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Table of Contents Statement of Intent

3

Idea Quote Quote Commentary Idea Precedents

4-5 6-7 8-13

Site Documentation Program

14-29

Site

Spatial Diagrams Program Precedents Facility Program Code Compliance

32-35 36-45 46-47 48-52


Statement of Intent

I am using this project as a way to educate and challenge myself in new ways. I see that this is my last opportunity in the realm of academia to fully explore form and program before entering the reality of professional practice. In this project I intend to explore the quote and use it as guidance in the process of designing the RDU Transit Center. From this exercise I hope to learn more about structure and materials and finding ways to use these elements to define a building and enhance the space within it.

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pg. 18

“I am as you see me and I belong here� I have a passionate desire to design such buildings, buildings that, in time grow naturally into being a part of the form and history of their place. Every new work of architecture intervenes in a specific historical situation. It is essential to the quality of the intervention that the new building should embrace qualities which can enter into a meaningful dialogue with the existing situation. For if the intervention is to find its place, it must make us see what already exists in a new light. We throw a stone into the water. Sand swirls up and settles again. The stir was necessary. The stone has found its place. But the pond is no longer the same. I believe that buildings only be accepted by their surroundings if they have the ability to appeal to our emotions and minds in various ways. Since our feelings and understandings are rooted in the past, our sensuous connections with a building must respect the process of remembering. pg. 14-15

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Quote

commentary idea precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

statement of intent idea

Architecture is always faced with the challenge of developing a whole out of innumerable details, out of various functions and forms, materials and dimensions. The architect must look for rational constructions and forms for edges and joints, for the points where surfaces intersect and different materials meet. These formal details determine the sensitive transitions within the larger proportions of the building. The details establish the formal rhythm, the buildings finely fractionated scale.


Details express what the basic idea of the design requires at the relevant point in the object: belonging or separation, tension or lightness, friction, solidity, fragility. Details, when they are successful are not mere decoration. They do not distract or entertain. They lead to an understanding of the whole of which they are an inherent part. pg. 21

Geometry is about the laws of lines, plane surfaces and three dimensional bodies in space. Geometry can help us understand how to handle space in architecture. In architecture, there are two basic possibilities of spatial composition: the closed architectural body which isolates space within itself, and the open body which embraces an area of space that is connected with the endless continuum. The extension of space can be made visible through the bodies such as slabs or poles placed freely or in rows in the spatial expanse of a room. I do not claim to know what space really is. The longer I think about it, the more mysterious it becomes. About one thing, however, I am sure: when we, as architects are concerned with space, we are concerned with but a tiny part of infinity that surrounds the earth, and yet each and every building marks a unique place in this infinity. With this idea in mind, I start by sketching the first plans and sections in my design; I draw spatial diagrams and simple volumes. I try to visualize them as bodies in space, and I feel it is important to sense exactly how they define and separate an area of interior space from the space that surrounds them, or how they contain a part of the infinite spatial continuum in a kind of open vessel. Buildings that have a strong impact always convey an intense feeling of their spatial quality. They embrace the mysterious void called space in a special way and make it vibrate. Zumthor, Peter. Thinking Architecture. Basel: Birhhauser-Publishers for Architecture, 1998.

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Commentary

idea precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

statement of intent idea quote

A building is an unnatural entity, dreamt and created by man. As architects we have to design these buildings to become adaptive and responsive. So that buildings can belong to any setting, if the site is a forest or a busy metropolis. The building must respond and exist in the site as if it had always been there. There are many ways to simulate these ideas in the built environment. It may be as simple as using local materials found on the site, using local construction techniques, extending the environment, for example, continuing the urban fabric from a busy sidewalk into the building, or by emulating the local culture and values in the building concept. This connection should not be entirely seamless; the architecture must make its mark in the setting. (That is the one of the Zumthor’s ideas) . A building, no matter how we try to create it, is not natural, it creates a stir. We mark and move land, alter views and force circulation in the process of building and after completion, the building becomes a record of this change. It becomes a permanent testament to the time it was created and a mark in the timeline of the site. The building will not evolve naturally over time, but the human experience will. The building will grow naturally into the history of their site, only when the building appeals to our mind, our senses and emotions. For the building to really belong to its place, a visceral connection must be created.


Architects, when designing a building, work with many materials and aspects on a small scale. These many pieces should combine to create the higher concept of the building. As Zumthor states, it is making a whole out of innumerable parts. Joints become not a mere marker of assemblage but can become an expression of building’s vitality on a larger scale. These points of intersection should be celebrated. Materials and joinery can make a building lighter, heavier, chaotic, seamless, compact and expansive in their particular execution. These aspects should not be treated as decoration but as a chapter in the book of the building’s understanding as a whole. Space, is such an expansive and mysterious concept that Zumthor admits that he knows little of it. To comprehend such an abstract concept of physical reality, he relies on different tools to create dynamic spatial experiences in his buildings. Geometry, the formal laws of space, can lead to a higher understanding of the area around us. Points, line, planes and volumes can cumulate into two basic principles. The first principle of space is that of the closed architectural body. It isolates and defines space within itself. The second principle is that of the open body which encompasses the space connected to the infinite continuum. These two principles should be used to create a dynamic spatial experience for users. To create such experiential spaces ones has to manipulate portions of space and mass, which is just a small piece of the infinity of space. By using more physical diagrams one can understand better the spaces that these volumes will create. Principles, geometry and diagrams are elements of the process of creation but the movement of people within this enclosed space becomes the primary definition of space.

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statement of intent idea quote commentary

8 Idea Precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

Thermal Baths Vals, Switzerland Peter Zumthor 1996


The baths were constructed with fifteen massive stone volumes. These volumes were organized around the two larger pools and arranged in a way that creates long corridors and a play of larger open space and smaller intimate areas. No two units are the same, and they remain independent from each other. In fact, the units never quite meet. creating fissures between the ceiling slabs. Sunlight sneaks through and bounces down the walls and off the water. Lines of voids cut through the heavy ceiling, alluding to the infinite space beyond. These fissures create the dual impression of the heavy enclosure that seems to “float”. The large volumes and high ceilings that the units create contrast with the smaller areas and details. The heavy, thick and high walls have a more intimate and personal touch of small slabs of stone to allow the human to relate to the scale. The units also use enclosure to fluctuate between the larger more communal pools and the more intimate smaller baths, long corridors and areas of reflection. For example, the large windows that are placed between the units. The use of large windows framed by thick walls gives the visitor an awareness of the more “enclosed architectural body” of the walls while highlighting the “open body to the endless continuum” with the large and expansive view of the mountains and country side. These highly controlled spaces give bathers the heightened awareness of the space they occupy and the space that surrounds them. Water is an essential element to the baths, and takes on qualities that not only organize the space but also amplifies it. The light that emits from the openings and fissures reflect of the surface of the pools. These reflections elongate walls and blur the edges where the walls and floors meet. Visitors seeking therapy, relaxation and release have a sublime experience of immersion into a space of no limitations, sinking into an abyss that may or may not exist. The water and its reflections take on a materiality that seems to define and defy the space around it.

Photo © Architekturburo Zumthor, Haldenstein

photo@ Adam via Picasa

photo@ Ross Tredget,University of Bath

photo @ www.blog.2modern

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10 Idea Precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

Tree House Higgovale, Cape Town Van der Merwe Miszewski Architects 1999


The site for the residence was heavily populated with umbrella pines, which became the inspiration and structural resolution for the design. Connectivity and sensitivity to the site became paramount, and design decisions were made to try to heighten the experience. The most prominent feature of the house are the tree like columns visible from outside. Five tree columns, consisting of two folded GMS plates and concrete, anchor the roof to the foundation. The asymmetrical limbs connect to the columns with GMS pins. These limbs connect to the composite roof of timber crate and lightweight slab with a universal type connection. Mild steel rods connect the roof to structure to protect against wind deflection. Directly under the roof lies a ribbon window with butt-jointed glass, that runs the perimeter of the eaves. Very few materials used efficiently simulate trees and allow the building to feel open and light. The exposed ceiling seems to float above the floors and walls. This allows visitors to feel as if they are lounging under a canopy of trees. This concept of revealing and connection to the site, is evident in other material uses throughout the residence. The materials express their inherent qualities and are usually left exposed to allow witness to the actual bones of the building’s structure. This creates an honest and simple visual effect. This delicate exposure creates a journey of discovery. Exposing the materials allow for the joints and points of intersection to be fully expressed. The rest of the building is a steel-crate like frame that is filled mostly with glass infill panels. The exposed steel frame and glass peal away unnecessary layers and allow a dialogue between the outside and the inside. In the more service-oriented parts of the house, the glass is sandblasted or the panels are filled with timber. Few materials, cleanly expressed, create a light and airy tree house with a seamless connection to the site. These details also create a more intimate connection between the resident and building.

Photos @ Van der Merwe Miszewski Architects

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courtesy of University of Arkansas

Thorncrown Chapel Eureka Springs, Arkansas Fay Jones 1980


The Throrncrown Chapel design was greatly influenced by the site and in turn enriches the site around it. In Zumthor’s quote, a building should,

over time, grow naturally into being part of the form and history of their place. The chapel is a great example of this. The chapel uses local materials and simulates the environment around itself, by doing this the building feels like it belongs to its site and has always existed there.

The architect, upon his first site visit, was impressed by the natural features of the site. To keep disturbance of nature to a minimum, the building be-

came a design of many small parts. Designed so that two men could carry the pieces, the structural members are 2x4s, 2x6s, and 2x12s. Larger elements, like the trusses, were constructed on the ground and lifted into place. The architect also minimized the footprint to 24 x 60 feet, while allowing the height to soar to 48 feet. These members of Southern Pine and Oak create limb-like tracery that soars up to ceiling creating a sanctuary that resembles a Gothic Cathedral. Materials were kept minimal, allowing 6,000 sq. ft. of glass to infill between the wood frame. By utilizing local materials of wood and flagstone, the building blurs the line between the built and the natural environment.

All these elements come together to create a spiritual escape within nature. The wood frames, stained to a bark gray-brown, mimic and blend in with

the surrounding trees. In the expanses between the wood, glass creates the barest enclosure possible allowing for panoramic views of the valley and mountain that nestle the building in the site. It also allows for light and shadows to penetrate and mingle with the worshipers. This is reinforced by the web like braces under the skylight which creates a changing play of light and patterns, a natural ornamentation that simulates the experience in the forest. The flagstone which makes up the floor of the building extends beyond the boundary of the glass enclosure. These elements create a conversation that the sanctuary belongs to nature and that nature can become a sanctuary.

Photo @ Whit Slimmons

Photos @ Keith Austell Via Mimoa

Photo @ FayJonesHomes

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In the grain diagram, the density of the immediate site is highlighted. The site is very sparse and disjointed. Vehicular access seems to be the only way to connect from one community to the next. The terminals take precedence over all else in this diagram.

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Site Documentation

program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site

site 250’ 0’

500’

1000’

N

grain diagram


site

Scale= 1”=1000’

aerial site photo

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Site Documentation

program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site

This vicinity map shows the proximity to the major cities that could potential use the new proposed transit center. It also shows the connections between these cities by roads and interstates. The map also highlights the density of residential and retail around site, as well as the green and open areas.

vicinity map


site

The site is not shown as a distinct zone on the map. However it is assumed that it is considered RDU Authority property.

ORD - Cary

R/R - Cary

GCCU - Cary

O/I - Morrisville

0’ GB - Morrisville

1” = 1000’

1000’ RDU Planning Jurisdiction

IM - Morrisville

No Zoning

AD - Morrisville

Water

zoning

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The site is elevated from surrounding terrain with three roads acting as the site edge. On the North side of the site, the terrain drops twenty or more feet. This allows for the bridging of Aviation Pkwy. over Terminal Blvd. Within the site the topography creates a bowl, with the highest topography near the edge of the site. The natural systems on site consists of low lying shrubbery and small pine and fir trees, mostly congregated around the south end of site.

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Site Documentation

0’

program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site

North

200’ topography lines for every 2’

site boundaries


Site Considerations The site is viewable from both main entrances to the airport, opportunity to become a gateway building is high. This visibility is in fact due that the site is the center of a web of roads and ramps. This may cause a problem when try to allow safe turning lanes and pedestrian and bike paths to site. Since the site is edged by roads, vehicular access will be permissible. The site itself has a “bowl� topography in which the higher rim is located near roads, potential problems in building construction may arise. Building elements may go under ground or may be slightly enclosed by topography. The width of the site is suitable for a bus’s turn radius and North side of site can accommodate a railed train or tram with a direct axis to the airport terminal. The South side of the site is very narrow, and not very accessible, but this area may be a natural area of site. By keeping the existing trees, it can create a visual buffer for the more private areas of the program.

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1999-2008 Joint Frequency Distribution

Summer Solstice

Sun Diagram

Raleigh-Durham Airport (KRDU)

Solar Elevation

Site Analysis - Transit Center

Winter Solstice

N

78 degrees

Raleigh, NC Lat: 35.8

31 degrees Horizon Line

Long: -78.7

6.84 6.62

Solar Azimuth

1.70 5.72

2.08

2.69

N 30

330

Summer Solstice

3.55

300

W

4.24

3.56

22.56

1.85

7.16

60

E

W

E

2.02 5.35

4.80

2.75

Winter Solstice 120

240

11.76

150

210

S S

Summer Solstice Winter Solstice

0.1

5

10

15

20

25

Calms included at center. Rings drawn at 5% intervals. Wind flow is FROM the directions shown. 4.75% of observations were missing.

W

N

Wind Speed (Miles Per Hour)

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Site Documentation

program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site

S

E


Sun / Shadow Site Analysis - Transit Center 20’

8 am

12 pm

Shadow Length -

Shadow Length -

29’

4’

23’

Shadow Length -

4 pm

Summer Solstice

20’

8 am

12 pm

Shadow Length -

Shadow Length -

48’

14’

42’

Shadow Length -

4 pm

Fall / Spring Equinox

20’

8 am

12 pm

Shadow Length -

Shadow Length -

190’

34’

111’

Shadow Length -

4 pm

Winter Solstice

The site is oriented in a north to south axis. To minimize solar heat gain, the shading from existing trees on site will benefit the design. To take advantage of the wind direction, the building may also incorporate a natural cooling system.

natural systems

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statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site

22 Site Documentation program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

Greater Raleigh Density

CAR DENSITY : HIGHWAY

site


Direction

Speed

DIRECTION : PATH SPEED : PATH

The site is surrounded by roads linking Interstate 40 to the terminal and roads that interchange between Terminal/Airport Blvd. to Aviation Pkwy. This allows vehicular traffic complete access to all parts of the site. Consideration should be giving regarding vehicular turn offs when designing site plan.

circulation diagrams

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LVD

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Flight Tracks - 2005 Arrival Direction

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§ ¦ ¨ § ¦ ¨ 440

Ch atham

40

Northwest

Runway 05 Jet Arrivals

West

85

WES PKWTON Y

Southwest

North East

§ ¦ ¨ 40

Northeast Southeast

Map Document: (\\rdugis\gis\Current_Projects\2007_12_11_Flight_Tracks\RW_05_Arrives_082708.mxd) 9/8/2008 -- 2:36:34 PM

Map Document: (\\rdugis\gis\Current_Projects\2007_12_11_Flight_Tracks\RW_23_departures_082708.mxd) 9/8/2008 -- 2:44:49 PM

program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

site

The site is located in close proximity to the landing strips of the terminals. With such proximity the air traffic can be a challenge but also a unique opportunity. The arrivals and departures on the West side of the terminals can present a visual connection to the airplanes that can be taken advantage of and expressed in the building design. However the noise of such airplanes may cause a disturbance for the business and residential portions of the program.

air traffic diagrams

£ ¤

£ ¤

Ch atham

Du rham

§ ¦ ¨

70

440

70

¯

§ ¦ ¨ § ¦ ¨

Orange

40

540

Flight Tracks - 2005 Departure Direction

Site Documentation

§ ¦ ¨

54 P O

§ ¦ ¨

WES PKWTON Y

South

statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site

AL

KW N P

40

Runway 23 Jet Departures

24

E

540

LVD

§ ¦ ¨

54 P O Y

G PA

§ ¦ ¨

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£ ¤ 64

§ ¦ ¨ 40

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Decibels

£ ¤ 1

Raleigh-Durham International Airport

Y:\Current_Projects\Noise Contour Map\Noise_Contours_Black_&_White_11_x_17_0400908.mxd Printed: 4/9/2008

¯

Composite Noise Contours Source of Data: Harris, Miller Miller & Hanson Inc; Wake Co.; Durham Co.; RDU

1 inch equals 1.5 miles

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26 Site Documentation program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

site photos

1 2


3

27


The site is along a main axis that connects a large retail area and interstate 40 to the terminals. It is also close in proximity to several parks and lakes. In this context diagram, these objects are highlighted to show potential destination points for visitors of the transit center.

site

retail

parks

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Site Documentation

program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site

water

airport access

context diagram


250’ 0’

NORTH

50’

100’

1000’

500’

200’

N

context & grain diagram 300’

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spatial diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

Program


RDU Transit Center Raleigh/Durham, NC The Transit Center at the RDU Airport is multi-modal transition node that serves to link commuters in the Raleigh/Durham area. The major transportation points include a light rail connector, airport shuttle, bus and taxi services. The site will also function as a point of destination which will include various business utilities, retail and hotel accommodations.

Architectural AspirationsThis project has a great potential to become a landmark building that not only functions as a transportation hub but also as a gateway to the airport. The site is dramatic with its own set of challenges, however site moves can be dynamic and at the same time feel as if it is a natural progression from earth to building. The program should function in a way that is not secluded in itself but overlaps with the needs and movements of the user, providing a more logical pattern in intramodal use. Structure and materials and their inherent qualities should define the space and better explain the program. Connection of space and movement for the users should be celebrated, for example highlight the sky in a way to keep the users aware of the movement of airplanes overhead. The RDU transit center needs to be a destination point and not just a transition piece.

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Spatial Diagrams program precedents facility program code compliance

AY KW PAR

32 rail transit services

D EVAR L U O B INAL TERM

conference

ON ATI AVI

statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site site documentation program

hotel retail restaurant


massing diagram

33


sheltered

enclosed

interaction

physical paths open greenspace

visual paths

auditorium cafe lobby wait

rail

pool

program precedents facility program code compliance

statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site site documentation program

Bus

service Suites

exhibit retail retail

restaurant

bike & car wait

services

34

Spatial Diagrams

taxi

Meeting rooms

adjacency diagram


it wa

program on site

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statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams

36 Program Precedents facility program code compliance

all images courtesy of Wallace Roberts & Todd


Charlottesville Transit Wallace Roberts & Todd Charlottesville,Virginia 2007

Charlottesville downtown transit center is a inter modal transfer point between bus, trolley and bicycle trail connections. The program includes a central transportation hall containing retail and an art gallery, as well as a visitor center for tourists. The building is at a smaller scale than most transit centers but still encompasses the needs of the city transit systems. It serves as a welcoming center and showcases local artists and vernacular architecture, becoming a destination point in the city.

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statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams

38 Program Precedents facility program code compliance

all images courtesy of Bernd Lederle / archimedialab


Built Landscape Archmedialab Architects Bavaria, Germany 2009

Built Landscape is a complex for a local power plant. The complex houses seminar rooms, administrative offices, auditorium and cafe. Concerned with noise the complex is partially subterranean, using the earth and building materials to become a sound barrier. The more public areas separate from the earth wall and cantilevers over the landscape.

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statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams

40 Program Precedents facility program code compliance

all images courtesy of F451 Aquitectura


Ferry Station F451 Aquitectura Mahorn Port, Spain Competition 2009

The transit complex observes the existing topography and took inspiration from it. The parking areas are incorporated into the existing topography and great consideration was taken in the movement of people from one vehicular area to the next. The walkways from the parking lot go through and on top of the building to connect to the ferry port. The building also has elements that are elevated to accommodate transportation. There is bridge that allows safe passage of pedestrians over a road to connect to the port. Also the bus terminal is underneath the building to provide shelter, and a noise and pollutant deterrent.

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statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams

42 Program Precedents facility program code compliance

photo courtesy of Cristobal Palma photo courtesy of Cristobal Palma


photo courtesy of Cristobal Palma

Strata Hotel Plasma Studio Sesto Italy 2007

plan & elevation courtesy of Plasma Studio

The hotel is located on a steep hillside in the Italian mountains, and it has been incorporated into the site by the interweaving of timber strips that adjust to meet the topography. The overall shape was developed from the local planning guidelines, the linear distribution of units, the views, sun directions as well as a topological answer for the picturesque typologies that are frequently built in the area. The program is very simple, a central service circulation embedded into the hillside acts as a spine, with the individual units perpendicular to the spine looking out onto the landscape. These units resemble the size of executive suites and has a simple and clear organization. The “strata� that encompasses the exterior also become detail elements in the hotel rooms.

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statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams

44 Program Precedents facility program code compliance

@ Archithings via web photo courtesy of FTL


image courtesy of detroittransit.org

photo courtesy of Ronny Salerno

Rosa Parks Transit Station Parsons Brinckerhoff Detroit, Michigan 2009

The new Rosa Park transit center incorporates a 25,000 sqft indoor facility as well as over two acres of exterior transit access. This urban transit center allows connections to 21 DOT bus routes, SMART suburban bus system, transit Windsor for international connections and taxi access. It provides pedestrian connections to different stations and will eventually be linked to a light rail transit. The transit building includes a police station, retail, cafe, information booth, rest rooms and automatic vending. However the exterior Bus Terminal takes center stage allowing one constant element to define the area. The voluminous fabric panels that provide shelter for people in between transit, also becomes a beacon for the site and has the potential to become a landmark building through a singular expression.

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light rail platform & queuing

light rail wait area bus platform & queuing bus wait area taxi and RDU shuttle transit restrooms

* 1,000

4,000

*

1,000

1,600 200 1,000

2

400

2 2

400 800 1,000 600

lobby cafe

250 1,500

computer hub exhibit area

500 1,000

code compliance

statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams program precedents

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lounge area

Facility Program

public private exclusive secure transient stationary solitary social

13,000

business conference rooms seminar rooms auditorium- seating for 100

unenclosed sq.ft.

* 2,000

2

concessions transit lobby transit admin offices

enclosed sq. ft.

clean organized messy dirty isolated sheltered open exposed

units

loud noise quiet noise sensitive noise ambient noise

transit


executive suites

10

lobby/check in service laundry kitchen pool gym

public private exclusive secure transient stationary solitary social

enclosed sq. ft.

clean organized messy dirty isolated sheltered open exposed

units

loud noise quiet noise sensitive noise ambient noise

relax

unenclosed sq.ft.

6,000 400 300 400 * 1,500

1,000

explore 2,500 800 400

upscale restaurant & bar pharmacy/retail store NC pottery & craft store observatory deck garden area

* *

300 500

net total overhead gross total

24,550 40% 34,370

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Code Compliance


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50 statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams program precedents draft facility program

Code Compliance


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52 statement of intent idea quote commentary idea precedents site site documentation program spatial diagrams program precedents facility program

Code Compliance


Elizabeth Nooe RDU Transit Center ARC 581


RDU Transit Research