meta-analysis: An empirical study of 125 meta-analyses. A technical


report, Department of Statistics, Stanford, California. Retrieved from http://www.stat.standford.edu Campbell, T., & Campbell, D. (1997). Faculty/student mentor program: Effects on academic performance and retention. Research in Higher Education, 38(6), 727-742. DOI: 10.1023/A:1024911904627 Lechuga, V. (2011). Faculty-graduate student mentoring relationships: Mentors’ perceived roles and responsibilities. Higher Education, 62(6), 757-771. DOI: 10.1007/s10734011-9416-0 Santos, S. J., & Reigadas, E. T. (2005). Understanding the student-faculty mentoring process: Its effects on at-risk university students. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice, 6(3), 337-357. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov/ ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0 =EJ683630&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ683630 Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education (5th ed; international edition). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. Sorrentino, D. M. (2006). The SEEK mentoring program: An application of the goal-setting theory. Journal of College Student Retention, 8(2), 241-250. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICE xtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ744662&ERICExtSearch _SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ744662


Building Grade 10 students’ Vocabulary Achievement Through Reading the News Paper at SMK 45 Lembang Caroline V Katemba1, Rafael R Parillia2 Corresponding author: Caroline (linakatemba@gmail.com) Universitas Advent Indonesia1 Attila Management, Flow Health & Mitigate Cyber Services, CA. USA2 DOI 10.35974/acuity.v4i2.1089

ABSTRACT Using the newspaper as a medium of learning English is a unique way to stimulate students’ interest in reading, since students at this age is a student who has dropped their interest in reading. Therefore, the researchers decided to use the newspaper as a medium to build students’ vocabulary. Researcher chose participant in the study of class XB and XE in SMK 45 Lembang. The school gave these two classes as the sample, because believed that each class has the cognitive abilities and knowledge that are relatively equal. In this study, researchers randomly selected from among the two classes used as a sample for the Control and Experimental Class. As the result, researchers found class X E as Control class, and X B as an Experimental class. The study lasted for a full month, in which each class received different treatment. As a result, the Gain value of Experimental class is higher than the Control class. Moreover, based on the result of the data analysis with the Mann-Whitney U test method, it showed that that there were significant differences in Students’ Vocabulary growth, between Control class and Experimental class. Based on the calculation of Non-parametric MannWhitney U test, the gain data between Experimental Class and Control Class show the value of Asymp Sig. (0.000), Zα (0.05) and the value of Z (4.847). Z α (1.96). Therefore, it can be concluded that the method of using newspaper as a teaching material has a positive impact in the absorption and growth in students’ vocabulary. Keywords: vocabulary achievement, reading, newspaper

INTRODUCTION “Now a days, the mastery of English competence is needed in facing the globalizations era. That makes the government of Indonesia do some efforts. One of them is by promoting English as a local content at elementary school, to start the proficiency of English from the early age. Therefore in Indonesia, English is viewed not only as an indispensable vehicle of access to scholarly disciplines but also as a mediun for international commnications as mentioned by Katemba (2013). Today, there are many problems in education. The problems occur no only in terms of the government’s limited funds to provide adequate facilities for the school and students, or the moral decline of students, which recently became widespread in media discussion because of frequent fights among school students, but also from what might be considered important by most people, that is about the students’ interest in reading especially reading when then text


is written or printed in English. This problem actually will have a considerable impact on the continuity of education, especially in Indonesia. One of the consequences of the reading problem it will decrease student’s interest in a literary quality. The researcher’s argue is that it is impossible for someone who has not no interest in reading, will have a good insight in education. This will lead to poor quality of the paper to be produced, because a little insight will influence the content and scope of the writing itself, especially in English language education. Furthermore, the researcher assumes that the lack of insight into a particular student in English, due to lack of vocabulary that is owned by the students. As explained above, the lack of insight due to student disinterest in reading will result in a lack of quality writing produced. Well, the poor quality of the writing is the result of lack of vocabulary owned by a student or a writer. For example, according to Time4writing.com that the researcher cited on November 18, 2012 depicts a writer as a mechanic. In addition, every good mechanics definitely have a mailbox full of tools. Some tools are more commonly used more that others are, but of course, each of those tools has a specific purpose. It has the same idea with the chef who has a lot of menus and ingredients that contained in the menu. Some ingredients are more commonly use than other ingredients, but each ingredient has a specific purpose, such as the use of chili intended to make the food spicier and people who eat it will be more excited. In much the same way, writer or student has a “recipe”. This “recipe” is continually increasing and filled with items like grammar, punctuation, and other things, especially vocabulary. Just as a good chef can choose the right groceries or ingredients to make a tasty food even more tasteful or delicious, a good writer can choose the right words to make their writing even more “tasteful”. Moreover, one “recipe” that can “flavor” the writing is a strong vocabulary. Time4writing.com stated that people use either spoken or written words every single day to communicate ideas, thoughts, and emotions to those around us. In addition, the most important thing to make them successful in conveying their ideas is vocabulary. When students face a writing assignment, a good vocabulary is an important tool. If they have several synonyms in their repertoire (“recipe”), they will be able to choose the best word for the job. For example, if students use a word like “stuff” or “things’, when they write an essay, then their writing will become ‘tasteless’ or flat. Here is an example: @Poor: People do a lot of things @ Better: People perform a lot of tasks That is why the researcher argues that it is impossible for them to have a good “recipe” if they do not have an interest in reading. One cause of the lack of student interest in reading is because they spend more time to other things that they consider more attractive. One of them is to open social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter. It cannot be denied, that there are also important and actual information that these sites provide, but they usually did not read it. Based on the data that the researcher gets from Ipsos survey on October 4, 2012 it was stat that there are 64 percent’s habits of internet users aged 15-29 years in Indonesia, just open the social networking site to chat with friends and update their status. Therefore, in the researcher’s opinion, one way to build vocabulary is to get them interested in reading. One good medium for students to read is the newspaper, either the printed or online newspapers on the internet or what we now call e-Paper or electronic newspapers. The reason why the researcher chose newspapers a s medium to attract interest in reading for students, especially to build their vocabulary, is that the newspapers have many advantages over printed books or textbooks. One of the advantages of newspapers that a printed book is a material that is always updated everyday, while the printed book is to be revised every five years. Moreover, newspapers serve us with all kinds of news. People can understand the newspaper because they have a general capability of a language. Anisha (2011) stated that it is quite possible to teach English with the help of the Newspaper.


We can use the language written by experts in the newspapers to teach and improve language, especially to build students vocabulary. According to Anisha (2011), teaching through newspapers is effective because they stimulate content learning and improve language skills. At this time, the newspaper has been used widely in many countries as one instrument in teaching the English language, as it is considered more economical than textbooks and LKS (students” worksheet), which trigger high school students to be indolent in reading. Some articles on education in Indonesia have recently argued that the LKS triggered students to be lazy in reading. LKS is a summary of some of the lessons at the same time also contents sheets questions that should be done by the students. In the research’s opinion, the reason why LKS cause students to be lazy to read a printed book is because LKS provides the instant information that the students needed in their lessons. This makes the students become accustomed to instant information and felt that was enough information for them to do the tasks given by the teachers, without the desire to underrated the lesson deeper. This is one of the factors that cause shallow understanding of the students in their lesson. Atmojo (2011), in his article said that LKS reduce the thought ability of the students. Another article on Malang-Post.com also show the same idea that LKS gives the student instant information without giving them a chance to evaluate and conclude the lesson by their own. It makes the student to just memorize the lesson but not comprehend the lesson. Back on the newspaper agaub, Anisha (2011) stated that newspapers are a flexible and adaptable learning resource that can be used effectively in almost all subject and in any instructional situation. Newspapers are much more current than course books as they make an excellent springboard for lessons, and they reargue different types of language (arrives, stories, problempage letters, advertising, reports, weather forecasting, horoscopes, spiritual nuggets, reviews, etc.). This makes the newspaper has many advantages when compared to textbooks, because the newspaper proved many up-to-date references. Moreover, there is always a place in newspaper columns to add interesting information and replace the old columns of the newspaper with the new one in order to adjust the reader’s desire. Research Question Based on the background that the researcher described, the researcher wishes to make a comparison between learning English by using regular methods and learning English by using the newspaper as a learning tool and material. In addition, based on this conceptual background the question can be formulated as follows: Is there a significant improvement in student’s vocabulary achievement after using newspaper as teaching material? Obviously, the question will be examined by conducting a paired samples t-test. The researcher will also dispose of learning methods that will use the newspaper as learning material tot eh fullest, and not just as reading material. Purpose of the study In general, the purpose of this research is to search for more information on vocabulary mastery by using newspaper as a teaching material in Grade 10 students, in order to know exactly the extent of use off newspaper as a teaching material is able to provide an improvement in student’s vocabulary. This study especially intended to identify the known vocabulary at


grade 10 before using the newspaper as teaching material. Also, it analyzed the extent to which an increase in vocabulary of Grade 10 students through newspaper use as a teaching materials Significance of the Study Theoretically, this research is expected to contribute to the application of the theory of the use of newspapers as teaching materials, especially in learning English as a foreign language for Indonesia students. In this study also, it can be concluded that the use of newspapers as teaching materials, can provide benefits to the advancement of language, especially in English education. In practical, the results of this study are expected to provide benefits to students, teachers and researchers who discuss the same thing. This study benefits the following: a. For Students: It is expected to help students learn vocabulary in a way that is good and fun through the newspaper. b. For Teachers: the results of this study are expected to provide a better understanding of the advantages of learning vocabulary by using newspapers as teaching materials. c. For the Schools: This research is expected to urge the schools to provide high quality literature in schools, and to make a requirement for students to read at least the daily newspapers and at least two books in a semester. d. For other Researchers: this study can be used as a reference in conducting other study to get a better in a different level of students to get a better result. This study is expected to give inspiration for English teachers to encourage students to refamiliarize reading as a critical need, especially in improving vocabulary of the students. Scope and Limitation This study focuses on examining the impact of the grade 10 students in reading the newspaper, as an instrument and learning the English language, especially for the development of their vocabulary by using the newspaper as a learning tool. The researcher examined the effects of grade 10 students to read newspapers in grammar and other areas in learning English. Hypothesis The hypothesis of the study is constructed as follow: Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant improvement in student’s vocabulary achievement after using newspaper as teaching material đ?œ‡ Experimental class = đ?œ‡ Control class Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): There is a significant improvement in student’s vocabulary achievement after using newspaper as teaching material?


METHODS Research Design This study was carrying out with two groups pre-test and post-test design. In this experimental research, the implementation of using newspaper as a teaching material (independent variables) was monitor, and the impact of using Newspaper as a teaching material (dependent variables) was measure. The vocabulary points in this research are English Academic situation. The method of this study using the pre-test and post-test, where one sample was gave a treatment. A pre-test and post-test are designed to be different. Pre-test was use to measure and equalize the two group’s prior knowledge while the post-test is used for developmental differences in the two groups after the experimental group was given a treatment. The design of experiments is presented in the following table. Table 1 Group

Pre-Test

Experimnet

T1

Control

T1

Treatment

Post-Test

X

T2

O

T2

Experimental design Description: X = Using Newspaper as teaching material O = Not getting treatment (Normal class) T = Test in the same proportion Population and Sample According to statistic Glossary, Population is the total of individual occupying an area or marketing up a whole. The population in this study was all students in grade 10 at SMK 45, Lembang in 2012-2013, which consists of 2 classes (84 students). According to Statistic Glossary, Sample is limited number of observations selected from a population on a systematic or random basis, which (upon mathematical) yield generalizations about the population. This means that sample is the entities or observations randomly selected to represent the behavior and characteristic of the entire group (batch, group, population, or universe) they are associated with or from which they are dawn. Sampling in this study has done purposively, and obtained samples of two classes, Class 10 B and 10 E. This is done so that students as sample are students who are taught by the same teacher in order to assure that both sample have the same level of knowledge and cognitive ability. Class X B used as an experimental class that receives a treatment of Newspaper, while class X E used as a control class that receives a conventional methods.


Location and Time of the Study The researcher was conducted his study at SMK 45, Lembang during the second semester of 2012-2013 school years. The samples was selected from two classes of the grade 10 students, which is experimental class that use newspaper as teaching material and control class that use the traditional method. The experimental class was get the treatment as usual schedule i.e. on Wednesday at 16:00-17:00, and Thursday at 16:00-17:00 Variables and Research Instruments The variable in this study, consisting of the independent variable, and dependent variable. The independent variable is the variable that affects or the cause. The independent variable in this study is a method of learning vocabulary by using the newspaper. The dependent variable is a variable that is a result of a cause. The dependent variable in this study is the result or the learning outcomes by using newspaper as teaching materials. The research instrument is a data collection tool that was used to get the data in the study. The instrument used in this study is a test of student learning outcomes in the form of Multiple-Choice, and Matching-Point. Ten questions are included in Multiple-Choice and fifteen questions for Matching-Point test. One point was given in Multiple-Choice section for each question and two points was given in Matching-Point section, so the maximum score for the test is 40 points, and both the Pre-Test and Post-Test have same number of questions, which is 25 numbers. Each correct answer was being given 1 score and incorrect answer was bee given 0 score. The data was collect at the beginning (pre-test) before giving a treatment and at the end of the study (post-test), after giving the treatment. Data gathering procedures Data collected in the study was done by: Observation Observation was done to retrieve the data of students from the school in connection with the determination of the sample and the population. The observations in the form of the number of populations and samples, a list of students, duration of student learning, teachers who teach in schools, and the availability of facilities to support this research. The results of the observations is as the researcher expected, where there are adequate facilities such as LCD Projector and other learning tools that helps student to learn and absorb lessons maximally. Testing procedures The test is a series of questions or exercises and other tools used to measure skill, knowledge, intelligence, ability, or talent possessed by individuals groups (Arikunto, 2006). Test methods used to obtain data on student learning outcomes in the experimental group and the control group, which carried out the pre-test and posttest. In giving the test to the sample, the researcher used Two ways, namely multiple choice, and matching. Pre-Test In Pre-test step, the researcher has given 25 questions that consisting of 10 Multiplechoice questions and 15 Matching questions. Questions were taken from PTK Guru SMK, which have been standardized. As mentioned previously, the purpose of the Pre-Test is to know and measures the capabilities of both samples, and ensure that both groups have the same ability. The ascertainment of their capabilities and knowledge was intends to make sure that these two classes have value homogeneity.


Treatment In giving the treatment, the researcher was use six methods gradually in each meeting for one month. Therefore, each method that was use was apply intensively and in accordance with the curriculum in order to assure that both samples get the same materials but with different methods. Below are six methods that was use as treatment to increase student’s vocabulary that has discussed in the previous chapter. a. Identify the noun d. Words and advertisement b. Sports glossary e. Daily puzzle c. Look a say f. Comic, and caricature Methods a, b, c, d, and e, was gave in class hour in 60 minutes and was matched with the applicable curriculum or has been used this time, while methods f was given as homework. Post-Test At the end of research, the research gave the students the Post-Test, that also Consisting 10 Multiple-Choice questions and 15 Matching-Point. The questions of Post-Test retrieved from Bank Soal SMK Grade 10 that has been standardize. The Post-Test was given in order to measure how well the students engross the lessons during the treatment. Therefore, the questions that has given to both samples, is the questions that have the same amount and level of difficulty with the pre-test. Data analysis In this study, the data was obtained from the experimental class and the control class after class of the data is obtained, then the steps taken are as follows: a. Tabulating the data obtained b. Finding the mean value of each class Normality Test In testing the normality of the data that has been collect, the researcher has used the method of Shapiro-Wilk. Shapiro-Wilk method using a database that has not been processed in a frequency distribution table. The data has been sorted, and then divided into two groups to be converted in the Shapiro-Wilk. Transformation can also be continued in the Z value can be calculated for an area of the normal curve. Here is the formula: &

đ?‘‡% = ' [ ∑+*,& đ?‘Ž* (đ?‘‹./*0& - đ?‘‹* ) ]2 Description: D = According to the formula below = Coefficient of Shapiro Test X1 = The First number on the data

X

D = ∑.*,& (đ?‘‹* - X)2 Description: Xi =The i number on the data, where, =Data Average 6789: G = đ?‘?. + đ?‘?. +1n ( &/6 ) 7

Description: G =Identical with Z value that normally distributed


T3 =According to the above formula Bn, cn, dn =Conversion of Shapiro-Wilk that close to normally distributed Gain Test (Improved learning outcomes) According to Savinainen & Scott (in Subbagyo, 2006), a score of pre-test and post-test that shows mastery of concepts can be analyzed to determine the gain or improvement by using the formula: Normalized gain (g) =

đ?‘?đ?‘œđ?‘ đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ąđ?‘’đ?‘ đ?‘Ą đ?‘ đ?‘?đ?‘œđ?‘&#x;đ?‘’ − đ?‘?đ?‘&#x;đ?‘’đ?‘Ąđ?‘’đ?‘ đ?‘Ą đ?‘ đ?‘?đ?‘œđ?‘&#x;đ?‘’ đ?‘šđ?‘Žđ?‘Ľđ?‘–đ?‘šđ?‘˘đ?‘š đ?‘ đ?‘?đ?‘œđ?‘&#x;đ?‘’ − đ?‘?đ?‘&#x;đ?‘’đ?‘Ąđ?‘’đ?‘ đ?‘Ą đ?‘ đ?‘?đ?‘œđ?‘&#x;đ?‘’đ?‘ 

As has been describe earlier, the maximum score of the test is 40 points, so the formulation of the Gain is as follow: Normalized gain (g) =

STUVVWUV UXTYW/SYWVWUV UXTYW Z[ /SYWVWUV UXTYWU

Savinainen & Scott classifies gain as follows: g = height: g>0.7;

g = Medium 0.7>g>0.3

g = low: g<0.3;

Hypothesis testing The hypothesis to be tested is: Ho = Îź1 = Îź2 & Ha = Îź1â&#x2030; Îź2 Whereby: Îź1: average normalized gain experimental class student learning outcomes Îź2: average normalized gain control of a class of student learning outcomes The statistic technique that was use to test this hypothesis is the analysis of the two-tailed test. The purpose of this test is to examine differences in the man values of two independent samples that representing the two populations. Mann-Whitney U test was use on ordinal data (data in the form of rank). If the data is in interval/ratio form, it needs to be change first into the ordinal data form (rank). Actually, if the data in form of ratio/interval and normally distributed, the researcher can use the independent sample t test, but in this case, the assumption of the t test was not met, because the data are not normally distributed, therefore, the researcher uses MannWhitney U test. In general, the unpaired test is using unpaired Wilcoxon test, if the data to be processed are not eligible for the t test or Wilcoxon unpaired f. The unpaired Wilcoxon test can also be approximated by Z test (normal approach), this has been done by Mann and Whitney in 1947, Dodge (2013). This test method known as the Mann-Whitney unpaired test, which seeks to approach the mean and standard deviation of the normal distribution (n1<n2) by the following formulas: Âľ=

.&(.&0.20&) 2

Îą=\

.&.2(.&0.20&) &2

đ?&#x2018;?^ =

6/_ `

Whereby T is the number of the ranking of the first treatment) T1) or second treatment (T2). In between T1 and T2 there is a relationship of equality, namely: T1 = n1(n1+n2+1)-T2 If Z<ZÎą=0.05), then Ho is accepted (P>0.05) If Z>ZÎą=0.05), then Ho is rejected (P<0.05)


Ho (2006) stated that the Mann-Whitney U test is a nonparametric test that use to find the significance difference between two samples when the data does not meet the assumptions for using thee t test. It is often used in place of the t test for independent groups when there is an extreme violation of the normality assumption or when the data are scaled at a level that is not appropriate for the t test.

RESULT AND ANALYSIS OF DATA Data obtained from the research is the value of Pre-Test of experimental class (Appendix 1), the value of Pre-Test of the control class (Appendix 1), the value of Post-Test of experimental class (Appendix 1), and the value of Post-Test of control class (Appendix 1). The results of tabulation of the four data can be seen in the table. Based on the calculation of the average and standard deviation of student learning outcomes has gained an average of the results of an experimental study of a class of student, for the Pre-Test the result is 25.44, and for the Post-Test the result is 27.79. While the average outcomes Control class student for PreTest is 24.60 aimed for Post-Test is 26.90. After that, the researcher has done the normality test on each of these data. Normality test Normality test is done by using thee Shapiro-Wilk method with significance level Îą=0.005 (Table 3-8). The results of calculations of data normality test Pre-test and Post-Test control and experimental classes can be seen in the table below. Table 2 đ??&#x160;đ??¨đ??Ľđ??Śđ??¨đ?? đ??¨đ??Ťđ??¨đ??Ż â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??&#x2019;đ??Śđ??˘đ??Ťđ??§đ??¨đ??Ż đ?&#x2019;&#x201A; Pre-test Statistic Experimental Class .091

Shapiro-Wilk Df 43

Sig. .200*

Statistic .981

Df 43

Sig .689

Normality Test of Pre-Test of Experimental Class Data from Pre-test Experimental normally is distributed, because the Shapiro-Wilk table show the significance value (0.689)>Îą (0.05).

Table 3 đ??&#x160;đ??¨đ??Ľđ??Śđ??¨đ?? đ??¨đ??Ťđ??¨đ??Ż â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??&#x2019;đ??Śđ??˘đ??Ťđ??§đ??¨đ??Ż đ?&#x2019;&#x201A; Pre-test Statistic Experimental Class .098

Shapiro-Wilk Df 43

Sig. .200*

Statistic .981

Df 43

Sig .687


Normality Test of Post-Test of Experimental Class Data from Post-test Experimental normally distributed, because the data in the table show the value of the Shapiro-Wilk significance is (0.687) >Îą (0.05) Table 4 đ??&#x160;đ??¨đ??Ľđ??Śđ??¨đ?? đ??¨đ??Ťđ??¨đ??Ż â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??&#x2019;đ??Śđ??˘đ??Ťđ??§đ??¨đ??Ż đ?&#x2019;&#x201A; Pre-test Statistic Experimental Class .175

Shapiro-Wilk Df 43

Sig. .002

Statistic .924

Df 43

Sig .008

Normality Test of Gain of Experimental Class Data of the Gain from the eexperimental class shows that it is not normally distributed, because the table above on Shapiro-Wilk show the significance is (0.008) <Îą (0.05) Table 5 đ??&#x160;đ??¨đ??Ľđ??Śđ??¨đ?? đ??¨đ??Ťđ??¨đ??Ż â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??&#x2019;đ??Śđ??˘đ??Ťđ??§đ??¨đ??Ż đ?&#x2019;&#x201A; Pre-test Statistic Experimental Class .175

Shapiro-Wilk Df 43

Sig. .002

Statistic .175

Df 43

Sig .008

Normality Test of Post-Test of Control Class Data of the Control Classâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pre-Test is not normally distributed, because on the ShapiroWilk table the value of significance is (0.008) <Îą (0.05). Table 6 đ??&#x160;đ??¨đ??Ľđ??Śđ??¨đ?? đ??¨đ??Ťđ??¨đ??Ż â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??&#x2019;đ??Śđ??˘đ??Ťđ??§đ??¨đ??Ż đ?&#x2019;&#x201A; Pre-test Statistic Experimental Class .171

Shapiro-Wilk Df 41

Sig. .004

Statistic .921

Df 41

Sig .007

Normality Test of Post-Test of Control Class Post-test data of the Control Class is not normally distributed, because the ShapiroWilk table show the value of the Significance is (0.007) <Îą (0.05).


Table 7 đ??&#x160;đ??¨đ??Ľđ??Śđ??¨đ?? đ??¨đ??Ťđ??¨đ??Ż â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ??&#x2019;đ??Śđ??˘đ??Ťđ??§đ??¨đ??Ż đ?&#x2019;&#x201A; Pre-test Statistic Experimental Class .124

Shapiro-Wilk Df Sig. 41 .113

Statistic .873

Df 41

Sig .000

Normality Test of Post-Test of Control Class The Gain data of the Control Class is not normally distributed, because the ShapiroWilk Table show that the value of the Significance is (0.000) <Îą (0.05). Gain Test (Improved Learning Outcomes) Gain test has been conducted on the experimental class and the control class based on the Value of Pre-test and Pro-test that was obtained on each class. Based on the results of the calculation of Gain Test student (Table 9 & 10), the researcher has obtained an average score gain for the experimental class is 0.176, while the average gain for the control class is 0.137. Gain value on each class proved as not normally distributed based on the results of Normality Test from Experimental and Control Class (Table 6 & 8), so the researcher must use the Mann-Whitney U test to test the hypothesis that had been developed previously. Below are the brief results of the Gain Test between each class: Pre-Test 24.6098

Table 8 Post-Test 26.902439

Table 9 Pre-Test Post-Test Gain 25.44186047 27.79069767 0.176145279

Gain 0.137073905

Control Class

Experimental

Class

Hypothesis Testing Because it proved that the value of the gain of the students do not normally distributed, The researcher had to perform hypothesis testing by using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test Two-tailed test method. The result calculation Mann-Whitney U Test table can be seen below.

Testing Methods Mann-Whitney U Wilcoxon W Z Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

Table 10 Gain 340.000 1201.000 -4.847 Value p.000

Based on the calculation of Non-Parametruc Mann-Whitney U test, the gain data between Experimental Class and Control Class show the value of Asymp Sig. (0.000) <ZÎą (0.05) and the Value of Z (4.847)> ZÎą (1.96). It means that there is a significant difference in vocabulary


Improvement between Experimental Class and Control Class. The data indicates that the Z value is in the area where Ho is rejected, where Z (4.847)> Zα (1.96). It means that the learning outcomes of the Experimental class are higher than Control Class. From this data, the researcher can conclude that The Method of Buildings Student’s Vocabulary achievement through reading the Newspaper has a positive impact on the learning outcomes of the syudents. Answering the research question and hypotheses Researcher has made the following statement to answer the research question that has Been formulate in chapter 1: Is there a significant improvement in student’s vocabulary achievement after Using newspaper as teaching material? Based on the result of the hypothesis testing analysis, the researcher can briefly answer that there is significant improvement in the Experimental student’s vocabulary achievement after using the newspaper as their teaching material than using conventional methods in control class. The researcher also has made the following statement as a proof in answering the threePaired hypotheses in chapter 1: 1. Null hypothesis (H0): μexperimental class = μ control class Based on the result of the data analysis in table 11, the researcher can conclude that the Null Hypothesis is rejected, and the Alternative Hypothesis is accepted, because there is a significant difference in student’s vocabulary growth after using newspaper as a teaching material among class 10 student’s of experimental class and controlled class in SMK 45, Lembang. 2. Null Hypothesis Null Hypothesis (H0): μexperimental class post-test = μ control class post-test Based on the data analysis result (Appendix 1 & table 8, 9), the researcher can state that there is significant difference is in the post-test between the experimental group and control goup after using the newspaper as a teaching material. 3. Null Hypothesis (H0): μGain of pre-test= μGain of post-tets Based on the data analysis in Gain test, the researcher can conclude that there is a significant difference between the averages of pre-test and post-test of the two classes.

FINDINGS After processing the data, and objectively observe the experimental class sample, the Researcher found several points, namely: 1. Results in learn English, especially in the Vocabulary of the students who were learning Through reading newspaper in class X B Business Management, SMK 45 Lembang 2012/2013 before being given treatment, has a Pre-Test value of 25.441, and after a given Treatment, the average Post-Test of the students is 27.790, with a gain average (improved


Learning outcomes) at 0.17 (Height Category) 2. Results of the Control class on learning English, especially in the Vocabulary development of the students who were given conventional learning in the class X E businnes Management SMK 45 Lembang 2012/2013 before being given treatment has an average score of Pre-Test 24.609, and after treated the average Post-Test of the Control Class is 26.902; with the gain average 0.13 (height category) 3. Learning outcomes in building Vocabulary trough Newspaper as a medium has positive Effect. 4. Student of SMK 45 Lembang have a fairly extensive vocabulary, and meet the demands of applicable curriculum.

CONCLUSION The results of the data analysis based on the data that researcher get from Pre-Test and Post-Test shown that there is an increase of the student’s vocabulary achievement on Experimental class from Pre-Test value 25.441 to 27.790 in Post-Test value, with a gain average (improved learning outcome) at 0.17 (Height Category). Whereas, the results of the Contol class on learning English, especially in the Vocabulary developmant of students who were given conventional learning before get treatment has an average score of Pre-Test 24.609, and after treated as usual, the avergae Post-Test of the Control Class is 26.902; with the gain average 0.137 (height category). However, based on the Mann-Whitney U test, in comparing the gain of the two classes shown that there is a significant difference between the improvement of using a conventional or traditional method and using newspaper as their teaching material. Therefore, based on the results of the data analysis and interpretation in table 10, in Answering the researcher questions that stated: “Is there a significant improvement in student’s Vocabulary achievement after using newspaper as teaching material?” The researcher can certainly conclude that the Methods in Building Student’s Vocabulary Achievement through Newspaper have a positive impact on the class 10 SMK 45 Lembang in Academy year of 2012/2013, and fit for use as a method to build vocabulary students in grade 10

REFERENCES Anisha, Phil, M. (2011). Teaching Vocabulary through Newspaper Advertisements: An Innovative Experience. Retrieved from www.languageinindia.com, Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow, Volume 11 : 11 November 2011 ISSN 19302940 Arikunto, S. (2006). Prosedur Penelitian, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Atmojo, Mobit W., (2011). Pentingkah LKS (Lembar Kerjaa Siswa) di Sekolah?. Retrieved from http://edukasi.kompasiana.com/2011/10/10/pentingkah-lks-lembarkerja-siswa-di sekolah-400224.html


Katemba, C., V. (2019), Students’ Vocabulary Enhancement at Grade 10: A Comparative Study Using CALL & MALL in Indonesia. CALL-EJ, 20(1), 87-114. http://callej.org/journal/20-1/Katemba2019.pdf Katemba C, Hulu G (2013). Comparison of Grammar Translation Method and Eclectic Method in Ewnhancing Students’ Vocabulary Achievement. Journal of education and Practice. ISSN 2222-1735 (paper) ISSN 2222-288x (Online) Vol 4 No.5. Katemba C (2013). Anxiety Level of Indonesian Students and Its Relationship To Academic Achievement In English. Journal of Education and Practice. ISSN 22221735(paper) ISSN 2222-288x (Online) Vol.4 No. 27.


Enhancing Teachers’ Competencies Through Professional Development Program: Challenges and Benefits Dewi Listia Apriliyanti IKIP Siliwangi apriliyanti.dl@ikipsiliwangi.ac.id DOI 10.35974/acuity.v5i1.2042

ABSTRACT Teachers’ professional development program is considered to play an important role in enhancing teacher competencies. An observational case study is conducted to observe teachers’ learning process and teachers’ outcomes after learning on the program. Five English teachers who have participated in the professional development program in Indonesia and passed the teachers' competency test in the program have become key informants of this research. The objectives of the research are to investigate the learning process on the program and challenges faced by the teachers in implementing their teaching knowledge and outcome of teachers after participating in the program. The research has found three essential findings. First, the research found that pedagogic competencies and professional competencies have become the basic formulation for learning materials that are taught in the program. Second, the research found four obstacles and challenges to implement teachers’ knowledge from the program in their classroom, for instance, innovative teaching methods and creative lesson designs. Third, the investigation also discovered the challenges and the benefits in the implementation of professional learning development as one of the solutions in enhancing English teachers’ competencies in Indonesia. Furthermore, this research recommended the stakeholder to consider the financial aspect and the demography aspect in the implementation of the professional teacher development program. Keywords: English teacher; teachers’ Competencies; learning; professional development

INTRODUCTION Nowadays, the discussion of education has become an endless hot topic because education is the main foundation in forming the characters of nations (Fullan, 2001; Apriliyanti, 2018). In nurturing dignified nations, the main pioneer is needed as the key successor in the education process itself (DiPaola & Walther-Thomas, 2003). In this case, teachers are considered as the main agent to guide the generation of a nation towards a better direction (Fullan, 2001). Hence, discussions related to education cannot be separated from the topic of discussion related to the teachers. Besides, the success of an education system cannot be separated from the quality of the teachers themselves. In other words, the qualities of education process outcomes are closely related to the qualities of teachers when the learning process happens. Also, the industrial revolution 4.0 has an impact on the advancement of education that is required teachers to be more enterprising in developing their qualities so that they are not left behind by the revolution progress on education. Lifelong learning not only applies to students but also applies to teachers who are evolved from subject material sources to lifelong


learning teachers. This is a demand that is increasingly imposed by teachers but has a positive impact on the quality of the teacher's output itself. Speaking of teachers’ qualities, Stronge (2018) argued that the teachers’ qualities should cover five specific characteristics of teacher responsibilities and behaviors as follow: (1) the teacher as a good personality representation; (2) the teacher as a good classroom manager and organizer; (3) the teacher as a good instructor; (4) the teacher monitors students’ progress and potential; (5) the teacher possesses professionalism. Besides, Goldberg (2003) mentioned that to be great teachers, they should have certain qualities, namely, willingness to put learning in the necessary time, love for the age group they teach, and effective classroom management style, positive relationships with their colleagues, consistent excellence, expert use of instructional methods, in-depth content knowledge, and steadiness of purpose a teaching personality. In other words, teachers’ qualities should cover four main competencies, namely teachers’ competencies in the pedagogic aspect, personality, social, and professional to become great teachers. Moreover, stakeholder of educational policy has regulated teachers for being competent teachers to update the quality of conventional systems. In regulation law No. 14/2005 and law attachment No. 55/2017 (MENRISTEKDIKTI, 2017), stated that teachers in Indonesia should hold four competencies, namely, pedagogical competencies which cover classroom management and organizing, personal competencies which cover teachers’ personality as role models and inspirations, social competencies which cover teachers’ skills to be socialized with the colleagues and other school members, and professional competencies which cover teachers’ professions as academic figures. Based on law attachment No. 55/2017 formulated that teachers’ four competencies are inseparable from teachers’ ability to deliver learning material that is integrated with science, technology, and arts (MENRISTEKDIKTI, 2017). The framework of this regulation in detail will be discussed in the English teachers’ competency framework and the aforementioned regulation will become this research foundation in formulating research instruments. Both experts’ theories regarding teacher qualities and the standard regulations that are regulated by education stakeholders in Indonesia is formulated to enhance the quality of teachers and play an important role in the progress of a nation. Regulations are intended to meet the educational needs that are currently integrated into the industrial revolution where teachers are expected to literate in technology and more innovative teaching methods (Sangrà, 2010; NETP, 2017). Unfortunately, to change the pattern of teacher teaching habits in traditional ways such as the lecture method and the use of non-digital media, more time and effort is needed. Plenty of English language teachers in Indonesia are X generation category where the generation is not digital native generations. Thus, professional development training is important in efforts to enhance the qualities of teachers whose qualities meet the standard regulatory criteria in law attachment No.55/2017. Hence, the Minister of Education and Culture (later on MOEC) as the stakeholder in education policy in Indonesia organizes teacher training program as an effort to accelerate the number of competent teachers in teaching. They consider that this training can contribute greatly to enhancing the quality of teachers. Based on the aforementioned arguments, this research is carried out in investigating whether the activities and outcomes of this training is by the expectations in terms of benefits to conduct the teacher training program as a means of enhancing teacher competencies and challenges faced by teachers whilst implementing the teaching knowledge after the program. Therefore, this paper will discuss in detail the findings from the field facts carried out on a teacher training program in 2017. The framework and research methods that are used will be discussed in the following section.

32


LITERATURE REVIEW 1. English teacher competencies Competencies are defined as “the set of knowledge, skills, and experience necessary for future, which manifests in activities” (Katane et. al., 2006, p.44; Apriliyanti, 2018). Regarding the teachers’ competencies, in Law No. 14/2005, competence is defined as "a set of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that have to be owned lived, and controlled by teachers or lecturers in performing professional duties." In other words, competence can be interpreted as the capability that must be possessed by teachers to be able to perform and accomplish their duties well. In line with attachment law No.14/2005, Schnekenberg & Waildt (2010) stated that academic staff—teachers—in this digital era should hold four competencies, namely pedagogical competence, personal competence, social competence, and professional competence. Pedagogical competence refers to the ability to plan the learning activity, to manage the learning activity and evaluating the learning activity (Apriliyanti, 2018). In detail, according to Law attachment No.55/2017 stated that pedagogical competence is “a set of knowledge, attitude, and skill in designing, planning, scoring and evaluating the teaching and learning activity” (MENRISTEKDIKTI, 2017). Personal competence is the capability of a stable personality, noble, wise and dignified as well as being exemplary learners (Undang-Undang No. 14 Tahun 2005 tentang guru dan dosen). Teachers also acted as a learning agent in which the role of the teacher as a facilitator, motivator, encouragement, learning planner, and learning inspiration for students (Apriliyanti, 2018). Meanwhile, Social competence is the capability of teachers to communicate and interact effectively and efficiently with learners, fellow teachers, parents/guardians of learners, and school community (Apriliyanti, 2018; Undang-Undang No. 14 Tahun 2005 tentang guru dan dosen). The meaning of professional competence is the capability of English subject mastery widely and deeply (Apriliyanti, 2018; Undang-Undang No. 14 Tahun 2005 tentang guru dan dosen). Also, professionalism in English teachers is the interconnection of all domain, namely, language ability, cultural understanding, instruction ability included planning for the standardsbased EFL and content instructions—, and classroom-based assessment for EFL (Kuhlman & Kneževic, 2017). There are at least four characteristics of a professional teacher. First, English teachers can give the instruction. Second, English teachers have to improve students' English skills and students' English competencies. Third, English teachers have to be proactive and innovative in the classroom situation. Fourth, teachers are good role models for their students. In fulfilling their obligations as teachers, teachers should provide their extra time to improve their competencies as professional teachers. The characteristics of each competency in this research are extracted into four conditions, namely preparation before teaching, core activity of teaching and learning, assessment and evaluation of the learning outcome, and teachers’ personality as presented in Figure 1.

33


Learning preparation

Teachers' Personality

Pedagogy Personal Social Professional

Teaching and learning process

Learning outcome

Figure 1. Teacher Competency Framework in this research (Adapted based on Law No. 55/2017) 2. Professional learning development Training is a central feature of most social sector development efforts. The Training program gives a good impact on teachers’ improvement (Wati, 2011). Wati (2011) found that English training programs were effective in improving teachers’ beliefs but Basic English knowledge. She claimed that English teachers need long term training to be a useful forum for effective English teachers. Educational training provides the trainers who are helped the trainee to enhance their ability to be more productive in teaching behaviors (Katane, 2006; Apriliyanti, 2018; Fullan, 2001). Fulan (2001) argued that "significant educational change consists of changes in beliefs, teaching style and materials which can come about only through a process of personal development in a social context" (p. 124). Impact Measurement Center stated that ‘English as a Foreign Language training program can change a school or company’s culture for the better and it can show how much is the improvement after training’ (cited in Apriliyanti, 2018). Therefore, teacher training is the program which helped the teachers to improve their ability to be better teachers in personal attitude and to advance their knowledge in English subject.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This research is a part of broader research ranges of teacher training program evaluation (Apriliyanti, 2018). This research employed a qualitative method with observational case study as a design of this research to capture and to understand the behavioral changes of person under investigation and observation in its natural or real-life settings (Creswell, 2012). The research data is gathered by using non-participant observation, legal documents, and interview.

34


Figure 2. The design used in this research (adapted from Miles & Huberman, 1994; Creswell, 2012) To investigate the challenges experienced by teachers in implementing the knowledge and methods they obtained during the training program, a semi-structured interview was conducted on the five key informants (see table 1). The aspect of which is questioned in this investigation is the teachers' teaching experiences after attending PLPG including the experiences in developing lesson plans, teaching and learning activities, and their problem solving while the teaching activities after PLPG. The primary key informants were five English teachers at senior secondary public and/or private schools who have similar characteristics. They have a bachelor's degree in English education (S.Pd.) and have passed the national examination (UTN) of competence test of professional learning development program (later on PLPG) in 2017. The entire key informant names are kept confidential due to research ethics. The characteristics of the key informants is presented in table 1.

KI ET-01

ET-02

ET-03

Table 1. Key Informant Characteristics G D/C TA TE TCT Male S1 12 years (2-year 77 - Homeroom English Teacher of 12 IPA while he was a Education college student & 105 - English Teacher for year after graduation of S.Pd.) 12th grade Female S1 - Staff of the 17 years 77.8 English curriculum division Education - Homeroom Teacher of 12 - English Teacher Subject for 10th to 12th grade Female S1 - Homeroom 11 years 77.3 English Teacher of 12 IPS 3 Education - English Teacher subject for 10th and 12th grade

35


ET-04

Female S1 English Education

ET-05

Female S1 English Education

Abbreviations: KI = Key Informant D = Degree TE = Teaching Experience

12 years - Homeroom Teacher - English Teacher Subject for 10th and 11th grade - Vice Principal of 10 years Public Relations - English Teacher subject for 11th grade

77.8

77.7

G = Gender TA = Teaching Assignment TCT = Teacher Competence Test score

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 1. Enhancing Teachers’ Competencies through Professional Development Program Based on the results of research, the research findings will be elaborated in two parts, namely, the learning grid applied to professional learning development programs for English teachers in Indonesia and challenges faced by teachers in applying the knowledge gained during learning. a. English teachers’ learning grid on a professional development program Observation and document analysis has been carried out in one of the professional learning development programs implemented by the Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC), in Indonesia, namely PLPG (Education and Training for the Teacher Profession). The training program in enhancing teacher competencies has been conducted for two months— online mentoring and 100 hours of lessons on face-to-face mentoring. The findings of this study found that of the four teacher competencies mandated by Law Attachment No.55/2017— pedagogical competencies, personal competence, social competence, and professional competence—, two main competencies were used as the basis for formulating the learning grid materials lecturing in the training, namely, pedagogical competence and professional competence. The summary of the learning materials is presented in table 2. Table 2. Training materials in PLPG 2017 Main Training Platform Training Materials Competence Form Pedagogic Online ksg.kemdikbud.go.id The materials cover teachers' skills of: mentoring (exclusive learning - understanding the students’ platform; user id characteristics; and password - learning theories; needed) - 2013 curriculum; - designing the learning activities; - learning media and tools; - designing the lesson plan; - learning holistic assessment and conducted an action research

36


Face to Convenient training face place in Bandung mentoring

- Provided the deepening explanation of training materials in practice; - professional guidance in all workshop; - and peer-teaching simulation. Professional Online ksg.kemdikbud.go.id English subject materials of logical mentoring (exclusive learning connector, modality, text and non-text, password; user id notice and announcement, discussion, and password advertisement, description, news item, needed) narrative text, hortatory exposition, critical reading and writing with its references Face to Convenient training - deepening the materials from the face place in Bandung module in online mentoring mentoring - discussion forum with the expert instructors about how to teach the English materials well; - deepening the English material subject for both oral text and written text based on the grade level of formal school; - demonstrating the proper method and approach to teach the materials in the class to attract the students in the classroom. Although theoretically, there are only two competencies taught by instructors to English teachers, however, the other two competencies—personal and social competence—are indirectly acquired by English teachers during the program. This evidenced during the training, the role model shown by the instructor influencing English teachers to become better teachers. Whereas socially, English teachers who took part in PLPG 2017 built the networking among English teachers from various institutions by joining discussion groups on social media platforms and exchanging information regarding the conditions of their schools. b. Teachers’ challenges in implementing their knowledge after PLPG The aspect of which is questioned in this investigation is the teachers' teaching experiences after attending PLPG including the experiences in developing lesson plans, teaching and learning activities, and their problem-solving while the teaching activities after PLPG. The investigation found that in designing lesson plans, teaching and learning activities, and their problem-solving process, teachers faced challenges and difficulties during their implementation as follows; 1) Difficulty in determining the appropriate teaching approach for teaching English materials that could interest the students In designing lesson plans for teaching, based on the interviewed, teachers sometimes experienced hardships in designing teaching methods that could attract students' interests. The diversity of students’ backgrounds and the ability to comprehend basic English is mostly low, is the most difficult challenge for teachers to be able to make them to enjoy learning English. Besides, majority of the students in this study claimed that learning English is difficult, so this is the teacher's main task to break that negative mindset about learning English.

37


Additionally, implementing a new approach or teaching method is not easy. Even though the teachers received training materials related to how to make an interesting English classroom, but the investigation found that the majority of English teachers in this research have failed to implement it. Three of the teachers used the conventional methods in teaching English, such as in lecturing. The students did not actively participate in the learning activities as observed, it is because the lesson is not interesting to them and that the teacher was not able to improve her/his teaching skill although she/he has joined the training program. This is because of the administrative burden on these teachers in this study is more time consuming than the time teachers use to formulate effective and efficient teaching methods. In other words, no matter how good the material provided during the training, this will not have any effect on the ability of the teacher if not given enough time to absorb the knowledge learn and apply it in the actual context. 2) Difficulty in determining appropriate English teaching material to meet students’ needs Of the five teachers who were key informants, one of them was an English teacher at the vocational school. The learning topics and competency standards in the 2013 curriculum, for both senior secondary level (SMA) and vocational school (SMK) have the same topics. Even though the needs of each school type are different. As in the case of ET-04 key informants. Students are intended to get a job after graduation. While still using the KTSP curriculum, ET04 suggested that it was easier to adjust the English materials with materials needed in the world of work later such as writing job applications using English, or how to deal with interviews in English. However, in the 2013 curriculum, English subject matter in SMK is synonymous with English language material in high school. Learning achievement was equated as well as in the senior high school. 3) General obstacles faced by the teachers in teaching English as a foreign language in their schools This research found that English teachers found three major obstacles in teaching English as a foreign language in their schools. The obstacles are motivating students to learn enthusiastically, teaching the proper English pronunciation and considering to enrich students’ English vocabulary. 4) The challenges in publishing a scientific paper In the criteria of professional competence in law attachment No.55/2017, it is mentioned that one of the measured indicators for being a professional teacher professional is by publishing a scientific work from the results of classroom action research. The research found that from the five key informants, no one had published a paper. Nonetheless, two of the key informants (ET-04, ET-05) stated that they were drafting the results of their class-action research. And one key informant (ET-04) expressed his desire to continue to the Master's level of education. 2. Challenges of implementing Professional Development Program in Indonesia The implementation of a professional development program in Indonesia has been through various transformation phases from 2006 to 2017, for instance in the PLPG program, as a means to enhance teachers’ competencies. However, the challenges have been found during the transformation phases. For instance, in the middle of 2017, the government announced a teacher-training program (later on PPG) for in-service teachers instead of the PLPG teacher training. The in-service teachers’ PPG activities are held in 2018. Plenty of teachers opposed this governments’ decision. One of the factors is training costs. Unlike PLPG,

38


in which all training costs has paid by the government, the cost of PPG development program will be charged to the teachers. Another factor is training duration. The duration of the PPG professional development program is longer than PLPG. Such conditions will have a negative impact on teachers who teach in private schools in remote areas far from universities designated by LPTK. On the one side, if in-service teachers want to participate in the program as their effort to enhance their competencies, they have to dismiss teaching sessions because of the distance from the college. A substitute teacher is needed for this dilemma situation as well. However, if their learning session in the program has completed, then the substitute teacher has to stop teaching. If it will be done online, it is necessary to reconsider the quality of the signal network for teachers at the border. This problem should be reconsidered for the stakeholders in organizing the program for a better quality of teachers trained.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Based on the research findings and discussion, this research summed that English teachers have faced the obstacles while teaching and learning process. Then, they enhanced their competencies as English teachers by learning new knowledge on the professional development program to help them encounter obstacles in the teaching process. The facilities and time experiences in learning and practicing have become two of their reasons for the failure in implementing the innovation in the teaching process. However, the awareness in learning new knowledge has arisen in themselves for further following up after the program. The professional development program is perceived to be beneficial in enhancing the teachers' competencies. To implement a professional development program, the stakeholder should consider the following two aspects, the financial aspect, and the demography aspect. Firstly, in the case of the training costs, training costs should not entirely charge to the teacher. The conditions of teachers in Indonesia does not equal, economically and demographically. PPG program should be free of charge for those who are teaching in private schools whose teachers' incomes are low from teaching and for schools located in 3T areas. It is intended that there is equal distribution of quality of education for teachers teaching in low school income. In terms of demography, the mentor should have come to give the lecture for teachers who are teaching at the border area. If the teachers have to follow PPG at the chosen university, it will be difficult for the teacher to join the activity because they will leave the class for a long period. This also applied to teachers who are far from the training location. Thus, teachers will not be hesitated about attending PPG.

REFERENCES Apriliyanti, D. (2018). English Teachers' Competences on PLPG (An Evaluative Study Based on Kirkpatricks' Model). Jakarta: Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah Dan Keguruan UIN Syarif Hidayatullah. Creswell, J. (2012). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches/ 4th edition. Boston: Pearson Educations Inc. DiPaola, M. F., & Walther-Thomas, C. (2003). Principals and Special Education: The Critical Role of School Leaders. Fullan, M. (2001). The New Meaning of Educational Change. Routledge. Goldberg, M. F. (2003). The Qualities of Great Teachers. Dalam M. Scherer, Keeping Good Teachers (hal. Chapter 26). VA: ASCD.

39


Katane, I. e. (2006). Teacher Competence and Further Education as Priorities for Sustainable Development of Rural School in Latvia. Journal of Teacher Education and Training. Kuhlman, N., & KneĹževic, B. (2017). EFL Professional Teaching Standards. VA: VA: TESOL International Association. MENRISTEKDIKTI. (2017). Lampiran Peraturan Mentri Riset, Teknologi, dan Pendidikan Tinggi RI No. 55 Tahun 2017 tentang Standar Pendidikan Guru. Miles, M., & Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook (2nd. Ed). London: Sage. NETP. (2017). Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education: 2017 National Education Technology Plan Update. U.S.: Office of Educational Technology. SangrĂ , A. (2010). The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Improving Teaching and Learning Processes in Primary and Secondary Schools. ALT-J, 207-220. Schneckenberg, D., & Wildt, J. (2010). Understanding the Concept of e-Competence for Academic Staff. -. Stronge, J. H. (2018). Qualities of Effective Teachers. ASCD. Umachandran, K. J., Ferdinand-James, D., Said, M. T., & Rashid, A. (2018). Gearing up education towards Industry 4.0. International Journal of Computers & Technology, 7305-7312. Undang-Undang No. 14 Tahun 2005 tentang guru dan dosen. Wati, H. (2011). The Effectiveness of Indonesian English Teachers Training Programs in Improving Confidence and Motivation. International Journal of Instruction, 79-104.

40


A Comparative Study Between Frayer Model And Concept Mapping Strategy to Enhance Students’ Vocabulary Acquisition Nelson Balisar Panjaitan, Hana Monica Sihotang Corresponding Author Nelson( sonnelunai@yahoo.co.id ) Faculty of Education,Universitas Advent Indonesia DOI 10.35974/acuity.v5i1.2221

ABSTRACT This study intends to find out what is the initial knowledge of the students before they were treated using Frayer Model and Concept Mapping Strategy, ascertain of the significant difference between these two teaching strategies, and to know the responses of the students after they were taught using Frayer Model and Concept Mapping Strategy are the aims of this research. This is a quantitative study with comparative design to know the students’ vocabulary acquisition test. The research instrument of this study is pre-and-post-test. This study was conducted among eleventh grader students at SMAN 1 Parongpong. The results of this study showed that the initial score for both respondents are quite similar with the score for FM group which is 30.50 and for CMS group which is 33.40. It is also known that there is a significant difference in students’ vocabulary acquisition between students who are taught with Frayer Model and those who are taught with Concept Mapping Strategy showed by the result of the mean differences from both groups are 0.000 < 0.05. The questionnaire’s result also supports that both teaching strategies are eligible to be applied in teaching active and passive voice construction with the score for FM class which is 55% and for the CMS class which is 80%, it can be categorized as “Good”. It implies that the implementation of Frayer Model and Concept Mapping Strategy enhances student’s vocabulary acquisition. Keywords: Language Proficiency, Vocabulary Acquisition, Frayer Model, Concept Mapping Strategy.

INTRODUCTION English is an essential language to be learnt in order to meet the ability to communicate with the language itself and create connections with a wider range of the world’s population. Considering the benefits of English, Indonesia has established English as a compulsory subject to be taught in the formal schools. As stated by Kemendikbud (2013), the teaching of foreign language especially English is the goal to develop students’ ability to communicate to the world. In teaching English includes the teaching of four skills, listening, speaking, reading, and writing. (Panjaitan, 2016) stated that “In communication, students need vocabulary which can support them to produce and use meaningful sentences. That is why vocabulary is very

41


important to be mastered. Students sometimes experience difficulties in using vocabulary which have been studied for some reasons. One of important things in learning language, especially English is by mastering vocabulary. It is the basic thing in learning language because vocabulary is one of crucial aspects to support those skills. From the explanation above, vocabulary hold a crucial position in English learning (Easterbrook, 2013). Vocabulary acquisition is very important for a learner as it is related to proficiency and fluency in English. The process of learning the words of a language is referred as vocabulary acquisition. Vocabulary acquisition helps learners to use the skills of understanding, reading, writing and speaking. Therefore, as language learners, students are supposed to learn a lot of vocabulary acquisition (Avadi, 2016). Rohmatillah (2014) wrote that in accordance with learning English vocabulary, it is not the same as Indonesian vocabulary language form, including elocution and spelling. Additionally, how to articulate the word is unique in relation to composing sentences. Hence, individuals particularly students who learn English regularly discover troubles in learning vocabulary. Khan (2018), said that one of the reasons the students discover English troublesome is that they have restricted learning of words and their use in English. The vocabulary of students does not enable them to convey the appropriate words. Nation (2015), who has taught in Indonesia, Thailand, the United States, Finland, and Japan said that he always finds a problem in teaching English language from his students. The main problem is vocabulary, that students need a complex information of the meaning to reduce misunderstanding. (Virocky & Simanjuntak, 2018) said that vocabulary is the most difficult aspect of English for foreign learners to master word meanings thoroughly. Other difficulties in learning vocabulary include fixed word collocation, phrasal verbs, idioms, proverbs and regional. Based on the problems that have been mentioned above, the researcher proposed Frayer Model and Concept Mapping Strategy. Hunt (2013) stated that the Frayer Model is a graphic organizer used for concept development and vocabulary building. This model requires students to think about and describe a concept. The model is designed to have students analyze a concept, synthesize the concept, and apply the information. The Frayer Model was designed by Dorothy Frayer (1969) and her colleagues at the university of Wisconsin. Using the Frayer model is an extremely valuable tool for helping students grasp the meaning and understanding of a new concept. Besides that, there is also Concept Mapping Strategy which is defined as a vocabulary learning strategy. The strategy involves arranging words into a picture with a core concept at the center or at the top and related words linked with the key concept by lines. The visual display of a concept map emphasizes the connections between words (Bauman, 2007). This study examines the following concerns: (1). What is the initial knowledge of students who were taught Frayer Model and those who were taught using Concept Mapping Strategy towards the enhancement of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; vocabulary acquisition? (2). Is there any significant difference in vocabulary acquisition between those who were taught using Frayer Model and those who were taught using Concept Mapping Strategy? (3). What are studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; responses after they were taught using Frayer Model and Concept Mapping Strategy? Regarding the research questions above, the hypotheses of this study are: Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant difference between students who are taught using FM and students who are taught using CMS technique to enhance studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; vocabulary acquisition. Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): There is a significant difference between students who are taught using FM and students who are taught using CMS to enhance students' vocabulary acquisition.

42


LITERATURE REVIEW A. Language Proficiency Several applied linguists and methodologists have been attracted towards language proficiency studies and have worked on it. One of the recommendations of that commission was developing a standard way of rating language proficiency. Proficiency as having sufficient ability in language for a particular purpose. Many misconceptions about students' abilities, capabilities, and even fundamental intelligence are related to the way in which language proficiency has been defined. Specifically, students' conversational fluency in English is often mistaken as a reflection of their out-and-out proficiency in language. Language proficiency is defined as an individual's skill in language use for a specific purpose, and it can be evaluated through the application of a proficiency test (Gharbavi & Mousavi, 2012). B. Vocabulary Acquisition To support the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; language proficiency, they need to learn about vocabulary acquisition. Naeimi and Foo (2015) stated that vocabulary acquisition learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required not only concerned about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones maybe integrated to enhance vocabulary acquisition. Direct strategies emphasized that vocabulary can be learnt using tools such as dictionaries and vocabulary lists that make the students pay more attention into explicit interaction with the meaning and form of vocabulary. On the other hand, indirect strategies enhance learning indirectly. Indirect learning of vocabulary acquisition is defined as a strategy of word learning which arises without the particular intention to emphasize on word As stated by Avadi (2016), that vocabulary acquisition is very important for a learner as it is related to proficiency and fluency in English. The process of learning the words of a language is referred as vocabulary acquisition. Vocabulary acquisition helps the learner to use the skills of understanding, reading, writing and speaking. C. Challenges in Enhancing Vocabulary Acquisition The researcher found four challenges for the students to increase their vocabulary. The first one is about Idioms. Basari (2015), stated that in the process of translation where there are units that cause a problem of transferring to its full meaning in the translation. One of the units is idioms; this unit has been an interesting issue in translation. Idioms or idiomatic expressions are often used in both formal or casual situation and written or verbal communication. Idioms are colorful and fascinating unit of a language use; it shows the style in how a message is delivered. In matter of style, there are various ways and options to deliver a message. Idioms is an expression that sometimes people find it difficult to understand the meaning of the word, but the phrasal verb sometimes have meanings that can easily be guessed. In other words, idioms are more complicated in understanding the meaning then compared to phrasal verb. Al-Otaibi (2018) said that phrasal verb is one of the English structures that pose great challenges among EFL learners despite the uncountable benefits emanating from proper use of them. English phrasal verbs are hugely frequent in everyday communication, especially in the informal register. Although, the common existence of phrasal verbs is in English conversational, but it does not mean the complete absence of this grammatical construction in formal written or verbal speech because understanding the language will be difficult if the students are not quite familiar with the meanings of phrasal verbs.

43


The third is about collocations. Collocation is the element that usually accompanys words. Alotaibi also said that “while without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed”. It is accepted that choosing words carefully in specific situations is more necessary than choosing grammatical structures. Consequently, one may argue that since collocations enhance second language learners’ knowledge of vocabulary in the target language, their acquisition is vital (Alotaibi, 2015). The last is about Pronouns. As stated by Nguyen (2017), that in many academic writing textbooks and style guides the use of pronouns is not encouraged. This is particularly problematic for non-native speakers of English who are trying to express themselves in a second language as, although personal pronouns are a clear signal of the writers’ identity and presence in a text, they are usually advised not to use them. D. Frayer Model From the challenges that are explained above, Frayer Model is a good strategy to help the learners. (Hidayah, 2014) stated that the Frayer Model is a strategy that helps students understand concepts and is an excellent graphic organizer that can be used as a basis for writing even with the youngest of students. It allows students to see what a concept is and what is not. The Frayer Model was designed by Dorothy Frayer (1969) and her colleagues at the University of Wisconsin. Students also demonstrate their understanding by providing examples and nonexamples. The Frayer Model is especially useful for teaching vocabularies that describes concepts or vocabulary that describes concepts students may already know but cannot yet clearly define. The Frayer Model layout can be adapted to English language learners and younger students by asking them to write a definition and associated characteristics instead of essential and nonessential characteristics. In addition, teacher can model the Frayer Model with pictures and drawings. The Frayer Model is an effective model of teaching and learning vocabulary (Urquhart and Frazee, 2012). However, the reason for using the Frayer Model to teach vocabulary comes from its ability to provide an excellent format for students. It allows students not only determine the meaning of words but also provide their relevant characteristics, examples and non-examples. Therefore, the model is very beneficial for students to develop their vocabulary knowledge. (Talah, 2015). E. Concept Mapping Strategy Bauman (2007) stated concept mapping is a vocabulary learning strategy. The strategy involved arranging words into a picture with a core concept at the center or at the top and related words linked with the key concept by lines. The visual display of a concept map emphasized the connections between words. Concept-mapping would be an excellent strategy that depends on the purpose for using it may help learners from cognitive and meta-cognitive perspective. Based on its structure, concept-mapping strategy can be used as a knowledge representation tool to provide opportunity for learners to focus on understanding the words, understand the connection between them, organize their thoughts, and build a logical connection between them, visualize the relationship between concepts in a systematic way, and reflect their understandings. The mapping strategy was useful to students not only in unifying related terms and concepts, but also in assisting them to visualize connections between vocabulary and their own interests and experiences (Khoshsima and Saed, 2015).

44


Adopting concept mapping in vocabulary learning provides a framework for organizing conceptual information in the process of defining a word. A typical concept mapping or graphic organizer places the vocabulary word at the center and includes additional links or concepts connected to the central word. Before reading a text, it is advantageous to become acquainted with key vocabulary terms that will guide the reading and analysis of the text. The use of concept mapping was associated with the increase in vocabulary knowledge, comprehension, and inferential knowledge (Liu, 2016).

METHODOLOGY In this research, the researcher used comparative design to compare the students’ enhancement about vocabulary acquisition by using FM and CMS between the comparative groups. In the beginning, the two groups were given pretest to know the ability of the respondent. After that, both groups were treated with different treatment and finally, at the end of the meeting, both groups had a post-test to see whether there is an enhancement on student’s vocabulary acquisition or not. Table 1. Research Design Group Pre-test 1 2

O O

Treatment

Post-test

X1 X2

O O

Explanation, O : Vocabulary Test X1 : Frayer Model X2 : Concept Mapping Strategy

Population and Sample The population of this study were all the students of grade XI and the samples of this study are two classes of grade XI at SMAN 1 Parongpong. The researcher used both classes to apply the different treatments, which are Frayer Model and Concept Mapping Strategy. Research Instrument The instruments were pre-test and post-test that was administered at the beginning and at the end of the program. For the pre-test the students were given vocabulary test in the form of the total number of approximately 25 multiple-choice questions, to see students’ prior ability and vocabulary achievement level. Procedures of Data Collection In gathering data, the researcher used the following steps:

45


Conducting the Pilot Test The pilot test was conducted to know whether the test given was valid or not, and to know if the questions provided are suitable for the subjects. The test was adopted from the material that was taught for the senior high school level. It consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions test. Conducting Pre-test The post-test which is the same as the pre-test was administered after giving the treatment to the students to see if their vocabulary enhancement increased. Post-test was used to examine the effectiveness of the techniques. Giving Treatment After administering the pre-test, the treatment was given to both classes. The procedures of teaching through Frayer Model was adopted from Hidayah (2014) while the procedures of teaching through Concept Mapping Strategy was adopted from Journal (2007).

Table 2. Procedures of Strategies Procedures of Concept Mapping Procedures of Frayer Model

Strategy

First step: Teacher should first distribute copies of Frayer Model graphic organizer, which is a concept phrase or a single word, depending on the needs of the students and the lesson objective. Second step: Student must determine the definition of the concept. Students can use their textbooks or a variety of resources to develop a definition that is clear, concise and easy to understand. Third step: Teacher helps the students to determine the characteristics or attributes of this concept. Fourth step: Finally, determine as a class what the concept is and what is not. Encourage students to generate their own examples and allow time for students to discuss their finding with the class.

First step: Student will create the map using the concept. Second step: Consider the hierarchical structure of the map and where to place the question or word on the blank paper. Third step: Write the question or a word on the top of the concept map, write down important related concepts below the central question or topic (these become sub-concepts). Fourth step: Draw a circle or rectangle around each sub-concept, stop and look at the map and begin to categorize the subtopics. Fifth step: Revise and / or remove unnecessary words. Use colored pencils or markers to thematically organize the sub-concepts by coloring in the shapes, draw arrows and / or lines to and from concepts to show their relationships, add a label on each arrow or line that describes the relationships between concepts Sixth step: Review the completed concept map by asking the question,

46


Procedures of Concept Mapping Procedures of Frayer Model

Strategy â&#x20AC;&#x153;Does this make sense to me?â&#x20AC;?. Remembering that concept maps can be as unique as the individual who created it.

Post-test A post-test was conducted to check the result after applying the treatment using FM and CMS strategies, at the end of the meetings. The post-test which contains the same question with a pre-test in the different arrangement was administered to both comparative groups. Data Analysis on Pilot Test The pilot test was conducted to measure the validity, reliability, level of difficulty and discrimination of the instrument. Baker (1994) stated that a pilot test can also be the pre-testing or 'trying out' of a research instrument. Validity The validity test was intended to find out whether the instrument is suitable to be used in the research. The following formula is used to test the validity of the instrument. đ?&#x2018;&#x;lm =

nâ&#x2C6;&#x2018;op/(â&#x2C6;&#x2018;l)(â&#x2C6;&#x2018;p) q[nâ&#x2C6;&#x2018;o s /(â&#x2C6;&#x2018;o)s ][nâ&#x2C6;&#x2018;p s /(â&#x2C6;&#x2018;p)s ]

(Arikunto, 2009) Where, đ?&#x2018;&#x;lm = product correlation coefficient X = Score item Y = Total Score N = Number of participants Table 3. Validity Criteria rxy 0.80 â&#x2030;¤ rxy â&#x2030;¤ 1.00 0.60 â&#x2030;¤ rxy â&#x2030;¤ 0.79 0.40 â&#x2030;¤ rxy â&#x2030;¤ 0.59 0.20 â&#x2030;¤ rxy â&#x2030;¤ 0.39 0.00 â&#x2030;¤ rxy â&#x2030;¤ 0.19

Interpretation Very high High Moderate Low Very low

The result is as follows: Table 4. Validity Number of Question 45 5,16,44, 3,7,13,19,21,22,23,25,26,30,40,41,

rxy 0.80 â&#x2030;¤ rxy â&#x2030;¤ 1.00 0.60 â&#x2030;¤ rxy â&#x2030;¤ 0.79 0.40 â&#x2030;¤ rxy â&#x2030;¤ 0.59

47

Interpretation Very high High Moderate


1,8,9,11,12,17,18,20,24,27,28,29 ,33,35,36,39,43,46,47,48,49, 2,4,6,10,14,15,31,32,34,37,38,42,50

0.20 â&#x2030;¤ rxy â&#x2030;¤ 0.39

Low

0.00 â&#x2030;¤ rxy â&#x2030;¤ 0.19

Very low

Based on the result above, there was 1 item that was very high. There were, 3 items that were high, 12 items moderate, 21 items low, 13 items were very low. Therefore, it can be concluded that the items that were categorized as very low are not valid. Reliability Reliability of a test according to Masriyah (1999: 9) is the level of stability or the stability of the measurement results. A reliable measuring tool is a measuring instrument that is used to measure the same thing repeatedly, and the results are relatively the same. The formula that will be used to find the reliability of the instrument is Alphaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s formula: đ?&#x2018;&#x; : xs 8â&#x2C6;&#x2018;yz &&,t:8uvw

xs

{

(Arikunto, 2012) Where, đ?&#x2018;&#x;&& : Reliability all test N : Total number of questions â&#x2C6;&#x2018;S| : Total score of each question variance đ?&#x2018;&#x2020; 2 : Variance Here is the criterion of reliability level according to Arikunto (2009): Table 5. Classification of Reliability Coefficient Reliability 0.80 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 0.99 0.66 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 0.79 0.50 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 0.65 < 0.50

Interpretation Very high High Low Very low

The result is as follows: Table 6. Classification Mean Correlation XY Realibity

27.44 0.63 0.77

Based on the result of realibility 0.77, then it can be categorized as high. Discrimination Index

48


Discriminate index according to Ratumanan (2003) states how far the ability of the question is able to distinguish between smart student group with the weak group. The differentiation of the test items is calculated by the formula: â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ đ??ˇ = â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x201A;Ź â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;&#x161; = đ?&#x2018;&#x192;â&#x20AC;&#x17E; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;&#x192;â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x201A;Ź

â&#x20AC;&#x161;

(Arikunto, 2009)

Where, D : Discriminate index J : Number of the test participants đ??˝â&#x20AC;&#x17E; : Number of lower group participant đ??˝â&#x20AC;˘ : Number of lower group participant đ??ľâ&#x20AC;˘ : Number of upper group participants who answer the question correctly đ??ľâ&#x20AC;&#x17E; : Number of lower group participants who answer the question correctly â&#x20AC;˘â&#x201A;Ź â&#x20AC;˘â&#x201A;Ź â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;&#x161; â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;&#x161;

=

: proportion of upper group students who answer the test item correctly

=

: proportion of lower group students who answer the test item correctly

To interpret the value of discrimination index with the use of distinguishing classification from Arikunto (2009), and it is shown in the table below:

Table 7. Criteria of Discriminate Index Discriminate Index (D) < 0.00 0.00-0.20 0.21-0.40 0.41-0.70 0.71-1.00

Interpretation Very bad Poor Satisfactory Good Excellent

The result as follows: Table 8. Discriminate Index Number Discriminate Index (D) 2,10,14,15,18,31,34,36, < 0.00 37,38,42,43,47,50 4,6,20,27,32,33,46,49 0.00-0.20 1,3,11,12,17,28,35,39,40,48 0.21-0.40 5,7,8,9,19,21,22,23,24,25,26,29, 0.41-0.70 30,41 13,16,44,45 0.71-1.00

Interpretation Very bad Poor Satisfactory Good Excellent

Based on the table above, there were 14 items in very bad category, 8 questions in poor category, 10 items in satisfactory category, 14 items in good category and 4 items in excellent category.

49


Level of Difficulty The level of difficulty according to Masriyah (1999) is expressed in the difficulty index (number of difficulty index) which shows the proportion of students who correctly answered the question. The bigger the index of difficulty, the easier it is. Conversely, the smaller the difficulty index, the more difficult the item is. The difficulty index of a test item can be calculated by the formula: â&#x20AC;˘ đ?&#x2018;&#x192; = â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;Ą (Arikunto, 2009) Where, P = Difficulty index of test item B = The number of students who answer correctly đ??˝â&#x20AC;Ą = The number of participants in the test Table 9. Criteria of Difficulty Level Index of Difficulty (P) < 0.00 0.00 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 0.30 0.31 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 0.70 0.71 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1.00 >1.00

Difficulty Degree Very difficult Difficult Moderate Easy Very easy

The result is as follows: Table 10. Difficulty Level Number

3,4,10,11,19,20,25,40,41,42, 2,5,7,8,9,12,13,15,16,17,18,21,22,23, 24,26,29,30,31,35,36,37,38,43,44,45,48,50 1,6,14,27,28,32,33,34,39,46,47,49,

Level of Different < 0.00 0.00 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 0.30

Difficulty Degree Very difficult Difficult

0.31 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 0.70 0.71 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1.00

Moderate Easy

>1.00

Very easy

Based on the result above, there were 10 items that were difficult, 28 items that were moderate and 12 items were easy. The Recapitulation of The Result of Pilot Test This research used (25) questions for pre-test as well as post-test. To analyze the result of the data, Anates program will be used.

50


Table 11. The Recapitulation of Pilot Test Number of question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Validity

Difficult level

Discrimination

Low Very Low Moderate Very Low High Very Low Moderate Low Low Very Low Low Low Moderate Very Low Very Low High Low Low Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Very Low Very Low Low Very Low Low Low Very Low Very Low Low Moderate Moderate Very Low Low High Very High Low

Easy Moderate Difficult Difficult Moderate Easy Moderate Moderate Moderate Difficult Difficult Moderate Moderate Easy Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Difficult Difficult Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Difficult Moderate Easy Easy Moderate Moderate Moderate Easy Easy Easy Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Easy Difficult Difficult Difficult Moderate Moderate Moderate Easy

Satisfactory Very Bad Satisfactory Poor Good Poor Good Good Good Very Bad Satisfactory Satisfactory Excellent Very Bad Very Bad Excellent Satisfactory Very Bad Good Poor Good Good Good Good Good Good Poor Satisfactory Good Good Very Bad Poor Poor Very Bad Satisfactory Very Bad Very Bad Very Bad Satisfactory Satisfactory Good Very Bad Very Bad Excellent Excellent Poor

51


47 48 49 50

Low Low Low Very Low

Easy Moderate Easy Moderate

Very Bad Satisfactory Poor Very Bad

Based on the recapitulation test, this researcher used 25 questions for pre-test and posttest. There were questions number: 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 16, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 39, 40, 41, 44, 45, 48, 49. Those are based on the result of questions analysis; that the 25 questions were able to measure the students’ ability in improving students’ vocabulary acquisition and fulfill the indicator of vocabulary acquisition. Non-test Instrument (Student’s Response Questionnaire) Non-test instrument was given to the students in order to know the students’ response toward the lesson and strategy that were used in teaching- learning process. This questionnaire was given after the post test was conducted. The statements in the questionnaire are about Frayer Model and Concept Mapping Strategy in enhancing the students’ vocabulary acquisition. There are four alternate answers in this questionnaire, those are: Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD). The completed questionnaire is classified by Arikunto (2012) as follows: The calculation of number of positive responses for each item is on positive items, Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), and the negative items, Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD). 1. The Percentage was calculated according to Arikunto (1991) using the following presentation formula as follows: Table 12. Scoring of Student’s Response with Positive Item Type Alternative Answer Strongly Agree Agree Slightly agree Disagree

Score 4 3 2 1

For the questionnaire with negative item the scoring reversed, so the criteria are as follow. Table 13. Scoring of Student’s Response with Negative Item Type Alternative Answer Strongly Agree Agree Slightly agree Disagree

Score 1 2 3 4

The questionnaire has 10 statements, so the maximum score for the questionnaire is 40 and the minimum score is 10. After the data is obtained, then the percentage of student response were calculated with this formula:

52


Ri = Student i response score Si = Total of score item of student Smax = Maximum score Table 14. Interpretation of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Response Degree in Percentage 80 â&#x2030;¤ t â&#x2030;¤ 100 60 â&#x2030;¤ t â&#x2030;¤ 80 40 â&#x2030;¤ t â&#x2030;¤ 60 20 â&#x2030;¤ t â&#x2030;¤ 40 t â&#x2030;¤ 20

Interpretation Very Good Good Moderate Bad Very Bad

Statistical Treatment The researcher used Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to analyze the data. SPSS is a computer program for statistic computation. The level of significance a = 0.05. Normalized Gain To determine the improvement of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; vocabulary acquisition, the researcher performed an analysis on the results of the pre-test and post-test. Analyzing will be performed using Normalized Gain. %đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x153;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;Ą â&#x2C6;&#x2019; % đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;Ą đ?&#x2018;&#x201D; = 100% â&#x2C6;&#x2019; % đ?&#x2018;?đ?&#x2018;&#x;đ?&#x2018;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;Ąđ?&#x2018;&#x2019;đ?&#x2018; đ?&#x2018;Ą (Hake, 1999) Where, g: average normalized gain % pre-test: percentage of pre-test scores % post-test: percentage of post-test scores

Table 15. The Criteria of Normalized Gain Gain (g)

Category

0.71 < g â&#x2030;¤ 1.00

High

0.31 < g â&#x2030;¤ 0.70

Moderate

0.00 â&#x2030;¤ g â&#x2030;¤ 0.30

Low (Hake, 2007)

53


Normality Test Normality test was conducted to see whether the population of the data collected from is normally distributed or not. To test the normality of the population the researcher used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Because according to Santoso (2007), Kolmogorov-Smirnov is more accurate than any other test for testing normality. (â&#x2C6;&#x2018;â&#x20AC;˘ l )s

Ĺ˝ The formula is: đ?&#x2018;&#x160; = â&#x2C6;&#x2018;(l Ĺ˝/l) s Ĺ˝

(Ruseffendi, 1998)

Where, W : Test statistic đ?&#x2018;Ľ* : statistic order X1, X2, X3, â&#x20AC;ŚXn đ?&#x2018;&#x17D;* : Constant generated from the average value (mean), variance, and covariance structure sample distribution of and from a normal distribution. x : Mean sample data The Hypothesis will be as following: Ho: The data population is normally distributed Ha: The data population is not normally distributed The Criteria of Normality Test if the Data is Analyzed with SPSS: a. Data is normally distributed if sig. value is larger (>) than Îą (0.05), or Ho is not rejected. b. Data is not normally distributed if sig. value is lesser or equal (â&#x2030;¤) or Îą (0.05), then Ho is rejected. Homogeneity Test To determine whether the population variances are homogeneous or not which means having the same basic qualities, the researcher used the homogeneity test based on the result of normality test. â&#x20AC;Ą u

The formula: đ??š = â&#x20AC;Ąs s s

(Uyanto, 2009)

Where, F : value (variance variable data) đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;2& : the larger variance đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;2 2 : the smaller variance The hypothesis that will be used are: Ho: The population variances are homogeny Ha: The population variances are not homogeny The Criteria of Homogeneity test if the data is analyzed with SPSS: a. The population variances are homogeny if sig. Value > Îą (0.05), then Ho is not rejected. b. The population variances are not homogeny if sig. Value â&#x2030;¤ Îą (0.05), then Ho is rejected.

54


Different Mean Pre-Test and N-Gain The significant value will be using either T-Test or U-Test to determine if there is significant difference or not between both data (Different mean test). This step will be used to answer the second statement for the statement of the problem. If two populations are homogeneous, then the statistics that the researcher will use is the 2 sample T-test with the formula: (đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;& â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 1)đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;& 2 + (đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;2 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 1)đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;2 2 đ?&#x2018;Ą= đ?&#x2018;¤đ?&#x2018;&#x2013;đ?&#x2018;Ąâ&#x201E;&#x17D; đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ??ˇ = â&#x20AC;? đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;& + đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;2 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2 1 1 đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;đ??ˇ\đ?&#x2018;&#x203A; + đ?&#x2018;&#x203A; & 2 (Supranto, 2009) đ?&#x2018;Ľ& â&#x2C6;&#x2019; đ?&#x2018;Ľ2

Where, đ?&#x2018;Ľ& = Mean score for Frayer Model đ?&#x2018;Ľ2 = Mean score for Concept Mapping Strategy đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;& = Frayer Model sample size đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;2 = Concept Mapping Strategy sample size đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;& = Standard deviation of Frayer Model đ?&#x2018;&#x2020;2 = Standard deviation of Concept Mapping Strategy However, if the data is not homogeneous, then the two-different test average used is a non-parametric test or Mann-Whitney, with formula: .s

đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;2 (đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;2 + 1) đ?&#x2018;&#x2C6; = đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;& đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;2 + â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x20AC;&#x201D; đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;* 2 *,.u 0&

(Supranto, 2009)

Where: U = Mann-Whitney U test đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;& = sample size one đ?&#x2018;&#x203A;2 = Sample size two đ?&#x2018;&#x2026;* = Rank of the sample size The Hypothesis of Different Mean Test will be as follows: Ho: There is no significant difference in the vocabulary enhancement between those who are taught Frayer Model and those who are taught Concept Mapping Strategy. Ha: There is significant difference in the vocabulary enhancement between those who are taught Frayer Model and those who are taught Concept Mapping Strategy. The Criteria of Different Mean test if the data as analyzed with SPSS: a. Ho is not rejected if the sig. value > Îą (0.05), means that there is no significant difference in the enhancement of vocabulary enhancement in SMAN 1 Parongpong. b. Ho is rejected if the sig. value â&#x2030;¤ Îą (0.05), means that there is significant difference in the enhancement of vocabulary enhancement in SMAN 1 Parongpong. RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Analysis The result of pre-test and post-test of each group was calculated through excel and SPSS. It can be seen in the following table:

55


Table 16. Pre-Test, Post Test, Standard Deviation, and Normalized Gain Frayer Model Concept Mapping Strategy

Pre-Test Post Test Normalized Gain

Mean

St. Deviation

Mean

St. Deviation

30.50 87.00 .8162

10.155 5.023 .06052

33.40 84.40 .7631

13.513 4.419 .06020

It can be seen from the table above that the mean pre-test of Frayer Model is 30.50 with Std. Deviation 10.155 and the mean for Concept Mapping Strategy is 33.40 with Std. Deviation 13.513. It becomes the answer for research question number one. Then the mean Post-test of Frayer Model is 87.00 with Std. Deviation 5.023 and mean for Concept Mapping Strategy is 84.40 with Std. Deviation 4.419. It can be concluded that the initial score for both classes are quite high. The mean gain of Frayer Model is 0.8162 and for Concept Mapping Strategy is 0.7631, it can be concluded that the knowledge of both classes has enhanced in constructing the Vocabulary acquisition. Normality Test of the Normalized Gain The Normality test has a function to see whether the data is normally distributed or not. Ho is accepted if p value was > 0.05 and Ho is rejected if p value was < 0.05. The researcher conducted normality test for the result of the gain score. The result can be seen on the table below. Table 17. Result of Normality Test of Normalized Gain Group GAIN

3 4

Statistic .105

Shapiro-Wilk Df 40

Sig. .200

.104

40

.200

Based on the table, it can be concluded that the population of the data is normally distributed for both classes, it is because the significant value of FM is 0.200 > (0.05) and the significant value CMS is 0.200 > 0.05. Homogeneity Test of the Normalized Gain To see the homogeneity of population variances, homogeneity was done. The result can be seen on the table below:

56


Table 18. Independent sample t-test Leveneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Test for Equality of Variances F Sig. Gain Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed

.508

.478

T

Df

3.931

78

Sig.(2tailed) .000

3.931

77.998

.000

Since the data of gain was normally distributed and homogeny. The significant value based on mean 0.478 > 0.05, so it means that the population variance is homogeny. Table 19. Independent Sample Test Leveneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Test for Equality of Variances F Sig. Gain Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed

.508

.478

T

Df

3.931

78

Sig.(2tailed) .000

3.931

77.998

.000

Since the data of gain was normally distributed and not homogeny, then based on the table above the result of t-test showed that the sig (2-tailed) was 0.000 < 0.05 based on the hypothesis that meant (Ho) was rejected and (Ha) was accepted. Thus, there was a significant difference between students who were taught using Frayer Model and those were taught using Concept Mapping Strategy. Questionnaire The additional data required for the present study were collected through administering questionnaire to the subjects in order to know their response toward Frayer Model and Concept Mapping Strategy. The results are explained in the table below: Table 20. FM Questionnaire Subject SA

A

D

SD 1

Total Skor 34

(Total Interpretation Score/40)x100 85 Very Good

1

24

9

0

2

16

15

0

1

32

80

Very Good

3

0

21

6

0

27

67.5

Good

57


4

8

18

2

1

29

72.5

Good

5

32

3

0

1

36

90

Very Good

6

20

9

2

1

32

80

Very Good

7

20

6

4

1

31

77.5

Good

8

0

24

0

1

25

62.5

Good

9

32

3

2

0

37

92.5

Very Good

10

28

6

2

0

36

90

Very Good

11

32

3

0

1

36

90

Very Good

12

20

12

0

1

33

82.5

Very Good

13

32

3

0

1

36

90

Very Good

14

4

24

0

1

29

72.5

Good

15

28

6

2

0

36

90

Very Good

16

4

24

0

1

29

72.5

Good

17

4

21

4

0

29

72.5

Good

18

20

12

0

1

33

82.5

Very Good

19

8

21

0

1

30

75

Good

20

32

3

0

1

36

90

Very Good

21

4

21

4

0

29

72.5

Good

22

8

21

2

0

31

77.5

Good

23

4

24

0

0

28

70

Good

24

0

24

4

0

28

70

Good

25

20

12

0

1

33

82.5

Very Good

26

0

27

2

0

29

72.5

Good

27

32

0

2

1

35

87.5

Very Good

28

0

24

2

1

27

67.5

Good

58


29

16

9

2

1

28

70

Good

30

12

18

0

1

31

77.5

Good

31

20

12

2

0

34

85

Very Good

32

24

9

0

1

34

85

Very Good

33

0

24

4

0

28

70

Good

34

32

0

2

1

35

87.5

Very Good

35

0

24

4

0

28

70

Good

36

12

15

4

0

31

77.5

Good

37

32

0

2

1

35

87.5

Very Good

38

0

24

2

1

27

67.5

Good

39

16

12

2

1

31

77.5

Good

40

12

18

0

1

31

77.5

Good

Table 21. The Result of FM Questionnaire Percentage 45 55 0 0 0

Degree in Percentage 80 ≤ t ≤ 100 60 ≤ t ≤ 80 40 ≤ t ≤ 60 20 ≤ t ≤ 40 t ≤ 20

Interpretation Very Good Good Moderate Bad Very Bad

From the table above, it is concluded that the mean percentage of students’ response in class FM is calculated as the sum of percentage of students’ response divided by the number of respondents, the result is 55, that can be categorized as “Good”. Table 22. CMS Questionnaire Subject

SA

A

D

SD

1 2 3 4 5

4 12 0 0 20

18 15 21 27 9

6 2 4 2 4

0 1 1 0 0

Total Score 28 30 26 29 33

59

(Total score/40)x100 70 75 65 72.5 82.5

Interpretation Very Good Very Good Good Good Very Good


6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

0 8 12 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 16 8 0 20 8 0 4 12 0 0 12 0 4 0 4 16 0 16 12 20 8 32 8 32 4

21 21 15 21 15 24 24 21 24 24 15 21 24 9 18 24 21 18 18 12 9 21 18 18 18 15 24 12 18 12 21 3 21 3 21

4 2 2 6 8 4 4 2 4 4 0 0 2 2 2 2 4 2 8 10 8 6 6 6 6 2 2 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 4

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0

26 31 30 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 32 30 27 32 29 27 29 32 26 23 29 27 28 25 28 33 27 31 31 34 30 36 30 36 29

65 77.5 75 67.5 67.5 70 70 70 70 70 80 75 67.5 80 72.5 67.5 72.5 80 65 57.5 72.5 67.5 70 62.5 70 82.5 67.5 77.5 77.5 85 75 90 75 90 72.5

Table 23. The Result of CMS Questionnaire Percentage 17.5 80 2.5 0 0

Degree in Percentage 80 ≤ t ≤ 100 60 ≤ t ≤ 80 40 ≤ t ≤ 60 20 ≤ t ≤ 40 t ≤ 20

Interpretation Very Good Good Moderate Bad Very Bad

60

Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Moderate Good Good Good Good Good Very Good Good Good Good Very Good Good Very Good Good Very Good Good


Based on the result of the CMS questionnaire, the mean percentage is 80 which means the response of CMS group is “Good”. From the data above, it can be said that most of the students from both classes agreed for the implementation of FM and CMS strategy in enhancing their vocabulary acquisition. From the responses of the students’ data analysis and the discussion, it can be concluded that there is a significant difference between those who were taught using Frayer Model and those who were taught using Concept Mapping Strategy. Students in both classes enjoyed the strategies.

DISCUSSION OF THE RESEARCH FINDING From the result of the data, the initial knowledge of students in FM group is 30.50 and in CMS group is 33.40. It is also known that there is a significant difference on students between those who were taught through Frayer Model and Concept Mapping Strategy. From the result of normalized gain, it can be seen that the students who are taught using FM got 0.8162 and those who are taught using CMS got 0.7631. So, it can be said that both treatments are applicable in teaching vocabulary acquisition and it showed that both strategies enhanced the students’ vocabulary acquisition. The response of both classes also showed that they enjoyed learning English, which was proven by the results of the questionnaire from both classes are 55 and 80 which are categorized as “Good”. For additional explanation, in doing this study the researcher should do the treatment for both models at the same period of lesson. Unfortunately, because of the English lesson timetable at SMA Negeri 1 Parongpong did not match with the researcher’s timetable where the available timetable to do this study was only one class in the morning and one class in the late afternoon. Consequently, the researcher agreed to do the research at different time of lesson where the Frayer model was held in the morning while the Concept mapping strategy was held in the late afternoon. The time of lesson did greatly affect to the success of the method itself. Based on the result, the Frayer Model has a significant difference in vocabulary acquisition rather than the Concept Mapping Strategy.

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION After interpreting the data, the researcher concluded that there is a significant difference between students who are taught using Frayer Model and students who are taught using Concept Mapping Strategy. In relation to the conclusion above, the researcher gives several recommendations: For Teachers: It is recommended for English teachers to use Frayer Model in teaching vocabulary acquisition especially in senior high school, because it is proven by the researcher that the students can describe the characteristics, provide examples of the idea and suggest non examples of the idea, and use critical thinking skills. Therefore, students’ vocabulary acquisition was increased after using Frayer Model. For Students: It is recommended to learn English vocabulary using these methods, because they are interesting methods and are already proven that the students can understand words meaning appropriately and have a good grammar of word. So, they got improvement in their vocabulary acquisition.

61


For Institution: The institution of SMAN 1 Parongpong, the researcher would like to suggest to increase the quantity of teaching and learning facilities such as more books on learning vocabulary acquisition in the library. For Future Researchers: The researcher hopes that the results of this study can be used as additional references for future researcher about using Frayer Model in high schools in different levels and contexts.

REFERENCES Adriano. (2016). Enhancment of Vocabulary Skills. Alotaibi, A. M., & Alotaibi, M. A. (2015). the Comprehension and Production of English Grammatical. 3(3), 26–39. Avadi. (2016). Computer Assisted Vocabulary Acquisition. Basari, D. A. M. A. (2015). Translation Strategies of Pure Idioms in Veronica Roth ’ S Divergent. Bauman, J., Boals, T., Cranley, E., Gottlieg, M., & Kenyon, D. (2007). Assessing comprehension and communication in English state to state for English language learners (ACCESS for ELLs). English Language Proficiency Assessment in the Nation: Current Status and Future Practice, 81–92. Carlos, Hewlett, M., Duxbury, S., Gori, F., Gudelj, I., & Beardmore, R. (2017). The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How To Construct Them. 1(January). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-016-0050 Easterbrook, R. M. (2013). The process of vocabulary learning : Vocabulary learning strategies and beliefs about language and language learning. PhD Thesis, (November). Ebadi, A., Daneshmandi, M., & Raisifar, A. (2011). Concept mapping; modern teaching strategy in nursing education. 4(1), 47–51. Eman Saud Rashid Al-Otaibi. (2018). Investigating Saudi EFL Learners’ Use and Teachers’ Perception of English Phrasal Verbs. Arab World English Journal, (218), 1–60. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/th.218 Erasmus, C. J. (2013). Concept Mapping as a Strategy to Enhance Learning and Engage Students in the Classroom. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences Education, 31(1), 27–35. Estacioa, R. D. (2017). The use of modified frayer model in developing science vocabulary of senior high school students. New Trends and Issues Proceedings on Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(1), 36–42. https://doi.org/10.18844/prosoc.v4i1.2049 Gharbavi, A., & Mousavi, S. A. (2012). Do language proficiency levels correspond to language learning strategy adoption? English Language Teaching, 5(7), 110–122.

62


https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v5n7p110 Hidayah, T. (2014). Frayer Model and Its Significance for Vocabulary Achievement in Classroom Environment. (1969), 1–8. Hunt, T., Carper, J., Lasley, T., Raisch, C., & Hopcraft, G. B. (2013). English as a Second Language (ESL). Encyclopedia of Educational Reform and Dissent. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412957403.n153 Is. (2007). Frayer Model. World Trade, 43–48. Retrieved from http://academics.tulsaschools.org/Portals/Tulsa/Curriculum/docs/Language Arts 612/TeachingtheStandards/Frayer Model.pdf Java, E. (2016). Using Concept Mapping and Five Reviewing Patterns to Improve Senior High School Students ’ Vocabulary. 1–13. Journal, T. K., & Author, C. (2007). Concept Mapping. 8(3), 1031–1045. Kemendikbud. (2013). Materi Pelatihan Guru Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Khoshsima, H. (2016). Concept Mapping Strategy: A Strategic Alternative to the Matter of Spontaneous Speaking of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 4(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijll.20160401.11 Khoshsima, H., & Saed, A. (2015). Concept Mapping Strategy and EFL Learners ’ Vocabulary Acquisition and International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies ISSN 2356-5926 Concept Mapping Strategy and EFL Learners ’ Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention. (June). Liu, P.-L. (2016). English Vocabulary Learning Based on Concept-Mapping Strategy. Language Learning & Technology, 20(201), 128–141. Retrieved from http://llt.msu.edu/issues/october2016/liu.pdf Model, F., Circles, C., Associations, V. W., Word, V., & Circle, C. (2014). Extending Vocabulary – The Frayer Model. Word Journal Of The International Linguistic Association, 38–42. Naeimi, M., & Foo, T. C. V. (2015). Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies. English Language Teaching, 8(10), 142–151. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v8n10p142 Nation, P. (2015). Teaching vocabulary - Paul Nation. Asian EFL Journal, 7(3), Article 4. Panjaitan, N. B., R. S. (2016). The Effectiveness of Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS) Towards Student Vocabulary Enhancement. Acuity : Journal of English Language Pedagogy, Literature and Culture, 3(1), 24–34. https://doi.org/10.35974/acuity.v3i1.621 Nguyen, T. Q. (2017). Factors Affecting Pronoun Resolution by Vietnamese EFL Learners.

63


Korean Journal of Applied Linguistics, 33(1), 111. https://doi.org/10.17154/kjal.2017.3.33.1.111 Pua, C., Li, D., Lui, C., & Cheng, S. (2015). Using Concept-mapping as a Tool to Teach English Vocabulary for the Elementary Students. Bulletin of Chinese, 70–82. Rahmadani, C. (2018). The Effect of Using Frayer Model on the Students' Department of English Education Faculty Of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training the State Islamic University in the Name of Allah the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful Praise be to Allah SWT who has given me a. Rohmatillah. (2014). A Study On Students’ Difficulties In Learning Vocabulary Rohmatillah Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Raden Intan Lampung. Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Raden Intan Lampung, 69–86. Tajeddin, Z., & Soudabeh, T. (2016). Concept Mapping as a Reading Strategy : Does It Scaffold Comprehension and Recall ? The Reading Matrix, 16(1), 194–208. Talah, S. S. (2015). Using Frayer Model to Develop Students. Virocky, O., & Simanjuntak, D. C. (2018). Student’s Vocabulary Knowledge: Comparative Study Enhancing Between Semantic Mapping and Diglot Weave Techniques. Acuity : Journal of English Language Pedagogy, Literature and Culture, 3(2), 12. https://doi.org/10.35974/acuity.v3i2.671 Williamson, G. (2014). Definition of vocabulary. Language. Retrieved from http://www.sltinfo.com/vocabulary/

64


Tracing the Epic Tradition in The Fantaserye: GMA 7’s “Encantadia” As an Epic

1

Ralph Edward Sekito1,2 The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas 2 Far Eastern University, Manila ralphedwardsekito@gmail.com DOI 10.35974/acuity.v5i1.2165

ABSTRACT In the mid-2000s, the television landscape in the Philippines was raised to a higher level. Shows that incorporate folklore and combine it with today's realities started to dominate the primetime block. These shows are dubbed called fantaserye, a pun on the words fantasy and series, and in 2005, one of the biggest television networks in the Philippines released its biggest fantaserye “Encantadia”. As such, this paper is an attempt to fill that dearth by fleshing out the elements of the traditional conventions of the epic. Through the theories on the conventions of the epic and the function of the epic hero propounded by Damiana Eugenio and Isagani Cruz respectively, the researcher looks at the possibility of the fantaserye as an offshoot of the traditional epic. John Fiske and John Hartley’s notion on television as today’s bard was also utilized in this study. The method used throughout the study is Conceptual Content analysis. Results show that folk epics share similar characteristics such as having the epic hero, the hero’s moral and physical transformation which in turn paves the way for the hero to become the embodiment of the people’s beliefs and aspirations. As such, the folk epics did not die with our forebearers, but it has adapted, retold, and performed through a new medium that can be accessed by people from all walks of life.

65


To conclude, the fantaserye gets its materials and inspiration not only from mythological tales, but also from the folk epics, thus making oral literature survive in another form, but at the same time deviates from these inspirations which makes it a postmodern take of the traditional epic. This proves that the popular culture as a field of study that can be associated to other similar fields such as literary studies. Also, the folk epic did not die a natural death in the oral tradition; it adapted through a medium which is relevant and accessible to all: the television. Keywords: epic tradition, epic conventions, fantaserye, Encantadia

INTRODUCTION The Philippines has a rich tradition of literature before the arrival of the colonizers. Rosario-Braid and Tuazon (1999) contend that such literary tradition among the early inhabitants of our country exists and is best exemplified in the folk epics (293). The folk epics are revered literary works because they mark the highest point of the development of Philippine folk literature (Eugenio, 2001, xi) and have been part of the rich folklore that we boast today (Mojares, 1998, 13). These literatures have also served as conduits for other folk and phantasmagoric tales due to its attribute as irredeemably elitist, stable, and canonical (Hersh, 1993 1; Santos, 1997, 125 & Kumar, 2016, 793). Manuel (1985) further defines the epics as “narratives of sustained length which are based on oral tradition, revolving around supernatural events or heroic deeds in the form of verse which are either chanted or sung” (69). These narratives are exemplary literary masterpieces of oral and written literature and an embodiment of one’s ideology and culture. Roque (1967) probes on the cultural traditions embedded in these literary forms, particularly in the Mindanaoan “Bidasari," which featured an epic heroine instead of a male epic hero. In this study, the researcher posits that despite the existence of female epic heroes, yet their depiction and role are limited compared to the male epic hero figures. In the epic, the heroine Bidasari was never involved in warfare, unlike the male epic heroes, whose masculinity lies in their prowess and strength in warfare and battle. Roque also observes that “Bidasari” provides the ideal female model in the Mindanaoan context because it embodies how a female should conduct themselves in public. The epic underscores the traits of meekness, obedience, and chastity as characteristics practiced by Mindanoan women. The Philippine folk epics are not only monumental examples of oral literature; but they also serve as repositories of both culture and history that reflect a community’s identity (Aligan, 1992, 21; Mojares, 1998, 13; and Eugenio, 2001, xi). These narratives also serve as the bastion of collective consciousness because they paved the way for uniting people of different communities (Tolentino, 2006, 40) and have functioned as metanarratives of one’s culture, which later gave birth to the concept of the nation (Tolentino, 2006, 58). Demetrio, a Jesuit scholar, points out the following characteristics of the epic: (1) the story must contain a body of ancient traditions centering around supernatural or heroic persons or deeds; (2) there must be a living faith in these traditions and contents; (3) these traditions must be molded into a single person or group of persons by specially gifted persons; (4) the poem must be invested with a certain sacred or venerable character, not only for their antiquity, but also for their cosmic, national, and social significance, in as much as they

66


validate the beliefs, ideals, values, and life values of a people or race (quoted in Eugenio, 2001, xi) Calleja-Reyes (1968) probes on the Bicolano epic “Ibalon” and how it reflects and preserves Bicolandia culture and ideals. Her study also attempts to restore as faithfully as possible the pristine context of that fragment of ancient Bicol literature, which gives the epic a special value as it underscores a profound significance Bicolandia pre-historic culture (321). She finds out that a great number of these songs of the ancient Bicolanos, communicated orally as they have never been written down, which makes Fr. Castaño's fragment an important piece because it poses the possibility that it is the only written account of this cultural artifact of the ancient Bicolanos(322). Also, the fragment gives an interesting account of the dwellings of the ancient Bicolanos when it mentions the muog which is a house constructed by the natives on a tree-top to protect themselves from wild animals. This form of house construction is defined in Fr. Lisboa's “Vocabulario de la Lengua Bicol” and undoubtedly gives verisimilitude to the epic's account of the early dwellings of the Bicolanos (323). This study points out that the epic is the compendium of one’s pre-colonial culture and history though it may come in several versions, which is why preserving this epic is essential to ensure cultural continuity and the region’s heritage. The folk epics are performed literary pieces, somewhat a precursor to the stage plays and street performances in the Philippines. These are staged in communal gatherings and on solemn or religious occasions. These performances are accompanied by music, dance, and ritual action, which relate to religious or cultic functions (Mojares, 1998, 9 and 10). They are meant to evoke "magical efficacy" on special occasions or ceremonies (Santos, 1997, 116). Highly trained singers and orators are handpicked to perform the said epics (Baldick, 2001, 82). The central character in the epic is the epic hero who embodies the people’s beliefs, ideals, and aspirations, which reflects his maturity and moral transformation through a series of adventures. Mythology and folklore serve as inspirations of these oral narratives. Roque (1967) gives three distinct attributes to the nature of these heroic adventures. First, the actions in these adventures are exaggerated to highlight the moral or value the epic hero needs to project. Second, these events integrate prominent and historical characters and events upon a common scene. Lastly, remembered incidents with imaginary accessories drawn from myth and legend are fused which make up a conflation of fact and fancy (10). These oral literature mirror one's culture which also makes it historical documents. The birth of popular media revolutionized changes in society especially on the way people perceive and construct their truths. It cannot be denied that popular media made literature accessible to people from all walks of life. Popular culture (specifically popular media) serves as "a potent force for persuasion and value building and the perception of consciousness" (Fernandez, 1981). Through popular media which are quite accessible, people's manner of thinking and behaving were affected by these forms of consumed literature. Because of the technological advancements that began after the Second World War, the television shows because of their multi-sensory attribute. They do not only attract in the visual sense of the viewer, but also in other senses such as the auditory and emphatic senses. Television shows also have the power to transmit the spoken word through another medium which makes them hypertextual and anachronistic (Tolentino, 2006, 24). These shows are the repositories of contemporary culture since they act as representations of signs, symbols, images, portrayals, depictions, likeness, and substitutions, seen and experienced in reality (Sanchez, 2015, 347). They have not only captured but also influenced people’s way of thinking and their perception

67


of reality (Fiske and Hartley, 2003, 2) to the point that the divide between simulation and the actual is blurred. Despite their contribution to popular culture and media studies, television shows still faced criticisms. For instance, critics assert that television viewers only need minimum intelligence to be able to comprehend and make sense of what is shown on screen (Fiske and Hartley, 2003, 3). What the critics fail to see is a mismatch on the constructs used in pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of television viewing. Television shows should not be read as a literary text because any attempt to decode a television “text” as a literary text is doomed to failure and would likely result to a negative evaluation of the material based on its inability to do a job for which it is fundamentally unsuited (3). The critics also fail to realize that the television as a material is an equal, if not more than demanding, compared to traditional forms of text such as the printed and written forms. In viewing television shows, there is no way for viewers to go back over the material unlike in the printed forms of text wherein readers can flip back and through printed materials (Fiske and Hartley, 2003, 4). Also, television shows which are electronically transmitted have different features compared to the written and printed texts (Fiske and Hartley, 2003, 2 and 3), yet they have the capability to unite and examine one’s culture because of its storytelling functions (Sauro, 2013, 80). These shows are not only for entertainment but also for being aware of one's reality. One of the contributions of television shows in the field of both literary and media studies is the emergence of the soap opera which evolved into what is known today as the teleserye. Teleseryes have lured viewers on the boob tube since these shows can simulate realities and re-actualized them to a different medium. These are shows that mirror today’s experiences which are relevant in today’s society (Aranda, 2014). Also, these shows would operate on motifs which are quite relevant in the Filipino palette such as family ties, personal relationships, morality, and politics. Some studies, however, point out that the teleserye slowly loses its grip to attract and lure viewers to the television screen.Teleseryes occupy various timeslots on television and still gain avid viewership. As observed by Kantar Media Survey in 2012, Filipinos spend an average of three to five hours in television watching teleseryes (quoted in Aranda, 2014). Because of its popularity, these teleseryes further morphed into what now known as the fantaserye. Fantaserye is a sub-genre of the teleserye that would often combine folkloric characteristics in the narrative. Sauro (2013) defines it as a variation of the conventional soap opera combining elements of magic, myth, and enchantment (1). Its roots can be traced with the folk epic since both share roots in mythology and folklore. However, these two differ in terms of the mode it is transmitted: the former is transmitted through the television, while the latter is by oral tradition. In view of the above, this paper probes in the attributes of the fantaserye vis-à-vis the traditional roots of the epic. Moreover, the researcher strengthens the association among media studies, popular culture and literary studies by probing into the literariness of the fantaserye.

METHODS The researcher watched and scrutinized the one hundred and sixty episodes, which were downloaded in GMA Network’s YouTube channel, to a qualitative relational content analysis in the course of the research work. This design zeroes in on the interpretation of the material

68


examined (either in linguistic or visual formats) and to generate statements or findings which pertain to the explicit and implicit meaning of the material (Sauro, 2013, 18). The advantage of doing a qualitative relational content analysis in literary studies is that it gives the researcher a focus on the actual content and internal features of the material. It is also used to determine the presence of certain words, phrases, characters, or sentences within texts or sets of texts through qualitative content analysis. Also, qualitative, relational content analysis looks directly on the examined material which leads to its centrality. It also gives way to cultural and historical insights, which is one of the angles touched in this study. Finally, qualitative content analysis is an unobtrusive means of analyzing the relationships and interactions within the examined material which is considered as a relatively exact research method if placed side by side and compared with Discourse Analysis (Sauro, 2013, 24-25). Through this paper, the researcher probed that the first release of “Encantadia” in 2005 traces its roots in the traditional conventions of the folk epic which makes it today’s rendition of the oral lore. Also, the researcher utilized mostly local theories especially that of Eugenio (2001) and Cruz (1985). The former’s theory looks in the conventions of the traditional epic and matches it with the characteristics and elements of the fantaserye, while the latter was adapted from Propp’s morphological function of fairy tales, thus it concentrates on the epic hero’s journey.

RESULTS “Encantadia” as a Traditional Epic Using Eugenio’s epic motifs and conventions (2001), the following results were obtained: “Encantadia” is “performed” through the aid of the television. This is somehow akin to the performances of the traditional epic in communal gatherings on special occasions; however, people do not gather in one place on special occasions and listen or watch the trained singers and performers chant and perform the epic. Rather, these people are gathered in their own homes and are glued to the television, the representation of today's bard at a specific timeslot and watch the actors perform their character roles. Unlike during the pre-colonial times where the epic singers and performers take days to complete the performance of the epic, "Encantadia” is only shown at a particular time within the day, and it took months for the show’s entirety to be narrated. “Encantadia" is performed through acting like the traditional folk epics. Actors and actresses who portrayed the roles in the series auditioned for these roles and underwent a series of acting workshops and related training sessions to make their character portrayal authentic and more convincing. Fighting and resuscitation as motifs in “Encantadia” Eugenio mentioned that one of the motifs of Philippine folk epics is fighting. These fight scenes comprise most of the epic hero's adventures, which paves the way for the hero’s holistic development(Eugenio 2001). Campos echoes the same thought when he posits that fantasy films rely heavily on the motif of fighting or bakbakan. In the case of “Encantadia”, the heroes’ sojourn revolved around these battles. These battles would be in the form of relative rivalries, kingdom warfare, and internal conflict.

69


Relative rivalries

AMIHAN Pirena

LIRA Pirena, Mira

Kingdom warfare

Hagorn (Hathoria)

Hagorn (Hathoria)

Internal conflict

Duty over love

Duty over own happiness

Table 1: Summary of the conflicts encountered by Amihan and Lira As shown in Table 1, the characters of Amihan and Lira were the major players in the narrative, so their characters were always engaged in these brawls. Amihan’s battle in “Encantadia” started when she and Pirena vied for the queenship of Lireo. Pirena wanted to be queen because she thinks that she is the only rightful heir to the throne given her status as the eldest among the siblings as she said in Episode 2; while, Amihan wants to succeed her mother to avenge and bring justice to her father's tragic demise. Following Amihan’s success in the test that will determine the next queen of Lireo, Pirena protested that she was cheated and rebelled by challenging her mother to a duel. In Episode 4, Pirena was not able to win the challenge and vowed that she will avenge her defeat and will plot Amihan’s downfall. She also cast a curse in the entire land of Encantadia that it will never experience peace and happiness. As part of her scheme, Pirena deceived Amihan by acknowledging her queenship. Little did Amihan know that Pirena’s scheme and hunger for power reached its peak, that Pirena had sworn allegiance to Hagorn of Hathoria in Episode 4 and switched the real heir to the throne with her own daughter in Episode 7. Pirena succeeded in executing her plan to destabilize Amihan. She usurped the throne leaving the rightful queen defeated and powerless in Episode 42 by destabilizing Amihan’s line of defense in Lireo, when Hathoria battled with the troops of Lireo. Amihan’s battle is not only with Pirena. It also involved Pirena’s father, Hagorn, the ruler of Hathoria. Hagorn used to be friends with Raquim, Amihan’s father, but the two became enemies after the battle of the four kingdoms. In the first episode, Hagorn crossed the realm of the mortals to find Raquim to finish him and his only daughter. Hagorn succeeded in killing Raquim after a long and bloody duel, but the young Amihan attempted to avenge her father’s death. Hagorn almost killed Amihan by stabbing her with a sword. Amihan was saved by Aquil and Muros who followed Hagorn and his cohorts. As Amihan finds out her true identity as a diwata and one of the heirs of the throne of Lireo, she vowed to herself that she will become queen and avenge her father’s death. She says this in the first episode. When Amihan finally succeeded her mother to the throne in Episode 3, she devoted her reign in fighting Hagorn and his legion of Hathors. Both exhibited their powers and abilities with the gemstones they possess. Amihan was given the stewardship of the air gemstone, while Hagorn stole from Pirena the fire gemstone. The bloody battle concluded at the shores of Adamya in Episodes 157-159, where Amihan finally ended Hagorn’s life by thrusting a sword through his heart. As Amihan reigns over the kingdom, she did not only have enemies who wish her downfall, but she also became enemies with herself when she was given the choice to choose between the queendom and the matters of her own heart. The edict of Lireo clearly states that

70


a reigning queen should never seek marriage for they are directly married to their responsibility as the leader of the kingdom. Amihan almost defied this rule when she fell in love with her child’s father, Prince Ybrahim of Sapiro also known as Ybarro. What made the matter more complex is that she and her younger sister Alena fell in love with the same man. Nurturing and giving as she is, Amihan suppressed her feelings towards Ybrahim and focused on her reign as queen and her battle to reclaim the throne from the evil forces of Hathoria. After the last battle among the kingdoms, Amihan bestowed her blessing to her sister Alena and her husband Ybrahim as the new rulers of the re-established kingdom of Sapiro. Lira is the promised savior of Encantadia and is one of the epic heroes in the series. In fulfilling her mission, which is to return the peace that was long absent in Encantadia, she was subjected to trials and fights that tested her character’s maturity. After being estranged from her motherland and her identity as the future queen of Lireo, Lira returned through the help of her mother’s youngest sister, Danaya, and helped Amihan to reclaim Lireo from Pirena and Hagorn. In Episode 89, Lira knew how to defeat Hagorn and his forces with the help of Inang Reyna, who was revealed to be her spirit guide. Lira’s mission proved to be arduous, but she still exerted her effort to convince her aunt Pirena to withdraw her support from Hagorn and join their force so that Hagorn and his cohorts are defeated and peace will return to Encantadia. She also persuaded her mother, Amihan and her other aunts, Alena and Danaya to make amends with Pirena. It will take some time for Lira to persuade them because of their pride. This culminated in Episode 142 when Pirena realized that she was deceived by her handmaid Gurna. Because of this, Pirena killed Gurna by turning her into stone. The four stewards of the elemental gemstones united against the evil forces of Hagorn. Like her mother who had an internal conflict in choosing duty over self, Lira also experienced it as her character undergoes challenges and fights. In the latter part of the series, she was left with the choice of choosing her mortal lover, Anthony, over her duty as the savior of Encantadia and heir to the throne. Lira chose Encantadia over her mortal lover despite her intense feelings for Anthony. She sacrificed her own happiness in exchange of Encantadia’s tranquility. As the final battle approaches, she led its planning and assembled the remaining forces that they have at the shores of Adamya. In Episode 156, after sending her mortal lover back to the human realm, Lira embarked on planning the final battle with Hagorn and his troops, and after the final battle, Lira asked for her mother’s blessing to return to the mortal world and marry her lover. Rivalry among relatives is one of the forms of fighting shown in this fantasy series, and Lira was not spared from this. Like Amihan, Lira had a feud with her cousin Mira who crossed over the realm of mortals to escape the conflicted world of diwatas. Mira fell in love with Anthony, Lira’s lover. When Lira left for Encantadia to fulfill her mission, she entrusted Anthony to Mira, not knowing that the latter developed feelings towards Anthony. Mira resorted to all forms of magic and incantations in order for Anthony to eradicate Lira from his heart. In Episode 142, Mira, out of desperation, put Anthony under a spell through a gayuma so that he will forget Lira and the love that he has for her. The rivalry between the two is only implied compared to their mothers, Amihan and Pirena, because there was no confrontation. The motif of fighting is seen in the narrative and comes in many forms. The nature of these encounters is to test the character’s maturity and personality if she is fit to be the hero and a revered figure in the realm. Both characters fought with their siblings and relatives and

71


kingdoms. Both led the final battle which will finally defeat Hagorn’s evil forces, and both had an internal conflict which led them to choose their satisfaction over the duty and responsibility that was given to them. Unlike in the Western great epics that heroes die after their series of battles, folk epics in the Philippines do not end the epics tragically. Heroes would be brought back to life with the help of some divine or magical person or creature through prayers or incantations. The process would usually take long and tedious. For “Encantadia”, the idea of resuscitation is manifested in several occasions. Amihan’s character experienced several near-death experiences and was brought back to life with the help of a magical thing or her own willpower. First of this is her first battle as queen of Lireo when Pirena and Hagorn joined forces to kill her in Episode 3. This episode marks the transition of power from Minea to Amihan, and as her first agendum, Amihan faced Hagorn’s forces, but she was almost killed. The latter was not successful because Danaya used her earth gemstone to save Amihan from death’s clutches. Second was when Asval struck a deadly blow to Amihan’s heart during the encounter at Sapiro in Episode 111. Despite Danaya’s efforts in resuscitating Amihan back to health, her efforts were put to waste. It was Amihan’s willpower who prevented herself to succumb to death. This caused several changes for Amihan’s benefit. First is the disappearance of the lines on her palms which means that she is in control of her own destiny. Second is on environmental changes caused by mere utterance of her will, which included acquiring the ability to create her own twin or kambal-diwa named Aera. Lira's character also had her near-death experience. As she and her aunt Danaya were on their way to Encantadia, Hagorn and his troops prevented them to enter the realm. Hagorn abducted Lira in exchange of the earth gemstone which was under Danaya’s stewardship. Danaya almost gave the earth gemstone when an Avilan’s spirit stole the gemstone from her which led Hagorn to stab Lira using his sword. The future queen was fatally wounded and was brought to Avila, the sanctuary of the Mulawins. Lira almost died, but Danaya sought Mercurio’s magical seeds with the help and guidance of the Mulawins. This encounter fulfilled a prophecy that Encantadia’s future savior would die and would resurrect through the help of Mercurio’s magical seeds. Resuscitation did not only happen in the lead characters. Pirena, one of the antagonists in the series, was killed by Asval after not surrendering the fire gemstone. She was struck with a spear to her heart which caused her immediate death. As she died, darkness enveloped the entire land and the power of fire died together with its caretaker. Pirena’s remains were left in the mountains to be consumed by animals who feed on remains and carcasses. Amihan and her sisters found Pirena’s body and gave proper burial rites fit for a royalty, but Lira stopped it as it will spell failure to her mission. In Episode 128, Lira sought the help of Evades, the guardian of the tree of life. To be able to get some leaves from the tree, Lira has to answer a riddle from the caretaker himself and she has three attempts to answer it, but she failed. Despite her failure, she did not give up, to which Evades commended; thus, allowing her to take some leaves, which saved Pirena’s soul from going to Devas. Fighting and resuscitation are two intertwined motifs in the Philippine folk epic because these oral literature always end on a happy note. It has never permeated the Filipino consciousness that lead characters would die a tragic death even for a cause. This attribute is

72


still evident in other forms of media such as films (specifically action films and epic films) and teleseryes wherein the lead character always triumphs over the villain. Magical modes of transportation in “Encantadia” Magical transportation in folk epics as a motif is common, especially for the hero and even secondary characters are involved in many adventures. Eugenio (2001) mentions that magic transportation can be part of the epic hero’s supernatural powers and abilities or a mode of transportation is described in the narrative which helps the hero and even secondary characters transport from one place to another (xxxiv). In “Encantadia”, magical transportation is not only shown through physical depictions, but it was also part of the diwata’s supernatural powers and that means of transportation are provided, but only diwatas of royal lineage (sang’gres) are given this ability. Also, this power makes them invisible from their enemies. They turn into smoke so that they can be transported from one place to another. In Episode 1, when Amihan was in danger of being kidnapped, she unintentionally vanished into smoke, which made her abductors stumble with fear. However, this power has limitations. Diwatas cannot summon this power if they are tied or in the kingdom of Hathoria where the diwata’s power does not affect because the kingdom is protected by prayers and incantations to disarm enemies, especially the diwatas. In Episode 54, when Alena was captured by Hitano, she was bound to a chair which prevented her from escaping. In Episode 57, Hitano brought Alena to the kingdom of Hathoria to ask for Hagorn’s blessing for their marriage. Despite being a powerful diwata, Alena's powers do not affect the kingdom. And lastly, it cannot be used to teleport from Encantadia to the Human World or vice versa. Modes of magical transportation were created and used in the fantaserye. Airships are provided for air travel possible. On several occasions, these airships were used in the series. In Episode 37, Alena and Danaya were able to ride on these airships on their way to Devas to look for the missing water gemstone that was taken allegedly by Bathala from Alena to alleviate her pain from losing Ybarro. In Episode 88, Lira and Danaya also used the same mode of transportation to go to Devas to know her mission as the luntaie (savior of Encantadia). Apart from these air ships, Hathors also made use of individual air packets that helps them fly while fighting in mid-air. Amihan and Lira: The Epic Heroines in “Encantadia” The epic hero is the lead character in folk epics who also embodies the people’s ambitions, aspirations, and ideals of a community (Eugenio, 2001, xvii). For the regional epics, male characters are often used to depict the epic hero since they are always portrayed to be physically strong and possessing unusual strength. In the case of “Encantadia,” the heroes in the narrative are women: Lira and Amihan. It is in their perspectives that the majority of the fantaserye “Encantadia” is told.

73


ANDA NG EPIKO AMIHAN LIRA The hero leaves his Brought by Raquim to brought by Pirena to be motherland protect from Hagorn killed On his journey, the Father’s sword hero will receive a Gemstone of Air sacred object or weapon

Avatar (sword)

The hero starts his Finds out mother is still journey and finds a alive distant relative Goes back to Encantadia through Aquil and Muros’ help The hero gets into a Fights with Pirena and fight Hagorn

Finds out she is heir to the throne of Lireo

The enchanted being N/A reveals to the hero that he is related to his archnemesis

N/A

Goes back to Encantadia escorted by Danaya

Fights with Marge Fights Hagorn and his troops The hero’s fight lasts Mission: Kill Hagorn Fights with her aunts to long. and reclaim Lireo finally reconcile with each other An enchanted being N/A N/A mediates in the fight and stops it

The hero dies and Threatened by Hagorn Killed by Hagorn journeys to the and Pirena underworld Killed by Asval The hero rises from Declares her own fate the dead Defies death

Saved by Danaya through Mercurio’s help

The hero returns Reclaims Lireo; passes Reintegrates in the world triumphantly to his the crown to her of mortals motherland daughter The hero marries and Remained single; Marries Anthony lives a peaceful life married to the people even after her reign as queen Table 2: Amihan and Lira’s journey vis-à-vis Isagani Cruz’ Anda ng Epiko

74


As shown in Table 2, Amihan and Lira were both estranged from Encantadia. In the first episode, Amihan’s childhood was shown as she lived in the world of mortals together with her father Raquim, which made her think that she is a mortal being until it was disrupted when Hagorn and his forces killed Raquim and plotted to kill her. Amihan eluded death as she was rescued by Aquil and Muros and was brought to Encantadia. Lira’s situation was different. It was Pirena who brought her to the world of mortals to have a horrific death since the infant was protected from Pirena’s enchantments and powers because of Danaya’s blessing. Lira grew up in the world of mortals and has always believed that she is a human being. It was revealed to both Amihan and Lira that they were not human beings but diwatas. They were both heirs to the throne of Lireo which make them sang’gres. In addition to this, Amihan learned that her mother is still alive, something contradictory to what her deceased father used to say about her mother’s identity. Lira also experienced the same. Upon knowing that she is a diwata, she also knew that she was the true heir to the throne of Lireo. Lastly, both heroines returned to Encantadia through the help of the realm’s denizens; Muros and Aquil escorted Amihan as she was badly wounded; while, Danaya went in exile to the realm of mortals and accidentally discovered that the true Lira resides in the mortal world. Amihan and Lira were both engaged in challenges, ordeals, and fights along their journey. Amihan had a sibling rivalry with her eldest sister, Pirena, since she came back from the world of mortals. This further heightened when their queen mother Minea had to choose her successor as the next queen of Lireo. In order to be fair in choosing the successor, Minea subjected her daughters to a test to challenge their capabilities as a ruler. At the end of the task, it was Amihan who emerged victorious which made her the heir to the throne, to which Pirena protested. To seek revenge after being cheated, Pirena plotted to destabilize Amihan’s reign by switching Amihan’s daughter with her daughter, fooling Amihan into thinking that Pirena’s daughter was her flesh and blood. Amihan did not only have Pirena as archnemesis to the throne of Lireo. Hagorn of Hathoria also vied to take control of Lireo and the other three remaining gemstones to reign supreme in Encantadia. He and Amihan engaged in a long fight, which led to Amihan losing control over Lireo, but evil did not reign long, for Hagorn was defeated in the shores of Adamya where the sang’gres and the forces of good united and fought for peace. Lira began to question her identity as a human being; she noticed she was different from other human beings as she had special abilities such as summoning the wind and sending bolts of lightning whenever in danger. Her first archnemesis was Marge, Anthony's friend, who was evidently attracted to the latter. Unfortunately, Anthony had a liking towards Lira which aggravated Marge. Because of this, Lira suffered physical assaults and harsh words from Marge, but Lira can only endure so much; thus, she sent gusts of wind and lightning to finally stop Marge's assault. Upon returning to Encantadia, her fight continued as she helped her mother in taking back Lireo from Pirena and Hagorn. As the promised savior of Encantadia, her mission was to unite all the four stewards of the gemstone so that once and for all, peace will return to the land. Both heroines have sacred and magical objects that helped them in their journey. Amihan, on the one hand, was trained to be a warrior by her father since childhood. She inherited her father’s sword which was her weapon in fighting Hagorn’s forces and those that threaten the peace in Encantadia. To secure the remaining gemstones after the fire gemstone was taken by Pirena, Minea entrusted the remaining gemstones to her three other daughters. As the heir apparent to the throne, Amihan was given the stewardship of the air gemstone, the gemstone that was entrusted to the past queens of Lireo before Hathoria became greedy. The air gemstone can control air currents and lightning. It also has the power to track someone

75


through the creature's breathing. Also, it can send messages through gusts of wind. Lira, on the other hand, was given the Avatar. It is a sword wielded from pure gold and wielded by the first queen of Lireo, Cassiopeia. This is Lira’s weapon in protecting herself from Pirena and other forces who oppose her mother’s reign in reclaiming Lireo. Part of the hero’s sojourn is the journey to the netherworld by dying and resurrecting from the dead. In the fantasy series, both Amihan and Lira suffered death which made them journey to the netherworld. Amihan, on the one hand, encountered death numerous times, but it almost took her life when Asval stabbed her in an encounter in Sapiro. As her soul waits to enter Devas, the final resting place of Encantadia’s denizens, she has a word with Avilan, the spirit guide of the air gemstone and her personal guardian. When Avilan told her that she is bound to die, Amihan defies by willpower that she will not die and it is not her time to go especially that they are still in the middle of a fight against Hagorn’s forces. Lira, on the other hand, almost died when Hagorn stabbed her when Danaya did not give the earth gemstone in exchange for Lira’s life. As her spirit waits to enter the gates of Devas, Avilan reveals her real identity and has subjected Lira to use her supernatural abilities by taming a dragon. After accomplishing the task, Lira went back to the world of the living. After the journey to the underworld, the hero completes the journey and goes back home to marry or to settle down for good. In the case of Encantadia, Amihan and Lira observed this function. After the last battle, peace returned to Encantadia. Lireo’s power was given back to its rightful and anointed ruler, Amihan and Sapiro rose from being a deserted kingdom and was ruled by its new king, Ybrahim. Amihan passed the crown to, Lira, her heir, but the latter abn egated it for she wanted to go back to the world of mortals and marry Anthony. Lira asked for her mother’s blessing, and soon after Amihan bestowed her blessings, she entrusted the crown to her aunt Danaya. As for Amihan, she has remained single after her queenship and dedicated her entire life to maintaining the peace in Encantadia. Amihan and Lira’s characters are today’s embodiment of epic heroes. Through their characters, they celebrate the essential Filipino characteristic: maternal love. This is quite ironic, however, as both characters missed the love and care of their mothers in their formative years, yet they were given the task to be the motherly figures of Encantadia. On the show’s penultimate episode, Minea appeared to her daughters and delegated to them a mission: to be the mothers of each other and the entire realm. Contreras (2008) supports this that the fantasy soap is "undoubtedly female in character, with the male characters being defined concerning the female characters, and not the other way around" (7). Also, he continues that male characters become merely the love interests of the major female leads, or as soldiers and followers of strong matriarchal leaders (7). Amihan and Lira’s characters as the epic heroes promote women empowerment, an issue that has been perennial today. Also, some characters in the fantaserye were inspired by existing ancient folklore and classical tales. For example, Gurna’s character is patterned after Manthara’s character in the Indian epic “Ramayana”. Dwivedi and Soni describes Manthara as the maid who "poisoned the mind of sweet-natured Kaikeyi, who was a step-mother of Lord Rama but still the most doting one. The words of Manthara were so ensnaring that Kaikeyi lost all discrimination power. She was able to manipulate Queen Kaikeyi to believe that the throne of Ayodhya belonged to her son Bharata and that her step-son crown-prince Rama (the hero of the Ramayana), should be exiled from the kingdom” (430). In “Encantadia”, it was Gurna who poisoned Pirena’s mind that she is hated by her immediate family, which pushed the latter to do all horrendous and treacherous acts on her mother and sisters. The only difference is that

76


Gurna, on the one hand, died at the hands of Pirena, cursing her to be in the form of stone after the latter discovered that she was manipulated all along by her handmaid to loathe her mother and sisters in Episode 141. It is also in this episode that Pirena reconciled with her three other sisters. Manthara, on the other hand, was about to be banished from the kingdom, but Kaikeyi saved her by begging King Bharata to spare her from banishment. Another character that was inspired by other folklore is Imaw, whose character portrayal and depiction is inspired by Yoda of "Star Wars". Both characters share the same short stature and facial features. Yoda, on the one hand, is an experienced and legendary Jedi Master who helped Luke Skywalker in his ordeals (Pianka, 2013, 12), while Imaw’s characterization in “Encantadia”, helped Minea and Amihan in difficult situations. He will always give them sound advice in times of difficult situations. Imaw may not be an experienced warrior or Jedi unlike Yoda, but both share the qualities of a wizened being. Both provide counsel and sound advice to their leaders for the betterment of the realm. Imaw never resorted to violence and has always advised queens Minea and Amihan to always look on the good side of things and to never lose hope amidst the evil dominating the land. He always reminded these leaders to use not only their head in judging crucial situations but also their heart in discerning their actions. In Episode 2, Imaw guided Minea on how to properly choose her successor as queen of Lireo, since Minea was hesitant and worrisome on who will replace her as the leader of the diwatas. Another instance was in Episode 38 when Amihan was doubtful if the Lira that she knew was her true heir. To solve this riddle, Imaw proposed to the Queen to look for the golden dagger that the first queen of Lireo used to solve the dilemma of two mothers bickering over a child’s custody. With these examples, Imaw’s character was inspired by Yoda’s physical attributes and attitudes. And lastly, Prince Ybrahim’s character, the long-lost prince of Sapiro, was patterned after an Ilokano folk epic hero, Lam-ang. In “Encantadia”, Ybarro never got to know his real lineage in the royal bloodline of Sapiro until his foster father’s reveals it on his dying breath. Similar to Lam-ang, both characters avenged their father’s death by killing their parent’s tormentors. Both characters were very showy of their manliness. Lam-ang, on the one hand, showed this by beating all his enemies in a single combat and his dauntless acceptance of capturing the rarang to prove his manhood (Eugenio 2). Ybarro, on the other hand, showed this by courting one of the heirs apparent to the Lireo throne, Sang’gre Alena. His manliness and machismo are only justified if he will have Alena as his special someone. He persevered in capturing her attention despite their social status that prohibits them from pursuing their relationship at a more, intimate level until Ybarro learned his true parentage. In Episode 3, he intruded Alena’s study to ask for her hand in marriage, to which the sang’gre resented, but Ybarro was not discouraged. He exerted his efforts to earn Alena's attention which culminated in the first battle of Amihan against Hagorn’s troops. In the long run, they became a couple and their love story ended happily as Ybrahim took the helm of leading the re-established kingdom of Sapiro.

DISCUSSION Through Amihan and Lira’s characters, the show was emulated selflessness. As queen of Lireo, Amihan ensured that the needs of the people around her were addressed. She is an epitome of a selfless leader. It even came to a point that she set aside her happiness for other people to be happy. This happened when she and Alena had fallen with the same man: Ybrahim. Since she is the incumbent leader of Lireo, Amihan set aside her feelings towards Ybrahim for her sister Alena to be happy. Lira, on the other hand, left her lover and her comfort zone, the mortal world, to fulfill her mission as the promised savior and heir to the throne of Lireo. These fantaserye heroes echo the traditional characteristics of the folk epic hero.

77


In previous teleseryes, feminine lead characters are victims of their circumstances (Contreras, 2013, 7). The fantaserye “Encantadia” countered this by establishing a new construct which is the feminization of violence. Women garbed in armory and wage warfare against their opponents are depicted through the Sang’gre’s characterization. This depiction has reversed the image of the male warrior which has long been used as a staple and frame of violence such as in other epics like the “Iliad” of the Greeks even up to Carlo J. Caparas’ “Panday” (Contreras, 2013, 6). Some would say that shows and movies like “Kill Bill”, “Charlie’s Angels”, and “Bionic Woman” would belong in this genre. It may be the case; however, but what distinguishes the Encantadia fantasy series is its mere adaptability to Filipino culture which makes it a staple viewing for Filipino viewers. Because of this narrative, the idea of war and violence has been deconstructed by not only presenting it as violent, bloody, and evil but also graceful and beautiful. By using the Sang’gres in the narrative, a balance was struck on the idea of feminization; it has both presented the feminine characteristics of grace and beauty and the masculine attributes of bravery and violence. For instance, Amihan’s character as queen of Lireo is not only limited to being the mother figure of the realm; her responsibility extends in defending the queendom from all threats through warfare and combat: a trope usually reserved for the male character. Through these delineations, the show has empowered women that they can do roles similar to that of their male counterparts such as being warriors and rulers of a nation. “Encantadia” is an example of a fantaserye in which real-life situations are included in its narrative, coupled with myth, enchantment, and magic. It conjures images that sanitize the lurid and obscure folkloric details which resulted in the projected image as more real and applicable; thus, enabling make-believe visual images and narratives destabilize established norms and institutions such as the machismo male. The Sang’gre’s world of Encantadia became an accessible piece of popular culture, despite that it dwells in the world of fantasy, but managed to find social meaning which ordinary people can relate and associate themselves with (Contreras, 2013, 6). Through the character's portrayal, viewers can relate and identify their realities and experiences to these characters. It provided a means for the viewers to realize that they are not alone in whatever situation they are into; it is experienced by people even those from the highest members of society. “Encantadia” exhibits traditional epic conventions as propounded by Damiana Eugenio and Isagani Cruz. Primarily, magical transportations, which can be part of the characters' powers and abilities or an aerial or land vehicle used to transport characters from one place to another, were evident. Fighting was also a convention in which the heart of the hero's adventures lies. Through these fight scenes, the character−the epic hero−transforms matures and projects heroic attributes that are valued by a group or a race. Most importantly, the fantaserye showcased two epic heroes, Amihan and Lira, who share the same character arc. Both were deprived of maternal love at a young age, yet their mission was to be mothers for the people under their care. Though their characters, the show underscored a valuable, Filipino attribute: selflessness. Furthermore, women empowerment was also given importance because the writers preferred to make use of female characters rather than the typical and staple male epic heroes found in the recorded pages of some regional epics. It also validates the pre-colonial principle of the leader who does not only function in the political affairs of the community, but also in the military and religious affairs.

78


CONCLUSION By looking into the characters and their characterization, the researcher emerged with two epic heroes in the characters of Amihan and Lira. Their characters follow the typical plot structure of the hero’s journey: being estranged from the native land, going on a set of adventures which will test their character as heroines of the land, and their triumph over these challenges and obstacles, which also manifests in their attitude transformation as the series progresses. Throughout the plot, one sees that the heroes get stronger not only physically, but also emotionally as they surpass challenges that will make them project attitudes that are valued in society such as being kind, gentle, firm, and motherly. Also, their characters echo relevant issues and ideas that are still relevant in today's society: women empowerment and motherhood. Both characters' missions are to be stewards of the people around them. In the first episode up to the penultimate episode, motherhood has been emphasized several times. One of which is Minea’s challenge to her four daughters. It was only Amihan who succeeded in the challenge because she was able to figure out that her alleged enemy is the queen. It was only Amihan who used her heart to see the good in the person like how mothers only see the good in their children. The idea of balance was also shown in the series when it was Lira’s mission to unite her mother and her aunts to battle Hagorn’s forces. It is through their unity that evil will be defeated and tranquility will reign so long as these elemental gemstones are in balance with each other. Through these justifications, it is safe to say that the Philippine fantasy series or the fantaserye finds its inspiration not only from mythology but also from the folk epics.

REFERENCES Abrera, B. (2008). Seclusion and Veiling of Women: A Historical and Cultural Approach. Philippine Social Sciences Review, 1–2, 33-56. Aligan, R. (1992). The Biblical and Folkloric Elements of the Pasyon. Thesis. University of Santo Tomas. Aranda, M. (2014). Ang Pamilya sa Loob ng mga Teleserye sa Telebisyon. DLSU Research Congress. 2014 Baldick, C. (2001). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford University Press. Biclar, L. (2014). “The Socio-cultural and Political Undertones in Francisco Demetillo’s Barter in Panay: An Epic.”JPAIR Multdidisciplinary Research, vol. 16, March 2014, 57-81. Calleja-Reyes, Jose. “Ibalon: An Ancient Document Epic”. Philippine Studies, vol. 16, no.2, 1968, 318-347. Contreras, Antonio P. “Female Warriors in GMA TV Fantasy Programs vis-à-vis the Fantasy Wars of GMA the President: Reflections on Simulated Women Engaged in Simulated Violence”. IDEYA Journal of the Humanities, vol. 9, no. 2, March 2008, 1-12.

79


Cruz, Isagani. “Si Lam-ang, Si Fernando Poe Jr., at si Aquino: ilang kuro-kuro tungkol sa epikong Pilipino”. Diliman Review, vol. 33, no. 1, Jan-Feb. 1985, 73-79. Eugenio, D. (ed.) (2001). Philippine Folk Literature: The Epics (Vol VIII). U of the Philippines P. Fernandez, D. (1981). “Philippine Popular Culture: Dimensions and Directions. The State of Research in Philippine Popular Culture”. Philippine Studies, vol. 29, no. 1, 1981, 2644. Fiske, J. & Hartley, J. (2003). Reading Television (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. 2003. Harrington, C. Lee, et al. (2015). Soap Operas and Artistic Legitimation: The Role of Critical Commentary. Communication, Culture & Critique, 8 (4), 613-631. Hersh, A. (1993). Transgressive Intent: The Postmodern Epic and the subversion of the generic form. Thesis, The University of Michigan, 1993 Imran, M. (2001). The image of the emergent hero in J.R.R. Tolkien’s “The Lord of the Rings”. Dissertation. University of Santo Tomas, 2001. Kumar, Priyanka. “The Fascinating World of Retellings: Retellings of the Indian Epics.” Research Journal of English Language and Literature (RJELAL),vol. 4, no.20, 2016, 793-797. Lindas, J. (2013). Engaging with Postmodernism: An Examination of the Literary Canon. Undergraduate Honors Thesis. University of Colorado Boulder. Manuel, E. A. (1985). A Guide for the Study of Philippine Folklore. Philippine Folklore Society. Mojares, R. (1998). Origins and Rise of the Filipino Novel: A Generic Study of the Novel Until 1940. U of the Philippines P, 1998. Pianka, J. (2013). The Power of the Force: Race, Gender, and Colonialism in the Star Wars Universe. Master’s thesis: Welseyan University. May 2013. Reilly, B. (2013). Collecting the People: Textualizing Epics in Philippine History from the Sixteenth Century to the Twenty-First. Diss. University of California Los Angeles. 2013. Roque, M. (1967). A Study of Philippine Oral Epics. Thesis. University of Santo Tomas, 1967. Rosario-Braid, F. and Tuazon, R. (1999). “Communication Media in the Philippines 15211986.” Philippine Studies, vol 47, no 3, 1999, 291-318. Sanchez, L.J. (2015).“Si Judy Ann Santos at ang Wika ng Teleserye”. Kritika Kultura, vol. 25, 2015, 344-378.

80


Santos, A. (1997). â&#x20AC;&#x153;A Tradition Behind Bars: Philippine Epics and the Evolving Philippine Literary Canon.â&#x20AC;? Journal of English and Comparative Literature, vol. 2, no. 1, 101171. Sauro, V. (2013). Inscribing Filipino Male Desires and Fantasies: Darna 2009 as Cultural Mythology and Political Ideology. Thesis. University of Santo Tomas. Sim, Stuart (ed.) (2001). The Routledge Companion to Postmodernism. United Kingdom: Routledge. Tolentino, R. (2006). Sipat Kultura. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Victoria, V. (2016). Ang Epikseryeng Filipino: Diskurso sa Amaya. Scientia: The Research Journal of the College of Arts & Sciences, vol 5.1, June 2016, 92-120.

81


Publishedby UniversitasAdventIndonesia Jl.KolonelMasturiNo.288 Parongpong,Bandung40059

JawaBarat-Indonesia 82

Profile for jurnal.acuity

Acuity: Journal of English Language Pedagogy, Literature & Culture, Vol.5 No.1  

Welcome to the fourth issue of the ACUITY: Journal of English Language Pedagogy, Literature, and Culture (Jelpedlic). I want to thank the...

Acuity: Journal of English Language Pedagogy, Literature & Culture, Vol.5 No.1  

Welcome to the fourth issue of the ACUITY: Journal of English Language Pedagogy, Literature, and Culture (Jelpedlic). I want to thank the...

Advertisement

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded