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32


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33

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34


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35

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– 2/00:8</2?;<3; $;?31/4 &/0033 3 :;0</; /G];73<;<3; 0?82A<013> <89/7</0:;4.

36


29;BA: 1980<=4 :;99/9, 1/578 2 5/9/7; N893?8 «2?80:I K:=18», 53G;?I <;23<<=> ?J7;4, K:69B O80:AB3 W/G9/2/?IO;01/4 89B33, 9/0@601 5/9/701/4 76B= 0<8O8?8 1980<=B3, @/:/B G;?=B3 , @9;298R;<3; 2 «0:/?3N6» )6G8<01/5/ 198A 3 20;5/ U;?/5/ Y58. $ <8O8?; 1920 5/78, 1/578 198> «7;B/198:3O;01/4 1/<:99;2/?JN33» <8 )6G8<3 3 2 ,;9</B/9I; 0:8? /O;237<=B, @9;72/73:;?AB )6G8<3 0:8?/ @/<A:</: <;/G>/73B8 H28168N3A 3D 198A. L/7 <8@/9/B @9;2/0>/7AR3> G/?IK;230:013> 2/401 <6F</ G=?/ 2=2;D:3 3D )980</7898 2;1/2=; 18D8OI3 02A:=<3 – 2/401/2=; 9;58?33, 03B2/?= 3 0237;:;?3 0?82</5/ 18D8OI;5/ @9/K?/5/. &;58?33 – 76K8 3 :;?/ $;?31/5/ )6G8<01/5/ 2/4018, 7/G?;0:I @/G;7 3 76> 0:893<= – D<8B;<8, K:8<789:=, N89013; 598B/:=, G6?828, @;9<8O3, @8BA:<=; O8K3, 16G13, G?J78, <85987<=; :96G= 3D 7985/N;<<=> B;:8??/2 , 3B;<</; , 7890:2;<</;

/96F3; 3B@;98:/9/2. C7; G=?3 9;58?33, :8B G=?/ 3 2/401/, :8B 0@?8O328?30I 18D813. +8G/:8 / 0/>98<;<33 9;58?34 G=?8 02AR;<<=B 2/3<013B 7/?5/B. L/ 980@/9AF;<3J 2/401/2/5/ 8:8B8<8 ".*. U619;:/28, 9;58?33 16G8<013> 18D81/2 9;K;</ G=?/ /:@9823:I D8 598<3N6. W?A 3> 0/@9/2/F7;<3A <8D<8O3?3 1/B3003J 3D @A:3 O;?/2;1. C;<;98?-?;4:;<8<: L.#.)/16<I1/ – @9;70;78:;?I 1/B30033, ;; O?;<=: 5;<;98?-B84/9 '.L.+2A53<N;2, @/?1/2<31 $.L.U;?=4, 2/401/2/4 0:89K3<8 T.$. ';B31/G=?3< 3 /73< O?;< 1/B30033 – O;?/2;1 598F78<0134. W8-78, H:/ G=? O?;< 198;2/4 3 D81/</78:;?I</4 987, @8:9389> 16G8<01/4 30:/933, @9/Q;00/9 )6G8<01/5/ @/?3:;><3O;01/5/ 3<0:3:6:8 M;7/9 *<79;;23O `;9G3<8. "8 H:3> ?J7;4 2/D?858?80I /:2;:0:2;<</0:I D8 0/>98<</0:I 18D8OI3> 02A :=<I. #B F; G=?/ @9;7/0:82?;</ @982/ 2=G/98 0:98<=, 1678 @/7?;F8?/ 2=2;D:3 596D.

«#R'(/)(13 /'K'(1'2'. ='M-W> (2,-5Z@.> -,/3 4)P )7'A'13(0 K)7)FW4. L) /)B'4 )K5-)F'2. 6'>7. 4'K)-,K)F . PK'*.1,2,>. T) (72)/)F P)K 5PK)M'2. )1K0-W «A,2,/WE». "' . F P)K)-, K'(RK)(1K'/02.(3 (25E. ) RK.E)-, 7K'(/WE () -/0 /' -,/3»

37

$=G98?3 ';9G3J. $=G/9 /G60?/23?3 :;@?=; /:</K;<3A , 0?/F32K3;0A 6 &/0033 3 2/4018 0 H:/4 G98:01/4 0?82A<01/4 0:98</4. L93<A:=; /: 2/401/2/5/ K:8G8 72;<87N8:I B80032<=>, /G3:=> F;?;D/B AR31/2 <8 19=:=> @/2/D18> 2 0/@9/2/F7;<33 2//96F;<</4 />98<= 7/0:823?3 <8 F;?;D</7/9/F<6J 0:8<N3J 3 @/596D3?3 2 285/<. '<896F3 G=?3 9800:82?;<= @/0:=, 1/<:9/?39/282K3; 20; @/7>/7=, –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

L/9:/2=4 5/9/7 <82/7<A?3 :/?@= G;F;<N;2 3 2/;<<=>. ) @93O8?8B ?/B3?30I, 196K8 3 ?/B8A 20; <8 02/;B @6:3, B800= 193O8R3> , <;5/76J R3>, /D?/G?;<<=> 3 @;9;@658<<=> ?J7;4 , />28O;<<=> 69858</B G;50:28. ' 6D?8B3, O;B/78<8B3, 1/9D3<8B3... -9676A ?/1:AB3 3 30:;93O</ 193O8, /::8?1328A 3 /01/9G?AA 7965 79658, 20; 3 20A @9/1?3<8A, :/?@8 @9/G328?80I <8 @8?6G= 0:/AR3> @/7 @898B3 1/98G?;4. C?82</; – @9/G3:I0A, 0;0:I <8 @89/>/7. * :8B – 2 )9=B, -7;006, )/<0:8<:3</@/?I – 1678 65/7</, ?3KI G= 0@80:30I /: <80:358JR3> 1980<=> O80:;4. # 181 F; G=?8 :AF;?8 D878O8 18D81/2, 0/@9/2/F782K3> G;0N;<<=; 9;58?33, 181 :967</ G=?/ @9/:/93:I 3B @6:I 1 @93O8?6 2 13K8R;B, /96R;B, G69?AR;B 5/9/7;-B6982;4<31;! $85/< 0 596D/B 2/401/2=> 9;58?34 3 O?;<8B3 1/B30033 @/ 3> 0/>98<;<3J B</5/198:</ @;9;5/<A?3 @/ 0:8<N3/<<=B 0:9;?18B, @/18 <; 2:30<6?3 2 /73< 3D G3:1/B <8G3:=> :6@31/2 6 285/</9;B/<:</5/ D82/78. -@80</0:I <8980:8?8. )8F7=4 0?;76JR34 7;<I B/5 /18D8:I0A 9/1/2=B . L/ </O8B /967/28?3 K8413 B89/7;9/2 3 598G3:;?;4. '/ 01?/</2 5/9 659/F8?3 /:9A7= «D;?;<=>». W8 3 2 5/9/7; 980@9/0:98<A?30I 0?6>3 / @93>/7; 1980<=>


0/ 7<A <8 7;<I. $ B;0:<=> /Q3N;9013> 19658>, @;9;@/?<;<<=> 9;0:/98<8> 3 G898> @/5/289328?3, G67:/ 2 5/9<=> /19;0:</0:A> 9=018;: 5;<;98? L/19/20134, G=2K34 1/B8<739 16G8<01/5/ 1/<</5/ 1/9@608, 1/B8<7/282K34 (7;18G9I 1919 - Q;298?I 1920 55.) )8218D01/4 89B3;4 2//96F;<<=> 03? J58 &/0033. L/19/20134 G=? 3D2;0:;< <; :/?I1/ <;<8230:IJ 1 G/?IK;2318B, </ 3 <;019=28;B/4 <;<8230:IJ 1 2=98D3:;?AB 18D8OI;4 <;D82303B/0:3. "; 019=28? /< :81F; 02/3 731:8:/9013; D8B8K13 3 /:19/2;<<=; @93:AD8<3A <8 8:8B8<016J 2?80:I, D8 O:/ G=? /:0:98<;< /: 7;? </2=B 8:8B8</B U619;:/2=B 3 &87/4. L/A23?30I 0?6>3, O:/ 5;<;98? L/19/20134 0 /:9A7/B :813> F; /:O8A<<=> ?3>8O;4, 181 /< 08B, <8B;9;28;:0A /:G3:I 18D8OI3 9;58?33. +82?87;2 2/401/2=B3 02A:=<AB3 , L/19/20134, 2373B/, 9800O3:=28? 2/00:8</23:I, 8 :/ 3 2/D2=03:I 02/4 2/;<<=4 3 @/?3:3O;0134 0:8:60 2 0:821; G;?/5/ 723F;<3A, @/7O3<3:I 0;G; )6G8<I, /958<3D/28:I 18D81/2 <8 G/9IG6 @9/:32 1980<=>. "/, 181 3D2;0:</, @/@=:13 $31:/98 S;/<37/23O8 L/19/201/5/ /1/<O3?30I @/?</4 <;678O;4. "; @/?6O3? /< 1/B8<7</4 7/?F</0:3 3 2 &6001/4 89B33 G89/<8 $98<5;?A. ^B35939/282 3D &/0033, 2 </-

<'M/,>6., -)754,/1W . K,P'2.. =5*'/(7)P) 7'A'B3,P) F)>(7' I. C98B/:= 2/4018B: %18:;93<= II – 1) +8@/9/F01/B6 2/4016 1772 3 1774 55.; 2) ,;9</B/901/B6 2/4016 – 30.VI.1792 5.; L82?8 – ,;9</B/901/B6 2/4016 – 16.II.1801 5.; *?;108<798 – ,;9</B/901/B6 2/4016 – 31.V.1803 5.; "31/?8A I – 1) ,;9</B/901/B6 2/4016 – 10.XII.1843 5.; 2) *D/201/B6 2/4016 – 1.VII.1844 5.; 3) ,;9</B/901/B6 2/4016 – 14.II.1845 5.; *?;108<798 II – 1) ,;9</B/901/B6 2/4016 – 26.VIII.1856 5.; 2) *D/201/B6 2/4016 – 26.VIII.1856 5.; 3) )6G8<01/B6 2/4016 – 20.III.1867 5.; 4) )6G8<01/B6 2/4016 – 30.VII.1880 5.; *?;108<798 III – )6G8<01/B6 2/4016 1896 5.; "31/?8A II – 1) )6G8<01/B6 2/4016 1902 5.; 2) )6G8<01/B6 2/4016 – 26.VII.1907 5. #:/5/: 15. II. C98B/:= 2/401/2=B O80:AB 1) )/<<=B @/?18B: ,;9</B/901/5/ 2/4018 – 4, +8@/9/F01/5/, W6<8401/5/ – 1, )8218D01/5/ ?3<;4</5/ – 1, )6G8<01/5/ 2/4018 – 18 [#:/5/] – 24; 2) @;K3B @/?18B 3 G8:8?I/<8B: ,;9</B/901/5/ 2/4018 – 3; )6G8<01/5/ 2/4018 – 10. #:/5/: 37. III. &;0193@:/2 3 @/2;?;<34 – 93. IV. -0:8?I<=> 7/16B;<:/2 3 7;? – 27.

#:/5/ 7/16B;<:/2: 120. V. &;58?34 (1?;4</7/2) 1) +<8B;< 2/401/2=> 3 @/?1/2=> – 39; 2) 169;<<=> D<8B;< 3 D<8O1/2 – 49; 3) 2/401/2=> (8:8B8<013>) D<8O1/2 – 3. #:/5/: 91. 4) 5;/953;2013> :96G G/?IK3> – 18; 5) 5;/953;2013> :96G B8?=> – 12; 6) 035<8?I<=> 9/F1/2 – 2. #:/5/: 32. 7) G6?82 G/?IK3> – 3; 8) G6?82 B8?=> – 14; #:/5/: 17. 9) @;9<8O;4 G/?IK3> – 6; 10) @;9<8O;4 B8?=> – 18; #:/5/: 24. 11) S3:829= (@898) %18:;93<= II – 1. $0;5/ 9;58?34: 165. VI. -96F3; 3 2;R3, 1/F;2IA 3 @9/O. (5/06789;4, 1<AD;4) – 8, 19;0:, 0;1398, G?J78, G/18?= 3 @9.) – 54. )9/B; :/5/, 2 AR318> >98<A:0A: 8) N;91/2</; 3B6R;0:2/; G) 3B6R;0:2/ 1-5/ !B8<01/5/ @/?18 3 2) 3B6R;0:2/ )6G8<01/5/ 52897;401/5/ 7323D3/<8.

38


?G ?TD#8?? L/0?;7<34 @93J: <8 -?IK8<01/B 1?87G3R; <8K?3 B</53; 2=78JR3;0A ?J73, 2=<6F7;<</ @/13<62K3; &/003J @/0?; 9;2/?JN33. +7;0I @/>/9/<;<= @308:;?3 *. (. *2;9O;<1/, $. #. ";B39/23O-W8<O;<1/, %. ". ,3931/2, L. *. )9;O;20134; @/H: W. .. &8:586D 3 798B8:695 S. ". !928<N;2; 1/B@/D3:/9 '. *. (983?3< 3 @;2;N $. S;23N134; 30:/9313 *. *. )3D;2;::;9, %. M. .8103B/23O 3 '. L. L/0:<31/2; @9/Q;00/9 - @982/2;7 L . # . "/25/9/7N;2; Q3?/0/Q= #. #. S8@K3< , " . # . '87/20134 , L. ". '823N134; 5;/?/5 8187;B31 ". #. *<7960/2; G3/?/5 $. '. #?I3<; Q3?/?/53 8187;B31 $. *. M98<N;2, @9/Q;00/98 %. *. SAN134 3 ". $. T0:9;G/2 ; @9/Q;00/98 - 3<F;<;9= *. '. S/BK81/2 3 ). L. M;7/9/2; 5;<;98? ". $. SI2/2, 87B398? C. L8?IO31/2, 7/<01/4 8:8B8< $. Y. "8?;:/2; @/?3:3O;013; 3 /GR;0:2;<<=; 7;A:;?3 #. #. L;:96<1;23O, $. *. .A1/:3<, ". #. *0:9/2, 8 :81F; B8:I 3 0;0:98 @308:;?A $. $. "8G/1/28, 598Q3<A '. ". (/?0:8A, (. ". &/7DA<1/ 3 B</53; 79653;.

39


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