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C U LT U R E

How Can We Encompass Vertical Farming within Hyperdensity? ARCH 7202 // MAJOR DESIGN STUDIO 2016 UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES


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C U LT U R E

How Can We Encompass Vertical Farming within Hyperdensity?

‘Architectural mimesis does not imitate buildings or their parts but what people typically do, human situations. Architectural settings accommodate and represent patterns of human life. Accordingly the ensemble of mimetic settings constitutes the world in which one resides, at least its more permanent aspects.’

David Leatherbarrow, Uncommon Ground: Architecture, Technology and Topography

ARCH 7202 // MAJOR DESIGN STUDIO UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES


CONTENTS

Abstract

ACT:I

Thematic Research Introduction Hyperdensity Farming in Australia Biophilic Design Ver tical Farming Suppor ting Technologies Precedents Manifesto / Initial Approach

ACT:IV

2 3 7 15 19 25 29 59

Village Design Development Semester 1 Reflection Precedent Conceptual Refinement Initial Development Design Refinement

Finale

ACT:II

Urban Strategies Macro Analysis Fish Market Study Site Analysis Urban Vision / Ambition

ACT:III

63 67 73 81

Initial Proposal Masterplanning Planning Strategies Massing Strategies

85 87 91

Design Development 103 111 115 117 121 123

Design Proposal Design Statement Masterplan Refinement Detail Section Design Philosophy Ver tical Village Design Living Units Design Bay Section Structural Strategy Environmental Strategy Growing Statistics

129 131 135 137 141 143 145 147 149 153

Bibliography

157

Appendix

161


Abstract This document will question and inform the viability and the need of ver tical farming in response to the inclination of the future exponential demographic and economic growth in Pyrmont, NSW. This document comprises of Five major par ts, that record the research and design process that spans across the 2 semester studio.

Bay East. The proposed interventions will be presented and suppor ted by thorough site studies and analysis in both macro and micro scale. The second par t ends with the feasibility study addressing the strength and weakness of the existing site while proposing the urban vision / ambition of the potential development.

The first par t will demonstrate the research, analysis and findings per formed during the early stages that informs the need of urban farming in response to the future hyperdensity living in Pyrmont. This par t will also explore relevant philosophies, technologies, and design strategies central to the making of high-density ver tical farming community through thematic / theoretical research and precedent studies.

Initial design will be proposed in the latter section with an initial attempt in masterplanning and tower design resonating the initial research followed by the development and refinement of both concept and design.

The second par t will be an initial attempt in the precipitation of the ideas/ and findings into the selected site, Blackwattle

The final par t will be the developed proposal accompanied with diagrams and suppor ting drawings addressing the intention and vision to encompass ver tical farming community in Pyrmont as a sustainable approach both socially and environmentally.


T H E M AT I C RESEARCH ACT I


1

2

Introduction - The Agrarian Roots The Dawn of Culture and Human Civilization

The Agrarian societies were preceded by hunter and gatherer societies. The transition from hunting into the domestication of edible plant and animals was labelled as the Neolithic Revolution. The transition, can be interpret as the result of the realisation that hunting and gathering is not a secure and sustainable way of living, as doing so may result in the depletion of resources as well. Such transition may also coincidental to the warming of ear th climate. (Graff, 2011) It is vir tually impossible to overstate the significance of agriculture’s emergence. Looking back in time as well, many great civilizations star ted from as an agrarian society as well. As agriculture and farming is the underlying factor that leads to the population growth, To satisfy the growing population, the advancement in tools and methods was devised for greater production. With the rise of surplus thus leads to trade and wealth while forming hierarchical social structures. Therefore give rise to the emergence of a complex society. (Brown, 1988) On the other hand one may also say agriculture and farming enables the development of culture in civilization. By referring to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, mankind will strive and improve only when the basic needs are satisfied. While in this case agriculture, that provide resources and food can be regards as the fundamental activity that empower the possibilities of mankind development.


The Global Scene Source information: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2015_Volume-I_Comprehensive-Tables.pdf The Exponential Population Growth by 2050 By Countries & Continents

L e as t Dev el oped C o untry D evel opi ng C ountry

2020

Devel oped C ountry

1980 1950

2000

2040

2060

2080

2100 12000

8000

1960 4000

TIME

4000

8000 Asi a Afri c a Ameri c a E urope Oc eni a

12000


3

The Global Scene

People Living in Urban Areas

Source Information: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/highlights/wup2014-highlights.pdf Urban Population growth Global & Australia

< 30%

54%

66%

1950 2000

From a global point of view, the world will experience a huge population growth until 2060 then only it will slow down to a more stable growth. For tunately for developed country which includes Australia, the growing rate is very stable since 1950. However in terms of the Australian population, the population growth should be assessed in terms of the urban population as in the dwelling pattern of Australia that mainly focus along the coastline. In addition, the calculation of population density in Australia will be more accurate if calculated based on the urban density. As currently there are 89% of population living in urban area and it is expected to grow to 92 % before 2050 making it one of the highest. (UN,2015) By observing that, it therefore raises the concern of: How much food will be needed to accommodate that the population? If the urban area is expanding in such rate, will there be enough arable land to use for agriculture to ensure our nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s food security?

2050

85%

92%

1990

2050

4


Global Significance of Agriculture Total Land Area Use Productive Land Area Use Employment Through Agriculture

28%

Demographic Resistance Demographic DemographicResistance Resistance

27% land 27% 27%land land

According to population projections from both the United Nations and the U.S. According United Nations Accordingto topopulation populationprojections projectionsfrom fromboth boththe the UnitedPOPULATION Nationsand andthe theU.S. U.S. GLOBAL 6 Census Bureau, by 2050 our planet will have some 9 billion human inhabitants. Census 99billion inhabitants. CensusBureau, Bureau,by by2050 2050our ourplanet planetwill willhave havesome somedirectly billionorhuman human inhabitants.66 indirectly 7 77 This equates to an expansion of the human presence on Earth by nearly half employed by by agriculture Th on Thisisequates equatesto toan anexpansion expansionof ofthe thehuman humanpresence presence onEarth Earth bynearly nearlyhalf half st century. Renowned agronomists Marcel (48%) over the rst 50 years of the 21 (48%) century. Renowned Renownedagronomists agronomistsMarcel Marcel (48%)over overthe thefifi first rst50 50years yearsof ofthe the21 21ststcentury. Mazoyer and Laurence Roudart have stated that in order to feed the incoming Mazoyer Mazoyerand andLaurence LaurenceRoudart Roudarthave havestated statedthat thatin inorder orderto tofeed feedthe theincoming incoming billions... billions... billions... “...without undernourishment or shortages, the quantity vegetable “...without “...withoutundernourishment undernourishmentor orshortages, shortages,the thequantity quantityofof ofvegetable vegetable products designated as food for humans and domestic animals will have products productsdesignated designatedas asfood foodfor forhumans humansand anddomestic domesticanimals animalswill willhave have to more than double for the whole world. will almost have to triple in to tomore morethan thandouble doublefor forthe thewhole wholeworld. world. ItIt Itwill willalmost almosthave haveto totriple triplein in the developing countries, more than quintuple in Afr ica, and increase the thedeveloping developingcountries, countries,more morethan thanquintuple quintuplein inAfr Africa, ica,and andincrease increase 8 more than ten times in several Afr ican countries. more morethan thanten tentimes timesin inseveral severalAfr African icancountries. countries.”””88

water wa 73% water 73% water wa 73%wa

Earth’s th’ S A Area Earth’s th’ SSurface A Area Earth’s th’ Surface Surface S fff A Area

39% 39% 39%

agriculture agriculture agriculture

29% 29% 29%

In respect to this population increase, the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture In Inrespect respectto tothis thispopulation populationincrease, increase,the theUnited UnitedNation’s Nation’sFood Foodand andAgriculture Agriculture Organization (FAO) has warned that if more land is not utilized for food Organization (FAO) has warned that if more land is not utilized for food Organization (FAO) has warned that if more land is not utilized for food 9 Th FAO production, 370 million people could face famine by 2050. production, TheeeFAO FAO production,370 370million millionpeople peoplecould couldface facefamine famineby by2050. 2050.99 Th specifi cally calls for the creation of 120 million hectares of additional farmland specifi specifically callycalls callsfor forthe thecreation creationof of120 120million millionhectares hectaresof ofadditional additionalfarmland farmland in the developing world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa – three times the area of in inthe thedeveloping developingworld, world,particularly particularlysub-Saharan sub-SaharanAfrica Africa––three threetimes timesthe thearea areaof of The world is about 70 % water, with limited area of land land.currently With global warming and1010 the melting of glacier in nor th and South 11 11 10 11 arable in use in Canada. arable arableland landcurrently currentlyin inuse usein inCanada. Canada. Pole as well, making land to be a valuable resource. Amongst the remaining 27 % of land, only 68% are productive land area which means we got only about 18 % of fer tile land on ear th. Amongst that, agriculture made up more than of half of it (67%). Unfortunately, studies on human land use suggest the prospects expanding Unfortunately, studies on land Unfortunately, studies onhuman human landuse usesuggest suggestthe theprospects prospectsof ofexpanding expanding And yet the current food supply are still insufficient to feed the world. (Graff, 2011) agricultural lands to account for the incoming population will be severely

agricultural agriculturallands landsto toaccount accountfor forthe theincoming incomingpopulation populationwill willbe beseverely severely limited. As of 2005 39% of the Earth’s land surface is dedicated to agriculture limited. As of 2005 39% of the Earth’s land surface is dedicated to agriculture limited. As of 2005 39% of the Earth’s land surface is dedicated to agriculture Alarmingly enough, forest and grassland area, which is the main supplier of oxygen and natural habitat of many (12% cropland, 27% pasture), while just 29% remains as forest or grassland (12% cropland, 27% pasture), while just 29% remains as forest or grassland (12% cropland, 27% pasture), while just 29% remains as forest or grassland flora and fauna that sustain the balance of biodiversity in the ecosystem seems to decrease relative to the expansion of agriculture land area, While to accommodate future growth, agriculture industry MUST increase as well.

forest grassland forest forest&& &grassland grassland

Earth’s Land Area Earth’s Earth’sLand LandArea Area

32% 32% 32%

non-productive non-productive non-productive

57% 57% 57%

agriculture agriculture agriculture

United Nations Population Division. 1999. The World Six Billion. http://www.un.org/esa/population/ Based on the observation, again, a few question needNations to bePopulation asked: Division. 66 6 United United Nations Population Division.1999. 1999.The TheWorld Worldatat atSix SixBillion. Billion.http://www.un.org/esa/population/ http://www.un.org/esa/population/

• •

publications/sixbillion/sixbilpart1.pdf. Retrieved on August 27, 2008. publications/sixbillion/sixbilpart1.pdf. publications/sixbillion/sixbilpart1.pdf. Retrieved Retrievedon onAugust August27, 27,2008. 2008. 7 U.S. Census Bureau (2009) International Database (IDB) 77 U.S. (2009) (IDB) U.S.Census Census Bureau (2009)International International Database (IDB) industry andBureau production withoutDatabase compromising the Mazoyer Roudart, History World Agriculture 88 8 Mazoyer Mazoyer&& &Roudart, Roudart,History Historyofof ofWorld WorldAgriculture Agriculture

How can we expand the agricultural forestland to balance the biodiversity in our ecosystem? 9 Food Food Production Must Rise 70%. BBC BBC News. (2007, October12) 12) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ FoodProduction ProductionMust MustRise Rise70%. BBCNews. News. (2007, (2007,October http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ Given that urban areas can be seen as 9a9 highly engineered or 70%. a damaged land,October will it12)behttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ possible to rather damaging europe/8303434.stm europe/8303434.stm europe/8303434.stm fer tile, undamaged land and make use of1010 urban areas for agricultural activity? Food and Agricultural Organization. (2009). 2050: Third More Mouths Feed: Food Production Will Have 10 Food Foodand andAgricultural AgriculturalOrganization. Organization.(2009). (2009).2050: 2050:AA AThird ThirdMore MoreMouths Mouthstoto toFeed: Feed:Food FoodProduction ProductionWill WillHave Havetoto to Increase By 70 Percent FAO Convenes High-Level Expert Forum. http://www.fao.org/news/story/0/item/35571/ Increase IncreaseBy By70 70Percent Percent–––FAO FAOConvenes ConvenesHigh-Level High-LevelExpert ExpertForum. Forum.http://www.fao.org/news/story/0/item/35571/ http://www.fao.org/news/story/0/item/35571/ icode/en/. Retrieved March 11, 2009 icode/en/. icode/en/. Retrieved RetrievedMarch March11, 11,2009 2009 11 CIA CIAWorld WorldFactbook, Factbook,Canada. Canada. Retrieved RetrievedJune June12, 12,2009. 2009. 11 11 CIA World Factbook, Canada. Retrieved June 12, 2009.

27

Earth’sProductive ProductiveLand LandArea Area Earth’s Earth’s Productive Land Area Fig 1.19 Fig Fig1.19 1.19 Breakdown of global land cover Breakdown Breakdownof ofglobal globalland landcover cover

43% 43% 43%

forest grassland forest forest&& &grassland grassland


5

6

Global Significance of Agriculture - Food Security Source information: http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/docs/Issues_papers/HLEF2050_Global_Agriculture.pdf Agricultural Demand Human & Animal Consumption

Meat Production: - From 270 to

tonnes - Increase of 174 %

470 million

* Cereal Production

- 70 % for Developed Countries - 2x for Developing Countries

Anim al Fe e d

Present Day 2.1 Billion Tonnes

Hu ma n Con s u mption

*

+70 %

Year 2050 >3 Billion Tonnes

Hum an Consum pt ion Anima l F ee d

Image 1.7: Future Food Production & Demand


Impact of Climate Change Crop Yield in a 3Co Warmer World


7

8

Agriculture in Australia Land Use Diagram Agriculture Land Distribution

Grazing Modified Pastures

Nature Conservation

Irrigated Modified Pastures

Other Protected Areas

Dryland Cropping

Grazing Native Vegetation

Livestock Grazing

Urban Area

Agriculture

Nature Conservation

From the overall land use distribution, the analysis takes place by assessing the pattern rather than going into specifics. Overall, one may realise that most of the land in Australia are cleared for livestock grazing, and followed by nature protection and conservation use. Land used for agriculture (dryland + irrigated) is relatively little in Australia. Although the every major urban settlements are surrounded with farms on the outskir ts, however the farms are very spread-out. In NSW, the farms are even isolated by the Great Dividing Range (The Blue Mountains) It therefore raises concern regarding issue of food mile. Raw food and produce travels a long way from farm to table. And the transpor tation involves the burning of fossil fuels and contributes to the carbon footprint.

Minimal use Intensive Animal & Plant Production

Irrigated Cropping

Irrigated Horticulture

Plantation Forestry

Mining and Waste

Dryland Horticulture

Production Forestry

Water

Rural Residential

By questioning the efficiency of that, again, for my proposal I shall ask: How can we produce raw food that is close to home in a more environmentally sustainable way?


Agriculture in NSW - Vegetable Farming What kind of vegetable can we grow? What kind of vegetable we consume the most?

Mushrooms 63mil

Asian Vegetables 28mil Potatoes 49 mil Pumpkins 21 mil

Tomatoes 19 mil

Lettuce 27 mil


9

10

Farming for Tomorrow - Urban Farming in Australia Small Scale Farming in Urban Area What is Urban Farming?

Where Do My Food Comes From?

How Far Do My Food Travel To Reach My Dinner Table ?

Is My Food Environmentally Sustainable?

Is It Possible For Me To Grow My Own Food?

A new local food movement marked by the emergence of premium labels such as ‘local produce’ or ‘organic produce’, and the increasing number of local fresh produce market star ting to bring up the public awareness regarding the impor tance of local grown , healthy food. Such awareness is closely related to the concept of ‘food miles’ while people star ting to think, how far does the food travel to reach their table? Shockingly as well, Australian fruits and vegetables travel an average of 745 km from farm to shop. The processes in between, lsuch as transpor tation and refrigeration, and even packaging involves heavy use of fuel. In addition, in a commerce-dominating world the crop variates are selected based on the transpor tability to minimize loss rather than the nutritional value. (Zagoridis, 2015) Revisiting the previous issue, Relative to the ever-growing population, arable lands are diminishing as a result of uncontrollable urban sprawl and unsustainable farming method. How can our food production meet the future demands while protecting fragile and limited resources. Society always finds a way, mankind always did. People star ted to grow vegetables, herbs and even fruits on their balcony, backyard and even the rooftop. Star ting a new wave of agricultural revolution in urban areas. While the distance between the ingredients and the table changes radically from an average of 745 km to a couple of steps away.


The ‘Urban Farming’ Trend - Sydney The ‘Grow It Local’ Community Crowd Farming Casual Gardeners in Bondi.

Taking the first step in creating an urban farming culture, Grow it Local is an online platform aimed at connecting backyard, balcony, community and window-sill gardeners. It was first star ted in Bondi, NSW. (Miller, 2016) The project wast first a pilot project for Waverley council to encourage local food production, as the momentum takes place, the project was brought into spotlight when it was brought up to TEDxSydney. The idea of ‘crowd farming created a massive stir amongst non-traditional growers and chefs alike. (Miller, 2016) In the project, casual gardeners are encouraged to register their produce online as the website was introduced as a platform for people to connect and share among each other like a community and currently there are 1410 user registered and covers about 5000 m 2 of ‘farms’ (Miller 2016)


11

Upon looking at it, the project is unique in its own way to star t a community while also acting like marketing / public education. By displaying and promoting it may encourage people to star t growing their own produce; at the same time star ting a backyard, balcony and windowsill farming culture in Australia. In present day, a pattern is forming, although itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not yet mature enough to present itself as strong as a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cultureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; yet, but the patterns provide an optimistic trend. In the proposal, the design may inform such movements as it provides a sustainable way of growing and producing while directly addressing issues such as food miles and the decline of fer tile land; the result of large scale monoculture agribusiness.

12


Initial Site Mapping Green Area Distribution Pyrmont vs Sydney CBD

Image 2.26: Green Area Distribution in Sydney CBD and Pyrmont

Total Green Area in Pyrmont

14,6084 m2


13

Site Mapping - Green Area Green Area per Inhabitant Local vs. Global

Tokyo 3 m2

Vienna 120 m2 Stockholm 87.5 m2

London 27 m2 Istanbul 6.4 m2 Green Space per Inhabitant

Pyrmont 12.6 m2

Amsterdam 87.5 m2

Sydney CBD 155 m2

Singapore 66 m2

14


Biophilia: Explained Relationship Between: Nature & Human Natural & Artificial

The Biophilia Hypothesis suggests that humans possess an innate tendency to seek connections with nature and other forms of life (Rogers, 2016). In contemporary world, such inclination persist and in one way, perceive as a characteristic nur tured through the course of history; a product of human evolution as an adaptive response to natural forces. Humans are the product of nature itself, but with the discovery of engineering, we construct, alter and even create an ar tificial environment to inhibit it. Referring to the book “Form” by Laszlo Peter Kollar, such ar tificial world exist on a gross degree.(Kollar, 1983) . Expanding on that, the idea was based on the cave parable proposed by Plato in the fifth chapter of Republic. As Kollar uses it to explore the three degree of formal existence - Pure, Subtle and Gross. From the narrative, the ‘gross’ degree of existence refers to the physical man-made objects while the subtle forms refers to the idea derived from the pure degree and in this sense the pure degree refers to God’s* creation which is the nature & every living things. Drawing from that, the book not only established the hierarchy of formal existence but also propose that human creations (ar tificial form) are a product derived from the nature. As nature has always been the major inspiration for human creation. (Kollar, 1983) Relating back to the Biophilia Hypothesis, the book does however provide a broad idea of the impor tance and the inseparable relationship between mankind and nature.





* The Author, Laszlo Peter Kollar is a religious man as in the book Form, the hierarchical argument above was justified through different religious context. In this case however, ‘God’ refers to the Higher Being or The entity that creates this world






15

Biophilic Design Information Adapted From: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Building Biophilis: Connecting People to Natureâ&#x20AC;? by J. Heerwagen & B. Hase, 2001 The Elements of Biophilic Design

Vegetation

Social Interactions

Privacy

Intimacy

Protection

Public

Position in Greater Ecosystem

Visual Engagement

MicroEcosystem

Biodiversity

Refuge Prospect

Biophilic Design

per

r

lou

Co

Tem

atu

re

Enticement

Playfulness

es

Sensory Variability

Richness and Complexity

Lig

ht

tur Tex

Delight Am

use

Perceptions

Air Movements

Biomimicry Passive Environmental Design

tion

trac

Abs

Natural Form, Pattern, Texture

e

pris

Sur

Fractal Characteristics

Metaphors

16


Vertical Farming - The Early Concept Delirious New York, OMA Pig City, MVRDV


17

18

What is Vertical Farming? Emergence of the Concept The Hovering Landscape

The concept of ver tical farming has precedents stretch deep into the history of mankind. For instance, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Throughout the history, mankind has conquered countries and lands, travel across oceans and even into it, but never the sky until recent centuries, with the invention of airplanes mankind first have a taste of moving, without even touching the ground. In architecture, humans and the program are lifted with the introduction of skyscraper again marking the human desire to moving upwards, Although in some way, skyscrapers can be seen as a product driven by the commercial demand however, it ultimately answers to two things, accommodating the growing density of urban areas and to satisfy the desire of human being to one day, conquer the sky. In 1978, Rem Koolhas brought up the 1909 theorem in his book - ‘Delirious New York’, a car toon that describes the ideal per formance of skyscraper. In the section, every levels are described as a ‘virgin site’ (Koolhas, 1978); an ar tificial land that is created out of thin air. Where I personally think, the illustration is power ful, that it questions the possibility of rather than lifting people and building programs above ground, why not we lift up the land instead? In 2001, when the European Union and Dutch government realise the adverse ecological impact of restless agricultural expansion in Netherlands, Strict laws against pork production was introduced (Graff, 2011). MVRDV, a Dutch firm therefore seized the oppor tunity to propose a conceptual project titled Pig City - An attempt to harmonize architecture and agriculture. Although the program was planned solely for pork production, it was intended to generate discussion on the forms of agriculture may have to take in its quest to become more resource efficient and ecologically benign (Graff, 2011).


Controlled Environment Agriculture - CEA The Fundamentals Working Diagram Typical Setup of CEA

Protected Environment The present day definition referring to the ver tical expansion of space dedicated to food production. It was first introduced by Dr. Dickson Despommier, a microbiologist in Columbia University. The idea, even until present day, has been received with widespread notoriety and increasing logistical relevance.

Artificial Lighting Temperature Control

Humidity Control

On top of the literal interpretation of the term as the ver tical expansion of vegetation plantation achieved through soilless means (hydroponic / aeroponics), The term, ver tical farming technically refers to the practice of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CFA), where the vegetations are grew in contained environment where light, temperature, water, and nutrition can be finitely controlled. Given that the vegetations are grown in a properly protected , closed environment, ver tical farm would actually reduce the risk of invasive bacterium that affects plant growth and production.

Pest Irrigation + Nutrients

Bacterium


19

The Advantages of Vertical Farming The Findings of Dr. Dickson Despommier Social, Commercial, Health and Environmental Benefits

Allow Farmland to Recover Evapotranspiration for Black and Grey Water Treatments

Increased Employment Opportunities

Methane Produced to Supply Energy Back to The Grid

Year - Round Production

Zero Loss from Pest

Conserve Fossil Fuels by Minimizing Transportation

Zero Loss from Disaster (i.e. Flood)

Minimize Loss from Vermin in Storage

Pesticide, Herbicide, & Fertilizer Free

Efficient Produce

20


rraSphere Systems, face within a 3

Farming Typologies for Tomorrow Information from ‘Skyfarming’ by G.J. Graff Fig 2.14 TerraSphere Systemtm TerraSphere’s indoor farm, Vancouver, British Columbia The Stacked Beds

(Growing Length)

7.5 metres %

1.5

1.5 metres

m

(Linear Footprint)

Land productivity improvement:

5x Fig 2.15 Space efficiency of the stacked bed design

71

The stacked beds, like its name suggest has a straightforward configuration of the stacking of growing beds on top of each other. It can be used for both hydroponic and aeroponic methods however, the configuration does not allow penetration of sun into each layer; making ar tificial lights a necessity. TerraSphere Systems provide a good example of its commercial use (Graff, 2011) This kind of method involve a relatively higher amount of electricity compare to A frame trellis, however, in terms of production, stacked bed is twice as efficient than A frame trellis and the columnar system.


The A-frame “trellis” design was the first commercially successful hydroponic system to exhibit a vertical orientation. Varieties of this design consist of pipes configured either vertically or horizontally to form a triangular extrusion of its footprint, thus increasing the available growing surface without meaningfully Farming Typologies for advantage Tomorrow reducing sunlight access. The primary of the A-frame design is its simplicity, as it achieves a high degree space efficiency while utilizing Information from ‘Skyfarming’ by G.J. of Graff technology thatTrellis has been standard in the hydroponic industry for decades. The ‘A’ Frames

Hydroponic Plantation

technology that has been standard in t 21 Fig 2.10 An example of an A-Frame hydroponic system Ricardoes Tomatoes & Strawberries - New South Wales, Australia.

(Growing Length)

4.27 metres

2m

h)

s

% 1.5

m

1.5 metres

(Linear Footprint)

t)

Land productivity improvement:

2.8x Fig 2.12

Fig 2.11 Space efficiency of the A-FrameOne designof

70

Fig 2.12

the earliest successful commercial hydroponic model exhibiting ver tical orientation. The medium (pipe) can be either arranged ver tically or horizontally to form a triangular extrusion of its footprint. 70 The extruded triangular geometry maximizes the sur face area and the exposure of sunlight. A frame trellis is a simple and achievable structure that provides high level of space efficiency. (Graff, 2011)

22


design emerged in the late 1970s from the Environmental Research Laboratory at the University of Arizona. Today the most popular variant is produced by Omega Garden™ of Victoria, B.C., which features a mechanism that rotates the drum through a tray containing nutrient solution.

Farming Typologies for Tomorrow Information from ‘Skyfarming’ by G.J. Graff Omega Gardentm of Victoria, B.C. Fig 2.16 Stacked Drums

Interior view of peas growing within a drum hydroponic system Omega Garden - Qualicum Beach, British Columbia, Canada

0.6

m

(Growing Area)

5.65 m2 % 0.8 m2

(Footprint Area)

8

0.

.0 m

1

STACKED DRUMS

m

Though it is the least common commercial hydroponic system listed here, the drum design likely offers the most promise for the future of indoor agriculture. It consists of growing plants within the interior of a drum structure positioned around a central artificial light source, resulting in an extraordinarily low space and energy use per unit of production. The first publicized example of this design emerged in the late 1970s from the Environmental Research Laboratory at the University of Arizona. Today the most popular variant is produced by Omega Garden™ of Victoria, B.C., which features a mechanism that rotates the drum through a tray containing nutrient solution.

Land productivity improvement:

7x Fig 2.17 Space efficiency of the stacked drum design

Fig 2.18

Fig 2.16 Interior view of peas growing within a drum hydroponic system Omega Garden - Qualicum Beach, British Columbia, Canada

72 0.6

m

(Growing Area)

5.65 m2 % 0.8 m2

8 0.

1.0

(Footprint Area)

m

m

Land productivity improvement:

7x Fig 2.17 Space efficiency of the stacked drum design

Fig 2.18

72

Probably is one of the least common system listed, the drum design however is the most efficient way that holds a lot of promise in the future.. The system consist of a series of plants arrange around a central light source which maximizes the space as well as energy use per production. The first publicized example was emerged in 1970s from University of Arizona while the most popular variant is produced by Omega Garden of B.C., which features a mechanism that rotates drum through a tray containing nutrient solution. (Graff, 2011)


COLUMNAR SYSTEMS The newest variant of vertical cultivation to emerge is the columnar design popularized by the English horticultural company Valcant. Their design, Farming Typologies for Tomorrow VertiCropTM, consists of a series of stacked trays arranged in a staggered pattern Information from ‘Skyfarming’ by G.J. Graff to increase light penetration. The “columns” are then cycled along a conveyor VertiCroptm by Valcant track to a central machine that delivers nutrient solution and removes the trays Columnar Systems for harvesting. The design boasts the highest space efficiency among the sunCOLUMNAR SYSTEMS fed hydroponic systems available today, however, it is also the most limited in accommodating different plant varieties.

23

The newest variant of vertical cultivation to emerge is the columnar design popularized by the English horticultural company Valcant. Their design, VertiCropTM, consists of a series of stacked trays arranged in a staggered pattern to increase light penetration. The “columns” are then cycled along a conveyor track to a central machine that delivers nutrient solution and removes the trays for harvesting. The design boasts the highest space efficiency among the sunfed hydroponic systems available today, however, it is also the most limited in accommodating different plant varieties.

24

Fig 2.20 Valcant Product’s VertiCropTM system in operation at the Paignton Zoo. Paignton, Devon, England

0.

m

3 m

0.8

1

3

0. m

0.4

m

2 Fig 2.20 Product’s VertiCropTM system in operation at the Paignton Zoo. Paignton, Devon, England

3Valcant

4

5 6

m

2.88 m2

3 m

0.8

0.

7

(Growing Area)

1

3

0. m

0.4

%

8

m

2 3

8 0.

5m

1.0 m2

(Footprint Area)

m

1.2

4

5 6

Land productivity7 improvement:

Fig 2.21 Space efficiency of the columnar design

2.88 m2 %

8

2.88x 8

0.

Fig 2.19

(Growing Area)

1.0 m2

m

m .25

(Footprint Area)

1

One of the latest variant available, the columnar design is like the hybrid of both stacked beds and A frame trellis, As Land productivity improvement: it features a series of growing platform arranged around a 2.88x central columnar structure. It is currently one of the most efficient sun-fed hydroponic system available today however Fig 2.21 also the most limited in accommodating different plant Space efficiency of the columnar design varieties.

73 Fig 2.19

73


Supporting Technologies - Water Filtration Hydroponic Living Machine System Tidal Flow Wetland System Living machine


25

Living Machine - Case Study Evergreen School, Western Wayne, Pennsylvania Todal Flow Wetland System Working Diagram

INPUT: GREY WATER

PRIMARY TANK

TFW CELL

TFW CELL

OUTPUT: POTABLE WATER

SEASONAL STORAGE POND

TFW CELL

TFW CELL

VFW CELL

VFW CELL

UV DISINFECTION UV + CHLORINE DISINFECTION

REUSE TANK

26


Supporting Technologies - Waste Management Biomass Gasifier

Waste products

Biomass Gasifier

Production of ‘Producer Gas’

Possible Output

H2

Food Waste

High Pressure Steam

CO CH 4

Steam Turbine

Combustible Waste

Tri-Generation Plant Office Waste

HEAT HEAT Agricultural Waste

By-Product of Combustion

Waste Ash to be Re-Use As Farm Fertiliser

Biogas Cogeneration Plant


27

Supporting Technologies and Systems - Electricity Generation Agricultural Biogas Cogeneration / CHP

Typical Materials To Feed In:

Heat Exchanger

Gasometer Gas Flare

Grain (rye/wheat) 158.16 kW/Mg

BIOGAS

Grass Silage 34.1 kW/Mg

Digester

Manure 5.66 kW/Mg

Gas Engine

H y g e ni sa t i on Primary Pit

Output 1 :

Raw Fertilizer for Agricultural Use

Output 2 :

Electrical Energy

Glycerol 250 kW/Mg

Image 2.25: Working Diagram of Agricultural Biogas Cogeneration Plant

Maize Silage 54.99 kW/Mg

Triticale Silage 64.98 kW/Mg

28


Precedent Study - 1 The Dutch Pavilion


29

Holland creates Space: “Netherlands is a densely populated country combining high standards of living with a great democratic tradition” (MVRDV, 2001). The density and scarcity of land in Netherlands has been the major pushing force behind the unique urban built form in Netherlands such as the floating houses. Instead of expanding the country’s width while claiming land from the water, in the Dutch Pavilion, MVRDV Asks the question: how can land expands ver tically and by land, it’s referring to the landscape. The Dutch Pavilion showcases the idea in a form of six different stacked Dutch landscape. The structure raises the question and demonstrates the potential a real sky-forest that was lifted up above the ground. The pavilion explores the theme of the relationship between natural and ar tificial while developing the theme of reconciliation between technology and nature while addressing the ar tificiality as an epitome of Dutch landscape. (MVRDV, 2001)

30


Design Concept Diagram Scarcity of Land Rising Tides Coastal Landscape Symbolism - The Tulips

The Coastal Dune

The Forest Tulip Field

Island + Polder


31

32

Design Concept Diagram The Stacking Landscape The ‘Footprint’

“The Island + Polder

Dutch

Pavilion

lives on, in the minds of

architects and engineers as a Conceptual Diagram”

The Rain

The structure presents an overlayering of six different landscapes that essentially represents the Dutch landscapes while confirming the positive stereotypes of tulips, windmills and polders. (MVRDV, 2001) The Forest

Tulip Field

The Coastal Dune

Image 3.3

G

The Dune Landscape, moulded in concrete with building services hidden from sight.

L1

The Tulip Landscape, embracing the stereotype while demonstrating the contribution of agriculture to the development of man made nature.

L2

The Pot Landscape, number of pots housing the roots of the plants above with visual messages and imagery projecting on it.

L3

The Forest Landscape, composed of thick vegetation embellished with enormous tree trunks

L4

The Rain Landscape, an audiovisual theatre surrounded by a translucent veil of water.

L5

The Polder Landscape, featuring an ar tificial island housing the ‘VIP room’ at the middle of a lake embellished with contemporary windmills


Landscape Re-Imagined The Vertical Landscape ... in Diagrams

Level 6

Island + Polder Landscape

Level 5

The Rain Landscape

Level 4

The Forest Landscape Level 3

The ‘Pots’ + Audio Visual

Level 1 (Public Entry)

The Dune Landscape

Level 2

Greenhouse / Tulip Landscape

Ground Level

Offices and Service


33

34

CONCLUSION On a interesting note, the structure draws similarity to the section illustrated in ‘Delirious New York’. The section presents the possibility of an idea that never found concrete application. While the Dutch Pavilion intelligently reworked and precipitate the idea into reality. The structure storm into the architecture world carrying a strong message, of the potential of a ver tical landscape. Unfor tunately after the World Expo, the pavilions are deser ted and none were reused including the Dutch Pavilion. However it is interesting that even though it is abandoned, nature star ts to take over the ar tificial landscape as birds star ting to inhibit in the vacant structure, vegetation star t to grow in the ‘forest landscape’ while par ty seekers star ted to use the forest. In the architect’s own words. “It became a real park so to speak.”(MVRDV 2001) .Which I personally think is the most poignant par t of the design. Never theless, the design addresses the growing population density without the compromise the high living standards by proposing the radical possibility of lifting up the entire landscape instead of the people above the ground. On top of that, the design provided a simple critique of the relationship between technology and nature by presenting a possibility of a symbiotic relationship that reinforce and compliments each other.


Precedent Study - 2 Homefarm by Spark


35

Garden in the Sky A conceptual proposal for the next generation urban retirement housing - Homefarm combines both residential living and ver tical urban farming in Singapore, a country where the land is scarce and relies heavily on international trading for food. Where almost 90% of the food are impor ted (Spark Architects, 2014). Such dependency on food impor ts makes food security a prominent issue in Singapore. In addition to that, Singapore is experiencing a rapid shift in the age groups as more of the people are growing older over time. By addressing both issues stated above , Homefarm is a highly site-specific proposal while generating discussions of how can ver tical farming be a feasible idea in reality. (Spark Architects, 2014) To accommodate the growing amount of elderly population in Singapore, the architect firstly research on the needs and issues of the senior population. Through their findings, many of the senior populations are experiencing existence crisis where in many occasions, infants and elderlys are the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;phantom populationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; that is considered minor in our society. In addition to that, land scarcity in Singapore makes suburban living an unaffordable luxury and therefore renders a private garden impossible.

36


Addressing The Issue Change of Lifestyle and Demographic in Singapore

Declining Old Age Support Ratio 1970

1 : 13.5

WHAT SHOULD I DO AFTER I RETIRE?

2015

1 : 4.8

WHAT IS MY PLACE IN THE SOCIETY?

Declining Traditional Family Unit

AM I NOT NEEDED ANYMORE?

I AM... SO ALONE


37

38

The Communal Area The Green Wall vs Senior Occupants

â&#x20AC;&#x153; The social aspects of Homefarm which are much more complex to resolve than the technical considerations of the buildingâ&#x20AC;?

In turn, the proposal integrates ver tical aquaponic farming and rooftop soil gardening into the high-density senior living that features desirable garden environment that doubles as communal area and oppor tunities for post-retirement employment. (Spark Architects, 2014) In addition, the proposal features an interesting unit type to address the declining of traditional family unit with an attempt to bring that back. Such phenomena may be driven by the need of privacy. However, it is not uncommon for family members to live side-by-side in Singapore. With a slight change in design by introducing a entrance hall, The dual key apar tment may be an intelligent yet subtle way to emphasis and encourage the closeness between family members especially from the internal movements between two units while at the same time, addressing the privacy issue.


Design Integration Combination of Different Technologies Biomass Gasifier

Water Pumps, Filters etc.

Steam Turbine + Generator

Power Up

High Pressure Steam

Produce

Agricultural Waste

Feed into

Agricultural Waste

HEAT

Waste Ash acts as Farm Fertiliser

Ash

By-Product of Combustion

Biomass Gasifier


The Vertical Aquaponic Farm

39

40

Closed-Loop Water Circulation System

Nutrient Enriched Water

Fresh Water Fish Farming (Tilapia)

Vertical Aquaponic Farm

Treated Water for Fish Tank

It is unavoidable to produce waste in almost every human activity but the problem is, how can we dispose the waste efficiently so that it will only leave a minimal footprint in the environment? In Homefarm, it features the use of Biomass Gasifier to not only treating the agricultural waste but also generate electrical energy to suppor t the agricultural operation.

Water Treatment Plant

+ Rain Water Used Water (Grey Water)

In addition to that, it features a close-loop water circulation system for the ver tical aquaponic farm. The ver tical aquaponic farm is combined with a rooftop fish farming tank. In this case, Tilapia was chosen mainly due to the versatility of the living requirements and their efficiency in transforming feed into animal protein (organic waste) (Banerjee,2014). From that, the water containing the organic waste will be pumped out to irrigate the aquaponic plants without the need of chemical fer tilizer. The excessive water is then treated in a water treatment plant into potable water and supply back to the fish tank. (Spark Architects, 2014)


Unit Typologies Psychological Well-Being of the Seniors. Bringing Families Together

Un

it

1A

Un

it

1B


41

42

CONCLUSION One of the main issues that stops ver tical farming for realising is the economical factor. The proposal is brilliant as in it not only provide a pragmatic function to it but there is another social dimension that provided more depth into the design (Banerjee, 2014)

I Have a Sense of Identity

I am Physically Active

Homefarm responds to such issue by proposing a mix-use building that integrates ver tical farming and high density senior retirement dwellings. By doing so, the ver tical farms are not there solely for food production but responding to social issues such as post-retirement employment and the wellbeing of the senior populations. Besides, from an economical point of view, the maintenance cost for the ver tical farms are no longer the liability of a single individual / organization but is shared among each resident. In terms of architectural design however, a few question needs to be raised from the analysis. In relation to the dwelling units, although, the design is intended to encourage communal living and public involvement to militates against dementia and promote self-esteem among residents. What happens if the farms are taken away, does the design still inform communal living? Personally, a wide corridor around a central cour tyard may not be the best solution as there are far more richness between the public and private realm.

I am Socially Connected

I am Mentally Alert

Other than that, one may also question how often will the residents use the ver tical aquaponic farm in reality? There is no answer to that, but can only be proven if built. However, the architects are currently working with Malaysian developer to construct the first Homefarm in Cyberjaya, Malaysia by 2018. (Rosendield, 2014)


Precedent Study - 3 N House by Sou Fujimoto


43

My intention was not about space nor about form, but simply about expressing the riches of what are `between` houses and streets. House in the Clouds: Somewhere in the Oita Prefecture, Japan there is a per forated white box, housing a retired couple and a dog, it is not hard for a white box like that to stand out among the conventional town house in that area. The house can be described as a successful experiment of what the architect so called “box-in-box prototype for collective housing.” (Fujimoto, 2015) The brief of the house is simple, to re-imagine the house in a simpler way, for a couple that lived in the area for more than 30 years. The response however is brilliant, star ted from the research of basic, primitive form, and the questioning of the viability to contemporary needs, (Gregory, 2009) the result is a house covered in three per forated box, each defining the space in a suggestive manner similar to the idea of ‘kekai’ (barrier) in the Japanese culture.

44


Design Concept Inside / Outside The Wall

Sidewalk

Master Bedroom

Living Room

The Front Yard Dining

Interior

Entry

Exterior

There is no apparent solid wall in the house that separated the space into rooms but just a gradual change in the domain. The outermost box, made of concrete has aper tures, but no windows, marking the site boundary. Within this, the intermediate box forms the house proper. Again, constructed in concrete but this time, the aper tures are sealed with glazed window and a door for security purposes. The Innermost layer contains the core of domestic experience: the dining and living spaces. The timber construction provides a touch of lightness while painted white for overall consistency. (Gregory, 2009)

Boundary

W/C

Wall

Bedroom

Kitchen

Conventional Town House

The Street

The Public Realm


45

Kitchen

W/C

Mo tor Ve hic le + Ped est ria n

Living

Park

Kitchen Laundry Toilet Storage

Living Room Bedroom

Tatami

Room Car

Services:

+ Dining

Japanese Room

Terrace

The Garden

Sidewalk

Pe de st ria

n

Bed

The Street

46


Spatial Control Progression of Space Navigations - Indirect Circulation

Ba of ck Th eH ou Fro Ho nt o fT us e he

Cir

Although there are no wall to clearly separate the inside and outside, the gradation of rich domain from the public to the private realm was accompanied by various sense of proximity from the streets. (Fujimoto, 2015) As in this case, the street represents the public realm. Instead of separating the private realm by a wall, it is separated by an in-between buffer space, while the service quar ters ( bathrooms, storage and kitchen) are placed at the back of the house; fur thest away from the street. While reading the circulation route, especially the crossing of thresholds, It is interesting to note that, the user circulation path will always terminates by a wall which forces the user to turn; subtly inform the change of space complimented by the change of ceiling heights as well.

cu

lat

ion

se


47

48

CONCLUSION A simple, straightforward project, with a great idea behind, the design of House N challenges idea of a house as a ‘for tress of refuge’ and the separation of spaces. For that, the architect responds with a by opening the house to the exterior realm through huge per forations and the use of ‘soft boundaries’. However one thing in par ticular is par ticularly compelling as in the house was designed for a couple that lives in the area for 30 years. One can assume that the occupant has established a strong connection with the local residents. Although one way of looking at it, the house was built and sheltered by a huge, two-storey shell of concrete. However the visual porosity achieved by the openings breaks down the scale that rather alienating the occupants from the neighbours yet encourages interactions between the inside and out. Referring back to the question previously asked in the analysis of Homefarm by SparkArchitects: What happens if the farms are taken away, does the architecture/ the design inform communal living? House N may shed some light in terms of providing a creative solution to break down the physical boundary and encourage communal living for the senior population in collective housing. Image 3.24 : The Garden


Precedent Study - 3 N House by Sou Fujimoto


49

The Resilient Neighbourhood Far before the spawning of chain supermarkets and shopping centres, marketplace has been the major communal space while providing livelihood for local residents and producers. In the Spanish tradition however, marketplace serves a strong educational and social purpose. It therefore answers to the call for restoration for Santa Caterina Market on the same site where previously the site of one of the oldest market in Barcelona. (Jewell, 2011) The rehabbed structure demonstrates a strong idea of adaptive reuse in a large scale. The proposed design respects and as the form suggest, shelters the old, masonry walls of the old market but embraces it by blanket the structure in a ceramic tiled roof, highlighted with coloured ceramic tiles that breaths movements and colour ful vibrancy on top of marking the passing of time. (Jewell, 2011) In response to the design decision of preserving the dilapidated market facade, the answer can be seen from the architect statement in their brief: â&#x20AC;&#x153;The first mistake is to talk about old and new. Whatever has managed to survive into the present is current, useful, and contemporary. And it permits us to move back in time in order to continue forward.â&#x20AC;? (Jewell, 2011)

50


What We Looking At ... Before Historical Context Cultural Context

Originally the convent of Santa Caterina, The market was built over the ruins of the old convent, which was burned down in 1845. It is later transformed into the first covered market and also, the oldest market in Barcelona in 1848. The old market lasted until 1998, when EBMT Architects were selected to renovate the market again from a competition. (EBMT, n.d.) The market is again, reopened in the year 2005 but this time, it is blanketed in a unique, colour ful ceramic tile roof while the remains of the both the old convent and the walls of old marketplace were persevered not only as a gesture to establish a connection to the past but also respecting it.


51

What We Looking At ... Now The Covered Market The Wave of Colours

52


The Market From Afar Old vs New Public vs Private Chamfered Block vs The Old City

The Chamfered Block vs The Old City

The Market and Residential Apartment

The Market

The Residential Apartments The Market


53

Figure Ground Diagram of The Ground Level

The Market

Circulation Diagram Forming the Off-set Grid System

Hypothetical Circulation The Market

54


Physical and Abstraction Exploded Axonometric Diagram The Roof Pattern

Steel Truss

Ceramic Ceiling Tiles

Tiles Pattern

Timber Frame

Steel Frame Support

Existing Wall

Residential + Parking

Ceramic Tiles


55

56

The ‘Wave’ The Formal Analysis

The main focal point of the project itself is the roof that hovers over the marketplace. Interestingly enough, when viewed in section, a strict sense of order is observed. Such order however reminds one to the classical order for instance, Palladio’s Basilica di San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice, or even the facade of the ruins of St. Paul in Macau. There may be no coincidence of such likeness as it may be a conscious decision if one looks back to the history of the site. Although the overall building spans horizontally, however the roof form suggest an upwards movements from the front, such form not only compliments the main entry tower while providing a bold, generous profile. Yet, from a functional point of view, the high interior ceiling and roof helps facilitates the penetration of light and natural ventilation; while fur ther compliments by the operable shutters on the Eastern facade.


The Floating Landscape Inspiration and Discourses Roof as a Landscape

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The project must not exist in a particular moment in time, but inhabiting it.â&#x20AC;? Although in one way ( by default), the roof form can be perceive as a direct inspiration of the sea wave pattern while the tile pattern is an abstraction of the colour of fruits and flowers sold in the market. What happen if the form is interpreted in another way? What happen if the form is read as an abstraction of the land form, while the tiles pattern fur ther compliments it as a flower field? (Bloch, 2013) Shielded away from the temporary occupants (the pedestrians, shoppers, and vendors but available for the surrounding residents looking down from above. From that, the roof can be seen as a model, like public ar t, with the underlying notion of subtle public education; prompting the future generation to question the potential idea of a floating landscape or, physically the idea of roof as a landscape itself.

?


57

58

CONCLUSION Instead of star ting the project anew by star ting from a cleared site, the architect takes a rather difficult, but rewarding approach in this project, it touches upon some ideas such as adaptive reuse that potentially essential for site with a rich historical background. On an interesting note, the building not only preserves the old and merely display it like a piece of ar tefact in a museum but relive it, like the architect say: Whatever has managed to survive into the present is current, useful, and contemporary. (EBMT, n.d.) The precedent was chose while keeping in mind, of the possibility of an approach of bringing in commercial activities while on the same time, exploring projects generate discussions of ver tical landscape. As mentioned in the floating landscape section, the roof provokes the question of: â&#x20AC;&#x153;What happens if itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not only a metaphor but actually is a garden floating above the market?â&#x20AC;? i personally think it is a very strong question and there is a whole lot of discussion that can be generate from that ranging from topic of land efficiency to an engineering wonder (similar to Dutch Pavilion) while at the same time parallel to the topic of biophilic design and the desire of humans to seek connection with nature in urban areas.


I intend to design a Vertical Farming Community which also revises the Pyrmont Fish Market to become a Sustainable, Dynamic destination


59

60

Project Manifesto From the research and analysis of existing schemes for growing, population density and urban farming, I believe that the current agricultural production growing rate will unable to suppor t the future population. In addition, human agricultural practice such as land clearing, monoculture agribusiness, and even the excessive use of pesticide and herbicide has destructive impact on the declination of natural forest a fer tile land. This in turn, leads to many global environmental issues such as global warming and rising sea levels. Based on my research and analysis vertical farming will be an excellent proposal that provides a viable solution to the questions and issues stated. Even though ver tical farming has been proven to be a THEORETICALLY viable solution, as the current word economy does not allow that (Banerjee, 2014). On an additional note, I must express my personal distaste of the current approach for urban / vertical farming solely as a mean of generating economic wealth while there are so much more potential yet to be discovered and challenged. With all the research and analysis in mind, I therefore propose to combine both urban farming and high density living by using Pyrmont as an experimental hybrid typology. Rather than the farming being a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;machineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; growing will be used to not only generate economic wealth, but also psychological and physiological benefits for the occupants & local community based on the ideas of biophilia. The proposal will replace the existing fish market, and create a new culture of growing, living and selling.


URBAN S T R AT E G I E S ACT II


The Bays Precinct Masterplan Information from Bays Precinct Strategic Framework Report

The Bays Precinct

Balmain

White Bay

Rozelle White Bay Power Station

Glebe Island

Pyrmont

Rozelle Bay

lle s ze ard Ro aily R

Blackwattle Bay Annandale

Glebe


63

The Bays Precinct Masterplan Information from Bays Precinct Strategic Framework Report

Zoning Functions

Water Edge Programs

Port Operations

Mixed Use (Adaptive Reuse)

Port Activity

Cruise Passenger Terminal

Potential Public Boat Ramp

Commercial

Dry Bulk Handling & Storage

Mix Use (Maritime Uses)

Recreational

64


The Bays Precinct Masterplan Information from Bays Precinct Strategic Framework Report

Existing Water Activities

Potential Ferry Wharf

White Bay

Johnstons Bay

Potential Public Boat Ramp Dragon Boat Launch Ramp

Rozelle Bay Sydney Fish Market

Rowing Club

Dragon Boats

Primary Potential Ferry Nodes

Rowing Boats

Secondary Potential Ferry Nodes


65

The Bays Precinct Masterplan: Blackwattle Bay East Information from: Sydney 2012 LEP and Sydney Fish Market Masterplan

Existing Zoning Provision

Existing Land Ownership

Mix Use

Waterfront Use

Waterways Authority

Hymix Australia Pty Ltd

Public Recreation

Public Purpose

Australian Fishing Industries

N Stephenson Pty Ltd

Crown Land

Minister For Education & Training

66


Sydney Fish Market Study Existing Vegetation Assessment

Existing On-Site Vegetation

Recommended Removal Recommended Reuse Potential to Retain


67

Sydney Fish Market Study Service Diagram and Noise Nodes

Cleaning

Waste

Wholesale Outlets

Fillet Room

Auction Floor

Weigh and Labels

Anzac Bridge L Amax : 61 dBA

L Amax

Trucks : 58 - 76 dBA

Retail Outlets

Bellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pure Ice

g din l loa sse e Un Ve et nd nanc e l a F e int Ma

Hymix Concrete Batching Plant L Amax: 74 dBA

Trawlers L Amax : 58dBA

Truck Circulation

Continuous Background Noise L Aeq, 9hr Not Exceeding 45 dBA

Forklift Circulation

Trawler Noise L Aeq, 15min. Not Exceeding 53 dBA Truck Noise L Amax Not Exceeding 64 dBA

68


Sydney Fish Market Study Information from: Transport Management and Accessibility Plan Site Occupant Over Time by Vehicle Mode

Light Commercial

Bicycle

Bus / Coach

Taxi

Pedestrian

Water Vehicles

Heavy Commercial

Private Car


69

Sydney Fish Market Study Program Area

Administration 2701 m 2

Retail 7133 m 2

Auction Hall 3916 m 2

Wholesale 3231 m

2

Commercial 2169 m 2

70


Site Analysis: Blackwattle Bay East Existing Edge Condition

1

Steel Sheet Pile Wall

Concrete breakdown and local scour End of lifespan estimation: 5 - 10 Years

7

Significant corrosion of piles End of lifespan estimation: 0-5 Years

Sandstone Block Wall

2 8 1 2

3

9

4 5 6 7

4

10

8

Sound quality and good condition End of lifespan estimation: 20-50 years

Mass Concrete Wall

10

11 12

Sound Quality End of lifespan estimation: 20-50 years

11

Timber Retaining Wall Runoff erosion of backfill Significant Structural Failures End of lifespan estimation: 0 years

9

Recent construction Still in good condition End of lifespan estimation: 40-60 years

Sandstone Block and Concrete Wall

Sandstone Block Wall Wave over topping Runoff erosion of backfill Wall slump End of lifespan estimation: 0 years

3

Inaccessible for detailed review End of lifespan estimation: 15-20 years

Sandstone Block Wall

Rock Revetment Erosion of topsoil & incomplete coverage End of lifespan estimation: 20 -30 Years

Wall bowed in localised areas End of lifespan estimation: 15-20 years

Concrete Caisson Wall

Mass Concrete Retaining Wall

5

Rip Rap Rock Revetment Wall missing Land Erosion End of lifespan estimation: 0 years

12

6

Brick & Concrete Test Cylinder Rubble Retaining Wall Inadequate structural system Local erosion End of lifespan estimation: 0-5 Years


71

Sydney Fish Market Study Information from: Transport Management and Accessibility Plan Site Access Mode

Cyclist <1%

Pedestrians 9%

Cars 87 %

Coaches <1%

Light Rail 2%

Retail

SFM Offices

Taxi 1%

Offices

Auction 53

Weekday Peak of 450 Vehicles

Retail

SFM Offices

Auction

Weekend Peak of 490 Vehicles

72


Environmental Analysis: Blackwattle Bay East Shadow Diagram Study

9 a.m. Summer Solstice 21 December

Winter Solstice 21 June

12 p.m.

3 p.m.


73

Environmental Analysis: Blackwattle Bay East Prevailing Wind Study Information from Bureau of Meteorology of Australia Measured From Sydney Airport

Morning (9 a.m.)

Evening (3 p.m.) Summer December - February __ Strong, warm humid wind from the South may cause discomfort. __ Generally desirable breeze from 45o (Northeast) with frequent, light cool breeze. __ Upon closer look, The site will receive gentle breeze from Northwest and Southern direction with potential strong gust from the South in the morning __ While the wind shift towards Eastern side in the evening. __ Openings towards Northeast is generally desirable as more prevailing winds and ventilation is needed when temperature rises in the afternoon. Desirable Orientation:

Undesirable Orientation:

Winter June - August __ It is generally advised to avoid strong ventilation in winter. __ Cool gentle breeze from the Northeast and Western direction throughout the day with potential strong wind from North-western side __ In the evening, the wind direction shifted Southerly and strong winds from both Western and Southern side. __ It is important to note that Australia receive solar radiation from the North and orientation towards North is highly advantageous

Desirable Orientation:

Undesirable Orientation:

74


Site Analysis - Blackwattle Bay East Existing Public Transportation Nodes

Existing Public Transportation Nodes __

Major Public Transpor tation Hub

__

Miller Street as the major site access point.

__

Free from traffic noise and fumes

__

Limited Access to Public Transpor tation


75

Site Analysis - Blackwattle Bay East Future Public Transportation Nodes

Future Public Transportation Nodes __

Potential Public Transpor tation Hub

__

Future Alternate Site Entry

__

Potential New Ferry Terminal

76


Site Analysis - Blackwattle Bay East Existing Site Access

Site Access

Access by Light Rail Access By Bus Pedestrian Access


77

78

Site Analysis - Blackwattle Bay East Future Site Access

Proposed Site Access

Access by Light Rail Access By Bus Pedestrian Access Wateredge Promenade


Site Analysis - Blackwattle Bay East Opportunity and Constraint Assessment

Site Opportunity 1. Extension of city grid & main pedestrian access route with views to foreshore.

2

2. Transpor tation node. 3. Huge open space with access to water front. 4. Major city grid extension with significant views to foreshore.

1 4

3

5. Potential ferry terminal conform to current planning provisions. 6. Potential to create a continuous water front promenade and retail outlets.

6

8

7. Significant panoramic view of The Bay Precincts. 8. Potential green water front park conform to planning provisions

current

7

5


79

80

Site Analysis - Blackwattle Bay East Opportunity and Constraint Assessment

Site Constraints 1. View Obstruction. 2. Existing Western Distributor and Bank Street isolating the site from the city context. 1

3. Existing unplanned on-site building obstructing view and circulation.

2 3

4. Existing Sydney configuration. 8

11

6 4

9

5

10 7

Fish

Market

building

require

5. Existing building along water edge obstructing view. 6. Car parking intersects and obstructing site access and circulation. 7. Deteriorating edge requires immediate re-work. 8. Hymix concrete batching plant activity generating noise. 9. Existing warehouse / wholesale continuity of water front.

retailer

restricts

10. Area under and around bridge is constantly shaded and lack of public transpor tation connectivity. 11. Sandstone cliff restricts connectivity with surrounding.


Urban Vision & Ambition The Urban Forest


81

Taking Pyrmont as a testing ground for ver tical farming. The aim of the design is to design a new built form that, on one hand, able to produce sustainable food source to suppor t the growing needs while the other hand, to rethink the potential of Ver tical Farms to not only be a food production machine but at the same time the potential of ver tical farms to be combined with other programs as a new mix-use typology. To push it fur ther, there is even potential to rethink the ver tical farms as an element that is able to bring people together to form a community, drawing similarity from the concept of ver tical villages. It is proposed to combine ver tical farms and residential living at this stage and to use ver tical farms to provide psychological and physiological benefits for the occupants while at the same time producing sustainable, and efficient food source to create a resilient city. IIn conclusion, the vision is to sucessfully design and introduce this new typology to suppor t the growing population density in near future. Star ting from Pyrmont.

82


INITIAL PLANNING ACT III


Inital Masterplan


85

86


Initial Masterplan initial Planning Strategies

Urban Context Guidelines

Grid and Building Placement Urban Context Northern Sun


87

Vehicular Access Zone

The Service 'Spine' Loading and Docking Car Parking & Service

88


Point of Access

Schematic Layout - Public / Private

Activation Nodes

Public Nodes

Service

Public Transportation

Access Point

Private Nodes


89

Anzac Bridge View

View Towards Glebe and Balmain

Harbour / Port View

Marketplace Orientation

Continuous Waterfront Promenade

Public Nodes

Service

Marketplace

Access Point

Private Nodes

Waterfront Walk

90


Massing Logic Defining Public Space

Existi n Fish M g arket Build ing

Proposed building Footprint Public Realm


91

Massing Logic Urban Context The Green Roof

Terminated By Bridge Suppor t

Extension of City Grid The Green Roof

92


Massing Logic Piers

Aqu

Residential Green House

Aquaculture

acu

ltur

e Fa

rms


93

94

Massing Logic Ground Floor Activation

Activate

d Edge Marketplace

Activa

Retail

ted Ed

ge


Massing Logic Service & Loading

Loading Zone

Warehouse


95

96

Massing Logic Service Area

Car Park

Generator / Power Plant

Proposed New Ferry Stop


Massing Logic Proposed Tower

Views Proposed Tower


97

Massing Logic Building Skin

98


Design Logic Section - Tower 1 Program & Uses

Aquaculture Centre Retail Service Offices Residential

Vertical Farms Commercial Mass Production FISH TANKS

MACHINE ROOM

FISH TANKS

MACHINE ROOM

FISH TANKS

MACHINE ROOM

LOADING PACKAGING STORAGE

Fish Market Building remains untouched. A rooftop farm is added to maximizes the advantage of the large building footprint

Communal Farms Indoor Farms


99

Design Logic Section - Tower 2 Program & Uses

Aquaculture Centre Retail FISH TANKS

Service

MACHINE ROOM

Offices Residential FISH TANKS

MACHINE ROOM

Vertical Farms Commercial Mass Production FISH TANKS

Building is lifted up to allow visual connection and engagement

Communal Farms

MACHINE ROOM

Indoor Farms FISH TANKS

MACHINE ROOM

Waterfront square for open-air market

FISH TANKS

MACHINE ROOM

LOBBY

100


DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ACT IV


Building Proposition - Initial Inspiration Modular Tower Plans + Section

Machine Room Plan

Typical Floor Plan

1

1

2 1

1 2

3

3

1. Machine / Service Room

1. Commercial Ver tical Farm

2. Fish Tanks

2. Communal Farm 3. Shared Balcony


103

Typical Floor Plan

Section Through Atrium

1

1

2

3

3

2

1

3

4

1. Commercial Ver tical Farm

1. Atrium

2. Communal Farm

2. Commercial Ver tical Farm

3. Shared Balcony

3. Communal Farm 4. Fish Tanks

104


Building Proposition - Initial Development Planning and Design

Ground Level Retail

Loading and Service

De-centralised Core

Mechanical Plant + Service

Loading Dock

Service Lift

Retail

Retail

Mechanical Riser

Administration Office


105

Building Proposition - Initial Development Planning and Design

Solid / Void

Plug-in

Vertical Farms

Vertical Farms

106


Building Proposition - Initial Development Design Massing Logic

1

Floor Plate

2

Dividing

3

Point of Entry

4

Creating Space


107

Building Proposition - Initial Development Plans - The Modular System

5

Ver tical Farms

6

De-centralised Core

7

Even Solar Access

8

Multiple Views

108


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Building Proposition - Design Development

10 11

Design Massing Logic

Basic Floorplate Layout

Module 1

1

11 10 11 9 10 8 9 7 8 6 7

2

6 5 4 3 2

5 4 3 2 1

1

2 2

1 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 7 8 9 10 11

1

5 6 7 8 9 10 11

1

1. Goods Lift

1. Ver tical Farm

2. Glass Lift +Void

2. Shared Balcony

3. Fire Stair

11 10 11 9 10 8 9 7 8 6 7 5 6 4 5 3 4 2 3 1 2 1

3


1

109

1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11

Module 2

Module 3

1

11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11

1

1

1. Indoor Farming

1. Ver tical Farm

2. Communal Farm + Garden

110

11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Reflection - Potential Design Development Approach Current Design Proposition

Shared Balcony

Apar tment Unit

Building Turn it's back towards The main Communal Ver tical Farm into Shared Balcony.

Circulation

Communal Vertical Farm

Circulation

Apar tment Unit

Circulation as a 'barrier' / boundary to cut off connection apar tment and communal area

Shared Balcony


111

Reflection - Potential Design Development Approach Future Design Approach

Communal Vertical Farm

Apar tment Unit

Private Living Quar ter

Shared Space + Circulation

Communal Vertical Farm

Apar tment Unit

Shared Space + Circulation

Private Living Quar ter

112


Urban Vision & Ambition Conceptual Visualization


113

Reflection - Potential Design Development Approach Project Keywords

Garden Farm

Farm Growing

Market

Void

In- Between LIVING IN A FARM Permeable Fragments

Flexible

Human Living Weightless

Community

114


Precedent - Breaking Vertical Scale Herzog and De Meuron - Beirut Terraces Shifting Floorplates


115

Precedent - To-Lighten Frank Lloyd Wright - Johnson Wax Building SANAA - Shibaura House Renzo Piano - Intesa Sanpaolo Office Building

116


Conceptual Refinement Re-Defining Courtyard House Typology Planning Strategy

Central Cour tyard

Inward Looking

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Living in Betweenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;


117

Conceptual Refinement & Application Medieval Town Planning â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Eyes on the Streetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Clustered Living Communal CENTRE

Cluster Arrangement

Street & Square

Proposed Planning

118


Conceptual Refinement Re-Defining Courtyard House Typology Planning Strategy

Initial Proposal

Breaking The Mass Solid vs Void

Living in The Garden


119

Living in a Farm A Vertical Farming Community A New Lifestyle

Communal Dining Area

Garden Kitchen

120


Initial Development Positive vs Negative Space Solid vs Void

Residential Growing Communal


121

Initial Development â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Garden Balconies Frames Marketplace

122


Design Refinement â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Villageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Design Plan @ 1:400

Level 1

Level 2


123

Level 3

Level 4

124


Design Refinement Detailed Section

Raised F l oor with Con du its an d Ser vice Un der n eath

Apar tment U ni ts

F acade F r ame Wh ite Pain ted Metal Mesh F acade Prefabr icated Con crete Wal l Pan el Su spen ded Timber F l oor board with Dr ain age

Ten sion Rod Motor ized Lou vre Systems Su spen ded F ar min g F r ame Communal Ki tchen Sl idin g Door

Gu tter for Rain water Har vestin g F acade

1200 x 6000 Prefabr icated Con crete F l oor in g Pan el

Con crete Str u ctu re F r ame

Serv i ce Floor


125

Design Refinement Living , Growing, Selling Section @ 1: 1000

126


DESIGN PROPOSAL FINALE


129

Agri + Culture How can we encompass urban farming and Hyperdensity?

To accommodate a growing urban population, we need greater land and resources for agriculture. But, traditional agricultural practices can contribute to environmental degradation through a loss of biodiversity from land clearance, the use of pesticides, and the significant carbon footprint of transpor ting food from rural to urban areas. One solution to overcome this is the idea of ver tical farming, where food is grown in high-rise factories within the city, limiting the need for land and transpor tation. However, many ver tical farm proposals are little more than growing machines, designed to achieve the maximum economic yield, with little in terms of social benefits to the neighbourhood. This project aims to overcome these challenges by proposing a hybrid ver tical farm, market and residential community in Pyrmont, Sydney. Rather than considering the ver tical farm as a ‘machine’, the design presents oppor tunities for urban farming, growing and cooking to be a key driver for social sustainability and community, challenging the sterile high-rise environments of the past.

Urbanistically, the design presents a new vision for Sydney’s fish market. A new open-air water front market is masterplanned, influenced by the tightknit street patterns of medieval market towns. A series of towers rise from the market providing high-density living inter twined with growing and communal eating spaces. The form is broken down into ver tical villages, with each having access to hydroponic façade-integrated growing spaces, shared kitchens and group dining spaces. The celebration of growing and greenery is designed to also provide psychological and physiological benefits for the occupants & local community based on the ideas of biophilia. Environmentally, a mesh façade provides a degree of protection from the wind, but allows for the natural ventilation of internal spaces. Each village accommodates its own closed-loop water filtration system, while waste from the plant cuttings is harvested to a fuel biogas anaerobic digestion plant, providing an energy supply for the district.

130


Masterplan Refinement Planning Diagram Ground Floor Plan Sectional Diagram

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D e s i gn An c h o r

M a r k etp la c e

M i lle r S tre e t & Py r m ont B r i d g e Road

Ret a i l m o dul e a nd Green Spa c e

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F loa tin g M od u les

M ajor Ci rculati on + Acce s s Poi nt

I m per m a nent / Sea s o na l M a r k et pl a c e

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R e de f i n i n g t h e E dge

A q u a c u ltu r e Fa r min g a n d Estu a r ies

Em b r ace + Ce le b r ati ng the Wate r Ed g e

E m br a ce + C el ebr a t i ng t he Wa t er E dge

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Keeping those keywords in mind, they are then combines with the early proposal to comes up with a ‘clustered’ and labyrinth-like marketplace to breaking the massive scale to a more human-like propor tion while the ‘growing’ aspect blends into the background as the backdrop to the marketplace fur ther emphasis the intrinsic, and intimate relationship of Growing - Cooking - Eating and Selling. Hoping to achieve an educational purpose for the user and visitor to aware of where their food came from and how their food are produced. Therefore encourage the visitors to appreciate the food as a subtle response to issues such as food wastage while highlighting the intimate yet inseparable relationship between human and food produce where in this case: agricultural produce

G ri ds a n d Ax i s

up

At the early stage of second semester design process, the development of the Masterplan is to be temporarily put on hold while the design focus was placed on the design of the Tower villages, where it explores the potential lifestyle of the occupants and the intimate relationship between growing, cooking, and eating. From there, several strategies based on keywords such as ‘ Solid and Void’, ‘Living in a Garden’, ‘Courtyard Living’, and ‘Structural lightness’, has been devised. From there again, the design focus is shifted back to the masterplan and ground floor planning.

up

UP

UP DN

DN

up

up

Docking

Pub li c Tr ans p or t , M e rchants & B e r thi ng

S er vic e

Refr i ger a t i o n, Tr a ns po r t a t i o n + St o r a ge


131

R esid en tia l M od u le

132

P r od u c tion Fa r m

C ommu n a l S p in e

Ga r d en Fa r m

S er vic e F loor s

M a r k etp la c e


Masterplan Refinement Market Typology Proposed Program

R e side nt ial + C om m unit y Fa rm

S e r vice C or e

Gr owing Mod ul e

Building Fr ame

Bas ic M o d ule

Hybrid Module

Mar ke t place / R e t ail

S it e Boundar y + Gr e e n A r e a

Flo at ing Mod ule

Plug-in Module


133

134


Detailed Section Village Section


135

Detailed Section Long Section

Alternate Arrangement

136


Design Philosophy Sky - Farm Living in-between

1902 Theorem

Lifting of Ground Plane

Defining the Zones

‘The Hypothesis’

‘Liberation’

Space Within a Space

Residential Living

The Hub

Permeanility

Living in- between Garden Living

Communal Living Sparing Space Growing - Making- Eating

Blurring the Boundary Inside = Outside


137

138


Lifestyle Vignettes Proposed Lifestyle â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Urban Farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Communal Living

Growing - Harvesting

Cooking - Sharing


139

Lifestyle Vignettes Proposed Lifestyle â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Table - Gatheringâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Farming as Backdrop

Eating - Gathering

Selling - Learning

140


Proposed Design â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Villageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Design Floorplan @ 1:400

Level 1

Level 2


141

Level 3

Level 4

142


Proposed Design Detailed Unit Design Suggested Unit Arrangement

Movable Fixtures

Home Office

Basic Unit

Conforming to the vision of ‘lifting up the ground plane’ where the ground floor quality is integrated in to tall living, the apar tment unit is intended to be rented out / sold not by unit’s but by plot. Constructed in lightweight structure (insulated steel frame construction) it allow flexibility in altering the size and layout of the apar tment units to suit the lifestyle of each occupants as demonstrated in the drawings above while providing oppor tunity to expansion if the need arises over time.

‘Share House’

Guest house

Home farm


143

Proposed Design Structural Plan

Tower Structural Plan

Module Structural Plan

Heavy vs Light

‘The Lightweight Box’

Floor Cladding Detail

144


Co- Exist Detailed Section Growing - Cooking - Living Vertical ‘Farmhouse’ Tim ber Soffit

Gutter for Rainw ater H arvesting Facade

400m m Steel Beam White-Painted Gal vaniz ed Steel Mesh Facade Facade Fram e

600 x 600 m m Precast RC infil l Col um n

Water Operated Rotatin g Farm ing Modul e Operabl e Louvres Tim ber Cl added Mul l ion

Gl ass Bal ustrade

Raised Fl oor w ith Conduits and Service U nderneath

Drainage


145

146

Passive Environmental Strategies Permeable Facade Passive Heating and Cooling

‘ Ext e r ior ’ Zon e Summer Sun - 73°

P rot e ct e d In t e r ior Zon e

Lo w P re ss u re Z o ne

Cool Breeze

Wa r m Ai r D r a wn Ou t b y P re s s u re D i f f e re n ce

Exp ose d T h e r m al Mass

Cool Breeze

Cold Winter Wind

Cl ose d Lou v re s

Dampened Wind

Blocked By Glass Railing

Summer Cooling

Winter Heating


Structural Strategies Frame and Skin

F a ca d e F ra me

B ui ldi ng C ore : La te r al S tabi li ty

Prima ry St ru ct u re

M e sh Fac ade

Building Frame

Primary and Secondary Structure

‘Bundled Tube System’

Facade Frame and Mesh ‘The Draping Facade’


147

Building Frame Frame Construction Hybrid Construction

Modular Frame

Reinforcement Bars

Precast Module Assemblage Ca s t I n - S i t u Node

Pre c a s t R C Ca s i n g

In-Situ Node

Frame Anatomy

148


Servicing Strategies Overall Servicing systems

Harvest

Rain Water

produce

Irrigation

Filter Tank

Nutrients + Water

Excrement (Blackwater)

Occupants

Fish Farming

Water Storage Heated Water

Vertical Farms

Cooking

produce Heating Needs

Agricultural Waste

Aerobic Digestion Chamber

Potable Water

Fertilizer

Cooling Needs

PV Cells

Methane Gas

To Cool

Biogas Co-Generation Plant (CHP) Heat Exchange

Electrical Energy Cooking

Sea Water

Heat Exchange

Refrigeration

produce

Marketplace

Food Waste

Heat Exchange Plant PV Cells


149

Servicing Strategies Major Heating and Cooling strategies Waste Management

Fertilizer

Agricultural Waste

Excrement (Blackwater)

Aerobic Digestion Chamber

Potable Water

Vertical Farms

Fish Farming

Cooking

Food Waste

Methane Gas

Occupants Heating Needs Heated Water

Biogas Co-Generation Plant (CHP)

Septic Tank System

Cooling Strategy

Organic Waste Management

Overall Cooling Strategy

150


Servicing Strategies Macro Servicing systems Biogas CHP Marine Heat Exchange

Excrement (Blackwater)

Heating Needs

Cooling Needs

Agricultural Waste

PV Cells

PV Cells

Refrigeration Food Waste

Cooking

To Power

Collection Tank

Hygenization

Digestion Chamber

Biogas CHP Generator

To Power

Electrical Energy

Generator & Compressor

Storage Tank

Collection Tank

Fertilizer

Methane Gas

Flooded Basement Sea Water

Biogas CHP System

Marine Heat Exchange System

Waste Management and Heating Strategy

Cooling Strategy


151

Servicing Strategies Major Heating and Cooling strategies Waste Management

Wate r Tan k

Ra i n Wa t e r

Pu mp

Rainwater Harvesting

Water Operated Farming Module

Facade Rainwater Harvesting System

Close Loop Irrigation System Water + Gravity Powered Rotating Module

152


Growing System Water +Gravity Powered System The Hanging Module

Planting System FOOTPRINT (sqm)

Precedent Sky Green Singapore

Application

2

Bed Area Stacks per unit (4 stories) Total Growing Area

1 34 26

Total Efficientcy Efficientcy per Floor

16 4

Efficiency


Level 2

Growing Statistics

VERTICAL  VERTICAL  HYDROPONIC  HYDROPONIC  SYSTEM SYSTEM FUNGUS /  FUNGUS /  MUSHROOM MUSHROOM NURSERY  NURSERY  NURSERY  NURSERY 

Growing Efficientcy Agricultural Production per Village

Level 1 Level 1

VERTICAL  HYDROPONIC  VERTICAL  SYSTEM HYDROPONIC  SOIL BASE FARMING SYSTEM MICROGREENS SOIL BASE FARMING FUNGUS /  MICROGREENS MUSHROOM FUNGUS /  NURSERY  MUSHROOM NURSERY  NURSERY  NURSERY 

FOOTPRINT FOOTPRINT

AMOUNT AMOUNT

EFFICIENTCY EFFICIENTCY

GROWING FOOTPRINT GROWING FOOTPRINT

153 154 GROWING AREA GROWING AREA

3 3

12 12

4 4

4 4

142 142

1 1 1 1 1 1

9 9 4 4 3 3

10 10 6 6 6 6 Total Total

5 5 6 6 3 3 18 18

50 50 34 34 17 17 244 244

AMOUNT AMOUNT

EFFICIENTCY EFFICIENTCY

GROWING FOOTPRINT GROWING FOOTPRINT

GROWING AREA GROWING AREA

12 12 8 8 3 3 6 6 3 3

4 4 1 1 1 1 4 4 1 1

4 4 4 4 3 3 5 5 2 2

142 142 4 4 3 3 19 19 2 2

9 9 4 4 3 3

10 10 6 6 6 6 Total Total

5 5 6 6 3 3 31 31

50 50 34 34 17 17 271 271

FOOTPRINT FOOTPRINT

AMOUNT AMOUNT

EFFICIENTCY EFFICIENTCY

GROWING FOOTPRINT GROWING FOOTPRINT

GROWING AREA GROWING AREA

3 3 1 1 1 1

12 12 4 4 3 3

4 4 6 6 6 6

36 36 6 6 3 3

142 142 34 34 17 17

1 1

9 9

10 10 Total Total

5 5 49 49

50 50 244 244

Level 3

FOOTPRINT

AMOUNT

EFFICIENTCY

GROWING FOOTPRINT

GROWING AREA

FOOTPRINT

AMOUNT

EFFICIENTCY

GROWING FOOTPRINT

GROWING AREA

3 36 3 0 36 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

12 1 12 16 1 16 9 4 9 3 4 3

4 1 4 4 1 4 10 6 10 6 6 Total 6 Total

4 36 4 7 36 7 5 6 5 3 6 60 3 60

142 36 142 27 36 27 50 34 50 17 34 306 17 306

FOOTPRINT

AMOUNT

EFFICIENTCY

GROWING FOOTPRINT

GROWING AREA

FOOTPRINT

AMOUNT

EFFICIENTCY

GROWING FOOTPRINT

GROWING AREA

3

12

4

4

142

3 1 1 1 1 1 1

12 9 4 9 3 4 3

4 10 6 10 6 6 Total 6 Total

4 5 6 5 3 6 18 3 18

142 50 34 50 17 34 244 17 244

FOOTPRINT

AMOUNT

EFFICIENTCY

GROWING FOOTPRINT

GROWING AREA

FOOTPRINT FOOTPRINT VERTICAL  VERTICAL  HYDROPONIC  HYDROPONIC  SYSTEM 3 SYSTEM 3 SOIL BASE FARMING SOIL BASE FARMING 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 FUNGUS /  FUNGUS /  MUSHROOM 1 MUSHROOM 1 NURSERY  1 NURSERY  1 NURSERY  1 NURSERY  1

Level 2 Level 2 VERTICAL  HYDROPONIC  VERTICAL  SYSTEM HYDROPONIC  FUNGUS /  SYSTEM MUSHROOM FUNGUS /  NURSERY  MUSHROOM NURSERY  NURSERY  NURSERY  Level 3 Level 3 VERTICAL  HYDROPONIC  VERTICAL  SYSTEM HYDROPONIC  SOIL BASE FARMING SYSTEM SOIL BASE FARMING FUNGUS /  MUSHROOM FUNGUS /  NURSERY  MUSHROOM NURSERY  NURSERY  NURSERY 

Level 4

FOOTPRINT

AMOUNT

EFFICIENTCY

GROWING FOOTPRINT

GROWING AREA

3 0 3 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

12 8 12 3 8 6 3 3 6 3 9

4 1 4 1 1 4 1 1 4 1 10

4 4 4 3 4 5 3 2 5 2 5

142 4 142 3 4 19 3 2 19 2 50

1 1 1 1 1

4 9 3 4 3

6 10 6 6 Total 6 Total

6 5 3 6 31 3 31

34 50 17 34 271 17 271

Level 4 VERTICAL  VERTICAL  HYDROPONIC  HYDROPONIC  SYSTEM SYSTEM NURSERY  NURSERY  NURSERY  NURSERY  FUNGUS /  FUNGUS /  MUSHROOM MUSHROOM


Growing Statistics Yield Per Month in a Single Village

Carrots x

100

Mushrooms x

1000

Asian Greens x 100 Cabbage x

100

Microgreens x

Lettuce x

100

100

Mushrooms 4 4 3 7 kg

Tomatoes x

Tomatoes

Carrots

Cabbage

Microgreens

391 k g

855 k g

100

Lettuce 3 7 6 4 kg

Asian Greens 4 4 3 7 kg

630 k g

13 kg ~ 478 portions


155

156

Growing Statistics Production vs Need

x 10

The Yield of a Single Village Can Potentially Feed more than 10% of Population in Pyrmont. While The Total Yield in The Proposed Scheme is Potentially Sufficient to Sustain the Daily Vegetable Needs of Entire Pyrmont

1 Village : 1300 People


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28

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29

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30

United Nations, Depar tment of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Volume I: Comprehensive Tables (ST/ESA/SER.A/379).

31

United Nations, Depar tment of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015). World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Volume II: Demographic Profiles (ST/ESA/SER.A/380).

32

Zagoridis, M., Bowen, E., Heard, L., Erdos, K., Baiada, A. (2015). Why Urban Farming [online] Pocket City Farms. Available at: http://www.pocketcityfarms. com.au/blog/

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APPENDIX


Building Proposition Process Model


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Building Proposition Process Model

162


Initial Proposition Model


163

164


Concept Model


165

166


Layout model @ 1:200


167

168


Living Module Testing @ 1:50


169

Living Module Process Model

170


Detailed Bay Model @ 1:50


171

172


Detailed Bay Model @ 1:50


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‘One must build for the human being, that he might rediscover in the architectural construction the joys of self-fulfillment in a whole that extends and completes him.’ Eileen Gray

The completion of this project could not be possible without the constant encouragement and confidence from both Dr. Philip Oldfield and Ivan Ip who provided insight and exper tise that greatly improved the research and design of this project. It’s been a wonder ful year and definitely a pleasure to learn from both of you. Thanks a lot for the wonder ful year.


AGRI+CULTURE