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UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ DE GUATEMALA FACULTAD DE HUMANIDADES ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS LICDA. EVELYN QUIROA

EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES DIGITAL PORTFOLIO

BY JULIO ROBERTO DEL AGUILA NAJERA 5076-11-18074

November 2012.


EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES DIGITAL PORTFOLIO CONTENTS PART 1 HOMEWORK a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o.

Forum posts Diagnostic Test Glossary Assessment and evaluation Defined Types of Evaluation Assignment Homework WOW Factor assessment Idea Scavenger Hunt What Impact does Context have on Education? Reliability versus Validity Competence versus objectives Exam Analysis Test ítems Types Chart Instructions for test ítem types Core content exam

PART 2 READING MATERIAL a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o.

Syllabus Assessment and evaluation Defined Newspaper Article. “Teaching Assessment and Evaluation” What is assessment and evaluation? Formative – Summative evaluation WOW Factor sample What is assessment Scavenger Hunt? Reliability and Validity Blue print samples Class monthly planner sample Exam analysis blue print Test type suggested reading (cover) Document 5 ( How evaluation, assessment and testing terms are related) Test type items chart (sample) Document 6 –Student assessment (cover)


PART 1


A . FORUM POSTS

Re: EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT COURSE de JULIO ROBERTO DEL AGUILA NAJERA - miércoles, 22 de agosto de 2012, 23:00 My expectations about this course are: First of all I would like to be able to define the difference between assessment and evaluation, since they are interchangeable, in the practice; I know they are not the same. For what I know assessment is a collection of works, and assignments, students do during a period of time, while evaluation is the process teachers use to measure students outcomes and how effective a method is. I would also expect to be able to develop good, reliable, valid, and practical ways to assess students’ learning. Last but not less I expect to learn new and innovate ways to assess and evaluate students’ performance in English.


B. DIAGNOSTIC TEST GLOSSARY

C. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION DEFINED

Assessment is systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs to improve student learning. It focuses on what students know, what are able to do. Evaluation is the process used to measure how effective a particular approach or method is to achieve specific ends.


D. TYPES OF EVALUATION

E. ASSIGNMENT

DIFFERENT ASSESSMENT CATEGORIES OR TYPES USED TODAY.

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

PLACEMENT TEST

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

We use this type of test to find out what the students do not know. This information helps us decide what to teach and which learners need help in which areas of language. We use the information from a placement test to decide what level of class the learners should go into. After we have finished teaching a part of a course we may want to find out how well the


PROGRESS TEST ACHIEVEMENT OR SUMMATIVE TESTING

PROFICIENCY TEST

learners have learned it, and whether we need to continue teaching in this area. If we use a test for this purpose, it is called a progress test. see formative assessment At the end of a term or course, we may assess learners to see how well they have learned the contents of the whole course. Learners usually receive a score or mark from this kind of testing, and sometimes feedback on their performance. Sometimes learners take a test to see how good they are in language. The contents of the test are not based on a course or syllabus that the learner has followed.

METHODS OF ASSESSMENT: ďƒź formal assessment uses a test or an examination ďƒź informal assessment has to do with monitoring during a lesson, i.e. listening carefully and observing learners while they carry out ordinary classroom activities SELF-ASSESSMENT AND PEER ASSESSMENT Learners can also assess themselves or each other. This is usually done with checklists to guide them. The reason for using self-assessment is to help learners to understand their language use and performance better and so become autonomous, in charge of their own language learning.

F. HOMEWORK

Alternative Assessment Ideas

1. Any Subject/Topic- A game- you can play a game with students where one student is chosen at random and must give examples of the topic at hand. 2. Science/ Any Topic- A video- students might create a video about specific content and you will be able to notice how much they know about the topic. 3. Social Studies/ Any Topic- A one-time Project- students must work on a project that requires the use of different methods in order to complete it. It is usually finished during one or two class periods. 4. Science/ Any Topic- A continuous project- the same as a project but it is done continuously through class time and it is meant to be finished in a longer period of time.


5. Language Arts/ Any Topic- A debate- students investigate and defend a specific point of view with different arguments like the usage of facts to back up their response. 6. Social Studies/Values- A round table discussion- students discuss a particular topic in a round table discussion while being evaluated. 7. Science/Math/ Any Topic- A demonstration- students must conduct a demonstration of any kind while being evaluated. 8. English/ Any Topic- A random role-play- students are chosen at random and they also choose a role-play at random which they must improvise. 9. Science, Social, Math /Any Topic- Direct questions between teams- students are placed in tams and they must ask each other specific questions about a topic previously seen which the other team must discuss in one minute and answer. 10. Social Studies/ Historical events- Movie forum- students watch a film; documentary etc. which will serve for the purpose of critical discussion as a class.

G. WOW FACTOR ASSESSMENT IDEA

CLASS PLAN WITH ASSESSMENT

Warm-Up: Students will form puzzles of pictures. Pictures will be Famous people that have made a positive or negative influence on history.

Presentation: The teacher will talk about the life of Adolf Hitler. The students will follow along in a story, and will answer questions according to what they read. Class Activity: 1. Students will discuss the life of Adolf Hitler and write their personal opinion about this person. 2. They will pair-up and discuss the positive or negative affect this man had in history.


3. Students will write a small paragraph about a person they think has had the most influence in the 20th century. 4. Students will have a round table discussion where they will discuss their writing and give opinions about each person mentioned in the discussion. EVALUATION: The teacher will use a rubric for each class participant where he/she will mark:

Fluency Knowledge of the topic Participation Use of vocabulary Preparation

H. SCAVENGER HUNT

UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ DE GUATEMALA ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS PROFESORADO EN INGLES TECNICAS DE EVALUACION Licda. Evelyn R. Quiroa de Arévalo, M.A.

WHAT IS ASSESSMENT? SCAVENGER HUNT WHAT IS A SCAVENGER HUNT? A scavenger hunt is an assessment idea in which students try to find all the items or complete all the activities on a list. It can be completed in teams or by individuals, and is often timed. MAIN ON-LINE RESOURCE: http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/index.html ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES: • Analyze the difference between the types of assessment. • Evaluate the importance of assessment in the teaching and learning process.


• Synthesize ways in which teacher can assess his or her own teaching.

INSTRUCTIONS: • Use the link above to complete the following list of questions and activities. • The completed assignment must be sent via e-mail before Wednesday August 15th. • DO NOT COPY PASTE

PART I: ASSESSMENT BASICS RESOURCE LINK: http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/basics/index.html INSTRUCTIONS: Complete and or answer the following questions or tasks after each instruction.

1. Why should assessments, learning objectives, and instructional strategies be aligned? 

Assessments should expose how well students have learned what we want them to learn while instruction confirms that they learn it. For this to occur, assessments, learning objectives, and instructional strategies need to be carefully aligned so that they strengthen one another.

2. What if the components of a course are misaligned? 

It can undermine both student motivation and learning.

3. What is the difference between formative and summative assessment? Provide examples. 

The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning The goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark

4. What is the difference between assessment and grading?  Grading is to evaluate individual students’ learning and performance  Assessment goes beyond grading by systematically examining patterns of student learning across courses and programs and using this information to improve educational practices.


PART II: HOW TO ASSESS STUDENTS’ PRIOR KNOWLEDGE RESOURCE LINK: http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/priorknowledge/index.html

1. What are Performance-Based Prior Knowledge Assessments? Provide examples.  A way to assess students’ prior knowledge, used for diagnostic purposes only.

E.g. quizzes, papers 2. Give examples of your own of appropriately written questions for self-assessment. 

How familiar are you with the term kaleidoscope? I have never heard of it

I have heard of it but don't know what it is. I have some idea what it is. I can explain what it is and what it does, and I have used it 

Have you ever built a kaleidoscope? I have a clear idea what it is, but haven't used it I can explain what it is and what it does, and I have used it

What do you know about kaleidoscopes? I have never heard of them or I have heard of them but don't know what they are. I have some idea what they are, but don't know when or how to use them. I have a clear idea what they are, but haven't used them. I can explain what they are and what they do, and I have used them.

Complete the chart about kaleidoscopes: What I know What I learned

What I want to know

3. What are CATs? Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) are a set of specific activities that teachers can use to quickly gauge students’ comprehension. They are generally used to assess students’ understanding of material in the current course, but with minor changes they can also be used to gauge students’ knowledge coming into a course or program. CATs are meant to provide immediate feedback about the entire class’s level of understanding, not individual students’.

4. List and provide a brief description of the CATs suggested on the sight. Minute Paper Pose one to two questions in which students identify the most significant things they have learned from a given lecture, discussion, or assignment. Give students one to two minutes to write a


response on an index card or paper. Collect their responses and look them over quickly. Their answers can help you to determine if they are successfully identifying what you view as most important. Muddiest Point This is similar to the Minute Paper but focuses on areas of confusion. Ask your students, “What was the muddiest point in… (today’s lecture, the reading, the homework)?” Give them one to two minutes to write and collect their responses. Problem Recognition Tasks Identify a set of problems that can be solved most effectively by only one of a few methods that you are teaching in the class. Ask students to identify by name which methods best fit which problems without actually solving the problems. This task works best when only one method can be used for each problem. Documented Problem Solutions Choose one to three problems and ask students to write down all of the steps they would take in solving them with an explanation of each step. Consider using this method as an assessment of problem-solving skills at the beginning of the course or as a regular part of the assigned homework. Directed Paraphrasing Select an important theory, concept, or argument that students have studied in some depth and identify a real audience to whom your students should be able to explain this material in their own words (e.g., a grants review board, a city council member, a vice president making a related decision). Provide guidelines about the length and purpose of the paraphrased explanation. Applications Cards Identify a concept or principle your students are studying and ask students to come up with one to three applications of the principle from everyday experience, current news events, or their knowledge of particular organizations or systems discussed in the course.

Student-Generated Test Questions A week or two prior to an exam, begin to write general guidelines about the kinds of questions you plan to ask on the exam. Share those guidelines with your students and ask them to write and answer one to two questions like those they expect to see on the exam.


Classroom Opinion Polls When you believe that your students may have pre-existing opinions about course-related issues, construct a very short two- to four-item questionnaire to help uncover students’ opinions.

5. Give 3 examples of CATs you’ve used in class. Minute Paper Directed Paraphrasing Student-Generated Test Questions


PART III: HOW TO ASSESS STUDENTS’ LEARNING AND PERFORMANCE RESOURCE LINK: http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/assesslearning/index.html 1. List a few tips on how to create assignments.  Consider your learning objectives.  Design assignments that are interesting and challenging.  Double-check alignment.  Name assignments accurately.  Consider sequencing  Think about scheduling.  Check feasibility.  Articulate the task description clearly.  Establish clear performance criteria.  Specify the intended audience  Specify the purpose of the assignment.  Specify the parameters. A Checklist for Designing Assignments Here is a set of questions you can ask yourself when creating an assignment. Have I...          

Provided a written description of the assignment (in the syllabus or in a separate document)? Specified the purpose of the assignment? Indicated the intended audience? Articulated the instructions in precise and unambiguous language? Provided information about the appropriate format and presentation (e.g., page length, typed, cover sheet, bibliography)? Indicated special instructions, such as a particular citation style or headings? Specified the due date and the consequences for missing it? Articulated performance criteria clearly? Indicated the assignment’s point value or percentage of the course grade? Provided students (where appropriate) with models or samples?

2. List a few tips on how to create exams.  Choose appropriate item types for your objectives  Highlight how the exam aligns with course objectives  Write instructions that are clear, explicit, and unambiguous.  Write instructions that preview the exam  Word questions clearly and simply.  Enlist a colleague or TA to read through your exam.  Think about how long it will take students to complete the exam  Consider the point value of different question types  Think ahead to how you will score students’ work.


3. Compare and contrast the two previous methods. CREATE ASSIGNMENTS  Design assignments that are interesting and challenging.  Name assignments accurately.  Consider sequencing  Check feasibility.  Articulate the task description clearly.  Establish clear performance criteria.  Specify the intended audience  Specify the purpose of the assignment.  Specify the parameters.

BOTH  Choose appropriate learning and teaching objectives  Simple words, clear instructions  Timing  Grading criteria  Aligns

CREATE EXAMS 

Enlist a colleague or TA to read through your exam. Consider the point value of different question types

4. What is the difference between concept maps and concept tests? Provide an example of each.  Concept maps are a graphic representation of students’ knowledge  Concept tests are short, informal, targeted tests that are administered during class

to help teachers measure whether students understand key concepts.


5. Provide tips on how to assess student group work? Explain what has worked for you. All of the basic principles of assessment that apply to individual students’ work apply to group work as well. Assessing group work has additional aspects First, depending on the objectives of the assignment, both process- and productrelated skills must be assessed. Second, group performance must be translated into individual grades, which raises issues of fairness and equity. TIPS  Assess process, not just product.  Ask students to assess their own contribution to the team  Hold individuals accountable  Ask students to evaluate their group’s dynamics and the contributions of their teammates. What has worked for me?  Set the learning objectives, and the assessment objectives  Ask students to evaluate their group’s dynamics and the contributions of their teammates.  Students’ self-assessment of their performance and quality of work.  Assess the process  Assess product  Individualized grades

6. What benefits are there in using rubrics? Provide an example of a rubric you have used. It is a scoring tool that explicitly describes the teacher’s performance expectations for an assignment or piece of work. a. It identifies:    

criteria: the aspects of performance (e.g., argument, evidence, clarity) that will be assessed descriptors: the characteristics associated with each dimension (e.g., argument is demonstrable and original, evidence is diverse and compelling) performance levels: a rating scale that identifies students’ level of mastery within each criterion They can be used to provide feedback to students on diverse types of assignments, from papers, projects, and oral presentations to artistic performances and group projects.

b. Benefitting from Rubrics A carefully designed rubric can offer a number of benefits to teachers they help teachers to:   

reduce the time spent grading by allowing teachers to refer to a substantive description without writing long comments help teachers more clearly identify strengths and weaknesses across an entire class and adjust their teaching appropriately help to ensure consistency across time and across graders


 

reduce the uncertainty which can accompany grading discourage complaints about grades

An effective rubric can also offer several important benefits to students, they help students to:    

understand teachers’ expectations and standards use teacher’s feedback to improve their performance monitor and assess their progress as they work towards clearly indicated goals recognize their strengths and weaknesses and direct their efforts accordingly

EXAMPLE: ORAL PRESENTATION ASSESSMENT RUBRIC


PART IV: HOW TO ASSESS YOUR TEACHING RESOURCE LINK: http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/assessteaching/index.html

1. What are early course evaluations? What do they consist in? Student’s evaluation, or feedback of your course, used to improve a course in progress. Scheduling an Early Course Evaluation: Teachers should conduct their evaluation early – e.g., in the first three to six weeks of a semester-long course or the first two to three weeks of a mini course. Preparing Students for the Evaluation: teachers should let students know that they’d like their feedback so that they can create a better learning experience for them. Teachers should stress that they want candid and constructive responses that will help them meet goals. Teachers should encourage students to write to them rather than about them, and tell students that they will talk with them about the feedback they received. This shows them the teaches are genuinely interested in their feedback and will respond to their comments. Choosing an Evaluation Form: Using an evaluation form that asks open-ended questions is recommended. Allowing students to address the issues that they perceive to be the most important. Teachers can always add one or two questions about specific issues or concerns they have.


Organizing Student Feedback: Create a way to organize the information, marks or symbols. Interpreting Student Feedback: Group students’ comments into categories:  Strengths (aspects that students felt you did well or were positive aspects of the course)  Ideas for change, (aspects that students felt were weak or could be improved)  Issues beyond your control, (that you can’t change)

Discussing Student Feedback with Your Class: Discuss feedback with the students, and thank them for their input. Maintain a positive tone throughout the discussion. It is important not to seem defensive, angry, or over-apologetic.

2. Explain the importance of classroom observations. Useful way to get immediate feedback about your strengths and weaknesses as an instructor, as well as concrete, contextualized suggestions for improvement.

3.

What are a few suggestions on how to go about? Before classroom observation:  discuss the goals of the course  discuss the goals of the particular class being observed  talk about any particular concerns or requirements you have regarding the observation  share relevant course materials  Discuss specific aspects of your teaching you would like the observer to provide feedback on. Meet with the consultant again after the observation to go over feedback, ask questions, discuss applicable strategies, and (if the class was videotaped) review and discuss the videotape together.


I.

WHAT IMPACT DOES CONTEXT HAVE ON EDUCATION?


J. cmap

RELIABILITY VERSUS VALIDITY


K. COMPETENCE VERSUS OBJECTIVES


L. EXAM ANALYSIS


M. TEST ÍTEMS TYPES CHART


N. INSTRUCTIONS FOR TEST ITEM TYPES

Topic 14: TEST TYPE ITEMS Julio Del Aguila

DATE:

October 25, 12

ID #: 5076 11 18074

ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS: Based on the previous assignment, please research and post what specific rules and tips are there when creating instructions for each of the following test item types (multiple choice, true or false, matching, essay questions, fill in the gap, and open ended questions).

WRITING TEST ITEMS 

Write an assessment item for each objective whose accomplishment you want to measure.

Steps to follow when writing a criterion assessment item:    

Read the objective and determine what it wants someone to be able to do (i.e., identify the performance). Draft a test item that asks students to exhibit that performance. Read the objective again and note the conditions under which the performing should occur (i.e., tools and equipment provided, people present, key environmental conditions). Write those conditions into your item.

Criteria for Writing Test Items 1. 2. 3. 4.

Goal-Centered Criteria Learner-Centered Criteria Context-Centered Criteria Assessment-Centered Criteria


TEST ITEM TYPES A. MULTIPLE CHOICE Multiple-choice questions typically have 3 parts: a stem, the correct answer – called the key, and several wrong answers, called distractors Procedural Rules

Content-related Rules:

Stem Construction Rules:

General Option Development Rules

• Use either the best answer or the correct answer format. • Best answer format refers to a list of options that can all be correct in the sense that each has an advantage, but one of them is the best. • Correct answer format refers to one and only one right answer. • Format the items vertically, not horizontally (i.e., list the choices vertically) • Allow time for editing and other types of item revisions. • Use good grammar, punctuation, and spelling consistently. • Minimize the time required to read each item.

• Base each item on an educational or instructional objective of the course, not trivial information. • Test for important or significant information. • Focus on a single problem or idea for each test item. • Keep the vocabulary consistent with the examinees’ level of understanding. • Avoid cueing one item with another; keep items independent of one another. • Use the author’s examples as a basis for developing your items. • Avoid overly specific knowledge when

• State the stem in either question form or completion form. • When using a completion form, don’t leave a blank for completion in the beginning or middle of the stem. • Ensure that the directions in the stem are clear, and that wording lets the examinee know exactly what is being asked. • Avoid window dressing (excessive verbiage) in the stem. • Word the stem positively; avoid negative phrasing such as “not” or “except.” If this cannot be avoided, the negative words should always be highlighted by

• Place options in logical or numerical order. • Use letters in front of options rather than numbers; numerical answers in numbered items may be confusing to students. • Keep options independent; options should not be overlapping. • Keep all options homogeneous in content. • Keep the length of options fairly consistent. • Avoid, or use sparingly, the phrase all of the above. • Avoid, or use sparingly, the phrase none of the above. • Avoid the use of the phrase I don’t know. • Phrase options

Distractor (incorrect options) Development Rules: • Incorporate common errors of students in distractors. • Avoid technically phrased distractors. • Use familiar yet incorrect phrases as distractors. • Use true statements that do not correctly answer the item. • Avoid the use of humor when developing options. • Distractors that are not chosen by any examinees should be replaced.


• Avoid trick items. • Use the active voice. • The ideal question will be answered by 6065% of the tested population. • Have your questions peerreviewed. • Avoid giving unintended cues – such as making the correct answer longer in length than the distractors.

developing items. • Avoid textbook, verbatim phrasing when developing the items. • Avoid items based on opinions. • Use multiplechoice to measure higher level thinking. • Be sensitive to cultural and gender issues. • Use case-based questions that use a common text to which a set of questions refers.

underlining or capitalization: Which of the following is NOT an example …… • Include the central idea and most of the phrasing in the stem. • Avoid giving clues such as linking the stem to the answer (…. Is an example of an: test-wise students will know the correct answer should start with a vowel)

positively, not negatively. • Avoid distractors that can clue testwise examinees; for example, absurd options, formal prompts, or semantic (overly specific or overly general) clues. • Avoid giving clues through the use of faulty grammatical construction. • Avoid specific determinates, such as never and always. • Position the correct option so that it appears about the same number of times in each possible position for a set of items. • Make sure that there is one and only one correct option.

Suggestions for Writing Good Multiple Choice Items: • Present practical or real-world situations to the students. • Present the student with a diagram of equipment and ask for application, analysis or evaluation. • Present actual quotations taken from newspapers or other published sources and ask for the interpretation or evaluation of these quotations. • Use pictorial materials that require students to apply principles and concepts. • Use charts, tables or figures that require interpretation


B. TRUE OR FALSE 

Keep language as simple and clear as possible.

• Use a relatively large number of items (75 or more when the entire test is T/F). • Avoid taking statements verbatim from the text. • Be aware that extremely long or complicated statements will test reading skill rather than content knowledge. • Require students to circle or underline a typed “T” or “F” rather than to fill in a “T” or “F” next to the statement. This allows scorers to avoid having to interpret confusing handwriting. • Avoid the use of negatives, especially double negatives. Never use “not.” • Avoid ambiguous or tricky items. • Be certain that the statements used are entirely true or entirely false. Statements that are either partially true or partially false cause unnecessary ambiguity. • Use certain key words sparingly since they tip students off to the correct answers. The words “all,” “always,” “never,” “every,” “none,” and “only” usually indicate a false statement, whereas the words “generally,” “sometimes,” “usually,” “maybe,” and “often” are frequently used in true statements. • Use precise terms, such as “50% of the time,” rather than less precise terms, such as “several,” “seldom,” and “frequently.” • Use more false than true items, but do not exceed their use more than 15%. False items tend to discriminate more than true items. • Avoid patterns in answers such as “all true,” “all false,” or “alternation.

C. MATCHING • Use only homogeneous material in a set of matching items, i.e., dates and places should not be in the same set. • Use the more involved expressions in the stem, and keep the responses short and simple. • Supply directions that clearly state the basis for the matching, indicating whether or not a response can be use more than once and stating where the answer should be placed. • Be certain there are never multiple correct choices for one premise, although a choice may be used as the correct answer for more than one premise.


• Avoid giving inadvertent grammatical clues to the correct choice by checking that choices match each other in terms of tense, number, and part of speech. • Arrange items in the response column in some logical order -- alphabetical, numerical, and chronological -- so students can find them easily. • Avoid breaking a set of items (premises and choices) over two pages. • Use no more than 15 items in one set. • Provide more choices than premises to make “process-of elimination” guessing less effective. • Number each premise for ease in later discussions. • Use capital letters for the choice signs rather than lower-case letters. Insist that a capital letter be written in the area where the answer is placed.

D. ESSAY /SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS • Use novel problems or material whenever possible, but only if they relate to class learning. • Make essay questions comprehensive rather than focused on small units of content. • Require students to demonstrate command of background information by asking them to provide supporting evidence for claims and assertions. • Provide clear directions as to the expectations. • Allow students an appropriate amount of time. It is helpful to give students some guidelines on how much time to use on each question, as well as the desired length and format of the response, e.g., full sentences, phrases only, outline, and so on. • Inform students, in advance, about the proportional value of each item in comparison to the total grade. • Keep grading in mind while creating the questions. Jot down notes of what you expect to see in student answers that help identify mastery of the subject matter.

Tips for Writing Good Essay Items: • Provide reasonable time limits for thinking and writing. • Avoid letting them to answer a choice of questions (You won't get a good idea of the broadness of student achievement when they only answer a set of questions.)


• Give definitive task to student-compare, analyze, evaluate, etc. • Use checklist point system to score with a model answer: write outline, determine how many points to assign to each part •

Score one question at a time-all at the same time.

E. FILL IN THE GAP      

When possible, provide explicit directions as to what amount of variation will be accepted in the answers. Give much more credit for completions than for true-false or matching items. Avoid using a long quote with multiple blanks to complete. When working with definitions, supply the term, not the definition, for a better judge of student knowledge. For numbers, indicate the degree of precision/units expected. Facilitate scoring by having the students write their responses on lines arranged in a column to the left of the items

In General:      

Omit only significant words from the statement. Do not omit so many words from the statement that the intended meaning is lost. Avoid obvious clues to the correct response. Be sure there is only one correct response. Avoid grammatical clues to the correct response. If possible, put the blank at the end of a statement rather than at the beginning.

F. OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS • Use original questions rather than taking questions from the text. • Provide clear and concise cues about the expected response. • Use vocabulary and phrasing that comes from the text or class presentation. • Provide explicit directions, when possible, as to what amount of variation will be accepted in the answers. • Avoid using a long quote with multiple blanks to complete. • Require only one word or phrase in each blank. • Facilitate scoring by having the students write their responses on lines arranged in a column to the left of the items.


• Ask students to fill in only important terms or expressions. • Avoid providing grammatical clues to the correct answer by using “a,” “an,” etc., instead of specific modifiers. • Assign much more credit for completion items than for T/F or matching items.

O. CORE CONTENT EXAM


Blue print

Plan


PART 2


SYLLABUS UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ DE GUATEMALA FACULTAD DE HUMANIDADES ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS LICDA. EVELYN R. QUIROA

PROFESORADO EN EL IDIOMA INGLES CURSO: EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES COURSE DESCRIPTION This course is dedicated in the study of the principle theories that inbound evaluation and assessment in the classroom. A critical analysis will be held in order to critique and put into practice the different perspectives, techniques and styles related to performance-based assessment, summative and formative feedback methods to assess and evaluate student learning in the classroom. COURSE GOAL By the end of the course, students will be able to plan and create assessments and evaluations that provide their students with activities closely related to learning objectives and/or competences. LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon completion of the course, students will be able to: 1. Demonstrate development and use of academic standards across the curriculum and application of standards and objectives in classroom assessment and evaluation. 2. Match assessment to learning outcomes, develop rubric criteria and select appropriate assessment and evaluation choices using the tools proportioned by the course. 3. Apply current research tools to create authentic assessment, discourse analysis, self and peer evaluation, rubrics, surveys, tests and mini-quizzes for self-paced tutorials. 4. Evaluate and utilize appropriate tools such as grade books, calendars, spreadsheets and portfolios. GENERAL AND SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS OF THE COURSE Student Assessment and Evaluation General Expectation 1: to communicate an overview of evaluation frameworks and processes. Specific Expectations: 1. Identify the following: a) the purposes of evaluation, b) key terms relative to evaluation, c) types of evaluation, d) links between planning and evaluation 2. Develop student assessment and practice within a philosophical framework 3. Understand equity issues in evaluation and assessment. General Expectation 2: to understand the purposes of various types of evaluation strategies.

Specific Expectations: 1. Differentiate between diagnostic, formative, and summative evaluation 2. Compare the purpose and function of different information sources for evaluation 3. Identify a variety of evaluation and assessment procedures, their purposes, strengths, and weaknesses


4. Discriminate between traditional and authentic assessment and appropriate application in teaching/learning 5. Incorporate appropriate assessment and evaluation strategies into your teaching practice.

General Expectation 3: to place evaluation strategies in the context of a unit of study. Specific Expectations: 1. Design student assessment instruments (including rubrics) for a unit of study 2. Accommodate the needs of exceptional students within the unit and its evaluation component. 3. Enhance research in teaching to improve their own practice. 4. Be capable of doing self assessment. 5. Share the knowledge acquired to benefit the school community to which they belong. EXPECTATIONS: • Students are expected to attend all classes. Class attendance will be a part of the final evaluation. • Students are expected to arrive for class on time. Any student who arrives late will not be given additional time to complete quizzes, exams, or in-class assignments. • Students are expected to submit all assignments on time. Late submissions will be penalized or not be accepted depending on the particular case. • Students are expected to come to class having read and completed all assignments. • Students are expected to participate in class discussions. • Students are expected to complete all quizzes and examinations in class on the date specified by the teacher. • Students are expected to word process assignments as required, handwritten work will not be excepted unless it is a test blueprint.

CONTENTS: BLOCKS 1

CONTENT • The difference between evaluation and assessment • Types of evaluation (Diagnostic, Formative & Summative) • Establishing High-Quality (Validity, Reliability etc. ) • Becoming aware of content, context and learners • Curriculum and Evaluation • Visualizing your actions: planning and testing • Objectives vs. Competences • Blooms Taxonomy • Designing a blueprint

2 • Test type items • Test item type instructions


• Organizing test type items according to competencies and domain levels • Analyzing test • Creating different core content tests 3 • Assessment strategies • Self Improvement through self assessment • Self assessment tools: rubrics, checklists, portfolios etc. • Differentiated learning • Declarative and procedural knowledge based assessment • Reflective Teaching and Learning • Administering and interpreting standardized tests

MEANS TO ACHIEVE OUR GOALS: 1. Summary on subject matter must be turned in weekly. (Except when having test) 2. Teacher and student exchange of knowledge and experiences. 3. Group discussions. Students must read the material in advance. 4. Individual research and enrichment. 5. Multimedia presentations. 6. Teaching Project 7. Portfolio 8. Exams EVALUATION: Attendance 80% to apply for final term TOTAL ZONE…………………….……………………………………………20 PTS • QUIZZES • CLASS OR ONLINE ACTIVITIES • PRESENTATIONS TWO MIDTERMS…….…………………………………………………….40PTS PORTFOLIO …….……………………………………………………………. 20 PTS FINAL EXAM ….…………..…………………………………………………. 20 PTS TOTAL …………………………………………………………………………..100PTS REFERENCES:

1. LANGUAGE PROGRAM EVALUATION, Brian K. Lynch Cambridge University applied linguistics 2. REFLECTIVE PLANNING, TEACHING AND EVALUATION. Judy W. Eby, Adrienne L. Herrell & Jim Hicks 3rd. Edition Merill-Prentice Hall. London 2002


3. PLANNING LESSONS AND COURSES. Tessa Woodward. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge 2001 4. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT, PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES FOR EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION, James H. McMillan. McMillan Press. Virginia 2001 CLASS REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES Submitting Assignments: All assignments either have or will have an identified “due date”. Extensions beyond the designated due date are not granted except in the most extenuating of circumstances. With the exception of an immediate and pressing “emergency”, all requests for an extension will be written, signed, dated, and delivered in person to me, as your Professor, before the specified due date and in time for me to respond to your request in writing. All assignments are to include a title page that clearly identifies the assignment topic/title, course name and number, the date submitted, the teacher’s name, and the student’s name and I.D. number. All assignments are to be given, in person, directly to the teacher. I will take no responsibility for assignments that are given to other students or given to the personnel in the “Escuela de Idiomas” office. While I have not yet lost any student assignment; there is always the first time! Therefore, you would be well advised to back up your assignment electronically and if feasible, in hard copy. An assignment will be considered late if it is not directly handed to me, as your Professor, by the end of class on the specified “due date”. Late assignments will be penalized 5% for each day or part thereof following the specified “due date” [including Saturday(s) and Sunday(s)]. Attendance and Participation: Attendance will be taken at the beginning of each class period. Attendance in each class is mandatory; however, there is a proviso in the University regulations that students are permitted to miss the equivalent of 3 classroom contact hours. Beyond this limit, the student will be issued a warning that any more absences may result in being excluded from writing the final examination. Regular attendance, being prepared, and constructively participating in classroom activities, are all seen as integral components in the growth and development of becoming a professional teacher and in the establishment of a meaningful community of learnership in our class. Tardiness This can be extremely disruptive and disrespectful to members who strive to be on time. Naturally, we all encounter circumstances that occasionally cause us to be late – but habituated tardiness is not acceptable. If you are late for class, no material will be repeated. Therefore, you need to contact your classmates to be filled in on the material covered. If you arrive after attendance has been taken and you have no excuse, you will be marked as absent. Class Policy on Cell Phones Cell phones must be turned off at all times. If you are expecting an emergency call make sure to talk to me before class. Class Policy on Laptop Computers You may bring your laptop to class, but all work done on laptop computers must be related to the class work of that day. Academic Dishonesty Academic honesty is fundamental to the activities and principles of the University, and more broadly to society at large. All members of the academic community must be confident that each person’s work has been responsibly and honorably acquired, developed, and presented.


References Use the A.P.A format 5th Edition. UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ DE GUATEMALA FACULTAD DE HUMANIDADES ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS LICDA. EVELYN R. QUIROA 2

Assessment and Evaluation Defined

Assessment is the act of gathering information on a daily basis in order to understand individual students' learning and needs. Evaluation is the culminating act of interpreting the information gathered for the purpose of making decisions or judgments about students' learning and needs, often at reporting time. Assessment and evaluation are integral components of the teaching窶人earning cycle. The main purposes are to guide and improve learning and instruction. Effectively planned assessment and evaluation can promote learning, build confidence, and develop students' understanding of themselves as learners. Assessment data assists the teacher in planning and adapting for further instruction. As well, teachers can enhance students' understanding of their own progress by involving them in gathering their own data, and by sharing teacher窶身athered data with them. Such participation makes it possible for students to identify personal learning goals. This curriculum advocates assessment and evaluation procedures which correspond with curriculum objectives and instructional practices, and which are sensitive to the developmental characteristics of early adolescents. Observation, conferencing, oral and written product assessment, and process (or performance) assessment may be used to gather information about student progress. Guiding Principles The following principles are intended to assist teachers in planning for student assessment and evaluation: Assessment and evaluation are essential components of the teaching窶人earning process. They should be planned, continuous activities which are derived from curriculum objectives and consistent with the instructional and learning strategies. A variety of assessment and evaluation techniques should be used. Techniques should be selected for their appropriateness to students' learning styles and to the intended purposes. Students should be given opportunities to demonstrate the extent of their knowledge, abilities, and attitudes in a variety of ways. Teachers should communicate assessment and evaluation strategies and plans in advance, informing the students of the objectives and the assessment procedures relative to the objectives. Students should have opportunities for input into the evaluation process. Assessment and evaluation should be fair and equitable. They should be sensitive to family, classroom, school, and community situations and to cultural or gender requirements; they should be free of bias. Assessment and evaluation should help students. They should provide positive feedback and encourage students to participate actively in their own assessment in order to foster lifelong learning and enable them to transfer knowledge and abilities to their life experiences.


Assessment and evaluation data and results should be communicated to students and parents/guardians regularly, in meaningful ways. Using a variety of techniques and tools, the teacher collects assessment information about students' language development and their growth in speaking, listening, writing, and reading knowledge and abilities. The data gathered during assessment becomes the basis for an evaluation. Comparing assessment information to curriculum objectives allows the teacher to make a decision or judgment regarding the progress of a student's learning. Types of Assessment and Evaluation There are three types of assessment and evaluation that occur regularly throughout the school year: diagnostic, formative, and summative. Diagnostic assessment and evaluation usually occur at the beginning of the school year and before each unit of study. The purposes are to determine students' knowledge and skills, their learning needs, and their motivational and interest levels. By examining the results of diagnostic assessment, teachers can determine where to begin instruction and what concepts or skills to emphasize. Diagnostic assessment provides information essential to teachers in selecting relevant learning objectives and in designing appropriate learning experiences for all students, individually and as group members. Keeping diagnostic instruments for comparison and further reference enables teachers and students to determine progress and future direction. Diagnostic assessment tools such as the Writing Strategies Questionnaire and the Reading Interest/Attitude Inventory in this guide can provide support for instructional decisions. Formative assessment and evaluation focus on the processes and products of learning. Formative assessment is continuous and is meant to inform the student, the parent/guardian, and the teacher of the student's progress toward the curriculum objectives. This type of assessment and evaluation provides information upon which instructional decisions and adaptations can be made and provides students with directions for future learning. Involvement in constructing their own assessment instruments or in adapting ones the teacher has made allows students to focus on what they are trying to achieve, develops their thinking skills, and helps them to become reflective learners. As well, peer assessment is a useful formative evaluation technique. For peer assessment to be successful, students must be provided with assistance and the opportunity to observe a model peer assessment session. Through peer assessment students have the opportunity to become critical and creative thinkers who can clearly communicate ideas and thoughts to others. Instruments such as checklists or learning logs, and interviews or conferences provide useful data. Summative assessment and evaluation occur most often at the end of a unit of instruction and at term or year end when students are ready to demonstrate achievement of curriculum objectives. The main purposes are to determine knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes that have developed over a given period of time; to summarize student progress; and to report this progress to students, parents/guardians, and teachers.


Summative judgments are based upon criteria derived from curriculum objectives. By sharing these objectives with the students and involving them in designing the evaluation instruments, teachers enable students to understand and internalize the criteria by which their progress will be determined. Often assessment and evaluation results provide both formative and summative information. For example, summative evaluation can be used formatively to make decisions about changes to instructional strategies, curriculum topics, or learning environment. Similarly, formative evaluation assists teachers in making summative judgments about student progress and determining where further instruction is necessary for individuals or groups. The suggested assessment techniques included in various sections of this guide may be used for each type of evaluation. The Evaluation Process Teachers as decision makers strive to make a close match between curriculum objectives, instructional methods, and assessment techniques. The evaluation process carried out parallel to instruction is a cyclical one that involves four phases: preparation, assessment, evaluation, and reflection. In the preparation phase, teachers decide what is to be evaluated, the type of evaluation to be used (diagnostic, formative, or summative), the criteria upon which student learning outcomes will be judged, and the most appropriate assessment techniques for gathering information on student progress. Teachers may make these decisions in collaboration with students. During the assessment phase, teachers select appropriate tools and techniques, then collect and collate information on student progress. Teachers must determine where, when, and how assessments will be conducted, and students must be consulted and informed. During the evaluation phase, teachers interpret the assessment information and make judgments about student progress. These judgments (or evaluation) provide information upon which teachers base decisions about student learning and report progress to students and parents/guardians. Students are encouraged to monitor their own learning by evaluating their achievements on a regular basis. Encouraging students to participate in evaluation nurtures gradual acceptance of responsibility for their own progress and helps them to understand and appreciate their growth as readers and writers. The reflection phase allows teachers to consider the extent to which the previous phases in the evaluation process have been successful. Specifically, teachers evaluate the utility, equity, and appropriateness of the assessment techniques used. Such reflection assists teachers in making decisions concerning improvements or adaptations to subsequent instruction and evaluation. Student Assessment and Evaluation When implementing assessment and evaluation procedures, it is valuable to consider the characteristics of early adolescents. Developmentally, Middle Level students are at various cognitive, emotional, social, and physical levels. Assessment and evaluation must be sensitive to this range of transitions and address individual progress. It is unrealistic and damaging to expect students who are at various stages of development to perform at the same level. It is necessary to clarify, for Middle Level students, the individual nature of the curriculum and the assessment strategies used; students should recognize that they are not


being compared to their peers, but that they are setting their own learning goals in relation to curriculum objectives. Insensitive evaluation of the early adolescent can result in the student feeling low self‐worth and wanting to give up. Regular, positive feedback is a valuable part of the learning process and helps students identify how well they have achieved individual goals and curriculum objectives. As students begin to achieve success, their sense of self‐esteem increases and the need for extrinsic rewards gives way to the development of intrinsic motivation. Early adolescents are vulnerable to peer approval or rejection, and they harbor a strong sense of fairness and justice. Because Middle Level students find it more satisfying to strive for immediately achievable goals rather than long‐term goals, they will respond positively to a system of continuous assessment and evaluation. Effective evaluators of Middle Level students are astute observers who use a variety of monitoring techniques to collect information about students' knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and language competencies. Well organized, concise, and accessible records accommodate the large quantities of data likely to be collected, and assist teachers' decision making and reporting. Some effective techniques for monitoring student progress in the areas of oracy and literacy include the following: Make video and audio recordings of a variety of formal and informal oral language experiences, and then assess these according to pre‐determined criteria which are based upon student needs and curriculum objectives. Use checklists as concise methods of collecting information, and rating scales or rubrics to assess student achievement. Record anecdotal comments to provide useful data based upon observation of students' oral activities. Interview students to determine what they believe they do well or areas in which they need to improve. Have students keep portfolios of their dated writing samples, and language abilities checklists and records. Keep anecdotal records of students' reading and writing activities and experiences. Have students write in reader response journals. Confer with students during the writing and reading processes, and observe them during peer conferences. Self‐assessment promotes students' abilities to assume more responsibility for their own learning by encouraging self‐reflection and encouraging them to identify where they believe they have been successful and where they believe they require assistance. Discussing students' self‐assessments with them allows the teacher to see how they value their own work and to ask questions that encourage students to reflect upon their experiences and set goals for new learning. Peer assessment allows students to collaborate and learn from others. Through discussions with peers, Middle Level students can verbalize their concerns and ideas in a way that helps them clarify their thoughts and decide in which direction to proceed.


The instruments for peer and self‐assessment should be collaboratively constructed by teachers and students. It is important for teachers to discuss learning objectives with the students. Together, they can develop assessment and evaluation criteria relevant to the objectives, as well as to students' individual and group needs. Assessment and Evaluation Strategies Assessment data can be collected and recorded by both the teacher and the students in a variety of ways. Through observation of students, and in interviews or conferences with students, teachers can discover much about their students' knowledge, abilities, interests, and needs. As well, teachers can collect samples of students' work in portfolios and conduct performance assessments within the context of classroom activities. When a number of assessment tools are used in conjunction with one another, richer and more in‐depth data collection results. Whatever method of data collection is used, teachers should: meet with students regularly to discuss their progress adjust rating criteria as learners change and progress. Observation Observation occurs during students' daily reading, writing, listening, and speaking experiences. It is an unobtrusive means by which teachers (and students) can determine their progress during learning. Observations can be recorded as anecdotal notes, and on checklists or rating scales. When teachers attach the data collection sheets to a hand‐held clipboard, data can be recorded immediately and with little interruption to the student. Alternatively, adhesive note papers can be used to record data quickly and unobtrusively. Anecdotal Records Anecdotal records are notes written by the teacher regarding student language, behavior, or learning. They document and describe significant daily events, and relevant aspects of student activity and progress. These notes can be taken during student activities or at the end of the day. Formats for collection should be flexible and easy to use. Guidelines for use include the following: Record the observation and the circumstance in which the learning experience occurs. There will be time to analyze notes at another time, perhaps at the end of the day, or after several observations about one student have been accumulated. Make the task of daily note taking manageable by focusing on clearly defined objectives or purposes, and by identifying only a few students to observe during a designated period of time. However, learning and progress cannot be scheduled, and it is valuable to note other observations of importance as they occur. Record data on loose‐leaf sheets and keep these in a three‐ring binder with a page designated for each student and organized alphabetically by students' last names or by class. This format allows the teacher to add pages as necessary. Write the notes on recipe cards and then file these alphabetically. Use adhesive note papers that can be attached to the student's pages or recipe card files. Design structured forms for collection of specific data.


Use a combination of the above suggestions. Teachers may choose to keep running written observations for each student or they may use a more structured approach, constructing charts that focus each observation on the collection of specific data. A combination of open‐ended notes and structured forms may also be used. It is important to date all observations recorded. Checklists Observation checklists, usually completed while students are engaged in specific activities or processes, are lists of specific criteria that teachers focus on at a particular time or during a particular process. Checklists are used to record whether students have acquired specific knowledge, skills, processes, abilities, and attitudes. Checklists inform teachers about where their instruction has been successful and where students need assistance or further instruction. Formats for checklists should be varied and easy to use. Guidelines for using checklists include the following: Determine the observation criteria from curriculum, unit, and lesson objectives. Review specific criteria with students before beginning the observation. Involve students in developing some or all of the criteria whenever it will be beneficial to do so. Choose criteria that are easily observed to prevent vagueness and increase objectivity. Use jargon‐free language to describe criteria so that data can be used in interviews with students and parents. Make the observation manageable by keeping the number of criteria to less than eight and by limiting the number of students observed to a few at one time. Have students construct and use checklists for peer and self‐assessments. Summarize checklist data regularly. Use or adapt existing checklists from other sources. Use yes‐no checklists to identify whether a specific action has been completed or if a particular quality is present. Use tally checklists to note the frequency of the action observed or recorded. Construct all checklists with space for recording anecdotal notes and comments. Rating Scales and Rubrics Rating scales record the extent to which specific criteria have been achieved by the student or are present in the student's work. Rating scales also record the quality of the student's performance at a given time or within a given process. Rating scales are similar to checklists, and teachers can often convert checklists into rating scales by assigning number values to the various criteria listed. They can be designed as number lines or as holistic scales or rubrics. Rubrics include criteria that describe each level of the rating scale and are used to determine student progress in comparison to these expectations. All formats for rating student progress should be concise and clear. Guidelines for use include the following: Determine specific assessment criteria from curriculum objectives, components of a particular activity, or student needs. Discuss or develop the specific criteria with students before beginning the assessment. Choose criteria that are easily observed in order to prevent vagueness and increase objectivity.


Select criteria that students have had the opportunity to practice. These criteria may differ from student to student, depending upon their strengths and needs. Use jargon‐free language to describe criteria so that data can be used effectively in interviews with students and parents. Make the assessment manageable by keeping the number of criteria to less than eight and by limiting the number of students observed to a few at one time. Use or adapt rating scales and rubrics from other sources. Use numbered continuums to measure the degree to which students are successful at accomplishing a skill or activity. Use rubrics when the observation calls for a holistic rating scale. Rubrics describe the attributes of student knowledge or achievements on a numbered continuum of possibilities. Portfolios Portfolios are collections of relevant work that reflect students' individual efforts, development, and progress over a designated period of time. Portfolios provide students, teachers, parents, and administrators with a broad picture of each student's growth over time, including the student's abilities, knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Students should be involved in the selection of work to be included, goal setting for personal learning, and self‐assessment. The teacher can encourage critical thinking by having students decide which of their works to include in their portfolios and explain why they chose those particular items. Instruction and assessment are integrated as students and teachers collaborate to compile relevant and individual portfolios for each student. Guidelines for use include the following: • Brainstorm with students to discover what they already know about portfolios. • Share samples of portfolios with students. (Teachers may need to create samples if student ones are not available; however, samples should be as authentic as possible.) • Provide students with an overview of portfolio assessment prior to beginning their collections. • Collaborate with students to set up guidelines for the content of portfolios and establish evaluation criteria for their portfolio collections. Consider the following: o What is the purpose of the portfolio? (Is it the primary focus of assessment or is it supplemental? Will it be used to determine a mark or will it simply be used to inform students, teachers, and parents about student progress?) o Who will be the audience(s) for the portfolio? o What will be included in the portfolio (e.g., writing samples only, samples of all language processes)? o What are the criteria for selecting a piece of work for inclusion? When should those selections be made? o Who will determine what items are included in the portfolio (e.g., the student, the teacher, the student and teacher in consultation)? o When should items be added or removed? o How should the contents be organized and documented? Where will the portfolios be stored? o What will be the criteria for evaluation of the portfolio? o What form will feedback to the students take (e.g., written summaries, oral interviews/ conferences)? o How will the portfolio be assessed/evaluated (e.g., list of criteria)?


• Assemble examples of work that represent a wide range of students' developing abilities, knowledge, and attitudes including samples of work from their speaking, listening, reading, writing, representing, and viewing experiences. • Date all items for effective organization and reference. • Inform parents/guardians about the use and purposes of portfolios (e.g., send letters describing portfolios home, display sample portfolios on meet‐the‐teacher evening to introduce parents to the concept). • Consider the following for inclusion: o criteria for content selection o table of contents or captioned labels that briefly outline or identify the contents o samples of student writing (e.g., pre‐writing, multiple drafts, final drafts, published pieces) o sample reading logs o samples of a variety of responses from reader response journals (originals or photocopies of originals) o evidence of student self‐reflection (e.g., summaries, structured reflection sheets) o audiotapes and videotapes of student work o photographs o collaborative projects o computer disks. Formats for portfolio assembly should be easily organized, stored, and accessed. Some possibilities include the following: Keep file folders or accordion folders in classroom filing cabinet drawers, cupboards, or boxes. Use three‐ring binders for ease of adding and removing items as students progress. Store scrapbooks in boxes or crates. Evaluating Student Portfolios At the end of the term/semester/year when the portfolio is submitted for summative evaluation, it is useful to review the contents as a whole and record data using the previously set criteria. One method of recording data is to prepare a grid with the criteria listed down one side and the checklist or rating scale across the top. If there is need to assign a numerical grade, designate numbers to each set of criteria on the checklist/rating scale and convert the evaluation into a number grade. Some examples of portfolio assessment and recording forms follow. The teacher can adapt these sample forms or create new ones


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