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Pronunciation Guide -ed ending If the verb base ends with:

It adds:

Examples:

An alveolar plosive, i.e. / d / or / t /

/ d /

started ['sta:tid] lifted ['liftid]

A voiceless sound ( except /t/, i.e. /p/, /k/, /f/, //,/s/, /t/, //

/t/

liked ['laikt], stopped ['stpt] pushed ['put ]

Any other sounds including vowels:

/d/

begged ['begd ], sinned ['snd] loved ['lvd ], judged ['d ] shared ['d ]

Note: Voiced Sounds (vibration of the vocal cords): / b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /  /,/ z/, //, //, /l/, /m/, /n/, //, /r/, /w/ and all the vowel sounds. Voiceless Sounds (no vibration of the vocal cords): / p /, /t/, /k /, /f/, //, /s/, //, //, /h/.

3rd Person Singular Present Tense and Plurals If the verb base ends with:

It adds:

Examples:

An Alveolar sibilant: i.e. /s/, /z/, //, / z/, /t/, /d/

/ /

maces ['meisiz ], pushes ['piz]

A voiceless sound ( except sibilants, i.e. /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, //

/s/

drops [ 'drps ], sticks ['stiks], laughs [' la:fs ]

any other sound, including vowels

//

goes ['gz], dogs ['dgz], plumbs ['plmz]

inches ['intiz]

Endings in English  

Third person singular present tense and regular plurals pronunciation. Past tense and past participle regular -ed ending.

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