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To my family and friends and to photography lovers, and enthusiasts, especially those interested in pursuing photography as a professional career.

When you sit to read a book, you never really think about the amount of work that went into it or how many people it took to help the writer get there until you write one yourself. I have learnt and benefitted greatly while putting this together. This paper would not have been possible if I did not have the mercy, help and guidance of God, and I am truly thankful. Thank you so much Robert Edison Sandiford, my tutor and mentor, who helped me write and compile this paper from the very start. I am grateful to all those photographers who took the time to conduct an interview and share their knowledge with me and allowed me to use their photographs in this book. Thank you to the members of deviantART who allowed me to display their photographs throughout this book and those who participated in my polls. I am thankful to my past photography tutors, Preston Melville, Lisle Warner and Joel Brooks; they were the ones who helped me realise my passion for photography. Thank you to Barbados Community College (Louis and Terry) for allowing me to use the college’s camera quite a number of times. Lastly, a heartfelt thanks and appreciation go out to my family, who have been really supportive.

C O N T E N T S CHAPTER 1. History of Digital and Film Photography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 CHAPTER 2. What is Photography?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 CHAPTER 3. Photography Levels and Genres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 CHAPTER 4. Steps Towards Becoming A Professional Photographer . . . . . . . . 21 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Photo Credits. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44

Photography is a means of taking pictures by using a camera, either digital or film. The art of photography is much more than just taking a picture or photograph. To differentiate a photographer from a hobbyist, a photographer must have an understanding of and an appreciation for the art, be technically efficient, and he must also know how to conceptualise ideas. Photography is a means of expressing a tangible thing or idea in an image. The 20th-century digital era brought many people into photography who would never have used a camera previously. Photography was an expensive investment, time consuming, and harmful because of the chemicals used to produce an image. It does not take more than one minute to produce an image with a camera in this century. An image can be uploaded to a computer or be printed within seconds after it is taken. Such advancements have caused many amateur and professional photographers to gain much more exposure, mostly via the Internet. Any novice who wishes to pursue photography out of interest can easily teach himself and learn how to become better because of readily accessible information and affordable technology. Online art communities aid in the development of photographers, too. Photographers can market their work, sell their photographs and seek proposals from possible clients online. The purpose of this research paper is to understand the stages that a professional photographer must today pass through before becoming qualified. How he learns or how he teaches himself may not relate to what is required of him to be a professional. One may be a professional but not a good photographer or vice versa. There are elements and factors that aid in the improvement of a photographer’s status or may lead to the decline in his career. A number of professional photographers from the ages of 22 to 70 from Barbados and abroad were interviewed for this paper. Reading material proved to be scarce but the material from the interviews provided sufficient and beneficial information due to the many skill levels and experience, which helped in the structuring of this paper.

Since the advent of the modern and-shoot cameras.[2] In the 21st computer, it was inevitable that century, the numbers have vastly photography would find its place multiplied with the availability of in the new digital age. Now it is very affordable, good quality doing so, and in a hurry! [1] Since digital cameras. According to one the advancements in photography of Nikon’s Japanese companies of the 1950s and the invention in Tokyo, more than 95 percent of digital cameras around 1990 of its British business is now in - 1991, along with every other the digital market. The Nikon digital invention that aids in Corporation has decided to focus its convenience and efficiency, management resources on digital people of all different ages cameras instead of film cameras. [3] around the world have taken up A survey conducted by Kodak photography. in 2007 showed that 75 percent By 1950 according of professional to Kodak, nearly photographers three-quarters of say they will American families continue to use owned cameras film, even though and took two billion some embrace photographs with digital fully.[4] The them. By the 1970s, company believes they were taking that digital nine billion pictures products now a year, most of drive the thriving them quick, informal Oldest photograph by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce industry.[5] snapshots taken with basic pointPhotography or the idea of

Single lens reflex film camera 2

Polaroid (point-and-shoot) instant film camera

Disposable film camera

Film (point-and-shoot) camera with digital settings

photography has been in existence since the 5th century BCE, but the first permanent photograph View from the Window at le Gras was an image produced in 1825 by the French inventor Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. His photographs were produced on a polished pewter plate covered with a petroleum derivative called bitumen of Judea.[6] There was a demand for portraiture photography, and in 1884 film photography was invented by George Eastman. Most practitioners were well-trained professionals with a practical knowledge of chemistry. Except for a few technically gifted and wealthy hobbyists there were no amateur photographers as there would be in the 20th century. [7] With the growing demand for

Dycam model 1, first digital camera

Digital single lens reflex camera

more portrait photography, the public was given the opportunity to own their very own cameras in 1901, when Kodak released their Brownie film cameras. Photography rapidly became a form of commercial service by the 20th century.[8] Chemicals such as developer solutions and powders like alkaline and glacial acetic acid were and are used in the production of film photographs. Contact with high levels of some photo chemicals could lead to acute problems such as burns, dermatitis, dizziness, vomiting, asphyxiation and central nervous system failure.[9] Fatalities and severe poisonings have resulted from ingestion of concentrated developer solutions.[10] The procedure was a long, complex and expensive one for each film development process, therefore some people would have get their photographs printed by photo processors and they still do today.

Point-and-shoot 4 mega pixel digital camera

Point-and-shoot 10 mega pixel digital camera


Film memory: 35mm negative, maximum roll of 36 frames.

With the development of technology, photography continued to improve through the advance of the digital camera. The first stages started in 1969. Around 1975, an attempt at building a digital camera was made by Steven Sasson, an Eastman Kodak engineer. A few cameras had been invented during that period but the first real commercial digital camera was put on the market in 1990. It was called the Dycam Model 1, which was priced at four hundred and ninety-nine pounds. As digital cameras progressed, they initially remained expensive and catered more to high end consumers and professional photographers. Around 1999, photography’s evolution took a great turn. More digital cameras began to be made by

different manufacturers, and with the increase came advancements well suited to the professional.[11] Today, cameras are affordable to virtually everyone, and many people have the ability to capture and reproduce images with a camera because the process is convenient and immediate. Most photographers use digital cameras instead of traditional silverhalide film cameras, although some photographers use both types, depending on their own preference and the nature of the assignment.[12] Bob Kiss, an American professional fine art photographer working in Barbados says, “The eye of the photographer and the creative brain and heart will always make the better picture, regardless of whether they shoot film or digital.” [13]

Digital camera memory: SD cards, and compact flash, 1GB holds up to 200 images minimum.



LR flex (S lens re film. le g a sin hite d with and w apture ying black c e g rr Ima ra ca came


e cap

tured (DSLR with a dig ) refle it x cam al single le ns era.


According to the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, photography is the process, activity and art of creating still or moving pictures by recording radiation on a sensitive medium, such as a film or an electronic sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects activate a sensitive chemical or electronic sensor during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera that also stores the resulting information chemically or electronically. Photography has many uses for business, science, art and pleasure. [14] Charles Sheeler, one of the master photographers of the 20th century, calls photography, “Nature seen from the eyes outward, painting from the eyes inward. Photography records inalterably the single image, while

Photo shoot with Sisi Jo, before retouching.

painting records a plurality of images wilfully directed by the artist.” [15] Photography is subjected to many interpretations. According to Kiss, a person must have creative intellect and an understanding of the art, including aesthetics, history and an awareness of what has been done before, to appreciate art and recognise the significance of it. As defined by the Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary Online, art is the conscious use of skill and creative imagination acquired by experience, study, or observation especially in the production of aesthetic objects. [16] Photography has two aspects: there is the technical, dealing with execution, equipment, the use of light, camera settings and composure, and the artistic, which involves the aesthetic (portrayal of Beauty),

Photo shoot with Sisi Jo, photo to be edited, before retouching.

Sisi Jo, final retouched photo from the shoot.


Stock photograph of a model unedited.

Stock photograph of a model unedited

Enhanced and retouched photograph done in Adobe Photoshop.


creativity and personal rendition which is considered as pictorial. On a poll conducted on deviantART, an online art community, for this paper, a variety of artists were asked, “Have you ever taken a photograph at least once in your lifetime? (The camera used did not matter.)” Out of 324 respondents, 98.7 percent said they had taken a photograph at least once in their lifetime and 1.3 percent said they had never taken a photograph in their lifetime. This means that most artistic people have at least had access to a camera once in their lifetime. At least 320 of the respondents have the potential to be photographers, and some of them may already be very good photographers. Members of the same art site, were then asked “For those of you who take photos (every once in a while, or often), do you consider yourself to be a photographer?” Out of the 268 respondents, 31 percent stated that they did not consider themselves to be photographers while 69 percent did. Some respondents did not see themselves as photographers because they viewed photography as a profession. Others said no because they believed that one studied to be a photographer. A photograph however is not merely about technique. A photograph is meant to communicate something, be it an idea, concept, feeling or thought to a viewer. For a photograph to be effective one has to be clear about what one is

communicating. Ansel Adams, a world gateway for many artistic photographic class nature photographer said, “There is possibilities, but since the creation of the nothing worse than a sharp photograph digital aspect of photography, the artistic of a fuzzy idea.” Ken Rockwell, a nature value within some digital photographs photographer and online blogger, said seems to have lost its soul. With film in his online photography blog on How to photography, no matter how much Make Great Photographs, that “Merely fiddling you did with a photograph in pointing an expensive and a darkroom, the photograph masterfully adjusted camera There is nothing still kept to its value. A digital worse than a sharp photograph, on the other hand, at something does not make a good photo. Knowing what photograph of a can be a Photoshop fairy tale, you are saying and saying it fuzzy idea. containing only a tiny trace loud and clear is what makes of reality. [18] However not all a strong image people will remember. If digital photographs edited in Photoshop it says nothing to you it will say even less become a digital fairy tale. Skilled to others.” [17] photographers know when and how to The digital age has opened a apply darkroom and photo-retouching

Stock photograph of a model unedited.

Retouched and manipulated photo to look like a complete different model edited in Adobe Photoshop. Is it possible to recognise both models are the same person if the images were not being compared?


techniques to enhance a photo’s aesthetic quality based on experience. No matter how much modifying a person does, a poorly executed photograph cannot look as appealing as a well executed and retouched photograph. Upon browsing through some photographs in online art communities such as deviantART and redbubble, it has been quite difficult to decipher whether some of the images on display are true photographs or not. There are numerous ways to edit a digital image; even a film reel (negatives) can be edited and manipulated with the available equipment and software, like film scanners, Photoshop or Lightroom. deviantART and rebubble displays work by gallery content, so viewers can tell what gallery they are browsing. Browsing these websites has led to some serious questions about whether the

photographs in the galleries are in fact real; sometimes, unless the artist is asked, one would not know. The photographers themselves are often not aware their editing process has warped the true, original photograph, or they simply do not care. Most people surveyed said the average person sees what is in front of him and either decides if he likes what he sees or not. But does the viewer question if the image is authentic or not? Adobe has been working in collaboration with Princeton University, and the University of Washington to create an image-editing software called “PatchMatch” for CS5 which would enable users to accomplish advanced image-editing techniques by the use of an algorithm. [19] The amount of control a photographer could accomplish with such software is unlimited, quite extraordinary and possibly frightening.

Unedited photo of cards, focus is on the letters.

Retouched and manipulated photo of the cards, letters have been changed, lighting effect has been added and background has been blurred.



LEVELS Gordon Frankshot DeLisle Brooks, a renowned Barbadian cricket photographer, defines an amateur as someone who likes to take on photography as a hobby; he does it for the love of it without making a living from photography. He is a camera-buff, one who likes to record different scenes and occasions for himself. [20] Amateurs tend to experiment and push the boundaries of photography because there are no time constraints, no fear of being a failure; they always maintain the room for learning and experiencing. When an amateur starts to think of photography as a profession, or even starts making money while being an amateur, he becomes a novice. A novice studies the various fields and differences in photography, finds out which ones he is good at, and works his way up by practicing photography, marketing himself and acquiring knowledge, thus preparing to become a professional. “A professional really is 16

determined by how dependable and how reliable a person can serve. It is less about the height of their output and more about how well you can meet the needs of your client” says Victor Lloyd Joel Brooks, a professional Barbadian photographer. [21] “A professional also means having a passion for and dedication to photography, and the drive to produce the best,” adds Bernardo Medina, an American fine art photographer and architect.[22] Shamair Yearwood, a Barbadian wedding photographer [23], and Juha Kinnunen, a Finnish wedding photographer [24], believe that maintaining good characteristics and communication skills are fundamental in being a professional, such as being mannerly, courteous, treating employees with respect, and having good marketing and correspondence skills. One of the most important aspects of being a professional is commitment. Hobbyists and semi-pros shoot primarily for fun. Professionals do not get to pick and choose the times they want to take photographs. Whatever the conditions, they have to take the shots and come back with a pile of images that the client can actually use. [25]

Photo exhibition showcasing portraiture photography, viewing of an artist’s work is direct but is limited to a speciďŹ c region and duration.

Online photography portfolio which showcases a number of selected works of an artists by genres. Anyone from across the globe can access an artist’s portfolio by a domain name at any given time.


GENRES Some photographers specialize in areas such as portrait, commercial and industrial, scientific, news, or fine arts photography. Portrait photographers take pictures of individuals or groups of people and often work in their own studios. Commercial and industrial photographers take pictures of various subjects, such as buildings, models, merchandise, artefacts, and landscapes. Scientific photographers take images of a variety of subjects to illustrate or record scientific or medical data or phenomena, using knowledge of scientific procedures. News photographers also called photojournalists, photograph newsworthy people, places, and sporting, political, and community events for newspapers, journals, magazines, or television. Fine arts photographers sell their photographs as fine artwork. Self-employed, or freelance, photographers usually specialize in one of the above fields. [26]

An amateur or novice can reach the professional level if he educates himself and inquires about the field. Starting and maintaining a successful career starts with a few steps.

Learn and develop yourself!

The primary step to being the best at anything is to study the field that one is interested in for a historical understanding and appreciation of its development and works of art. Kiss advises novices to observe new photographs that are out there, constantly create new works, keep on researching and being creative. Kiss has worked as a freelance photographer since high school; he later earned a degree in photography Use of natural lighting to create a balance between shadows and highlights while accentuating the model’s silhouette. and then worked as an apprentice before opening his own studio. G. Brooks did not have any formal training, but he studied, read a lot about photography and carefully observed other photographers before he became a professional; he then opened his own studio. According to J. Brooks, the process of becoming a professional photographer varies depending on the person, opportunities he gets, how he utilises those opportunities, if he is able to see the opportunities initially, and a person’s sense of humility and pride.


Just go shooting -- express yourself!

A photographer should learn the “rules” of photography, such as knowing about his subject, the rule of thirds, and the use of depth of field [27], then feel free to apply them where he sees fit, and break the rules if he chooses to upon his artistic instinct. There is no set method of the creative photography process. Photographs do not necessarily have to look or be executed a specific way. If a photographer limits himself from the beginning and only aim to achieve what he sees, then it leaves no room for perseverance. “Artists know they have to drive the camera and make strong changes to basic controls to get their look,” says Rockwell. “Beginning photographers, like me for my first fifteen years shooting, are usually afraid to do anything other than exactly what we thought were the rules.” [28] Infrared self portrait taken with a self timer.

When will you be ready?

Medina noted that “you know you are ready when you know if you will risk looking like a fool, for your dreams, for the adventure of being alive doing what you love. That is when you are ready!” Tanya Simpson, a commercial photographer from Scotland says, “It is healthy to remember that you can always get better at what you do as long as you stay positive and remember the things you are already good at.” [29]

Equipment does not make you great, you do.

Rockwell stated on his online photography website that equipment, skill and experience play a vital part in the success of being a professional. Just about any camera, regardless of how good or bad it is, can be used to create outstanding photographs for magazine covers, winning photo contests and hanging in art galleries.[30] Kiss says, “As a professional, you would demand more from your medium than an amateur, you will want to do things that are more powerful, more subtle, more sophisticated, more everything. You need equipment that is good enough to meet those demands but I don’t believe the equipment itself contributes to professionalism or photography.” A point-and-shoot camera can produce great photographs if the photographer knows how to control and manipulate the use of the camera to get what he wants out of it. Yearwood believes that your 24

skill matters much more than the equipment. Kinnunen, thinks that only a camera and a lens are required to take a great photograph that can stir emotions. The camera is a tool to get the job done. “I do not believe that a photographer should ever be defined by how much they have spent on their camera or lights or anything else. It is so much more important to work with what you have than to sit around waiting until you can afford something bigger and better,” says Simpson. The aim is not just to use your equipment but to use it correctly, G. Brooks explains that your subject has to be very well lit, and the composition must be aesthetically pleasing in order to create a good photograph. A more expensive set up using high quality equipment.

A low budget set up for a for a photo-shoot which involved the use of broccoli verses a cauliflower to depict racism for an anti-discrimination campaign. A simple desk was use as the surface, with a large A1 sheet of paper as the background and two night lamps were used as a source of lighting. No fancy equipment was necessary to create this photograph.


1st shot: focus is on the broccoli to show dominance while the victim is out of focus. 2nd shot: Focus is on the cauliflower targeted and pinned to a target board. Flying darts have been edited in.

Conduct, awareness, age and image

P e rp e tr

a to rs



Struggling novices now starting out are usually known among the small, middle-class market in Barbados that either cannot pay or do not want to, and are unknown among the higher classes, according to Jaryd Niles Morris, a commercial Barbadian photographer. [31] Therefore one’s approach and the way one carries oneself contributes much toward one’s success. Yearwood says, “Deportment is important. The first impression people have when they see a young woman is, ‘Does she know what she is doing?’ Some people are open-minded to females working in a predominantly male field, like wedding photography.” Kiss feels older people are perceived to be more experienced, reliable and professional, though not as creative as younger people who are considered to be perhaps not as good but fresh and creative.

Conceptual photography, another creative and different depiction of racism.


J. Brooks believes that if one is young and prove oneself in terms of effort and professionalism (meaning, punctuality, reliability and ability to serve), one will get ahead. “I have found that most barriers can be overcome if you are excellent in the right things,” says J. Brooks. If there is an opportunity to be a specialist in a certain area, take the opportunity if the potential exists to be very good at it. It is important, says Morris, to be aware of one’s environment, dressing and selling oneself and one’s work. If the clients one wishes to target are more informal observes Kiss, then one can be more laid back with one’s approach, but if they are formal, then one must have an edge—a strong presence and dress professionally.

aesthetics must work with a concept to be successful.” Kiss states further: “In commercial photography, aesthetics is about if you make the picture beautiful or powerful, or highly communicative, sensitive, interesting. That is what stops

Portraying beauty

Aesthetics are key in how you present yourself as a professional. Depending on the type of photography, aesthetics are the main factor in pleasing viewers and getting your message across, and also in pleasing oneself as the photographer in terms of quality. J. Brooks notes, “For science-fiction and documentaries, aesthetics are not necessarily critical—the content is most important; it is more about accuracy of colour and size. But 28

“By changing a little of our usual perspective of seeing things, we can perceive things that otherwise could be missed. Items used creatively can service a different role than the one that they are usually given so that a different kind of beauty can appear before our own eyes...”

viewers, makes them look at the advertisement and remember it later... commercial photographers aim to shift people’s attitudes to make them want something... In the role of becoming a professional photographer, many people are technically very good but not very creative, and some are creative but not technically good... You have to be technically excellent and creative as well.� This also applies to most aspects of photography except fine art where people tend to like a fine art piece based on their own personal choice says Kiss.

Your residency determines your success

Small communities and regions can open more opportunities for photographers since the great photographers stand out among the others but could also prove to be a hindrance in one’s success. There are fewer gallery shows to take inspiration from, limited resources, and people do not like to share knowledge. All of the Barbadian interviewees believe that it is difficult to specialise in Barbados if one wants to make a living from photography, but the most popular forms of photography which one could make their specialty are wedding and portrait photography. Some of

When photographing any sports one most always be on the lookout to capture the moment.

these Barbadian photographers have been unable to specialise in certain fields as they would like to. Professional photographers need to have multiple revenue streams that might range from event photography to stock photography, from postcards to prints, to succeed. [32] Barbadian culture is more conventionally oriented although having to conform to tradition; one becomes more flexible in a number of areas and can fulfil most tasks if one has to, and one is not pressured as much. J. Brooks commented that people thrive when they are in environments that are progressive; it is easier to grow. Most of the interviewees from Barbados aspire to work for the international market; they believe Barbados does not really support and promote excellence; this is mostly due to that fact that art is not greatly appreciated here like in other countries. Despite similarities in answers between international and local interviewees, international photography is clearly much broader, more open and competition is much fiercer. Wedding photography, taken in Barbados.

Wedding photoshoot for an ad campaign.



A great way to jump-start the marketing of oneself is to go directly to your source. G. Brooks started marketing his work about forty years ago. When he went out on Sundays and took photographs of people in his district, he sold those photographs to his subjects. He also took photographs at test matches and offered the photographs to schools or the government for a fee to establish his name. It is also good to utilise available means of networks that enable free sharing and hosting. If you can afford the advertising, then do so, but online art communities and networks such as,, redbubble. com,, and facebook can be great ways to show off one’s work, gain feedback and improve one’s photography skills. Most marketing for new professionals begins with people seeing one’s work and selling oneself by word of mouth. Lara Jade, a young, ambitious portrait photographer from the United States, commented in an interview hosted by that “having your own website is a vital step for a photographer but it needs to show the best work. Potential clients like to look at your work on your own .com (personal) website and not go through Flickr etc. Once you have this you can send the link to contacts.” [33] It is essential

Nature photos taken at the right time of the day where light creates an atmosphere of fantasy.

to create one’s own website to showcase the best images for one’s portfolio as this show one’s professionalism and ability to be selective. Kiss has found that in fine art photography participating in shows, emailing work to people and obtaining media coverage has proven to be successful in the marketing of his photography, and requesting photographic credit has helped him with his commercial works. The pricing of a work highly depends on the market price, how much one values time and work and one’s experience level. Constantly check and question the market prices. Talk to as many professional photographers as one can. There are other resources, such as the Internet and online photography newsletters. Do not fall behind

Film photography, focus is on foreshortening.

With ongoing trends in the market, it is important to be efficient in the work that one produces. According to Kiss, in order to be successful, one must have an understanding of the tradition of photography, otherwise one cannot know what is truly trendy. Although it is vital to stay current with trends and take inspiration from them, it is not necessary to imitate them unless they provide the proper medium for one’s own project. A professional must know how to balance

quality and quantity, although some photographers like Morris prefer to dedicate more time to the quality of the images rather than to the quantity he produces. J. Brooks commented that sometimes he finds himself becoming too attached to his work and needs to step back from it. In Barbados in Joel Brook’s opinion, the trend really is about how fast one can get the job done when it comes to commercial photography. With fine art photography the time one spends is dependent on oneself.

most to them, unlike other countries, like England and America, where people hire photographers based on what they can do and how good they are at it.” If you are not well known but aim to get there, a good way to start is to charge a little less. This will build one’s name and, as one becomes more recognised and accomplished, one’s fees and value of one’s work will grow higher.

Efficiency in competition

Competition in any business and field is always fierce. J. Brooks believes that numerous factors are involved in photography, like reliable service. One may not be a great photographer, but one may know how to get things done on time and within a budget. At times just being great does not help, sometimes it is about having the money and being good at managing it, having money gives people an edge; those people tend to mostly get hired for the job because they have a lot of equipment, therefore can produce better quality of work. Morris commented that “in Barbados, people do not usually hire photographers only based on what they can do; they do not seem to care. How much one charges matters

Street photography, focus is on shapes and motion and abstract and surreal.


Shutter Effect

In the1980’s, the number of photographs exceeded the number of works of art ever created. With such an influx of photography tools and gateways, imagine how many shutters have been released and how many photographs must be in existence today. In this digital era, photography is not about capturing an image anymore, it is not about pure photography, it is about how effective, communicative and aesthetically pleasing a photograph is. The art of photography is dependent on aesthetics and technical skills, and though the digital era has made it faster, easier, very convenient and affordable to produce a photograph, it has also contributed to its artistic regression. What is lacking by a majority

of alleged photographers is the appreciation, purpose, understanding of and artistic talent for photography. Anyone can take a picture, but not anyone can create a photographic masterpiece. Unless one is creating a photograph for one’s personal use, there will always be competition. Mediocre images are quickly accepted by viewers when the focus is more on the message being portrayed and how to quickly gain information. With the invention of versatile software, it has become difficult to believe every photograph is indeed a true representation of the image captured. Photographs and photographers’ abilities should be challenged to maintain a sense of authenticity and trust.

Ambitious photographers have the ability to draw people in with their artistic knowledge, sense of aesthetics, technique and creativity. The focus should be on observing and finding new, alternative ways to be better and stand out rather than compromise either the photographs or the work. As a true photographer, one should not settle for the ordinary, but the extraordinary. A professional needs to constantly produce good work and market himself well. He needs to find and make his niche, a way to stand out and gain recognition. A professional photographer should approach things differently and create a space distinct from what is being overdone — to create something of intrigue. He needs to understand the psychology of the

human being, through observation, research, and awareness, and merge that with his aesthetic and technical photography skills to communicate and make a connection through his photographs. When people are exposed to new and different approaches, they take interest, they seek to know more, and when they realise how capable and reliable one is, success will be guaranteed. Therefore being a professional is not only about the equipment, nor is it just about aesthetics, but it is about being well rounded, having an understanding and awareness of the world, staying true to oneself, and keep in mind the principles of art and photography.

Full Name: Occupational Status: Age: Residency (state/Country): How would you define being a professional and what is required of you? How do aesthetics play a part in the role of becoming a professional photographer? How long would you say the process is of becoming a professional? How can a novice go about becoming a professional, how do you know that you’re ready to start that level? Do trends play a major role in photography and what about tradition? How do you think photographic equipment contributes to being a professional and what about skill and experience? Do you think your age and image contributes to how people judge you? What’s competition like out there and how do you keep up? How do you think viewers’ intellect play a part in your success?


What is the best marketing strategy for you and how did you market your work before you became a professional? How has the digital era influenced photography? Do you think that your current residency is a great place for gaining recognition as a photographer and has it influenced your success? What kind of photography do you specialise in? Do you find it is more versatile and popular? What is the clientele like that you attract? How do you attract them? Is there anything else you would like to add? Rephrased questions What was the process of becoming a professional like for you and what is required of you? How would you define and distinguish the levels of photography here in Barbados? What’s competition like in Barbados and internationally and how do you keep up?


1.Bill Corbett, A Simple guide to Digital Photography (United States, 2004). 2. Peter Plagens, Is Photography Dead?, NEWSWEEK (2007), at <http://www.newsweek. com/id/73349>. 3. Mike Musgrove, Nikon Says It’s Leaving Film-Camera Business, The Washington Post (2006), at < AR2006011102323.html>. 4. Photography, Wikipedia The Free Encyclopaedia (2009), at < wiki/Photography>. 5. Mike Musgrove, Nikon Says It’s Leaving Film-Camera Business, The Washington Post (2006), at < AR2006011102323.html>. 6. History of photography, Wikipedia The Free Encyclopaedia (2009), at <http://>. 7. David R. Cycleback, Judging the Authenticity of Photographs ( 2007). 8. History of photography, Wikipedia The Free Encyclopaedia (2009), at <http://>. 9. How Safe is Your Darkroom?, The Sub Club, at < safety.htm>. 38

10. Michael McCann, Photographic Processing Hazards, True Art (2009), at <http://www.>. 11. Digital Camera, History, Wikipedia The Free Encyclopaedia (2009), at <http://>. 12. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition, United States Department of Labour (2007), at <>. 13. Bob Kiss, October, 1st, 2009. All comments from Kiss are from this interview. 14. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 3rd ed. (Harlow: Longman Group Ltd, 1995) Photography, Wikipedia The Free Encyclopaedia (2009), at <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Photography>. 15. Ken Rockwell, How to Make Great Photographs, Ken Rockwell (2008), at <http://www.>. 16. Merriam-Webster Online, Merriam-Webster, Incorporated (2009), at <http://www.>. 17. Ken Rockwell, How to Make Great Photographs, Ken Rockwell (2008), at <http://www.>.


18. Peter Plagens, Is Photography Dead?, NEWSWEEK (2007), at <http://www.newsweek. com/id/73349>. 19. Adobe Photoshop CS5. New image editing tools for Photoshop CS5, Adobe CS5 (2009), at <>. 20. Gordon Frankshot DeLisle Brooks, September, 19th, 2009. All comments from G. Brooks are from this interview. 21. Victor Lloyd Joel Brooks, March 25th, 2009. All comments from J. Brooks are from this interview. 22. Bernardo Medina, April 1st, 2009. All comments from Medina are from this interview. 23. Shamair Akeila Yearwood, March 26th, 2009. All comments from Yearwood are from this interview. 24. Juha Mikko Kinnunen, April 5th, 2009. All comments from Kinnunen are from this interview. 25. Dean, The Differences Between Professional and Amateur Photographers, PhotoPreneur (2008), at <>. 26. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition, United States Department of Labour (2007), at <>. 40

27. Daniel Hollister, The Rules of Photography, Macteens (2006), at <http://macteens. com/magazine/features/fullstory/the_rules_of_photography>. 28. Ken Rockwell, Your Camera Doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t Matter, Ken Rockwell (2008), at <http://www.>. 29. Tanya Simpson, March 30th, 2009. All comments from Simpson are from this interview. 30. Ken Rockwell, Your Camera Doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t Matter, Ken Rockwell (2008), at <http://www.>. 31. Jaryd Philip Niles Morris, March 25th, 2009. All comments from Morris are from this interview. 32. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition, United States Department of Labour (2007), at <>. 33. Zeeshan Kazmi, Fashion Photography with Lara Jade, Colours Magazine (2009), at <>.


Fairfield, Hannah. Baby on Board, and a Photography Business, Too. The New York Times Company at <>, 2007. Heller, Dan. Marketing Tasks vs Positioning Strategies. at <>, 2009. Weiss, Debra. The Value of Photography. Editorial Photographers at <> 2009 Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia. Art. Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia at <>, 2009. Photography. Answers Corporation at <>, 2009. Axinia. How to make great photographs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; an expert opinion and what I think of it. 1000 Petals, at < photographs-expert-opinion-and-what-i-think-of-it/>, 2009. Kamps, Haje Jan. Photography History III â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Digital Era. Photocritic photography blog at <>, 2008.


Yu, Chong-Ho. Aesthetics of Photography: Combining the Viewerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and Artistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Standpoint. Creative Wisdom at < html#RTFToC6>, 2004. Williams, Annabel. How to go from Amateur to Pro Photographer. Photo 360 Limited at < photographer/>, 2009. Lessire, Esmeralda; Linh Nguyen; and Kate Pastoor. The 19th Century Aesthetic Movement. Waters-sites at < html>, 2002. Sierra, Monica B. Who Invented the Digital Camera? Techpin at <>, 2008. Roeth, Todd. Welcome to Art 256: Creativity & Composition in Photography. Todd Roeth at <>, 2006.


Front Cover: Progressive Photography Collage, Faheema Patel, 2009. Chapter 1 Cover: Time, Faheema Patel, 2005. Pg 2: Oldest Photograph, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, 1825. Pg 2: Manual reflex camera, Starymuse (, 2008, altered stock photography (Faheema Patel), 2009. Pg 2: Polaroid Camera, Danielle Crebbin, 2009. Pg 2: Disposable film camera, Faheema Patel, 2009. Pg 2: Film point-and-shoot camera, Faheema Patel, 2009. Pg 3: View from the Window at le Gras, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, 1826. Pg 3: Dycam Model 1, Jef Raskin, (Creative Commons) 1998-2009, altered derivative (Faheema Patel), 2009. Pg 3: A digital SLR, topfer (, 2007, altered stock photography (Faheema Patel), 2009. Pg 3: Point-and-shoot 1, Faheema Patel, 2009. Pg 3: Point-and-shoot 2, Faheema Patel, 2009.


Pg 4: Negative, Faheema Patel, 2005. Pg 4: SD memory cards, Faheema Patel, 2009. Pg 4: Compact Flash memory card, L_Avi (, 2007, altered stock photography (Faheema Patel), 2009. Pg 5: Manual reflex camera, Starymuse (, 2008, altered stock photography (Faheema Patel), 2009. Pg 5: Time, Faheema Patel, 2005. Pg 5: Time Flies, Faheema Patel, 2008. Pg 5: A digital SLR, topfer (, 2007, altered stock photography (Faheema Patel), 2009. Chapter 2 Cover: Shadows Crave Photographs Too, Faheema Patel, 2008. Pg 8 and 9: Sisi Jo (photo-shoot), Jaryd Niles Morris, 2009. Pg 10: blue and glitter3, Kalea Molloy (, 2009. Pg 10: Glitter Retouch, Debora Tosetti, 2009. Pg 11: Daley, hara18 (, 2008.


Pg 11: Daley modification, Faheema Patel, 2009. Pg 12: gennaio2009343 plain, Maria Elisa Cimetta, 2009. Pg 12: Love Sucks, Maria Elisa Cimetta, 2009. Chapter 3 Cover: Light Wave, Faheema Patel, 2009. Pg 16: Traffic Sign 20,Sundstrom (, 2007, altered stock photography (Faheema Patel), 2009. Pg 17: Photo exhibition, French Byte (, 2005, altered stock photography (Faheema Patel), 2009, photo replaced with Richelle, BFA Graphic Design 2010 class photoshoot, 2006. Pg 18: Online portfolio (screenshot:, Faheema Patel, 2009. Pg 19: Blind People Do Dream, Faheema Patel, 2008. Chapter 4 Cover: Start, Faheema Patel, 2008. Pg 22: Kisses, Danielle Crebbin, 2007. Pg 23: Contemplation, Shawn Palmquist, 2007. Pg 24: Anti-discrimination: Racism Concept Sketch, Faheema Patel, 2009. Pg 25: Anti-discrimination: Racism Set up, Faheema Patel, 2009. 46

Pg 25: Getting ready 1, vjeran2001 (, 2008. Pg 26: Anti-discrimination: Racism, Faheema Patel, 2009. Pg 27: Racism...IV, Ahmed Khan, 2008. Pg 28: new tutu..., Monika KritiKou, 2009. Pg 29: Powell Bowled Watson, Gordon Brooks, 2008. Pg 30: Surreal, Shamair Yearwood, 2008. Pg 30: Magnificence, Shamair Yearwood, 2008. Pg 31: Under the Red, Maria Kaimaki, 2009. Pg 31: Underneath the Veil, Maria Kaimaki, 2009. Pg 32: Reach â&#x20AC;&#x201C; You, Tiffany Jenkins, 2006. Pg 33: Double Shadow, Ida Pap, 2009. Pg 33: Your way, Ida Pap, 2009. Pg 34 and 35: Fiesta, Faheema Patel, 2008.


Shutter Effect - Digital Steps Towards Photography  

Shutter Effect was my thesis I created as a final project during my last year of my BFA Degree. The book basicaly takes you through the his...