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盲文點字應用於手機文字輸入之創新設計研究 A Study on the Innovative Design of Braille Input Applied on Mobile Phones

研究生:曾羽華 (Yu-Hua Tseng) 指導教授:黃維信 (Assistant Prof. Wei-Shin Huang)

大同大學 工業設計研究所 碩士論文 Thesis of Master of Science Department of Industrail Design Tatung University 中華民國九十九年七月 July 2010


謝 誌 感謝我的指導教授黃維信老師,在論文研究中給予我最多的支持,同時也給予學 生相當大的發揮空間,也謝謝老師兩年來的指導與照顧,老師辛苦了。 感謝口試委員黃臣鴻老師與張淵仁老師,在口試時的指正與建議,並且給予學生 寶貴的意見,讓論文內容得以更加地正確與完整,謝謝老師。 感謝所有參與實驗的視障朋友,謝謝你們熱情的參與、熱心地與我分享生活經 驗,但願能夠將你們的想法及需求完整地表達出來。 感謝同研究室的好同學,在實驗中擔任我得力的研究助手,辛苦地與我東奔西 跑,給予我相當大的幫助,讓每一次的實驗得以一一順利完成。 感謝研究所的同窗好友,兩年來一同學習、一同成長、也分享歡笑、分享淚水, 不時適時伸出援手給我幫助,很高興與大家成為同班同學,記得要常常保持聯絡。 感謝梁成一老師及實驗設計的學長們,很懷念一起上課、一起拼期中、期末報告 的日子,也謝謝老師的認真與嚴格,讓我每個禮拜四都戰戰兢兢地來學校上課。 感謝林季雄老師及創新設計課的學弟妹,班上氣氛總是融洽和開心,雖然每週都 有上台報告的壓力,但是不知道為什麼每次都很期待星期三上課的到來。 感謝默默支持我關心我的好姊妹及各位好朋友,為了課業不能常常相聚,謝謝你 們的體諒和鼓勵;以及給予過我的幫助,我銘記在心。 感謝我的小學老師陳永彬老師多年來總是給我真誠、溫暖的關心,也希望能與老 師分享研究所畢業的喜悅。 感謝我親愛的家人給予我永遠的支持和關懷,讓我能夠專心完成學業。 曾羽華 謹誌 民九十九年 七月

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摘 要 我們生活周遭的環境與產品大多是為一般大眾設計的,視障者是社會中人口 佔少數的群體,相對地在日常生活中面臨了許多困境,目前市售行動電話與相關 應用在設計與發展階段中,甚少將視障者的需求納入考量,本研究站在使用者為 中心的視點,透過文獻探討以及問卷調查、深入訪談法與參與觀察法,深度瞭解 視障使用者的要求與潛在需求,研究對象以滾雪球抽樣法取得能符合研究目的且 能充分代表研究現象、提供豐富資訊的視障朋友(研究樣本)。 第一階段「視障者手機使用需求」之研究結果:(1)得知視障者手機五項重要 基本使用需求,其中之建立通訊錄、撰寫簡訊兩項重要基本使用需求足以顯示視 障者對於手機輸入文字與資訊的使用上,仍面臨相當大的不便與困難。(2)從視 障者需求中萃取出三項創新設計價值機會點。第二階段以創新價值機會點思考視 障者手機與相關應用的發展,提出一「盲文點字應用於手機文字輸入」之創新設 計方案,本研究亦稱為「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」。 設計創作主要內容:點字由六點的變化產生不同的字音與意義,而國語點字 是以注音符號拼成字義,本研究將點字記號之「1、2、3、4、5、6 點」對應至 手機數字鍵盤的「1、4、7、2、5、8 鍵」 ,依照點字規則的概念在手機上進行文 字內容的輸入,並且利用「語音合成技術」的「即時語音報讀」與音效輔助聽覺 回饋,視障者可確認輸入內容正確與否,同時也讓「選字」功能得以實現。 經過實驗驗證以及深入訪談的結果瞭解,點字各種排列組合所變化的「形狀」 能夠很直覺地呈現於視障者的腦海,在實驗中執行輸入簡訊任務時,便可快速地 在手機上透過數字鍵盤輸入六點變化的點字,視障者不需要特別思索或學習就能 理解使用。實驗結果顯示執行任務之正確率、使用之滿意度皆高,可幫助視障者 在日常生活中使用手機時,能夠獨立且不依靠他人便可達到建立通訊錄、撰寫簡 訊、記錄記事的目的,更可以使用手機行動上網搜尋資訊、積極參與社會,以滿 足各層面的需求。

關鍵詞:點字, 輸入法, 盲人, 視障者

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Abstract The surrounding environments in which we live today and the daily goods we use are mostly designed for the majority of us, rarely considered are those minority of visually impaired people, who are often confronting difficulties in their daily lives. For instance, mobile phones and the relevant applications available in the current market, in their design and developing phases, have hardly taken into consideration the needs of the visually impaired people. This research takes the stands of the needing users as the pivot viewpoint, by research into relevant articles along with questionnaires as well as in-depth interviews and participant observation methodology, to comprehend in depth the requests and latent requirements of the visually impaired people. The research targets are filtered by the roll-the-snowball sampling method for those visually impaired people most qualified to represent the phenomenon of the research and capable of providing abundant relevant information (Research Sampling). In the first phase of the research - “Mobile Phone Usage Requirements by the Visually Impaired People”, it comes to the fulfillments of : (1) comprehension of the five fundamental requirements by the visually impaired people, and two of which establishing address book and writing text messages, are bringing visually impaired people tremendous inconvenience and challenges of data input to and information usage on mobile phones; (2) three innovative value opportunity points extracted from the requirements of the visually impaired people. In the second phase, the three innovative value opportunity points are taken into consideration on the development of mobile phone and relevant applications, with focus on the visually impaired people, and a creative plan of 「Braille Application on Mobile Phone Text Input」 is proposed, which is terminologically called 「Mobile Braille IME (Input Method)」 in this research. The main features of the innovation: the Braille is composed of various combinations of six dots forming different pronunciations and meanings, in contrast with the traditional Mandarin Braille which is based on phonetic symbols to constitute various meanings. This research corresponds the Braille symbols of dots 「1、2、3、4、 5、6」with the digits of「1、4、7、2、5、8」on the mobile phone's digit keypad, and text messages are keyed-in based on the Braille rules of concept, aided with「speech iii


synthesis」of 「real-time voice speak」 and hearing auxiliary feedback, so the visually impaired can be assured of correct inputs, and making “word spelling” possible. With experimental verifications and profound interviews, we learned that forms of various Braille dot combinations can be intuitively impressed in the minds of the visually impaired people. In these experiments, the visually impaired can key-in dotted words using the six dots combinations swiftly on the mobile phone keypad without too much pondering or the need of pre-learning, with high execution accuracy and user ratification. This is to promote practicality、convenience and efficiency for the visually impaired to use mobile phones in daily life. They can independently establish address book、write text messages and put down notes on mobile phones, and even go internet via mobile phones to search for information、actively participate in the society as well as have other aspects fulfilled. Keywords:Mobile Braille IME, Braille input, blind, visually impaired

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目 錄 謝 誌...............................................................................................................................i 摘 要..............................................................................................................................ii Abstract ........................................................................................................................ iii 目錄................................................................................................................................v 圖目錄..........................................................................................................................vii 表目錄...........................................................................................................................ix 第一章 緒論..................................................................................................................1 1.1 研究背景與動機................................................................................................2 1.2 研究目的............................................................................................................3 1.3 研究範圍............................................................................................................3 1.4 研究架構............................................................................................................4 第二章 文獻回顧..........................................................................................................5 2.1 視覺障礙............................................................................................................5 2.2 創新設計............................................................................................................7 2.3 市售視障者手機與相關應用現況調查............................................................9 2.4 概念視障者手機與相關應用調查..................................................................11 2.5 語音合成與語音辨識......................................................................................15 2.6 中文輸入法調查..............................................................................................17 2.7 國語注音符號..................................................................................................20 2.8 國語注音符號點字系統..................................................................................21 第三章 研究方法........................................................................................................23 3.1 問卷調查法......................................................................................................24 3.2 深入訪談法......................................................................................................25 3.3 直接參與觀察法..............................................................................................26 3.4 整合型新產品發展流程法..............................................................................28 3.5 視障者手機使用需求之研究成果與討論......................................................32 3.5.1 問卷設計..................................................................................................32 3.5.2 受訪者......................................................................................................32 3.5.3 手機使用習慣調查結果與分析..............................................................33 3.5.4 手機使用時機需求度評量結果與分析..................................................34 3.5.5 現用手機滿意度評量結果與分析..........................................................36 3.5.6 未來視障者手機使用需求度評量結果與分析......................................38 3.5.7 結果與討論..............................................................................................40 第四章 盲文點字應用於手機文字輸入之創新設計................................................43 4.1 設計創作之動機與目的..................................................................................43 4.2 設計創作之構想發展......................................................................................43 4.3 實驗設計..........................................................................................................49 4.4 實驗對象..........................................................................................................56 4.5 實驗正確率與錯誤分析..................................................................................56 4.6 手機使用習慣調查..........................................................................................58 4.7 點字使用習慣調查..........................................................................................64 v


4.8 手機點字輸入法使用性評量..........................................................................67 4.9 實驗訪談主要結果..........................................................................................71 第五章 結論與未來研究............................................................................................72 5.1 結論 .................................................................................................................72 5.2 未來研究建議..................................................................................................73 參考文獻......................................................................................................................74 附 錄............................................................................................................................78 附錄一:視障者手機使用需求問卷調查與訪談表..................................................78 附錄二:注音符號拼音排列組合與點字記號與手機數字鍵盤對照表..................83 附錄三:手機點字輸入法實驗問卷調查表與訪談記錄..........................................93 附錄四:手機點字輸入法實驗結果與錯誤分析對照表..........................................96

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圖目錄

Chapter 1 圖1. 1 研究架構圖........................................................................................................4 Chapter 2 圖2. 1 Alva MPO 550 視障者手機 ..............................................................................9 圖2. 2 Owasys 22C 視障者手機 ..................................................................................9 圖2. 3 Nokia Magnifier 手機擴視應用軟體..............................................................10 圖2. 4 B-Touch 概念視障者手機 ..............................................................................11 圖2. 5 Make SÉNS 概念視障者手機.........................................................................11 圖2. 6 Touch Messenger 概念視障者手機 ................................................................12 圖2. 7 Samsung EAP 概念視障者手機 .....................................................................12 圖2. 8 Nokia Braille Reader 觸控螢幕點字閱讀應用程式.......................................13 圖2. 9 Nokia Braille Reader 震動原理.......................................................................13 圖2. 10 Google Eyes-Free 虛體拖曳數字鍵盤應用..................................................14 圖2. 11 點字記號之一「方」....................................................................................21 Chapter 3 圖3. 1 The SET Fators .................................................................................................28 圖3. 2 VOA 價值機會分析 ........................................................................................29 圖3. 3 Positioning Map 風格技術定位圖 ..................................................................30 圖3. 4 LEF三要素 .......................................................................................................30 圖3. 5 Mobile Speak 語音導引系統 ..........................................................................36 圖3. 6 貼水鑽的手機按鍵..........................................................................................41 Chapter 4 圖4. 1 點字輸入法之鍵盤配置..................................................................................45 圖4. 2 說明手機點字輸入法的設計與規則..............................................................49 圖4. 3 輸入點字實驗練習題......................................................................................49 圖4. 4 人員報讀實驗任務內容..................................................................................50 圖4. 5 視障者分享使用聽書郎的經驗......................................................................50 圖4. 6 Smart Phone HTC S730....................................................................................51 vii


圖4. 7 受測視障者練習中..........................................................................................52 圖4. 8 練習完畢正式進行「撰寫簡訊」的實驗任務..............................................53 圖4. 9 以雙手雙指操作「撰寫簡訊」任務的視障者..............................................53 圖4. 10 以雙手單指操作「撰寫簡訊」任務的視障者............................................54 圖4. 11 研究人員以口述「即時報讀」題目方式進行............................................54

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表目錄 Chapter 3 表3. 1 受訪視障者基本資料......................................................................................32 表3. 2 手機使用習慣調查-使用頻率......................................................................33 表3. 3 手機使用習慣調查-使用數量......................................................................33 表3. 4 手機使用習慣調查-汰換原因......................................................................33 表3. 5 手機使用習慣調查-喜好型式......................................................................34 表3. 6 手機使用習慣調查-攜帶方式......................................................................34 表3. 7 手機使用習慣調查-耳機..............................................................................34 表3. 8 手機使用時機需求度調查-需求度前五名..................................................35 表3. 9 手機使用時機需求度調查-需求度後五名..................................................35 表3. 10 現用手機滿意度評量-通訊錄....................................................................36 表3. 11 現用手機滿意度評量-簡訊........................................................................36 表3. 12 現用手機滿意度評量-功能滿意前五名....................................................37 表3. 13 現用手機滿意度評量-功能滿意後五名....................................................37 Chapter 4 表4. 1 點字記號與數字鍵盤對照表..........................................................................46 表4. 2 手機點字輸入法重複編碼表..........................................................................48 表4. 3 操作任務內容與點字記號與數字鍵盤對照表..............................................55 表4. 4 手機使用習慣調查(II)-使用年資 ................................................................58 表4. 5 手機使用習慣調查(II)-使用頻率 ................................................................58 表4. 6 手機使用習慣調查(II)-現用手機廠牌 ........................................................58 表4. 7 手機使用習慣調查(II)-現用手機型式 ........................................................59 表4. 8 手機使用習慣調查(II)-現用手機價位 ........................................................59 表4. 9 手機使用習慣調查(II)-購買新手機的價位 ................................................59 表4. 10 手機使用習慣調查(II)-手機使用時機 ......................................................60 表4. 11 手機使用習慣調查(II)-經常使用的功能 ..................................................60 表4. 12 手機使用習慣調查(II)-即時語音報讀選單 ..............................................61 表4. 13 手機使用習慣調查(II)-閱讀簡訊 ..............................................................61 ix


表4. 14 手機使用習慣調查(II)-撰寫簡訊 ..............................................................61 表4. 15 手機使用習慣調查(II)-撰寫簡訊所使用的輸入法 ..................................61 表4. 16 手機使用習慣調查(II)-對於使用輸入法的意見 ......................................62 表4. 17 手機使用習慣調查(II)-對於手機輸入文字的意見 ..................................62 表4. 18 點字使用習慣調查-使用年資....................................................................64 表4. 19 點字使用習慣調查-使用點字的種類........................................................65 表4. 20 點字使用習慣調查-日常生活中是否使用點字........................................65 表4. 21 點字使用習慣調查-使用點字的頻率........................................................65 表4. 22 點字使用習慣調查-使用點字的產品........................................................66 表4. 23 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-操作親切度................................................67 表4. 24 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-操作複雜度................................................67 表4. 25 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-使用容易度................................................67 表4. 26 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否需要旁人協助方能使用....................68 表4. 27 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否為整合良好的設計............................68 表4. 28 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否為令人困惑的設計............................68 表4. 29 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否能快速學習使用................................69 表4. 30 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否難以使用............................................69 表4. 31 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否有信心操作完成各種任務................69 表4. 32 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否需要花時間學習................................70 表4. 33 選字功能調查-是否瞭解字義或字型........................................................70 表4. 34 選字功能調查-是否需要選字功能............................................................70 表4. 35 是否願意使用手機點字輸入法....................................................................70

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第一章 緒論 我們生活周遭的環境與產品大多是為一般大眾設計的,視障者是社會中人口 佔少數的群體,相對地在日常生活中面臨了許多困境,在多元社會群體中,每一 個個體因為有其身體特性、能力等因素的差異,且一個人的能力在人生的每個階 段是可能改變的,因此形成各種不同且多元化的需求。擁有充滿愛心與關懷人格 特質的設計師秉持人本關懷的精神,若能為更多族群的使用者貼心設想,便可提 升因失去某些能力的人獨立自主的能力,保有更多的尊嚴和自信,進而縮短不同 群體之間的差異。視障者亦為社會的成員,理當擁有平等的權利,在多元文化的 現代社會中,且以人權平等的觀點而言,視障相關議題應獲得同等的重視與關懷。 目前市售手機與相關應用在設計與發展階段中,甚少將視障者的需求納入考 量,其功能與特徵對於視障者而言仍明顯不足。視障者因其生理的能力限制,主 要以視覺傳達訊息的手機無法滿足視障者的需求,在手機的使用上面臨了許多困 境。探究其原因乃由於過去設計開發者認為該族群為少數,不足以造成影響產品 的銷售市場(Muto,1996),若要開發專屬於該族群的產品或系統,其成本可能過 高,因此研發和設計人員在發展與設計產品時,皆以一般大眾的需求為主要考量 (Irie, Matsunaga & Nagano, 2005; Smith-Jackson, Nussbaum & Mooney, 2003)。 然而若將失能者像是視障者與聽障者列為產品開發時的先驅使用者(lead users),並將他們的需求列入設計考量,則該產品不僅適於視障及聽障族群用之, 當一般人處於因環境造成的各種失能情況時,亦可使用該產品(Hannukainen, 2005)。由此可見,在產品設計發展時將失能者的需求納入考量,則不僅該產品 的適用族群可以擴大,亦不會因為專屬失能的產品造成成本提高(邱曉萍,2009)。 視覺是人們獲取資訊與外界經驗素材最重要的管道之一,長久以來視障者在 日常生活中遭遇的困境與相關權益一直缺乏社會應有的關注,而這些困難除了生 理上的限制影響視障者的學習、生活與就業(萬明美,2001)之外,也由於外在的 不利因素所造成,而設計應基於人類的多元化需求,而非以使用者的平均標準來 從事設計,以追求社會平等為出發點,讓任何人都能公平地使用,站在使用者需 求的立場去開發新產品(中川聰,2008),且設計也不單只是生理層面的設計,也 應包含心理層面無障礙的人本關懷設計(陳明石,2007)。 1


1.1 研究背景與動機 過去科技產業對於新產品的研究與發展多是採用以技術導向的思考方式 (system-centered approach)來進行研發與設計,著重於新技術的提升與開發,接著 再為新技術或新產品尋找目標市場與相關應用,這樣以系統為中心的思考方式, 可提高生產效率,發揮研發者的專業,且分工明確。然而,往往也必須在新技術 或新產品完成之後,才透過使用者與市場去驗證其實用性與可用性,屆時常發現 該產品或技術未必是使用者所需要的,致使產品在市場未能成功。

有鑑於此以技術導向、科技為中心的產品發展所隱含的風險,企業開始意識 到在設計研發產品的過程中,在有限的時間與資源下,應該從過去以技術導向為 中心的思考模式,轉變為以使用者為中心的設計思考方式(user-centered design, UCD)來進行創新概念的發展,同時考慮使用者之潛在需求、產品功能、任務執 行與使用環境之互動關係,預期使用者如何在所處的環境下利用產品的功能來完 成任務,達到確認不同使用情境下產品功能使用需求的目標,以更精確地開發出 兼具實用性與使用性且融入使用者日常生活的產品與服務,為使用者帶來滿意的 使用經驗(user experience)以開創新的商機(Donald A. Norman, 1998)。

本研究試圖進入視障者手機使用需求上的田野,在與視障者互動的過程中, 洞察、關切視障者手機使用上諸多未知的可能性與限制,以人為中心的設計思考 方式,發掘視障者潛在未被發現、未被重視的需求,進而提出設計構想,能夠在 一般大眾使用的手機設計出滿足視障者使用需求的相關應用,而非設計專屬於視 障者的專用手機。如此不但可以擴大手機的使用族群,亦不會造成業者因成本過 高而不生產的困境,期望能為更多人帶來便利的生活。

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1.2 研究目的 基於上述的研究背景與動機,本研究目的在於提出「以使用者為中心」思考 的視障者手機與相關應用之設計方案,第一階段針對「視障者手機使用需求」進 行深度瞭解,第二階段則提出「盲文點字應用於手機文字輸入」之創新設計方案, 本研究命名為「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」。 1. 第一階段透過問卷調查、深入訪談以及參與觀察之研究方法,瞭解視障者在 手機使用上的不便與困境。 2. 利用第一階段問卷調查、深入訪談和參與觀察之結果分析得到資料,釐清視 障者對於手機與相關應用之使用要求與潛在需求。 3. 依據視障者之使用需求,透過以使用者為中心的整合型創新設計流程法 (User-Centered iNPD)之分析工具評估得到創新價值機會點(POGs)。 4. 第二階段依據得到之創新價值機會點(POGs),提出「盲文點字應用於手機文 字輸入」-「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」之創新設計構想。

1.3 研究範圍 1.

由於新產品開發流程涵蓋的層面相當廣泛,本研究提出之「手機點字輸入法」 (Mobile Braille IME)(盲文點字應用於手機輸入文字) ,由於尚未實現在市售 手機上,故不涉及生產、行銷和通路等部分的深入探討。

2.

研究對象乃是以非機率抽樣中的滾雪球抽樣法(snow ball sampling)進行招 募,分別來自六個以上的團體(伊甸、愛盲、央圖、無障礙科技、喜樂合唱 團、啄木鳥樂團)。

3.

在第一階段的視障者手機使用需求調查中,共有八位受訪視障者,視障程度 重度為七名,中度為一名。在第二階段的手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME) 實驗中,共有二十一名視障參與者,視障程度重度為二十名,中度為一名。

4.

本研究擬定針對所提出之三項產品創新價值機會點(product opportunity gaps, POGs)之第一、二項做深入的探討與設計。而第三項之「步行導航系統」, 因時間、資源有限的情況下,本研究未能對此進行探討。 3


1.4 研究架構 研究架構如圖1.1所示。

圖1. 1 研究架構圖

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第二章 文獻回顧 文獻探討主要分為六個部分,首先針對「視覺障礙」與「創新設計」兩主軸 進行暸解。調查國外「市售視障者手機」的現況,參考其現有功能,作為規劃設 計之參考。亦針對「概念性視障者手機」進行調查與瞭解,其中雖有至今仍未能 突破的技術,亦可作為設計研究之參考。為發展適合國內視障者使用相關應用之 研發與設計,必須進行中文化(王小川,1997),而「語音辨識」 、 「語音合成」則 是幾個關鍵技術之中必要之研究,以考量未來結合發展之可行性。並且針對「中 文輸入法調查」、「注音符號」以及「國語注音符號點字」進行深入瞭解。

2.1 視覺障礙 人類的知識主要來自對外界的感覺經驗,而視覺乃是獲取外界訊息的重要管 道,視覺缺陷在生活適應上所造成的困難,較其他感官缺陷來得嚴重。當人類看 到物體時,同時也看到位置、大小、距離、形狀、動向,加上聽覺及觸覺就更能 增添對外在訊息的掌握與瞭解,故眼睛在所有感官知覺中佔有相當重要的地位 (柯明期,2004)。 1. 視覺障礙定義:依「身心障礙者權益保障法」指出(衛生署,2009): 由於先天或後天原因,導致視覺器官(眼球、視覺神經、視覺徑路、大腦視 覺中心)之構造或機能發生部分或全部之障礙,經治療仍對外界事物無法(或甚 難)作視覺之辨識而言。通常單眼如果保持相當的視覺功能時,就無法認定為障 礙。視覺障礙等級,分別為重度,中度,輕度。身心障礙之核定標準,視力以矯 正視力為準,經治療而無法恢復者。

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2. 全盲與弱視:依「特殊教育法」施行細則第十七條則指出(教育部,1987) (1) 全盲視障者:全盲係指優眼視力測定值未達0.03。全盲者無法利用視覺學習, 須經由觸覺(如點字)或聽覺(如語音報讀)讀取資訊,並須以手杖輔助行 走。有些全盲視障者完全失去光覺(醫學盲) ,有些則尚有殘餘視力,可辨識 車輛移動或障礙物的形影,對於定向行動略有輔助功效。 (2) 弱視視障者:弱視乃指優眼視力測定值在0.03以上未達0.3或其視野在二十度 以內。弱視者尚可利用視覺學習,但閱讀一般字體有困難,須借助特殊光學 輔助儀器(如放大鏡)或將字體放大擷取資料。弱視者的視知覺狀況差異較 大,有缺乏立體感和遠近感者;有無法掌握全體與部份關係者;有畏光或對 光線敏感者;有無法辨認顏色者;有因夜盲而在夜間行走困難者;亦有因視 野狹窄而行動不便者。 3. 視覺障礙成因: 就視覺障礙而言,依其失明年齡,可區分為從小失明及中途失明者。成因可 分為眼睛機體上及大腦知覺功能上的原因。在眼睛生理機體上無法獲得清晰影像 的原因是屈光不良、屈光體透明度問題、視網膜成像問題以及視覺路徑傳輸問 題。至於大腦功能上所造成視覺影像的辨識問題,所牽涉大腦生理及知覺功能則 較為複雜(張麗娟,2002)。視障者雖然失去視覺,但是他們能從特別敏銳的聽覺 與觸覺來獲得補償,實驗心理學者指出這種能力是後天訓練與注意力集中的結 果,並非來自先天,這種現象稱為感官補償(sensory compensation)(郭為藩,1993)。

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2.2 創新設計 1. 創新的定義 「創新」(innovation)一詞於文獻資料中最早乃由美籍奧地利經濟學家Sehum Peter J. A. (1934)提出,他認為:「先有發明,後有創新」。Drucker (1985)曾對創 新(innovation)下定義並加深入探討,認為創新是賦予資源創造財富的新能力,以 完整系統化的方式發展創新,反對所謂創新是靈機一動或者突破性的創意構想, 是從天才腦袋裡閃現成行的想法,他認為多數創新是可以訓練、可以學習的。因 此,Afuah (1998)提到創新乃是指使用新的知識,提供顧客所需新的服務及產品, 它包括了發明及商業化。創新依不同學者的看法,有不同的定義(張維新,2005): (1) 企業生產一個新產品或新服務、或是用新的方法、新的投入,因而造成科 技上的轉變(Marquis, 1972)。 (2) 對於顧客需要或消費系統能提供不同滿足能力的產品,也代表一種更有效 率的手段,以解決顧客的問題(許士軍,1983)。 (3) 對公司而言是產品創新,並不意味對消費者亦為產品創新;反之,對公司 而言是舊產品,但對未使用過之顧客而言,卻是產品創新(郭崑謨,1984)。 (4) 賦予資源創造財富的新能力,使資源變成真正的資源,並且以完整和系統 化的形式討論創新(Peter Drucker, 1985)。 (5) 由市場上需求來看學者們提出除了技術突破性的產品創新外,只要產品能 滿足市場上尚未滿足的需求,就可能構成一種產品創新(司徒達賢,1985)。 (6) 創新是修正或發明一項新的概念,使其符合現有或未來潛在的需求,並藉 由改進與發展使其原有之功能達到商業化的目的(Tushman, Nadler, 1986)。 (7) 從消費者立場而言,產品的創新,意味者一種能顯著增進整體利益的產 品;從生產者的立場而言,創新是最先或最早使用一種可信而且嶄新的科 技來生產某一產品(Gobeli Brown, 1987)。 (8) 創新是一種運用知識或關鍵資訊而創造,或引入有用的東西(Holt, 1988)。 (9) 創新活動乃是經由個人、群體及組織努力及活動所形成的產品或程序,該 過程包含用以創造和採用新的、有用事物之知識及相關資訊(Gattiker, 1990)。 7


(10) 創新是一個組織,相對於其他非創新競爭者而言,是以創造優勢的更新 與設計(Vrakking, 1990)。 (11) 創新是一反覆的過程,將一項以技術為基礎的發明找出新的市場與服務 機會,經由開發、生產、行銷活動,力求將該發明成功地加以商業化(OECD, 1991)。 (12) 創新乃是將新的產品、製程或服務導入市場,並將創新分為產品創新、 製程創新、與服務創新三種(Betz, 1993)。 (13) 創新可能是一種新的產品或服務、一種新的製程技術、一種新的管理系 統及結構,或是一種組織成員的新計劃(Damanpour, 1996)。 (14) 創新的定義可以歸納為:新概念、製程、產品或勞務之創造、接受與執 行(李國樑,2000)。 (15) 大部分的產品創新的「新」都不是純粹的創新,而是一種模仿善。產品 創新的定義,即純粹創新與模仿均包含在內(Levitt, 2001)。 (16) 創新是企業將其所提供的產品、服務及方法予以重新設計或改良(Tid, Bessant, Pavitt, 2001)。 (17) 對創新者而言,最重要的就是要找到從未被發現的需求,因為這些需求 提供了創造高度附加價值與競爭利益的突破性潛能,並能創造競爭優勢 (Langdon Morris, 2009)。 (18) 創新的型態有四種:ⓐ漸進式創新,ⓑ產品或技術突破性創新,ⓒ商業 模式創新,ⓓ新事業創新,每一種型態的創新都要有一套明確的流程、 工具以及未來探索的團隊(Langdon Morris, 2009)。

2. 產品創新設計的屬性(張維新,2005) (1) 功能的創新:提升產品性能或創造新的用途。 (2) 使用的創新:提升產品方便性,人機介面與使用模式的重新設計或改良。 (3) 外觀的創新:產品造型、色彩、材質、效果的重新設計或改良。 (4) 結構的創新:產品機構重新設計或改良。 (5) 製造的創新:模具、製程、加工的簡化或改良。 8


2.3 市售視障者手機與相關應用現況調查 針對市售視障者手機與相關應用,進行調查與瞭解,介紹如下: 1.

Alva MPO 視障者手機 在美國和荷蘭都有分公司的Alva是一家專為視障者提供資訊技術產品的公

司。Alva MPO(圖2.1)提供手機和PDA功能所需的特殊鍵盤設計,沒有螢幕顯示 器,通訊及其他功能整合於內。手機硬體介面上有20個方(Braille cells),8個點字 輸入按鍵,內建語音報讀軟體提供SMS文字簡訊以及PDA服務;且有進階與娛樂 功能如e-mail、Internet、GPS、MP3播放功能等等(張芳瑜、吳東擎、穆可斌,2005)。

圖2. 1 Alva MPO 550視障者手機 2.

Owasys 22C 視障者手機 Owasys 22C( 圖 2.2) 為 軟 體 發 展 商 Babel Technologies 和 西 班 牙 手 機 業 者

Owasys所推出專為視障者使用的手機。同樣地它沒有螢幕顯示器,所有的功能 透過PocketBabil語音報讀軟體完成。它能夠讀出來電者的名字和簡訊內容,也可 編輯簡訊,並能在發出簡訊前,透過語音檢查是否正確,另外,還可以讀出選單 功能表的內容,提供視障者做各項功能的選擇與設定(霍樂琤,2004)。

圖2. 2 Owasys 22C視障者手機

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4. Nokia Magnifier 手機擴視應用程式 Nokia Magnifier是由Nokia Beta Labs所開發的放大鏡擴視應用軟體,利用手 機既有的相機功能,透過鏡頭可以將閱讀的內容放大至螢幕上,並且可以設定防 手震、調整放大倍數、增加對比等功能,不只一般使用者,更可以幫助低視力視 障者和視力不好的中高齡者,甚至可以拍攝、擷取在螢幕上放大後的影像資料。

圖2. 3 Nokia Magnifier 手機擴視應用軟體 (圖片來源:Nokia Beta Labs)

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2.4 概念視障者手機與相關應用調查 針對概念性視障者手機與相關應用,進行調查與瞭解,介紹如下: 1. B-Touch 概念視障者手機 B-Touch(圖2.4)為設計師Zhenwei You專為視障者設計的概念手機,相同地沒 有螢幕顯示器,而是以可以浮現點字方式的設計,視障者用手觸摸得知顯示區上 的內容;也可以使用B-Touch掃描報章雜誌,透過即時語音報讀而得知內容。

圖2. 4 B-Touch 概念視障者手機 2. Make SÉNS 概念視障者手機 SÉNS( 圖 2.5) 由 英 國 設 計 師 Takumi Yoshida 為 視 障 者 所 設 計 的 概 念 手 機 (Emily Clark, 2008)。同樣地,摒棄一般大眾使用的手機所具有的螢幕顯示器,設 計更加具有觸感的造型與按鍵。當使用者在按下按鍵時除了有點擊的按鍵聲,也 有同步語音報讀的回饋,以確認是否輸入正確。同時也設計了藍牙耳機避免在公 共場合使用語音所造成隱私權的問題。固然視障程度的不同,多數的視障者仍能 保有光覺,因此在手機側面設計了彩色發光的裝置,不同的顏色可以表示手機不 同的狀態,如來電顯示、收到簡訊以及電力提示等等。

圖2. 5 Make SÉNS 概念視障者手機 11


3. Samsung Touch Messenger 概念視障者手機 Samsung「Touch Messenger」(圖2.6)概念視障者專用手機,相同地沒有螢幕 顯示器,在手機上方設計了兩方(Braille cells)的盲文點字專用鍵盤,可以讓視障 者建立與發送簡訊,如欲輸入「HI」,橙色標示的「H」為輸入「1、2、5 點」, 紫色標示的「I」為輸入「2、4點」 。下方的盲文點字顯示區則可以將接收的簡訊 浮凸顯示便以觸摸方式閱讀。

圖2. 6 Touch Messenger 概念視障者手機 4. Samsung EAP 概念視障者手機 Samsung概念視障者手機,摒棄了螢幕和標準數字鍵盤,取而代之的是浮凸 式的點字數字鍵盤(圖2.6)。在資訊輸出/輸入區域,使用了一種名為EAP(Electric Active Plastic)的塑膠材質,能夠在資訊輸出區浮出點字記號,讓視障者觸摸使用。

圖2. 7 Samsung EAP 概念視障者手機 12


5. Nokia Braille Reader 觸控螢幕點字閱讀應用程式 「觸控式螢幕(touch screen)」的「智慧型手機(smart phone)」為目前市場的 主流,以視覺為主的觸控式螢幕對於視障者使用上卻是極為不便的。Nokia Braille Reader觸控螢幕點字閱讀應用(圖2.8)由Nokia Beta Labs, Tampere University, Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired (2009)的團隊研究與開發,透過電流的 單一強烈震動與時間較長的微弱震動(圖2.9),讓觸控點字功能產生震動的觸覺回 饋,它運用既有的技術以及新的應用程式(AP),視障者也能夠使用觸控式螢幕的 智慧型手機將指日可待。

圖2. 8 Nokia Braille Reader 觸控螢幕點字閱讀應用程式

圖2. 9 Nokia Braille Reader 觸覺回饋說明圖 13


6. Google Eyes-Free 虛體拖曳數字鍵盤應用 Google的兩位工程師T.V. Raman, and Charles Chen展示的一款具有觸覺回饋 (tactile feedback)且在實驗階段應用於觸控螢幕上的虛體數字鍵盤「Eyes-Free」 (Kate Greene, 2009)( Mick Webb, 2009)。顧名思義可以不用眼睛看即可操作,如 打電話,相當適合視障者使用,操作方式為,先在觸控螢幕任意處擊點一次即放 開,為輸入數字鍵5,此即為原手機標準數字鍵盤的按鍵5之定位點;若擊點一下 手勢(gestures)拖曳往左上角即為輸入數字鍵2,接著手勢垂直往下方拖曳,則輸 入數字鍵8,以此類推之方式輸入電話號碼(圖2.10)。

圖2. 10 Google Eyes-Free 虛體拖曳數字鍵盤應用

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2.5 語音合成與語音辨識 針對「即時語音報讀」 、 「語音導引系統」相關應用,進行相關語音合成與語 音辨識技術的調查和瞭解。若經由語音的輔助,無論是低視力視障者或全盲視障 者均可以聽覺輔助或取代視覺與觸覺,更有效率地獲取電子裝置中的資訊內容 (萬明美,2000)。 1. 語音合成 語音合成(speech synthesis)技術又名文字轉語音技術(text to speech, TTS),指 將輸入的文字資訊或儲存於電腦中的文件模擬人聲發出語音、聲音朗讀的技術, 大致上包括文句分析、音韻訊息(prosodic information)產生、語音合成,雖然系統 複雜度高,然而可合成任意文句,應用範圍極為廣泛,如在閱讀電腦螢幕上的文 章、語音指引(導引)、互動回饋或輔助說明等等。語音合成技術尚有發音的自然、 清晰與流暢度、破音字的處理以及即時處理的能力有待突破(朱孝國,2010)。 在研究「語音」之前,首先瞭解聲音(timbre)的要素包含頻率(frequency)、振 幅(amplitude)/響度(loudness);在瞭解聲音的背景之後,再來解析語言架構的區分 (朱孝國,2010)。應用語言文字學家Gelb(1952)提出世界的文字應該就其「表示 語音的單位的大小」來分類。在這樣的標準下,Gelb把世界上的文字系統的語音 單位由大而小分為三大類: 「語詞-語素」(phrase-morpheme)、 「音節」(syllable)、 及「音素」(phoneme)。漢字屬於「語詞-語素」此類文字系統。而所謂的「拼 音」就是指將中文漢字的「語詞-詞素」文字系統改為「音素」文字的一種方法。 也就是說中文的語音系統裡的「子音」和「母音」分別用單一組符號來記錄表示 (蔣為文,2001)。瞭解語言的架構可以幫助我們分析要如何發音,發音的兩大要 素為母音(vowel)、子音(consonant);在瞭解發音要素之後,重要的是如何讀出聲 音來,也就是如何拼音,我國使用的拼音方式為注音符號,拼音的三大要素為: 聲母(initial)=子音(consonant);韻母(final)=母音(vowel)、聲調(tone),而聲調乃是 指字音的高低升降變化、國語語音高低升降、具有區別辭義作用、有規則變化的 就是聲調,聲的正確與否,是語音準確的關鍵(朱孝國,2010)。 文字轉語音技術主要應用於:(1)個人電腦輔助:可朗讀電子書、電子郵件、 文章,或搭配手寫版、文書處理軟體、語音辨識軟體發音;(2)數位內容聲音快 15


速生產:可免去進錄音室的煩惱,可以短時間將大量數位文字內容聲音化;(3) 無障礙網頁發音:讓無障礙網頁變成有聲;(4)手機、PDA朗讀即時資訊:針對 行動裝置提供語音資訊或語音互動操作介面;(5)導覽系統:電子播報系統、電 子地圖導覽系統等(摘自網際智慧公司網站,2010)。

2. 語音辨識 人和人之間說話、書信溝通都是「自然語言」,如中文、英文、日文等等。 欲解讀人類發出語言聲音所代表的意義,首先技術的核心便落在語音辨識(speech recognition)系統。其主要應用包括語音聲控撥號、語音聲控導航、室內設備控制、 語音文檔檢索、簡單的聽寫數據錄入等。 近年來,在自然語言處理應用與現況方面,電腦語言學者研究語音辨識系統 的目標是希望電腦能夠辨識人類說話的詞彙內容轉換為電腦可讀的輸入。這樣的 目標在現階段仍不容易達成,許多語音辨識系統的研究和開發,需在無噪音或安 靜的環境下測試,經由使用者訓練,同時希望使用者能夠使用麥克風,正確地發 音,所測試的字彙範圍也相當有限。一般語音辨識之流程為利用麥克風或電話網 路所錄製之語料庫(音檔),經過特徵參數的擷取後,分成訓練語料與測試語料, 在比對的時候再結合語言模型。 未來語音辨識系統研究需要突破的技術和克服的問題包括,納入自然情境下 的說話方式、將說話的語調和韻律納入辨識系統的訓練、在有噪音的自然環境裡 辨識語音訊息以及如何將音調和韻律的文法訊息加入辨識模式的訓練,以提升辨 識效果。另外,在多元文化社會下,交換各種語言的溝通方式,也要考慮說同一 種語言有不同腔調的現象,並考慮外國人的腔調等等(廖友煜,2009)。 語音辨識技術在個人電腦上可分成用語音指令來操作電腦的語音操控,以及 用來輸入文字的語音輸入。語音辨識技術可應用到個人電腦語音辨識介面、資訊 查詢、電話自動撥號、語音指令控制、語音辨識晶片、虛擬實境介面、網際網路 介面、電腦電話整合系統、聽寫機等產品,範圍極廣(張照煌,1996)。

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2.6 中文輸入法調查 1. 輸入法介紹 (1) 輸入法是指為了將各種文字或符號輸入電腦或其他電子裝置,如手機,而 採用的編碼方法。 (2) 在英語裡「輸入法」(input method)指的是輸入方式而不是所實作它的軟 體。早期,英語像中文一樣沒有對這兩個概念進行區分。由於微軟Windows 作業系統的影響,輸入法軟體被稱為「輸入法編輯器」(input method editor)。在中文裡,一般用「輸入法」表達這兩個不同的概念,少數人用 「輸入軟體」或「輸入系統」。 2. 輸入的形式:根據輸入裝置的不同,輸入方式可分為鍵盤、手寫、語音等等。 (1) 鍵盤輸入:透過鍵盤輸入為最常用的電腦或其他電子裝置的輸入方式。 (2) 手寫輸入:藉著電腦的辨識文字技術,由使用者的手寫字形來辨認中文字 或其它符號。 (3) 語音輸入:使用語音辨識技術,透過麥克風或話筒等收音裝置以及語音辨 識軟體,對漢語語音進行智慧辨識的方法。語音輸入受環境噪音影響大, 目前語音辨識技術尚未非常成熟,針對特定人的語音還需要對電子裝置進 行訓練。 (4) 手寫輸入:對筆跡進行智慧辨識的技術,一般使用專用手寫板進行輸入, 也可利用滑鼠、觸摸式螢幕輸入。手寫輸入技術已相當成熟,發展可以使 用行書及部分草書的連筆識別。輸入速度中等,辨識率達95%以上。 (5) 光學字元識別:對印刷體進行光學掃描後進行智慧辨識的技術。輸入速度 高,辨識率達98%以上,技術成熟。 3. 手機輸入法 使用手機上的數字按鍵進行中文輸入的方法,有字音、字形、筆畫等不同類 別的輸入方式。根據華人常使用的中文輸入法進行分類,如下:

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1. 字音輸入法 字音輸入法,又稱音碼、拼音輸入法,是指依據漢字的發音進行編碼的輸入 法,包括使用國語發音的注音輸入法和漢語拼音輸入法,使用粵語發音的各類粵 語拼音輸入法等。還有非官方語言區自行開發,以當地方言為編碼方式的拼音輸 入法,如粵港澳地區的粵音輸入法和上海等地的吳語注音輸入法,需要注意的 是,在中國大陸地區,拼音通常指漢語拼音,所以漢語拼音輸入法也直接被稱為 拼音輸入法(WIKIPEDIA, 2010)。 (1) 注音輸入法 注音輸入法是根據注音符號進行編碼以輸入漢字的中文輸入法。台灣小學基 礎教育就由注音符號開始教學,是台灣使用者最為熟悉的中文輸入法,只要能讀 字音就能進行輸入。採用注音作為輸入法的優點在於台灣人熟悉使用注音符號, 因此不用特別學習也會使用;缺點則在於同音字相當多,輸入時同音錯字較常出 現,需要克服選字問題,若有智慧選字功能可提升輸入的速度(WIKIPEDA, 2010)。 (2) 漢語拼音輸入法 漢語拼音輸入法的編碼是依據漢字的讀音進行輸入的中文輸入法。早期只有 全拼,即完全依照漢字整個音節來輸入的方式,隨著技術的發展,不僅可以簡拼 還出現了一種只需兩鍵就能輸入整個音節的雙拼方式。 (3) 兩者比較 輸入繁體字常用的注音輸入法與輸入簡體字常用的漢語拼音輸入法兩者比 較,注音輸入法的特色在於需要輸入聲調,由於注音最長3個符號,加上聲調不 過4個鍵,所以輸入法會列出字音所有候選字。而漢語拼音輸入法不論全拼或是 雙拼,由於很少需要輸入聲調,往往把常用字詞放進列表前排,候選字較多,輸 入罕用單字時也會比較困擾,要提升效率只好另外依靠輸入法提供的「以詞定字」 或是「筆畫輸入模式」等額外功能,但拼音輸入法的優點在於電腦鍵盤使用者的 手部移動範圍較小,且由於輸入完全用英文字母完成,不需要額外按鍵,如空白 鍵,即可直接選字和輸入標點符號。

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2. 字形輸入法 字形輸入法,在漢字輸入法中,完全依據漢字的筆畫和字形特徵進行編碼的 輸入法稱為「形碼」,使用者通常必須熟悉漢字的形體才能正確輸入,常用於手 機上的如倉頡輸入法、筆劃輸入法等。形碼輸入法的重碼率通常比音碼輸入法低 很多,大部分都不需也不使用人工智慧自動選字。為便利使用,形碼輸入法大多 設有容錯碼、萬用碼以增加輸入法對於異體字的處理能力,有些還設有簡碼以加 快輸入速度(WIKIPEDIA, 2010)。 (1) 倉頡輸入法 倉頡輸入法是最早發明(在電腦上使用)的形碼輸入法,取碼方式為憑視覺, 而非字義或筆順,把漢字分割為字首及字身,字首為最左、最上、最外部份,剩 餘部份為字身。若字身可以再分,則分為次字首和次字身。各部份再分拆為有限 個字碼,中間部分省略,以不破壞字形特徵和視覺容易辨識為準。字首最多取二 碼,字身最多取三碼;無法明確分割為字首、字身者,如「東」,則全取。一個 漢字最少用一碼輸入,最長則為五碼。取碼以後再按下空白鍵(組字鍵),即可輸 出字元(字形) (朱邦復、沈紅蓮,2006)。 (2) 筆劃輸入法 筆劃輸入法是常用於手機的一種的中文輸入方式,如T9輸入法。只需要五個 鍵即可進行輸入,按書寫的順序輸入一個字的筆劃,原則為從上到下、從左到右, 螢幕顯示會把選字範圍逐漸收窄,盡管構成漢字的筆劃有很多種,但這些筆劃都 可以分成五種基本類別:橫、豎、撇、點、折,所以適用於電話作為輸入介面。 這些基本筆劃都會被印在電話的數字鍵盤上,方便輸入。

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2.7 國語注音符號 注音符號(Mandarin Phonetic Symbols, MPS),類型屬於半音節文字。1986年, 教育部公佈以羅馬字拼寫的漢語譯音系統為「注音符號第二式」,因而把注音符 號稱為「注音符號第一式」,簡稱「注音符號」(WIKIPEDIA, 2010)。 注音符號的制訂,承繼中國傳統聲韻學及詩歌押韻原理,採聲、韻、調分析 法,取合於雙聲疊韻的古代漢字簡化而成。所以用注音符號來拼注國字,就等於 是以漢字來拼注漢字,發音最為精準,而且一音一符,學習起來也極為簡易。不 僅可以用來拼注國字的字音,成為國字正音的工具,而且在小學教科書或兒童讀 物上,也可標註生字的拼音,成為學習國語、認識國字的最佳利器。(李 鍌, 2000)。 國語注音符號有嚴格的聲韻組合規則,在現代標準漢語使用的注音符號有37 個符號,筆順從左到右、從上到下,包含聲母21個;韻母16個;聲調5個,列出 如下: 1.

聲母(聲符): 「ㄅ、ㄆ、ㄇ、ㄈ、ㄉ、ㄊ、ㄋ、ㄌ、ㄍ、ㄎ、ㄏ、ㄐ、ㄑ、ㄒ、ㄓ、ㄔ、 ㄕ、ㄖ、ㄗ、ㄘ、ㄙ」

2.

韻母(韻符): 「ㄚ、ㄛ、ㄜ、ㄝ、ㄞ、ㄟ、ㄠ、ㄡ、ㄢ、ㄣ、ㄤ、ㄥ、ㄦ、ㄧ、ㄨ、ㄩ」

3.

聲調(調號): 「一聲」(陰平),注音時省略不標; 「二聲」(陽平),符號為「ˊ」 ; 「三聲」 (上聲),符號為「ˇ」 ; 「四聲」(去聲),符號為「ˋ」 ; 「輕聲」 ,符號為「˙」

20


2.8 國語注音符號點字系統 點字(Braille)是視障者使用的觸讀文字,由法國人路易布萊爾(Louis Braille 1809-1852)(Divison of Blind Serviecs, 2009)所設計,故以其姓稱之。點字由「方」 (Braille cell)(圖2.11)所構成,每一方內的點字有六個點,寬為二個點,高為三個 點。為辨別方便起見,從左上開始為點字記號1,往下排列依序為點字記號2、3, 從右上開始為點字記號4,往下排列依序為點字記號5、6,每一個點均加以編號, 由此六點構成以一「方」(Braille Cell)的單位,每一「方」依排列組合的變化都 有其不同的含意,代表不同的羅馬字母及符號。 世界各國的盲文點字系統(布萊爾點字系統)按照不同語言的發音而各成一 套,而我國的點字採用「國語注音符號點字系統」 ,注音符號與點字記號相對應, 由「注音符號」的聲母(initials)、韻母(finals)及聲調(tones)分別對應至「點字記號」 的每一「方」,按照字音組合而成一個中文字的點字記號。由於國字頗多同音異 字,單靠三十七個注音符號,無法精確表達字義,因次需藉由上下文以判斷單字 或詞語的意思。視障學習者若能掌握漢字的字音、字義以及字的使用情境,並了 解文化,更能達到有效學習中文的目的。

圖2. 11 點字記號之一「方」 1. 注音符號之點字記號分為四個部分: (1) 聲母,共21個: ㄅ、ㄆ、ㄇ、ㄈ、ㄉ、ㄊ、ㄋ、ㄌ、ㄍ、ㄎ、ㄏ、ㄐ、ㄑ、ㄒ、ㄓ、ㄔ、 ㄕ、ㄖ、ㄗ、ㄘ、ㄙ 21


(2) 韻母,共16個: ㄚ、ㄛ、ㄜ、ㄝ、ㄞ、ㄟ、ㄠ、ㄡ、ㄢ、ㄣ、ㄤ、ㄥ、ㄦ、ㄧ、ㄨ、ㄩ (3) 結合韻,共22個: 一ㄚ、一ㄛ、一ㄝ、一ㄞ、一ㄠ、一ㄡ、一ㄢ、一ㄣ、一ㄤ、一ㄥ、ㄨㄚ、 ㄨㄛ、ㄨㄞ、ㄨㄟ、ㄨㄢ、ㄨㄣ、ㄨㄤ、ㄨㄥ、ㄩㄝ、ㄩㄢ、ㄩㄣ、ㄩㄥ (4) 聲調,共5個: 陰平(一聲)(注音時省略不標)、陽平(二聲)「ˊ」、上聲(三聲)「ˇ」、 去聲(四聲)「ˋ」、輕聲「˙」

2. 注音符號點字記號使用注意事項: (1) 聲母中「ㄓ、ㄔ、ㄕ、ㄖ、ㄗ、ㄘ、ㄙ」等七個單獨成音時,為了避免與 英文點字「A、B、E、G、H、I、J」等字母混淆,故一律在這些聲母後面 加上空韻母「ㄦ」,在點寫聲調記號,以便識別。 (2) 國語拼音中,遇到「結合韻」時,為了節省空間,篇幅及便於摸讀,結合 韻一律以一方表示。 (3) 每一單字拼音之後,均需加聲調記號。國語點字(含聲調),每一字最少以 二方,最多以三方點寫,且均應點寫於同一點字行,不可分行點寫,若該 行點寫不完時,應將整個單字移至下一行繼續點寫。 (4) 聲調記號「一聲」不可省略。 (5) 聲母「ㄍ與ㄐ」(1、3點);「ㄑ與ㄘ」(2、4、5點);「ㄒ與ㄙ」(1、5點)三 組點字記號相同。但是它們在拼音時不會出現在同一個字裡,故使用時並 不會混淆。 22


第三章 研究方法 本研究使用問卷調查法(questionnaire survey)進行統計分析、並透過質性的深 入訪談法(in-depth interview)詳細記錄挖掘受訪者深層的想法與意見、藉由質化的 直接參與式觀察法(participant observation)收集非線性橫向資料,質性研究特別針 對不尋常的角色,目的是為了蒐集豐富的資料,包括仔細、多樣、多采多姿的細 節,在個案完整的脈絡中,注重使用者的個別差異,本研究試圖找出潛藏在視障 者的觀點、文化、生活、行為以及情感上的模式,詳盡記錄觀察到的特定且具體 的事件,以及蒐集新的資料和獲得新的洞見,並且設身處地、感同身受以同理心 站在視障使用者的立場,並且充分加以描述與詮釋。 透過以使用者為中心的整合型新產品發展流程法(User-Centered iNPD)中有 系統的分析工具進行組織分析(organization analysis),充分地瞭解視障使用者的 潛 在 需 求 , 預 測 未 來 可 能 的 產 品 機 會 , 萃 取 得 到 創 新 價 值 機 會 點 (product opportunity gaps, POGs),轉化成可實行且明確的設計方案。本研究擬定依據萃取 獲得的POGs,提出一「盲文點字應用於手機文字輸入」的設計方案,並進行實 作的實驗與系統使用性評估,將設計構想付諸執行。

23


3.1 問卷調查法 問卷調查法(questionnaire survey)是社會科學研究中廣泛採用的調查方法,是 一種發掘事實現況的研究方法,本研究擬定研究目的,蒐集相關文獻後,展開詳 細研究問題的細節。 本研究對象採取滾雪球抽樣法(snow ball sampling)取得能符合研究目的且能 充分代表研究現象、提供豐富資訊的視障朋友(研究樣本),包含分別來自六個以 上的團體(伊甸、愛盲、央圖、無障礙科技、喜樂合唱團、啄木鳥樂團)。 本研究問卷調查可包含描述性研究及分析性研究,為了確保問卷內容具有較 高的可靠性(reliability)和有效性(validity),本研究邀請研究視障者電子產品多年 的專家視障者與從事社會服務工作的視障者,針對初擬之問卷題目提供意見,本 研究依意見與溝通結果進行修正,修正後亦再請前述之視障者再次協助確認,進 行最後的調整。 本研究使用五階李克特量表(Likert scale) (1代表評分最低,5代表評分最高) 以評估與分析各類問項之滿意度、需求度、使用性的評量。 第一階段探討視障者手機使用需求調查,除了瞭解視障者的基本資料,問卷 設計包含四個大項:(1)生活型態調查:瞭解視障者平日使用手機的時機、使用 時遇到的困難以及使用習慣;(2)針對現用手機進行滿意度調查,深入瞭解視障 者使用手機各項功能的滿意度;(3)本研究整理歸納並展開手機各項使用需求度 調查:瞭解視障使用者潛在的需求,以作為後續視障者行動電話與相關應用之規 劃與設計的分析及參考;(4)運用深入訪談以及直接參與觀察之研究方法,以彌 補問卷不足之處。 第二階段的問卷內容乃針對本研究提出「盲文點字應用於手機文字輸入」之 設計方案,進行系統使用性評量(system usability scale, SUS)(Brooke, J., 1996)。

24


3.2 深入訪談法 質性研究(qualitative research)的深入訪談法(in-depth interviews)主要著重於 受訪個人的感受(perception of self)、生活與經驗(life and experience)的陳述,藉著 與受訪者彼此的對話,研究者得以獲得、瞭解及解釋受訪者個人對於社會事實 (social reality)的認知(Minichiello et al., 1995)(林金定、嚴嘉楓、陳美花,2005)。 本研究有責任保障視障受訪者的隱私權,表明研究報告中以不具名(unnamed) 的方式撰寫,若有需使用錄音、錄影或拍照,也事先徵求受訪者的同意再進行, 建立良好彼此信任的基礎。 個案式的深入訪談法的優勢在於有充分的時間,視障者透過自己的用語,盡 情地表達想法與分享生活經驗,為本研究帶來新的洞見(insight)與新的發現,且 提供了立體的面貌與豐富的素材,成為非常具有價值的研究內容。

25


3.3 直接參與觀察法 本研究以直接參與觀察法(participant observation)進入研究田野,藉由近距離 的探索、參與、觀察及互動來理解陌生世界的運作方式(how it works),熟悉研究 田野以便去理解並建構出研究對象的觀點與經驗,且研究者本身也要有某種程度 上的自身體驗(Brian Roberts, Sarah Thornton, 1990),故本研究在實驗前學習、瞭 解盲文點字規則,實際參與體驗使用點字筆與點字板觸摸閱讀盲文點字以及本研 究提出之手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)的所有流程與任務執行。本研究對 視障者的生活行為以及手機使用情況皆不明確,故透過直接參與觀察法加以觀 察,並收集相關資料,適用於參與式觀察法的研究如下(Jorgensen, Danny L., 1989): (1) 所研究的問題和被觀察者的文化與互動關係有關。 (2) 要觀察的現象可以在日常生活的情境或環境中觀察。 (3) 研究對象是研究者可接近的環境。 (4) 研究現象規模和研究對象人數在一定限度內,可使用個案研究方式進行。 (5) 研究者所提出的研究問題適合使用個案研究。 (6) 研究所需之資料可從直接觀察法或田野調查的方式獲得。 (7) 參與觀察法適用於具有故事性、事件性、敘述性的研究題材。 (8) 調查後可寫成的文類:研究論文、調查報告、民族誌、報導文學、獨家新 聞、專題報導。 (9) 所收集資料的特色:敘述性的、深入的、第一手資料。 參與式觀察法是由研究的原則、策略、步驟、方法及技術構成。此外,參 與式觀察法具備以下的基本特徵: (1) 以日常生活的情境與環境作為研究的基礎。 (2) 觀察與記錄特別情境與環境的族群觀點。 (3) 參與觀察的過程,對於研究主題、對象與方法,都要維持彈性、開放、把 握機會的態度。 (4) 參與觀察法是一種深入的、質性而非量化的、個案式的研究法。 (5) 在研究過程中,持續建立與維繫和研究對象的關係,不只觀察,也要參與 26


研究對象的生活與活動,以獲得族群對象觀點中的生活世界為目的。

27


3.4 整合型新產品發展流程法 Jonathan Cagan與Craig M. Vogel (2002)兩位學者提出「整合型新產品發展流 程法」(Integrated New Product Developmet, iNPD),為以使用者為中心導向,由 社會、經濟與科技三方面來作評估考量,並且在其中結合了設計、工程與市場行 銷三大領域。如此跨領域思考與合作方式可使開發出來的新產品,能夠兼具風格 上的吸引力,與核心技術上的提升,以大幅增加產品本身的價值。以下為 User-Centered iNPD的發展流程: 1.

確認價值機會點(Phase I:Identifying the Opportunity) 透過SET三要素(The SET factors),從社會的變遷、經濟的發展、科技的進步,

三個方面著手評估「新興的趨勢」,目的為確認將SET三要素導入產品機會點 (product opportunity gap - POGs)的重要指標,藉此能確認新產品在市場上清楚的 定位與需求、產生新的機會與發展,以便後續提出創新的設計方案。 SET三要素分別是,S(social)為「社會性」,代表社會、文化和流行趨勢, E(economic)為「經濟性」 ,代表經濟狀態的轉變,T(technology)為「科技性」 ,代 表新興技術的評估、新穎技術的應用及核心技術的提升,三者關係如下(圖3.1):

圖3. 1 The SET Fators 28


2.

瞭解價值機會點(Phase II:Understanding the Opportunity) 在Phase I產生一個機會,藉由定性研究(qualitative research method),建立機

會價值分析表(Value Opportunity Charts and Analysis, VOA)來進行「多樣化的研 究預測」,將整體的產品或機會的屬性做定義。具體評分項目分別是為情感 (emotion)、人因工程(ergonomics)、美學(aesthetics)、產品定位(identity)、影響 (impact)、核心技術(core tech.)與品質(quality)。而在這些項目之下又可以細分成 許多不同的子項目,各個子項目如(圖3.2)所示。

圖3. 2 VOA 價值機會分析 產品風格技術定位圖(Positioning Map)以技術(technology, T)與風格(style, S) 作為二維空間軸向的定義,劃分出四象限,第一象限(upper right)為高度技術與風 格導向;第二象限(upper left)為低技術高風格導向;第三象限(lower left)為低技術 低風格導向;第四象限(lower right)為高技術低風格導向。

29


創新性產品的開發必然是多方面合作的結果,利用風格技術定位圖,可以克 服研發者只追求技術和功能,而設計者注重外觀風格的矛盾,評估的方式為將既 有產品依風格面與技術面作出定位,並努力使新開發的產品達到風格與技術兼顧 的第一象限(圖3.3)的高度技術與風格導向,在市場上獨佔鰲頭、領先的或獨一無 二的,如Apple iPhone有很強的產品識別、使用性高及優於他人的技術能力,與 競爭廠牌有顯著的區隔及差異化。

圖3. 3 Positioning Map 風格技術定位圖 LEF三要素分別為生活型態影響(lifestyle impact, L)、人因工程(ergonomics, E)、功能特徵(features, F),目的在Positioning Map創造三維的價值, 透過L、E、 F這三要素進行評比,其三者關係如下(圖3.4):

圖3. 4 LEF三要素 (本研究繪製) 30


3.

概念化價值機會點(Phase III:Conceptualizing the Opportunity) 以價值機會點(VOs)為基礎構成「多樣化的概念」,在Phase II中得到許多不

同的設計想法,將這些構想加以整合,技術、人因工程、行銷互相支援,跨領域 知識的整合及不同專業之間的相互尊重、理解和配合,良好的協調與團隊合作, 加上有效的管理,並獲得高階主管的支持,最後產生概念化的設計方案。

4.

落實價值機會點(Phase IV:Realizing the Opportunity) 在Phase III中將產生的概念化設計方案「描述細節」 。完成的創新設計方案,

在本階段的最後目標為經過行銷推出市場,成為實際真實的商品。

5.

結語 首先建立、辨識、確認、找到產品的機會點,當文化持續地變遷、更新,興

起新產品的機會就會很多,設計產品不僅僅要解決現有的問題,必須創造新經驗 的可能性。本研究透過整合型新產品創新設計流程(User-Centered iNPD)中的有系 統的SET、LEF、VOA綜合分析、歸納,充分地瞭解視障使用者的潛在需求,產 生產品的屬性作為新產品發展的指引,進而轉化成可實行明確的設計方案。 成功的產品必須考量使用者的個人價值,產品經驗包括產品給人的感覺與產 品互動,是否容易使用,功能性是否能夠滿足使用者的需求,是否能讓使用者擁 有一個好的、友善的經驗,以及愉悅性。本研究結合文獻探討、與問卷調查、深 度訪談、參與式觀察法的方式,將所收集的資料透過整合型新產品創新設計流程 法中的現況分析工具,預測未來可能的產品機會,提出滿足視障者手機使用需求 與相關應用的設計構想,最後進行評估驗證的實驗。 31


3.5 視障者手機「使用需求」之研究成果與討論 根據研究目的以及相關文獻的探討,初步擬定視障者手機的功能與使用需求 的與規劃設計之問卷內容。除了瞭解視障者的基本背景和資料, 3.5.1 問卷設計 (1) 生活型態調查:瞭解視障者在日常生活中使用手機的時機、使用手機時遇 到的困難以及使用習慣。 (2) 針對現用手機進行滿意度調查,瞭解視障者使用手機各項功能的滿意度。 (3) 本研究整理歸納並展開手機各項使用需求度調查:挖掘視障使用者的要求 與潛在的需求,以作為後續視障者手機與相關應用之規劃與設計方案的分 析及參考。 (4) 運用深入訪談法以及直接參與觀察法之研究方法,尋求建議以及獲得更豐 富的資料,以彌補問卷不足之處。

3.5.2 受訪者 研究主要的對象為視覺障礙者,在此階段實驗問卷中,總共訪問八位視障 者,其基本資料如表3.1所示,雖然無法代表全體視覺障礙者,但資料呈現的訊 息仍有助本研究初窺概況。 表3. 1 受訪視障者基本資料 受訪者

年齡(歲)

視障程度

失明因素

失去視力 時間(年)

職業

1

A先生

47

重度,有光覺

後天

44

社會福利

2

B先生

48

重度,無光覺

先天

48

3

C小姐

35

重度,有光覺

後天

4

社會福利

4

D先生

48

重度,有光覺

後天

42

社會福利

5

E小姐

51

重度,有光覺

後天

21

公務員

6

F小姐

31

中度

先天

31

7

G小姐

28

重度,無光覺

先天

28

按摩

8

H先生

31

重度,無光覺

後天

3

按摩、網拍

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3.5.3

手機使用習慣調查結果與分析

1. 使用手機的頻率(表3.2): 75%每天使用;25%二至三天使用一次,且皆為女性,根據劉俊甫(1997)研究 指出,男性視障者積極尋求與外界接觸的程度較女性視障者高。 表3. 2 手機使用習慣調查-使用頻率 使用手機的頻率 Total Votes Total Votes (%) 每天 6 75% 2-3天 2 25%

2. 使用過手機的數量(表3.3): 25%超過20支以上,皆為男性;12.5%使用過10支;12.5%使用過6支;25%使 用過5支;25%使用過3支。 表3. 3 手機使用習慣調查-使用數量 使用過手機的數量(支) Total Votes Total Votes (%) 20以上 2 25% 10以上 1 12.5% 6 1 12.5% 5 2 25% 5 2 25% 3. 汰換手機的原因(表3.4): 75%皆為單純的壞掉時汰換;25%為追求新功能、想要了解手機作業系統、研 究、教學、推廣等較為複雜的因素,皆為男性。 表3. 4 手機使用習慣調查-汰換原因 汰換手機的原因 Total Votes Total Votes (%) 損壞 6 75% 追求新功能、瞭解手機作業系統、 2 25% 研究、教學、推廣

4. 喜好手機的型式(表3.5): 「直立式」為62.5%,直立式方便接聽、簡便好用、按任意鍵即可接聽以及個

33


人習慣,為其喜好原因;「掀蓋式」為37.5%,掀蓋式體積小、可避免誤觸按 鍵、打開即刻通話,為其喜好原因。但超過一半視障者表示掀蓋式的軸承因 經常開合容易損壞,且無法再維修,必須進行汰換。 表3. 5 手機使用習慣調查-喜好型式 喜愛手機的型式(複選) Total Votes Total Votes (%) 直立式 5 62.5% 掀蓋式 3 37.5% 5. 攜帶方式(表3.6): 50%放置於包包,且皆為女性;25%放置於腰包或掛在皮帶上;25%放置於口 袋。後兩項的使用者皆為男性。 表3. 6 手機使用習慣調查-攜帶方式 攜帶方式 Total Votes Total Votes (%) 放隨身背包裡 4 50% 腰包或皮帶 2 25% 衣服褲子的口袋 2 25% 6. 是否使用耳機(表3.7): 75%表示不使用;12.5%偶爾收聽電台使用;12.5%使用藍芽耳機。 表3. 7 手機使用習慣調查-耳機 是否使用耳機 Total Votes Total Votes (%) 不使用 6 75% 偶爾收聽電台才使用 1 12.5% 使用的是無線藍芽耳機 1 12.5%

3.5.4

手機使用時機需求度評量結果與分析

1. 評量分數最高前五名依序為(由高至低排序) (表3.8): 「與他人聯絡見面」 、 「緊急事件與救援」 、 「迷路」 、 「聯絡警察」 、 「聯絡客戶」。 多數視障者知道可用手機撥緊急救援號碼,遇到突發事件時可請求救援,讓 他人可找到自己,藉此瞭解視障者對於安全感的需求度高。 34


表3. 8 手機使用時機需求度調查-需求度前五名 使用時機需求度評量 Top 5(高至低) 與他人聯絡見面

1

緊急事件與救援

2

迷路

3

聯絡警察

4

聯絡客戶

5

2. 評量分數最低前五名依序為(由低至高排序) (表3.9): 「收聽電台」、「聽音樂」、「上網」、「收聽氣象」、「使用鬧鐘」。視障者表示, 手機主要作為通訊裝置使用,而收聽電台、聽音樂有其他更方便、專門使用 的電子裝置。 表3. 9 手機使用時機需求度調查-需求度後五名 使用時機需求度評量 名次(低至高) 收聽電台 1 (最低) 聽音樂 2 上網 3 聽氣象 4 使用鬧鐘 5

3. 三位視障者表達其他手機使用時機需求度之意見,分別為: 「錄音」 、 「拍照」、 「單純與朋友聊天」。

35


3.5.5

現用手機滿意度評量結果與分析

1. 通訊錄功能(表3.10): 62.5%沒有使用通訊錄,以至於通訊錄之查詢、建立、刪除功能皆無法操作。 37.5%使用通訊錄的視障者有使用外掛的即時語音報讀軟體,如在Nokia手機 N70外掛Mobile Speak語音導引軟體(圖3.5),滿意度都在滿意和非常滿意之間。 表3. 10 現用手機滿意度評量-通訊錄 是否使用通訊錄功能

Total Votes

Total Votes (%)

不使用

5

62.5%

有使用

3

37.5%

註 沒有安裝外掛之 即時語音報讀軟體 有安裝外掛之 即時語音報讀軟體

圖3. 5 Mobile Speak 語音導引軟體 2. 簡訊功能(表3.11): 50%沒有使用簡訊功能,以至於簡訊之查詢、撰寫、刪除功能皆無法操作。50% 的視障者有使用簡訊,均使用Nokia品牌手機,原因是可透過即時語音報軟 體,如Mobile Speak,輔助聽覺執行收發簡訊任務,調查發現有使用即時語音 報讀軟體的使用者滿意度相當高。 表3. 11 現用手機滿意度評量-簡訊 是否使用簡訊功能

Total Votes

Total Votes (%)

不使用

5

62.5%

沒有安裝外掛之 即時語音報讀軟體

36


有使用

3

37.5%

有安裝外掛之 即時語音報讀軟體

3. 針對功能滿意度評分最高的前五名,依評分高至低排序如下(表3.12): 「開關機的方式」、「鈴聲接聽電話方式」、「確認是否已在待機狀態」、「實體 的手機標準數字鍵盤(Standard 12-button numeric keypad)」、「手機造型」。 表3. 12 現用手機滿意度評量-功能滿意前五名 Top 5 功能滿意度 (高至低) 開關機的方式 1 鈴聲接聽電話 2 確認待機狀態 3 實體的手機標準數字鍵盤 4 (Standard 12-button numeric keypad) 手機造型 5 4. 除「通訊錄」和「簡訊」 ,針對功能滿意度評分最低的前五名,依評分低至高 排序如下(表3.13): 「電力提示」 、 「確認是否已選到想要的功能」 、 「待機時間」 、 「材質」、「手機尺寸」。評分最低也是多數視障者抱怨的為「電力提示」,受 訪者表示使用時常常在一個嗶聲之後隨即沒電,或是只能再講一會兒隨即關 機,他們希望手機能夠提早提示,如此可以爭取多一點時間作為關機的預備。 表3. 13 現用手機滿意度評量-功能滿意後五名 名次 功能不滿意度 (低至高) 電力提示 1 (最低) 確認是否已選到想要的功能 2 待機時間 3 材質 4 手機尺寸 5 5. 此外,除了25%有使用「鬧鐘」功能,滿意度平均為滿意4。其他的「音樂MP3」 、 「電台」不被視障者所使用,故無法進行評分。

37


3.5.6

未來視障者手機使用需求度評量結果與分析

依使用需求之評分依序進行介紹(Top 10): 1. 實體的手機標準數字鍵盤(Standard 12-button numeric keypad) 統計顯示所有的受訪視障者對於手機的實體標準數字鍵盤,且數字鍵5有一 「定位點」之撥號方式有高度的需求,每位評分皆為非常需要5分。透過訪談 與得知幾乎所有的視障者皆不贊成在每個數字按鍵上做浮凸的點字數字鍵盤 (如圖2.7),視障者表示反而會增加觸覺辨識的複雜度,造成困擾並影響效率。 2. 語音確認每項功能 除了問卷統計結果顯示此項使用需求度極高,視障者表示語音是相當方便、 有效率的一種確認方式,但在某些狀況下,仍需要顧及個人「隱私」的問題。 3. 「螢幕」及「電力提示」 兩項評分相同。 低視力視障者及若干重度視障者仍能使用放大擴視鏡來檢視螢幕上的資訊, 即使全盲視障者也表示對於「螢幕保留」的高度需求,因為也有需要明眼人 的從旁協助的時候。而本研究在訪談中即經常遇到視障朋友要求協助設定手 機內的某些功能以及查看簡訊等等,因其中一位視障朋友手機螢幕已損壞無 法顯示,研究者雖樂意協助設定,卻也無能為力,因此「螢幕之保留」為本 研究重要發現之一,以文獻中調查之市售、概念手機大多是將螢幕排除在外 的設計,本研究建議應深入瞭解視障者使用需求,較可以設計出適切於使用 者的產品。電力提示為現用手機普遍反應非常不滿意的項目(詳表3.13)。 4. 「語音提醒未接來電」、「GPS步行導航」、「掃描文字轉語音(概念)」 三項評分相同。透過深入訪談瞭解「即時語音報讀」仍是重要的需求,從查 詢未接來電、簡訊、通訊錄,進而能撰寫簡訊、通訊錄,都需要語音導引協 助完成。GPS步行導航也是高度的使用需求,目前GPS精度只到縣市的街道, 視障者表示GPS精度若能得知門牌號碼的定位,就算不使用GPS導引路線功 能,單以語音回報現處之精確所在位置來說,對於視障者在外行動的獨立自 主即有相當多的幫助,若能結合語音指南針(電子羅盤)辨別方向功能為更佳。 視障者對於知識、資訊吸收的渴求反應在「掃描文字轉語音」這項需求上, 38


如掃描書報雜誌上的文字,再以語音報讀將印刷品的內容輸出,若此概念在 技術上能突破並結合在手機上,可以幫助視障者順利地探索、瞭解這個世界。 5. 「語音報讀簡訊」、「多種鈴聲設定」 兩項評分相同。語音報讀簡訊的高需求度,再次印證即時語音報讀的重要性。 經過直接參與觀察發現,相當多視障者喜愛設定多種鈴聲並偶爾更換新曲, 視障者反應希望能夠常常自行下載電信業者提供的歌曲當做鈴聲,也有視障 者使用自己所唱的歌作為來電鈴聲,對於音樂能為視障者帶來的愉悅性,也 不容小覷。 6. 「來電震動」 一般仍搭配來電鈴聲同時使用,在吵雜環境中,可有效減少電話漏接,輔助 聽覺不足之處,而女性視障者習慣將手機放置在包包裡的方式,也較能感應 到來電的通知。 7. 「錄音」 透過直接參與觀察發現,視障者常於通話中需記錄對方電話、地址或其他事 項,錄音是常用且快速的記錄方式。 8. 「語音提示未檢視簡訊」、「擴音」、「電子書語音報讀」: 三項評分相同。 9. 「震動提示未接來電」、「相機」 兩項評分相同。定時且持續地以震動提醒視障者未接來電,是現行可做到的 功能,透過問卷評量後顯示,視障者對此需求度也相當高。 透過深度訪談得知,即使是全盲視障者,也喜歡使用手機相機功能隨時拍照, 即便自己看不見,仍想與親友分享走過的景點,甚至當遭遇不好的事件,如 服務態度不佳的餐廳、司機,也會想要藉由拍照存證的方式以便日後申訴。 10. 聲控撥號 此功能已為視障者所使用,可以直接聲控命令號碼撥出或是錄製好的聯絡人 名語音標籤,惟聲控撥號仍有隱私性的問題。

39


3.5.7

結果與討論 除了上述問卷所統計的使用需求度外,並且透過深入訪談及直接參與觀察得

到以下幾點: 1. 「紙鈔辨識」與「色彩辨識」 視障者以觸覺能有效地辨認銅板金額,但由於紙鈔尺寸差異不大,在外購物 的視障者不能有效率地辨識出來,交易行為是視障者在日常生活中的常常遇 到的狀況,渴望被解決的問題。 多數視障者由於生理的限制無法分辨顏色,可能穿著不同顏色襪子出門,或 是服裝顏色搭配問題,視障者雖然自己看不到,但內心仍希望能給他人良好 的印象,若能將紙鈔及色彩辨識之應用程式整合於智慧型手機,相信可提高 視障者社交及生活的便利,並滿足受尊重、實現自我的需求。 2. 「智慧型手機」與「觸控螢幕」 本研究參與數次與視障者到光華商場購買手機與電子產品的活動,透過參與 觀察法發現,目前市售的智慧型手機(smart phone)具有的觸控式螢幕(touch screen)在主流市場中,已逐漸取代功能型手機(feature phone)的實體數字鍵盤。 缺少觸覺回饋,即使搭配完整階層選單均報讀的語音導引系統,視障者仍無 法以實際的觸覺回饋去確認是否執行各項功能與任務,因而無法使用;功能 型手機(feature phone)的實體的標準數字鍵盤仍有被保留下來的價值。 若在觸控螢幕上,虛體按鍵上增加觸覺回饋,若多發展如「Google Eyes-Free」 、 「Nokia Braille Reader」在智慧型手機上的相關應用,視障者將能更輕鬆、且 無負擔地享受社交生活樂趣。

40


3. 貼水鑽的手機按鍵 視障者的親友幫忙在手機的每個按鍵上貼了小水鑽(圖3.6),視障者表示喜歡 更加立體的手機按鍵,但是卻不希望因此手機整體的尺寸及體積變大。視障者表 達希望能與一般大眾使用相同樣式的手機,不願意使用造型太特殊、不希望他人 一看就得知為視障者專屬使用的手機,一方面也是安全性的考量。

圖3. 6 貼水鑽的手機按鍵

4. 視障者手機五項重要基本使用需求 研究主要的發現如下:視障者五項重要基本使用需求為: 「接聽」 , 「撥號」, 「建立通訊錄」 , 「閱讀簡訊」 , 「撰寫簡訊」 ,在此五項重要基本使用需求中, 「使 用通訊錄」和「收發、撰寫簡訊」都需要即時語音報讀軟體的協助來完成。 5. 主要功能展開 整理分析研究調查的結果,以通用設計的精神,在最大的可能下,盡量符合 最多數視障者可用的設計,規劃符合視障者使用需求的手機,主要功能依重要性 依序展開如下: (1) 實體「標準數字鍵盤」保留之價值與「螢幕保留」之必要性。 (2) 即時語音報讀(real-time audio feedback): 符合視障者五項重要基本需求。藉此功能,視障者能夠獨立操作手機的各 項功能,包括進階的設定功能表,每一階層選單都以語音報讀,即使是電 41


池電量、收訊狀態、時鐘都能設定以主動或被動的方式語音提示視障者, 並且依使用者需求可以調整音量大小等等。 (3) 本研究提出之「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」 ,以解決手機文字輸 入之使用需求,如建立通訊錄、撰寫簡訊、快速記錄事項。 (4) 語音指南針(電子羅盤)及GPS步行導航系統。 (5) 語音電子書,結合掃描文字轉語音報讀。 (6) 相機: 現今臉部辨識技術已廣泛應用在數位相機上,將其整合在手機相機中並搭 配語音提示功能。視障者於拍照時,先以半按快門鍵進行對焦,此時語音 通知已偵測到的臉部辨識,再完全地按下快門鍵,如此便可增加拍攝畫面 的完整性。 (7) 內建多種鈴聲(詳3.5.6 - 5)。 (8) 震動:包括來電震動、定時且持續地以震動提示未接來電及未接簡訊(詳 3.5.6 - 6)。 (9). 錄音(詳3.5.6 - 7)。 (10) 擴音(免持聽筒)。 (11) 聲控撥號(詳3.5.6 - 10)。 6. 三項創新價值機會點 本研究透過整合型新產品發展流程法(iNPD)之分析工具SET、VOA、 LEF(詳3.5)評估而得到產品價值機會點(POGs),提出針對視障者手機三項創新 設計為(詳4.1): (1) 即時語音報讀系統。 (2) 手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)。 (3) GPS步行導航系統(詳1.3)。

42


第四章 盲文點字應用於手機文字輸入之創新設計 透過前一章視障者手機使用需求調查,得知視障者使用手機時,在輸出資訊 方面可利用語音合成輔助聽覺回饋,但在輸入部分,如「文字、資訊」尚有很大 的改善空間,而且在語音辨識技術尚未發展非常成熟的情況下,環境的噪音、說 話的速度與腔調等種種因素都會干擾輸入辨識的優劣,語音辨識技術仍需持續的 發展與進步,即使使用語音輸入,尚仍有個人喜好方式之選擇以及隱私權的顧慮。 4.1 設計創作之動機與目的 經過上述的文獻探討以及問卷調查、深入訪談與參與觀察分析的結果,在視 障者手機五項重要基本使用需求中的「建立通訊錄」 、 「撰寫簡訊」顯示視障者對 於手機輸入文字與資訊的使用上,仍面臨相當大的不便與困難。站在「以使用者 為中心」的視點,本研究提出一「盲文點字應用於手機文字輸入」之創新設計方 案,本研究亦命名為「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」 。幫助視障者在日常 生活中使用手機時,能夠獨立且不依靠他人便能完成建立通訊錄、撰寫簡訊的目 的,更可以使用手機行動上網搜尋資訊、記錄記事、打字與朋友聊天等等,皆能 夠順暢地輸入文字。 4.2 設計創作之構想發展 點字(Braille)是無論先天失明或後天失明、全盲視障者或低視力視障者都需 要學習使用的觸摸文字。本研究提出一能使視障者運用熟悉的點字記號規則應用 於手機上進行輸入文字的創新設計構想。 點字由六點的變化產生不同的字音與意義,而國語點字是以注音符號拼成字 義,將點字記號「1、2、3、4、5、6 點」對應至手機上的數字鍵盤「1、4、7、

43


2、5、8 鍵」,如圖「輸入點字記號區」所示(圖4.1)。依照點字規則的概念在手 機上進行文字內容的輸入,並且利用語音合成技術的「即時語音報讀」與「音效」 輔助聽覺回饋,視障者可確認輸入內容正確與否,同時也讓「選字」(即快速選 擇相關字義詞組)的功能得以實現。 經過實驗驗證以及深入訪談的結果瞭解,點字各種排列組合所變化的「形狀」 能夠很直覺地呈現於視障者的腦海,在實驗中執行輸入簡訊任務時,點字便可快 速地在手機上透過數字鍵盤輸入六點變化的點字,視障者不需要特別思索或學習 就能理解使用。 手機標準數字鍵盤的「3、6、9」分別定義為輸入標點符號與特殊符號,包 含快速輸入以及手動輸入兩種方式;而「數字按鍵9」則是空白鍵,不需切換模 式方便立即使用; 「數字按鍵✽」則是切換各輸入法; 「數字鍵盤#」短按切換英 文大小寫,長按則是切換全型半型。英文點字也可使用相同的概念與模式,以英 文點字規則在手機進行文字輸入;而數字則不需使用此方式,保持原來的數字按 鍵的方式最為直覺與快速。 為驗證重複編碼的問題,本研究亦編列了407組注音符號對應點字記號的所 有注音發音變化的組合(詳附錄二),包含聲母和韻母或結合韻的點字記號(不含聲 調),共計有17個重複編碼(如表4.3),其中有8組編碼是成對重複的,而第四組編 碼則是重複3個的注音拼音,共占4.17%,其重碼率比例相對於其他輸入法來得 低,可透過即時語音報讀在八組中提供選擇,二選一或最多三選一,讓視障者可 以正確地選擇所需的字。

44


圖4. 1 點字輸入法之鍵盤配置 4.2.1 點字記號與數字鍵盤之對應細節 1. 對應關係: 利用手機的標準數字鍵盤(0-9、*、#),導入盲文六點點字系統(Braille)。 點字記號的1、3、5點,對應於手機數字鍵盤的1、4、7鍵;點字記號的4、5、6 點,對應於手機數字鍵盤的2、5、8鍵(如表4.2),筆順由第一點依上到下、左至 右的順序輸入點字記號,依序以輸入文字。 2. 確認鍵與方向鍵: 欲輸入一個中文字,當聲母以及韻母或結合韻以及聲調都輸入完成後,按確 認鍵送出,每個中文字至少有二「方」到三「方」 ,完成一個字的輸入後(含聲調), 按確認鍵後再發音(搭配即時語音報讀),接下來會進行語音選字的動作,語音讀 出字義提供選擇,如輸入「ㄩˇ」之後會提供:下雨的雨、語言的語、羽毛的羽 以方向鍵上下左右移動選擇其正確的字義。或遇到重複編碼的情況也提供語音選 擇。

45


表4. 1 點字記號與數字鍵盤對照表 聲母 (共21個) ㄅ ㄆ ㄇ ㄈ ㄉ ㄊ ㄋ ㄌ ㄍ ㄎ ㄏ ㄐ ㄑ ㄒ ㄓ ㄔ

點字 記號 135 1234 134 12345 145 124 1345 14 13 123 1235 13 245 15 1 12

數字 鍵盤 175 1472 172 14725 125 142 1725 12 17 147 1475 17 425 15 1 14

24

42

ㄖ ㄗ ㄘ ㄙ 聲調 (共5個) 一聲 ˊ ˇ ˋ ˙

1245 125 245 15

1425 145 425 15

韻母 (共16個) ㄚ ㄛ ㄜ ㄝ ㄞ ㄟ ㄠ ㄡ ㄢ ㄣ ㄤ ㄥ ㄦ ㄧ ㄨ ㄩ 結合韻 (共22個) ㄧㄚ ㄧㄛ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄞ

點字 記號 345 126 2346 26 2456 356 146 12356 1236 136 1346 1356 156 16 34 1256

數字 鍵盤 725 148 4728 48 4258 758 128 14758 1478 178 1728 1758 158 18 72 1458

點字記號

數字鍵盤

23456 356 346 26

47258 758 728 48

點字記號

數字鍵盤

ㄧㄠ

246

428

3 2 4 5 1

7 4 2 5 1

ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄤ ㄧㄥ ㄨㄚ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄞ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄢ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄤ ㄨㄥ ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ ㄩㄥ

234 2345 1456 46 13456 35 25 2356 1246 12456 123456 456 12346 236 45 256 235

472 4725 1258 28 17258 75 45 4758 1428 14258 147258 258 14728 478 25 258 475

資料來源:本研究整理 (註:顏色相同表示點字記號相同,但使用上不會同時重複)

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4.2.2 其他按鍵配置 (1) 在手機標準數字鍵盤上,除了「1、4、7、2、5、8鍵」為對應的點字記號 輸入位置, 「數字按鍵3」 ,設定為「標點符號快速鍵」 , 「數字按鍵3」按一 次為逗號,連續按兩次為句號,連續按三次為頓號(、),連續按四次為分 號(;),接著有問號(?)驚嘆號(!)冒號(:)頓號(、)破折號(-) 等等,以 此類推。 (2)「數字按鍵6」,設定為特殊符號或數學符號的快速鍵,規則「數字按鍵6」 按一次為@、按兩次為加號(+)、按三次為減號(-)等等,以此類推。 (3)「數字按鍵9」,設定為手動輸入點字記號的標點符號或特殊符號,使用者 可以選擇以「數字按鍵3」、或「數字按鍵6」設定的快速鍵,輸入標點符 號或特殊符號,也可以選擇按「數字按鍵9」 ,以手動輸入點字記號的標點 符號或特殊符號。 (4)「數字按鍵0」,設定為空白鍵。 (5) 星字鍵(*),設定為切換手機內的各種輸入法。 (6) 井字鍵(#)設定為短按:切換大小寫;長按:切換全型╱半型。

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4.2.3 重複編碼率分析 重複編碼率簡稱重碼率。為驗證注音符號之點字記號所有的排列組合是否有 重複編碼,根據(附錄二. 注音符號拼音排列組合與點字記號與手機數字鍵盤對照 表),將聲母和韻母或結合韻的點字記號合併後,整理出重複的編碼,在407個組 合注音的拼音中,共計有17個重複編碼(如表4.2),其中有八組編碼是成對重複 的,而第四組編碼則是重複三個的注音拼音,共占4.17%,其比例相對於其他輸 入法來得低,目前解決方式設定為,透過語音導引系統,以語音報讀的方式,二 選一或最多三選一,讓視障者選擇所需的字音。 表4. 2 手機點字輸入法重複編碼表 編碼 成對組 1 2 3

4

5 6 7 8

注音符號

點字記號 聲母+韻母/結合韻(不含聲調)

例字

ㄎㄨㄤ

123456

ㄨㄣ

123456

ㄨㄥ

12346

ㄓㄨㄥ

12346

12356

ㄓㄨㄞ

12356

ㄔㄨㄤ

12456

ㄓㄞ

12456

ㄨㄢ

12456

ㄓㄚ

1345

ㄐㄩㄢ

1345

ㄍㄨㄤ

13456

ㄧㄥ

13456

ㄐㄧㄤ

1346

1346

ㄓㄨㄤ

1456

ㄧㄣ

1456

資料來源:本研究整理

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4.3

實驗設計 本研究選擇視障者日常生活使用手機的情境,透過視障者執行建立一則生活

用語的中文字簡訊之任務進行模擬實作,研究者首先對受測者說明「手機點字輸 入法(Mobile Braille IME)」的設計與規則,受測者觸摸瞭解手機按鍵位置(圖4.2), 並進行簡單的練習,練習題為「大家好」、「點字輸入法」分別為三個字和五個 字(圖4.3),受測者可自由選擇是否繼續練習,若受測者覺得不需要再多練習即可 直接開始實驗。

圖4. 2 說明手機點字輸入法的設計與規則

圖4. 3 輸入點字實驗練習題 49


正式實驗題目為一則含標點符號共36字元的中文字簡訊,根據認知心理學的 建議,人類的短期記憶有其限制,人類腦中的短期記憶區可以暫存7正負2個(5-9 個)資訊區塊(chunk),超過此上限的資訊量會造成認知上的負擔,並且該記憶會 快速地流失(Miller, G. A. 1965),因此,研究者依每個句子約7個字,分段口述即 時報讀實驗題目(圖4.4),並告知受測者實驗並無時間限制之壓力,按照平日輸入 簡訊的節奏即可,實驗目的主要為評估「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」 之使用性及滿意度,而非測試視障者輸入點字的效率與能力。

圖4. 4 人員報讀實驗任務內容 受測者執行實驗時,研究者仍從旁觀察並記錄,實驗完成後先以問卷方式調 查受測者手機使用習慣、點字使用習慣、「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」 使用性評量以及滿意度評量(附錄三),最後進行深入訪談(圖4.5)。

圖4. 5 視障者分享使用「聽書郎」的經驗 50


1. 實驗設備 智慧型手機(smart phone)與功能型手機(feature phone)主要區別為智慧型手 機乃開放式架構的作業系統,而功能型手機在一般簡訊模式下,只要按「確認鍵」 時會直接傳送,或者是選擇通訊錄另存至草稿夾,不符合本研究實驗設計需求, 實驗任務為以「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」撰寫一則日常生活用語的 簡訊,在每完成一個字都需要按「確認鍵」換行,因此本實驗選擇的智慧型手機 HTC S730( 圖 4.6) 作 為 實 驗 的 操 作 工 具 , 其 作 業 系 統 為 Windows Mobile 6 Standard,且具有實體之標準數字鍵盤,按確認鍵後可進行換行,以紀錄受測者 輸入點字記號相對應的實驗數據,以利後續正確率的統計分析。

圖4. 6 Smart Phone HTC S730

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2. 實驗任務內容 實驗任務設定為讓視障者自行建立一則內容為一般日常生活用語的簡訊,為 確保操作任務中用字與陳述的適切性,本研究邀請研究視障者電子產品多年的專 家視障者與從事社會服務工作的視障者,針對初擬之前測題目提供意見,例如在 前測中,原規劃實驗題目之生活用語簡訊,囊括了中、英、數字、標點符號,依 據視障者表示,並非所有的視障者都熟悉英文點字,故本研究依意見與溝通結果 進行修正,修正後亦再請前述之視障朋友協助檢視,進行最後的調整。 最後擬定之正式實驗簡訊題目總共36個字元,其中有31個中文字,5個標點 符號。實驗進行中(圖4.7–4.11),受測視障者依照研究者報讀的操作任務內容, 依點字記號使用的規則,以手機之標準數字鍵盤輸入詞句,任務結束後研究者使 用操作任務內容與點字記號與數字鍵盤之對照表(表4.3),進行正確率的計算與分 析。

圖4. 7 受測視障者練習中

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圖4. 8 練習完畢正式進行「撰寫簡訊」的實驗任務

圖4. 9 以雙手雙指操作「撰寫簡訊」任務的視障者

53


圖4. 10 以雙手單指操作「撰寫簡訊」任務的視障者

圖4. 11 研究人員以口述「即時報讀」題目方式進行

54


表4. 3 操作任務內容與點字記號與數字鍵盤對照表 繁體中文

注音符號

點字記號 聲母+韻母/結合韻+聲調

數字鍵盤

ㄋㄧˇ

1345 16 4

1725 18 2

ㄏㄠˇ

12351464

1475 128 2

,今

,ㄐㄧㄣ

,13 1456 3

3 17 1258 7

ㄊㄧㄢ

124 2345 3

142 4725 7

ㄏㄣˇ

1235 136 4

1475 178 2

ㄍㄠ

13 146 3

17 128 7

ㄒㄧㄥˋ

15 13456 5

15 17258 5

ㄖㄣˋ

1245 136 5

1425 178 5

ㄕㄦˋ

24 156 5

42 158 5

ㄋㄧˇ

1345 16 4

1725 18 2

,謝

ㄒㄧㄝˋ

,15 346 5

3 15 728 5

ㄒㄧㄝˋ

15 346 5

15 728 5

ㄋㄧˇ

1345 16 4

1725 18 2

ㄖㄜˋ

1245 2346 5

1425 4728 5

ㄒㄧㄣ

15 1456 3

15 1258 7

ㄅㄤ

135 1346 3

175 1728 7

ㄇㄤˊ

134 1346 2

172 1728 4

,讓

ㄖㄤˋ

,1245 1346 5

3 1425 1728 5

ㄨㄛˇ

25 4

45 2

ㄇㄣ˙

134 136 1

172 178 1

ㄅㄠˇ

135 146 4

175 128 2

ㄔㄦˊ

12 156 2

14 158 4

ㄌㄧㄢˊ

14 2345 2

12 4725 4

ㄌㄨㄛˋ

14 25 5

12 45 5

,期

ㄑㄧˊ

245 16 2

3 425 18 4

ㄉㄞˋ

145 2456 5

125 4258 5

ㄒㄧㄚˋ

15 23456 5

15 47258 5

ㄘㄦˋ

245 156 5

425 158 5

ㄗㄞˋ

125 2456 5

145 4258 5

ㄐㄧㄢˋ

13 2345 5

17 4725 5

ㄇㄧㄢˋ

134 2345 5

172 4725 5

33

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4.4

實驗對象 實驗期間自2010年6月至7月,本研究係以非機率抽樣中的滾雪球抽樣技術

(snow ball sampling),共招募二十一名視障者,男性共八名、女性共十三名。年 齡自二十五歲到五十六歲。視障程度重度為二十名、中度一名。

4.5

實驗正確率與錯誤分析

1. 平均操作時間 (1) 在正式實驗前,告知受測者並無時間限制的壓力,可以按照自己平日習慣的 步調撰寫簡訊。 (2) 最慢者:20分鐘;最快者:2分鐘。(詳見附錄四.手機點字輸入法實驗結果與 錯誤分析對照表) (3) 平均操作時間:7.7分鐘。

2. 正確率 (1) 每位受測視障者的平均百分比(詳見附錄四.手機點字輸入法實驗結果與錯誤 分析對照表)。 (2) 以小數點第二位四捨五入計算之。 (3) 正確率平均百分比為83.1%。 (4) 若不計算得分最低者13.9%,其餘20位受測者正確率平均百分比為86.53%

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3. 錯誤因素分析 (1) 實驗所能提供的練習時間有限,受測視障者僅能在當天於研究者說明手機點 字輸入法之構想後,在實驗現場進行練習。 (2) 實驗使用手機的數字鍵盤尺寸較小,容易造成誤按鄰近的按鍵,如按數字鍵 7會不小心按到*字鍵,固然多數視障者觸覺相當敏銳,仍有失誤的情況發生。 (3) 因本實驗為模擬之實作,手機方面僅有「答答」按鍵的聽覺回饋,在尚無安 裝外掛即時語音報讀軟體之前提下,研究者以口述之「即時報讀」方式取代。 (4) 我們的「們」聲調錯誤,正確應該為輕聲 「˙」,一般認知的錯誤為「ˊ」 二聲,此現象有高達42.9%的錯誤率。 (5) 其他單字的聲調錯誤。 (6) 沒有按照順序點字記號的順序輸入,雖然組合起來點字記號的字形是正確 的,但因可能會有重複編碼的考量,仍記為錯誤。 (7) 漏字,研判可能沒有牢記題目或是分心或緊張以及環境因素干擾造成。 (8) 原本所認知的某個字不是正確的,同一個字的錯誤則會一致再出現,例如受 測者J先生輸入的「你」「ㄋㄧˇ」的「ㄋ」只輸入1、3點(對應數字鍵為1、 7),缺少點字記號的點4、5,「ㄋ」正確應為1、3、4、5點,此實驗中「你」 出現三次,則三次的「ㄋ」全錯。

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4.6

手機使用習慣調查

1. 使用手機的年資(表4.4):使用超過20年為9.5%;使用10~20年為66.7%;使用 10年以下的為23.8%,使用年資與年齡成正相關,年齡越高者使用年資越久。 表4. 4 手機使用習慣調查(II)-使用年資 使用手機的年資 超過20年 10-20年 10年以下

Total Votes (n=21) 2 14 5

Total Votes (%) 9.5% 66.7% 23.8%

2. 使用手機的頻率(表4.5):每天使用手機為100%,雖然不一定每天都有人打電 話來,也會每天攜帶在身上。 表4. 5 手機使用習慣調查(II)-使用頻率 使用手機的頻率 每天使用

Total Votes (n=21) 21

Total Votes (%) 100%

3. 現用手機的廠牌(表4.6):4.8%使用K-Touch,此手機有特殊編曲功能;4.8% 使用Samsung;4.8%使用Motorola;9.5%使用Sony Ericsson;Nokia為76.2%, 有28.6%皆使用Nokia N系列的手機,由此得知安裝語音導引系統的Nokia手機 深受視障朋友歡迎。另外,其中一位的第二支手機為HTC,若干視障者同時 使用兩支手機。 表4. 6 手機使用習慣調查(II)-現用手機廠牌 現用手機的廠牌 K-Touch Samsung Motorola Sony Ericsson Nokia

Total Votes (n=21) 1 1 1 2 16

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Total Votes (%) 4.8% 4.8% 4.8% 9.5% 76.2%


4. 現用手機的型式(表4.7):使用直立式手機有71.4%;掀蓋式為23.8%;滑蓋式(上 下滑型)為4.8%的比例。 表4. 7 手機使用習慣調查(II)-現用手機型式 現用手機的型式 直立式 掀蓋式 滑蓋式(上下滑型)

Total Votes (n=21) 15 5 1

Total Votes (%) 71.4% 23.8% 4.8%

5. 現用手機的價位(表4.8):分別有四個部分,第一部分為禮物,價位不明,有 14.3%;第二部分為二手貨,價位約在四千元,有9.5%,顯示視障者於二手 市場交易熱絡;第三部分是手機搭配門號:價位在兩千元以下有19%、價位 在四千元有23.8%的比例。 表4. 8 手機使用習慣調查(II)-現用手機價位 Total Votes (n=21) 3 2 4 5

現用手機的價位 禮物 二手貨 手機搭配門號

不明 4000元 2000元以下 4000元

Total Votes (%) 14.3% 9.5% 19% 23.8%

6. 購買新手機的價位(表4.9):價位在兩千元,有9.5%;價位在五千元,有47.6%; 價位在八千元有9.5%;價位在一萬元,有23.8%;價位在兩萬元,有9.5%的 比例。有9.5%視障者表示,若是功能夠好,有其價值,願意購買一至兩萬高 價位手機。 表4. 9 手機使用習慣調查(II)-購買新手機的價位 購買新手機的價位(元) 2,000 5,000 8,000 10,000 20,000

Total Votes (n=21) 2 10 2 5 2

59

Total Votes (%) 9.5% 47.6% 9.5% 23.8% 9.5%


7. 使用手機的時機(表4.10):聯絡親友、工作,約人見面、討論事情為100%, 除此之外,也會用來收發簡訊、錄音、記事本、偶爾叫計程車、找人問問題 等。 表4. 10 手機使用習慣調查(II)-手機使用時機 使用手機的時機 聯絡親友和工作

Total Votes (n=21) 21

Total Votes (%) 100%

8. 經常使用的手機功能(表4.11):接電話、打電話為100%;收發簡訊為38.1%、 聽簡訊4.8%;聽時間、聽日期有14.3%;使用筆記本、行事曆有9.5%;建立、 查詢通訊錄有9.5%;聽未接來電有9.5%;更換來電鈴聲有9.5%;使用鬧鐘、 錄音、收發email、聽來電報號、聽電信業者的語音信箱,皆為4.8%的比例。

表4. 11 手機使用習慣調查(II)-經常使用的功能 Total Votes (n=21) 21 8 1 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

經常使用的手機功能(複選) 接電話、打電話 收簡訊、發簡訊 聽簡訊 聽時間、聽日期 筆記本、行事曆 建立、查詢通訊錄 聽未接來電 更換來電鈴聲 鬧鐘 錄音 e-mail 聽來電報號 聽電信業者的語音信箱

Total Votes (%) 100% 38.1% 4.8% 14.3% 9.5% 9.5% 9.5% 9.5% 4.8% 4.8% 4.8% 4.8% 4.8%

9. 即時語音報讀選單軟體(語音導引系統)(表4.12):沒有安裝外掛語音導引系統 為33.3%;有安裝外掛的語音導引系統為61.9%;4.8%手機系統內建語音報讀 功能,但只有報讀第一層,再內層的選單無法報讀。

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表4. 12 手機使用習慣調查(II)-即時語音報讀選單 是否安裝外掛語音報讀選單軟體 (語音導引系統) 有 沒有 手機內建而非外掛,無法報讀進階選單

Total Votes (n=21) 13 7 1

Total Votes (%) 61.9% 33.3% 4.8%

10. 閱讀簡訊的使用(表4.13):使用簡訊查詢功能的有61.9%。沒有使用簡訊查詢 功能的有38.1%,其中很大的原因是沒有安裝外掛的語音報讀軟體而無法使 用,有9.5%的人反應,會請親友幫忙查詢手機內的簡訊;也有不少的廣告簡 訊不想理會。 表4. 13 手機使用習慣調查(II)-閱讀簡訊 Total Votes (n=21) 13 8

是否使用簡訊查詢功能 有 沒有

Total Votes (%) 61.9% 38.1%

11. 撰寫簡訊的使用(表4.14):沒有使用撰寫簡訊的有47.6%,有使用撰寫簡訊的 有52.4%。 表4. 14 手機使用習慣調查(II)-撰寫簡訊 Total Votes (n=21) 10 11

是否使用簡訊建立功能 沒有 有

Total Votes (%) 47.6% 52.4%

12. 撰寫簡訊使用的輸入法(表4.15):使用輸入法的有52.4%(n=21)的比例。其中 使用注音輸入法有72.7%(n=11),漢語拼音輸入法有27.3%的比例。 表4. 15 手機使用習慣調查(II)-撰寫簡訊所使用的輸入法 Total Votes (n=11) 8 3

撰寫簡訊使用的輸入法 注音輸入法 漢語拼音輸入法

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Total Votes (%) 72.7% 27.3%


13. 對於手機輸入法的任何意見(表4.16):使用注音輸入法(n=8),其中50%覺得尚 可接受;有25%不滿意其不能選字;有37.5者反應不滿意要背手機鍵盤上的注 音位置,不同的手機,注音位置也有所出入、輸入時要切換多種模式的選單, 反覆要按許多次,覺得麻煩;而漢語拼音有37.5%的使用者不滿意,不能選字, 輸入拼音時,出現選擇太多,不夠直覺、不夠精準選擇所需的字(或字音)。 表4. 16 手機使用習慣調查(II)-對於使用輸入法的意見 對於使用注音輸入法的意見 尚可接受 不滿意不能選字 不滿意要背注音符號的按鍵位置 對於使用漢語拼音輸入法的意見

Total Votes (n=8) 4 2 3 Total Votes (n=3)

1.不滿意不能選字 2.不滿意輸入拼音時太多後選字

3

Total Votes (%) 50% 25% 37.5% Total Votes (%) 100%

14. 手機輸入文字的方便性與任何意見(表4.17):覺得注音尚可使用,有9.5%;覺 得有安裝語音導引系統就方便使用,有14.3%;不滿意注音輸入法要背手機鍵 盤位置,有14.3%;覺得注音輸入文字不好用,有19%;沒有安裝語音導引系 統因此無法使用輸入法的有42.9%的比例。 表4. 17 手機使用習慣調查(II)-對於手機輸入文字的意見 手機輸入文字方便性與意見(複選) 認為注音輸入法尚可接受 只要有安裝語音導引系統 注音輸入法就方便使用 不滿意注音輸入法不能選字 不滿意要背注音符號的按鍵位置 注音輸入文字不好用 沒有安裝語音導引,故沒有使用

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Total Votes (n=21) 2

Total Votes (%) 9.5%

3

14.3%

3 3 4 9

14.3% 14.3% 19% 42.9


15. 迫切希望改善或擁有的手機主要功能: (1) 語音報讀選單系統 ⓐ市售手機內建語音報讀系統不夠普遍,現在欲使用語音報讀功能,大多 需要另外安裝外掛的語音導引軟體(如Mobile speak),視障者表示希望語音 導引軟體能成為手機基本的配備,如此對於手機廠牌的選擇性也將擴大。 ⓑ如大同公司手機即有內建語音報讀功能,但是報讀的階層仍不夠齊全與 詳細,每個階層的選單及功能都需要報讀出來方能符合視障者需求,如設 定時間、相機拍照也需要有即時語音報讀,目前的語音導引軟體(如Mobile speak)尚未報讀到這一層。 ⓒ語音報讀英文要能夠一個單字/一句話唸,目前的語音導引軟體(如 Mobile speak)在報讀英文的部份只能依一個一個字母讀出,效率相當慢。 (2) 好用、簡便操作的輸入法,輸入文字正確率的提升 ⓐ多位視障者沒有安裝即時語音報讀軟體,因此沒有使用通訊錄、簡訊; 視障者希望能夠獨立達成建立通訊錄名單,打簡訊給朋友。 ⓑ視障者表示希望能夠使用實驗用的「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」,這種輸入方式可以不用背手機鍵盤上的注音符號的位置,因有些 視障者不願意記注音符號的位置,而不願使用輸入文字和資訊的功能。 ⓒ多位視障者沒有安裝即時語音報讀軟體,因此沒有使用通訊錄、簡訊; 視障者希望能夠獨立達成建立通訊錄名單,打簡訊給朋友。 (3) 螢幕字級要大、對比要高,手機鍵盤要有立體感。 (4) GPS步行導航、錄音、電力持久、鬧鐘。 (5) 能夠上網、搜尋資訊、使用手機建立資料、聽新聞、聽音樂、Skype、GPS、 玩遊戲以及上網的費用問題。 (6) 結合政府資源公車到站通知服務。有9.5%的視障者主動提出此建議。為了 能有效減少視障者搭錯車,或被公車司機忽略的狀況發生,香港資訊及通 訊科技獎(2008)的金牌發表,為視障者設計並擁有點字站牌、大螢幕顯示 器及語音導引裝置的系統的「智慧型巴士站」 ,當視障者按下「搭乘按鈕」 , 即會以全球定位系統告知最近一班巴士司機到站停車,和通知乘客上車的 智慧型站牌系統,值得我們參考與學習。 63


4.7

點字使用習慣調查 視障者因視力上的限制,需要相關的電腦輔助軟硬體來協助並克服大量閱讀

電腦資訊內容的問題。低視力視障者可使用放大軟體或光學輔助器具來協助閱讀 電腦上的文字,然長時間的大量閱讀對低視力視障者而言依然造成視力上的負 擔;全盲視障者雖能透過電腦連接點字觸摸顯示器來摸讀電腦上的資訊,但點字 觸摸顯示器價格昂貴且不易隨時隨身攜帶,而無論是低視力視障者因個別視力限 制在閱讀速率上的差異或全盲視障者的點字摸讀(杞昭安,1990),在使用效率上 有待有更好的改善方式。若經由語音的輔助,無論低視力視障者或全盲視障者均 可以聽覺輔助或取代視覺與觸覺,有效獲取電腦中的資訊內容(萬明美,2000)。 此項調查有助於本研究瞭解視障者對於點字使用的習慣與現況,以便後續分析研 究之用。 1. 使用點字的年資(表4.18):使用點字10年以下為4.8%;使用點字11年至20年為 33.3%;使用點字21年至30年為42.9%;使用點字31年至40年為9.5%;使用點 字41年至50年為9.5%的比例。 表4. 18 點字使用習慣調查-使用年資 Total Votes (n=21) 1 7 9 2 2

使用點字的年資 10年以下 11-20年 21-30年 31-40年 41-50年

Total Votes (%) 4.8% 33.3% 42.9% 9.5% 9.5%

2. 會使用點字的種類(表4.19):會中文點字為100%;會英文點字為90.5%、9.5% 學過英文點字,但不太對於英文點字不熟悉;會使用數學點字為95.2%;會使 用音樂點字為38.1%;會使用日文點字為9.5%;學習過德文點字但不熟悉為 4.8%的比例。 64


表4. 19 點字使用習慣調查-使用點字的種類 Total Votes (n=21) 21 19 2 19 8 2 1

使用點字的種類(複選) 中文點字 英文點字 英文點字(不熟悉) 數學點字 音樂點字 日文點字 德文點字(不熟悉)

Total Votes (%) 100% 90.5% 9.5% 90.5% 38.1% 9.5% 4.8%

3. 日常生活是否使用點字(表4.20):日常生活中有使用點字有90.5%;有4.8%表 示日常生活中少用點字;有4.8%表示日常生活中不使用點字。 表4. 20 點字使用習慣調查-日常生活中是否使用點字 Total Votes (n=21) 19 1 1

日常生活是否使用點字 有使用 少用 沒有使用

Total Votes (%) 90.5% 4.8% 4.8%

4. 使用點字的頻率(表4.21):每天使用點字有90.5%;每個月使用有4.8%;沒有 使用點字為4.8%的比例。 表4. 21 點字使用習慣調查-使用點字的頻率 Total Votes (n=21) 19 1 1

日常生活是否使用點字 有使用 偶爾用(每月) 沒有使用

Total Votes (%) 90.5% 4.8% 4.8%

5. 使用點字的產品(表4.22):使用觸摸顯示器/電腦有85.7%;使用點字板/點字筆 有52.4%;使用點字機有23.8%;點字手錶有19%;聖經、會訊、刊物、書籍 類有19%;歌詞、樂譜、書信類有14.3%;點字列表機4.8%;點字家用電話4.8%; 點字撲克牌4.8%;點字象棋4.8%的比例。 65


表4. 22 點字使用習慣調查-使用點字的產品 使用點字的相關產品(複選) 觸摸顯示器/電腦 點字板/點字筆 點字機 點字手錶 聖經、會訊、刊物、書籍類 歌詞、樂譜、書信類 點字列表機 點字家用電話 點字撲克牌 點字象棋

Total Votes (n=21) 18 11 5 4 4 3 1 1 1 1

Total Votes (%) 85.7% 52.4% 23.8% 19% 19% 14.3% 4.8% 4.8% 4.8% 4.8%

6. 平常記錄、記事的方式: (1) 電腦:搭配點字觸摸顯示器使用。 (2) 點字機:體積較大,不能攜帶使用,例如,使用時會先以點字觸摸顯示器 /電腦上網查歌詞,再使用點字機把歌詞打出來。 (3) 點字板/點字筆:記電話、記事,適合資料量小的速記。 (4) 隨身碟記錄存檔(聽書郎),可存取純文字檔、MP3、可錄音。現在很多資 料都是電子檔,將電子文字檔轉語音,可以聽故事、聽小說等。 (5) 背起來,記在頭腦裡。 (6) 大量的點字資料,可以使用點字列表機打出來,此設備個人比較不會購買。

7. 訪談點字其他意見: (1) 使用電腦搭配點字觸摸顯示器時,可以同時多工處理事情,若是使用語音 報讀螢幕資訊的軟體(音屏軟體),如此就不能同時做其他的事,例如:使 用音屏軟體時,就不能同時聽音樂等等。 (2) 對於需要「學習」或是「背」起來的東西,會使用「點字觸摸顯示器」; 若平常只是想聽聽新聞,或是不需要記憶的東西,使用音屏軟體即可。

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4.8

「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」使用性評量

1. 操作親切度(表4.23):非常同意71.4%;同意23.8%;沒有意見4.8%,因素為 後天失明學習點字者,較不熟悉,需要花些時間回想點字規則。 表4. 23 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-操作親切度 Total Votes (n=21) 19 1 1 0 0

操作親切度 非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意

Total Votes (%) 90.5% 4.8% 4.8% 0% 0%

2. 操作複雜度(表4.24):非常不同意76.2%;不同意19%;沒有意見4.8%,因素 為個性容易緊張,容易受環境因素干擾。 表4. 24 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-操作複雜度 Total Votes (n=21) 0 0 1 4 16

操作複雜度 非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意

Total Votes (%) 0% 0% 4.8% 19% 76.2%

3. 使用容易度(表4.25):非常同意81%;同意9.5%;沒有意見9.5%,因素分別為 後天失明者對於點字不夠熟悉,以及容易緊張、受到干擾。 表4. 25 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-使用容易度 Total Votes (n=21) 17 2 2 0 0

使用容易度 非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意

67

Total Votes (%) 81% 9.5% 9.5% 0% 0%


4. 是否需要旁人協助才能使用(表4.26):非常不同意76.2%;不同意9.5%;沒有 意見14.3%,其因素為對於點字的不熟悉。 表4. 26 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否需要旁人協助方能使用 是否需要旁人協助才能使用 非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意

Total Votes (n=21) 0 0 3 2 16

Total Votes (%) 0% 0% 14.3% 9.5% 76.2%

5. 是否為整合良好的設計(表4.27):非常同意47.6%;同意42.9%;沒有意見 9.5%,其因素為實驗手機按鍵太小,以至於會造成誤按。 表4. 27 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否為整合良好的設計 Total Votes (n=21) 10 9 2 0 0

是否為整合良好的設計 非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意

Total Votes (%) 47.6% 42.9% 9.5% 0% 0%

6. 是否為令人困惑的設計(表4.28):非常不同意85.7%;不同意14.3%,因素為誤 按時沒有「錯誤音效」提示,此為實驗前研究者未設想到的使用需求。 表4. 28 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否為令人困惑的設計 Total Votes (n=21) 0 0 0 3 18

是否為令人困惑的設計 非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意

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Total Votes (%) 0% 0% 0% 14.3% 85.7%


7. 是否能快速學習使用(表4.29):非常同意76.2%;同意4.8%;沒有意見19%為 來自於對點字的不熟悉。大部分的受測者皆表示容易理解使用,因此不選擇 多加練習,即可立即進行正式實驗;有若干視障者並非是因為不熟悉需要多 練習,而是覺得很有趣,所以多玩了好一會兒,才開始正式實驗。 表4. 29 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否能快速學習使用 Total Votes (n=21) 16 1 4 0 0

是否能快速學習使用 非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意

Total Votes (%) 76.2% 4.8% 19% 0% 0%

8. 是否難以使用(表4.30):非常不同意81%;不同意19%。 表4. 30 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否難以使用 Total Votes (n=21) 0 0 0 4 17

是否難以使用 非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意

Total Votes (%) 0% 0% 0% 19% 81%

9. 是否有信心操作完成各種任務:非常同意61.9%;同意19%;沒有意見19%。 表4. 31 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否有信心操作完成各種任務 是否有信心操作完成各種任務 非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意

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Total Votes (n=21) 13 4 4 0 0

Total Votes (%) 61.9% 19% 19% 0% 0%


10. 是否需要花時間學習(表4.32):非常不同意71.4%;不同意14.3%;沒有意見 14.3% 表4. 32 手機點字輸入法使用性評量-是否需要花時間學習 Total Votes (n=21) 0 0 3 3 15

是否需要花時間學習 非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意

Total Votes (%) 0% 0% 14.3% 14.3% 71.4%

選字功能調查與訪談 1. 是否瞭解字義或字形(表4.33):字義和字形都瞭解33.3%;僅瞭解字義66.7%。 表4. 33 選字功能調查-是否瞭解字義或字型 Total Votes (n=21) 7 14

是否瞭解字義或字形 字義和字形 瞭解字義、不瞭解字形

Total Votes (%) 33.3% 66.7%

2. 是否需要選字功能(表4.34):非常同意76.2%;同意9.5%;沒有意見4.8%;不 同意9.5%,因素為只要字音對,並不要求字的正確。 表4. 34 選字功能調查-是否需要選字功能 Total Votes (n=21) 16 2 1 2 0

是否需要選字功能 非常需要 需要 沒有意見 不需要 非常不需要

Total Votes (%) 76.2% 9.5% 4.8% 9.5% 0%

3. 未來若實現在手機上,是否願意使用(表4.35):非常同意90.5%;同意9.5%。 表4. 35 是否願意使用手機點字輸入法 Total Votes (n=21) 19 2 0 0 0

非常同意 同意 沒有意見 不同意 非常不同意 70

Total Votes (%) 90.5% 9.5% 0% 0% 0%


4.9

實驗訪談主要結果

1. 9.5%視障者建議增加錯誤提示聲,如不合理的拼音、拼法錯誤或誤按鍵盤的 「錯誤音效」提示。 2. 4.8%視障者主動建議點字相對應之數字鍵盤位置,可從本設計原規劃的「1、 4、7-2、5、8」改成「1、4、7-3、6、9」 ,此議題有待後續研究再做探討。 3. 4.8%視障者主動表示:實驗使用的「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」 不會像注音或拼音輸入法令視障者造成混淆,與「點字板」的概念雷同。 4. 使用電腦的鍵盤輸入點字是雙手放在鍵盤上,依六點的變化同時按點字,可 以不按照順序,形狀有出來即可,但本研究需要按照點字的順序依序輸入。 有14.3%受測者表示,是否也能允許不按照點字順序的方式輸入。 但是,卻也有多位受測視障者認同本研究需按照點字順序輸入,認為有所必 要,原因為可以避免發生錯誤:手機按鍵較電腦鍵盤小,手指不容易同時按 下,不按照順序也容易發生拼法上的錯誤。而熟悉點字的視障者按照點字順 序輸入,甚至可以同時跟朋友聊天、同時打簡訊。85.7%受測者皆能接受按照 順序的方式輸入點字。 5. 針對「選字」,受測視障者均表示此功能「非常重要」,要傳送給明眼人或是 正式場合以及對方的姓名,有選字比較禮貌,若是發簡訊給盲人則可以不選。 6. 多位受測視障者主動表示:「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」雖然比注 音輸入法要按比較多次,但不需要做中、英、數切換選單的動作,且為視障 者熟悉點字規則,此方式比注音輸入法適合盲人。 7. 對於某些中途失明的視障者,在實驗中需要花比較多時間,是因為不夠熟悉 點字,只要熟悉點字就可以使用得很順暢。 8. 受測者表示感到很有興趣使用,打字可以打很快、很滿意,期待此功能能儘 快實現商品化,在每支手機都能使用「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」 。

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第五章 結論與未來研究 5.1 結論 本研究站在以使用者為中心的視點,透過文獻探討以及問卷調查法、深入訪 談法及直接參與觀察法,深度瞭解視障使用者的要求與潛在需求,日常生活中不 易察覺的訊息,因此需要更細微的觀察與感受。第一階段著重於「視障者手機使 用需求」調查,研究成果:(1)視障者手機五項重要基本使用需求:打電話、接 電話(含查詢未接來電)、建立通訊錄、撰寫簡訊以及讀取簡訊;(2)透過新產品創 新流程法(User-Centered iNPD)之分析工具萃取出三項創新價值機會點(POGs),分 別為即時語音報讀系統、點字應用於手機文字輸入方式、步行導航系統。 第二階段以POGs思考視障者手機與相關應用的發展,提出兼顧前瞻性、實 用性和可行性之「盲文點字應用於手機文字輸入」之創新設計方案,本研究亦稱 為「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」 。透過實驗驗證以及深入訪談的結果瞭 解,點字各種排列組合所變化的「形狀」能夠很直覺地呈現於視障者的腦海,在 實驗中執行輸入簡訊任務時,點字便可快速地在手機上透過數字鍵盤輸入六點變 化的點字,視障者不需要特別思索或學習就能理解使用。 實驗結果顯示執行任務之正確率、使用之滿意度皆高,提昇視障者使用手機 的實用性、便利及效率,幫助視障者在日常生活中使用手機時,能夠獨立且不依 靠他人便可達到建立通訊錄、撰寫簡訊、記錄記事、聯絡朋友、工作的目的,更 可以使用手機行動上網搜尋資訊、吸收各類知識,積極參與社會,以滿足各層面 的需求。期盼「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」早日實現於手機上且更趨 完善,能對視障朋友在使用手機輸入文字與資訊時,產生實際的助力,為視障朋

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友盡一份心力。

5.2 未來研究建議 「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」應用於「智慧型手機」之構想: 智慧型手機意味著開放式的作業系統架構,所有的功能都能以各式各樣的應 用軟體實現,經過深入訪談瞭解,有越來越多的視障者表示也希望能夠使用智慧 型手機。智慧型手機如何突破技術,有效增加「觸覺回饋」,讓視障者也能透過 觸控螢幕使用「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」亦是值得挑戰與研究的議 題。在開放式作業系統架構下的智慧型手機,業者生產時並不會增加成本,又能 擴大使用族群,造福更多的視障者。 現在也有越來越多的科技業者著手研發相關應用,如Google「Eyes-Free」, 若能結合本研究之「手機點字輸入法(Mobile Braille IME)」 ,相信可行性相當高, 本研究衷心期望視障者能與一般大眾享受使用智慧型手機樂趣的一天早日實現。

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Yue-Shi Lee and Hsin-Hsi Chen (1997). Using Acoustic and Prosodic Cues to Correct Chinese Speech Repairs. Proceedings of EUROSPEECH'97, Rhodes, Greece, September 22-25 1997, 2211-2214. 77


附 錄 附錄一:視障者手機使用需求問卷調查與訪談表

視障者手機使用需求問卷調查與訪談表 親愛的視障朋友您好: 首先感謝您的樂心幫忙!這是一份學術問卷,目的在研究『視障者行動電話之設 計與開發』,以作為未來產品設計與研究參考。本問卷所有資料僅供學術分析使 用,請您安心作答。您的回答對於我們的研究成果有十分重要的影響,再次感謝 您的協助,並祝您身體健康,平安順心! 大同大學工業設計研究所 虛擬實境研究室 聯絡電話:0933-833-781 指導教授:黃維信 博士 研究生:曾羽華

78


手機使用經驗 使用手機迄今多久 使用手機的頻率 用過幾支手機 汰換手機的原因 喜好手機的型式 其喜好的原因 現有手機廠牌及型號 是否有使用耳機 做了哪些客製化設定

每天□

二~三天□

每週□

每月□

直立式□

摺疊式□

滑蓋式□

鍵盤式□

是□ 來電震動 □

否□ 來電震動 +鈴聲□

鈴聲□

音量□

鬧鐘□

電台□

___□

___□

快速撥 號□

每季□

通訊錄□

最常用功能優先順序

撥號□ 電台□

接聽□ MP3□

收簡訊□ ___□

發簡訊□ ___□

鬧鐘□ ___□

最不常用功能優先順序

撥號□ 電台□

接聽□ MP3□

收簡訊□ ___□

發簡訊□ ___□

鬧鐘□ ___□

使用手機時機的需求度評量,您認為...

非 常 需 要

不 需 要

4

3

2

1

79

普 通

5

問候親友 聯絡與他人見面 叫計程車 迷路 尋找商店,店家 緊急救援 聯絡醫院 聯絡警察 聯絡學校 聯絡客戶 使用鬧鐘 聽音樂MP3

需 要

非 常 不 需 要

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □


不 滿 意

1

5

2

手機操作流程滿意度評量,您認為...

非 常 滿 意

滿 意

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

80

□ □ □

3

□ □ □

開關機的方式 確認是否開啟為待機狀態 撥出電話的方式(語音□,數字鍵□,點字鍵□) 接聽來電的方式(震動) 接聽來電的方式(鈴聲) 查詢未接來電的方式(嗶聲□,語音□,震動□) 是否有使用通訊錄(是□,否□) 查詢通訊錄的方式 建立通訊錄的方式 刪除通訊錄的方式 是否有使用簡訊功能(是□,否□) 查詢簡訊的方式 回覆簡訊的方式 輸入簡訊的方式 刪除簡訊的方式 確認未讀簡訊的方式 切換選單的方式 確認是否已選到想要的功能 聲音回饋是否滿意(確認每個動作) 震動回饋是否滿意(確認每個動作) 手機硬體滿意度評量 造型(鍵盤式□,滑蓋式□,直立式□,摺疊式□) 手機尺寸 重量 按鍵大小 材質 待機時間 電力提示

□ □ □

4

收聽電台 聽天氣預報 上網找資料

□ □ □

□ □ □

非 常 不 滿 意

□ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □

普 通


其他功能滿意度評量 鬧鐘 電台 MP3 其他(開放作答)

□ □ □

關於手機的使用需求度評量,您認為...

非 常 需 要

普 通

□ □ □

□ □ □

不 需 要

非 常 不 需 要

4

3

2

1

81

需 要

□ □ □

5

手機標準數字鍵盤 輸入撥號 浮凸式點字按鍵 輸入撥號 語音(聲控) 輸入撥號 提醒未接來電(語音) 提醒未接來電(震動) 提醒未檢視的簡訊(語音) 提醒未檢視的簡訊(震動) 語音播放簡訊 點字觸摸閱讀簡訊 語音確認每項功能 螢幕 錄音 擴音 來電震動 多種鈴聲 鬧鐘 電台收音機 MP3 GPS/AGPS導航系統 電子書(語音朗讀) 掃描文字轉語音(概念) 掃描文字轉盲用點字(概念) 網際網路 氣象預報 條碼新聞 相機 電力提示 其他(開放作答)

□ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □


視障者基本資料 名字 年齡 性別 視障程度 先天/後天 後天失明的原因或疾病 幾歲失去視力(迄今多久) 是否與家人同住 教育程度

民國__年 男□ 度數___ 先天□

女□ 輕微□ 後天□

是□

否□

國小□

國中□

中度□

高中□

重度□

全盲□

大專□

研究所 (含)以上 □

職業

謝謝您耐心地回答問題,非常感謝您的合作

82


附錄二:注音符號拼音排列組合與點字記號與手機數字鍵盤對照表 序號

聲母

點字記號

數字鍵盤

韻母/結合韻

點字記號

數字鍵盤

1

135

175

345

725

2

135

175

126

148

3

135

175

2456

4258

4

135

175

356

758

5

135

175

146

128

6

135

175

1236

1478

7

135

175

136

178

8

135

175

1346

1728

9

135

175

1356

1758

10

135

175

16

18

11

135

175

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12

135

175

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135

175

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14

135

175

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1456

1258

15

135

175

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17258

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135

175

34

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345

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18

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148

19

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32

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134

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345

725

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134

172

126

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2456

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37

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40

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12345

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17

ㄩㄝ

236

478

222

13

17

ㄩㄢ

45

25

223

13

17

ㄩㄣ

256

258

224

13

17

ㄩㄥ

235

475

225

245

425

16

18

226

245

425

ㄧㄚ

23456

47258

227

245

425

ㄧㄝ

346

728

228

245

425

ㄧㄠ

246

428

229

245

425

ㄧㄡ

234

472

230

245

425

ㄧㄢ

2345

4725

231

245

425

ㄧㄣ

1456

1258

232

245

425

ㄧㄤ

46

28

233

245

425

ㄧㄥ

13456

17258

234

245

425

1256

1458

235

245

425

ㄩㄝ

236

478

236

245

425

ㄩㄢ

45

25

237

245

425

ㄩㄣ

256

258

238

245

425

ㄩㄥ

235

475

239

15

15

16

18

240

15

15

ㄧㄚ

23456

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241

15

15

ㄧㄝ

346

728

242

15

15

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246

428

243

15

15

ㄧㄡ

234

472

244

15

15

ㄧㄢ

2345

4725

88


245

15

15

ㄧㄣ

1456

1258

246

15

15

ㄧㄤ

46

28

247

15

15

ㄧㄥ

13456

17258

248

15

15

1256

1458

249

15

15

ㄩㄝ

236

478

250

15

15

ㄩㄢ

45

25

251

15

15

ㄩㄣ

256

258

252

15

15

ㄩㄥ

235

475

253

1

1

156

158

254

1

1

345

725

255

1

1

2346

4728

256

1

1

2456

4258

257

1

1

356

758

258

1

1

146

128

259

1

1

12356

14758

260

1

1

1236

1478

261

1

1

136

178

262

1

1

1346

1728

263

1

1

1356

1758

264

1

1

34

72

265

1

1

ㄨㄚ

35

75

266

1

1

ㄨㄛ

25

45

267

1

1

ㄨㄞ

2356

4758

268

1

1

ㄨㄟ

1246

1428

269

1

1

ㄨㄢ

12456

14258

270

1

1

ㄨㄣ

123456

147258

271

1

1

ㄨㄤ

456

258

272

1

1

ㄨㄥ

12346

14728

273

12

14

156

158

274

12

14

345

725

275

12

14

2346

4728

276

12

14

2456

4258

277

12

14

146

128

278

12

14

12356

14758

279

12

14

1236

1478

280

12

14

136

178

281

12

14

1346

1728

282

12

14

1356

1758

283

12

14

34

72

284

12

14

ㄨㄚ

35

75

285

12

14

ㄨㄛ

25

45

89


286

12

14

ㄨㄞ

2356

4758

287

12

14

ㄨㄟ

1246

1428

288

12

14

ㄨㄢ

12456

14258

289

12

14

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123456

147258

290

12

14

ㄨㄤ

456

258

291

12

14

ㄨㄥ

12346

14728

292

24

42

156

158

293

24

42

345

725

294

24

42

2346

4728

295

24

42

2456

4258

296

24

42

356

758

297

24

42

146

128

298

24

42

12356

14758

299

24

42

1236

1478

300

24

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136

178

301

24

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1346

1728

302

24

42

1356

1758

303

24

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34

72

304

24

42

ㄨㄚ

35

75

305

24

42

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25

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306

24

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ㄨㄞ

2356

4758

307

24

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1246

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308

24

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309

24

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123456

147258

310

24

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456

258

311

1245

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156

158

312

1245

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2346

4728

313

1245

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146

128

314

1245

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12356

14758

315

1245

1425

1236

1478

316

1245

1425

136

178

317

1245

1425

1346

1728

318

1245

1425

1356

1758

319

1245

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34

72

320

1245

1425

ㄨㄛ

25

45

321

1245

1425

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1246

1428

322

1245

1425

ㄨㄢ

12456

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323

1245

1425

ㄨㄣ

123456

147258

324

1245

1425

ㄨㄥ

12346

14728

325

125

145

156

158

326

125

145

345

725

90


327

125

145

2346

4728

328

125

145

2456

4258

329

125

145

356

758

330

125

145

146

128

331

125

145

12356

14758

332

125

145

1236

1478

333

125

145

136

178

334

125

145

1346

1728

335

125

145

1356

1758

336

125

145

34

72

337

125

145

ㄨㄛ

25

45

338

125

145

ㄨㄟ

1246

1428

339

125

145

ㄨㄢ

12456

14258

340

125

145

ㄨㄣ

123456

147258

341

125

145

ㄨㄥ

12346

14728

342

245

425

156

158

343

245

425

345

725

344

245

425

2346

4728

345

245

425

2456

4258

346

245

425

146

128

347

245

425

12356

14758

348

245

425

1236

1478

349

245

425

136

178

350

245

425

1346

1728

351

245

425

1356

1758

352

245

425

34

72

353

245

425

ㄨㄛ

25

45

354

245

425

ㄨㄟ

1246

1428

355

245

425

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12456

14258

356

245

425

ㄨㄣ

123456

147258

357

245

425

ㄨㄥ

12346

14728

358

15

15

156

158

359

15

15

345

725

360

15

15

2346

4728

361

15

15

2456

4258

362

15

15

146

128

363

15

15

12356

14758

364

15

15

1236

1478

365

15

15

136

178

366

15

15

1346

1728

367

15

15

1356

1758

91


368

15

15

34

72

369

15

15

ㄨㄛ

25

45

370

15

15

ㄨㄟ

1246

1428

371

15

15

ㄨㄢ

12456

14258

372

15

15

ㄨㄣ

123456

147258

373

15

15

ㄨㄥ

12346

14728

374

345

725

375

2346

4728

376

2456

4258

377

146

128

378

12356

14758

379

1236

1478

380

136

178

381

1346

1728

382

156

158

383

16

18

384

ㄧㄚ

23456

47258

385

ㄧㄛ

356

758

386

ㄧㄝ

346

728

387

ㄧㄞ

26

48

388

ㄧㄠ

246

428

389

ㄧㄡ

234

472

390

ㄧㄢ

2345

4725

391

ㄧㄣ

1456

1258

392

ㄧㄤ

46

28

393

ㄧㄥ

13456

17258

394

34

72

395

ㄨㄚ

35

75

396

ㄨㄛ

25

45

397

ㄨㄞ

2356

4758

398

ㄨㄟ

1246

1428

399

ㄨㄢ

12456

14258

400

ㄨㄣ

123456

147258

401

ㄨㄤ

456

258

402

ㄨㄥ

12346

14728

403

1256

1458

404

ㄩㄝ

236

478

405

ㄩㄢ

45

25

406

ㄩㄣ

256

258

407

ㄩㄥ

235

475

(本研究整理) 92


附錄三:手機點字輸入法實驗問卷調查表與訪談記錄

手機點字輸入法實驗問卷調查表與訪談紀錄 親愛的視障朋友您好: 首先感謝您的熱心幫忙!這是一份學術的實驗問卷與訪談記錄,目的在研究 『手機點字輸入法之設計與開發』,以作為未來產品設計與研究參考。 您的回答對於我們的研究成果有十分重要的影響,再次感謝您的協助, 並祝您身體健康,平安順心! 大同大學工業設計研究所 虛擬實境研究室 聯絡電話:0933-833-781 指導教授:黃維信 博士 研 究 生:曾羽華

93


填寫日期: / / 編號:

手機使用經驗 1.使用手機迄今多久(年) 2.使用手機的頻率 3.現用手機廠牌型號 4.現用手機型式 5.現用手機價位 6.您能接受多少價位的金額 購買新手機 7.使用手機的時機 8.經常使用手機哪些功能 9.是否安裝即時語音報讀軟 體(如Mobile Speak) 10.是否使用查詢簡訊功能 11.是否使用撰寫簡訊功能 12.若有使用撰寫簡訊功能, 您使用何種輸入法 13.您對現用輸入法的意見 14.針對手機輸入文字部分, 您覺得方便性如何,有何意見 15.手機有哪些功能是您 迫切希望改善或擁有的 16.任何其他意見

每天□

二~三天□

四-五□

每週□

直立式□

摺疊式□

滑蓋式□

鍵盤式□

撥號□ 電台□

接聽□ MP3□

收簡訊□ □

發簡訊□ □

鬧鐘□

是□

否□

是□ 是□

否□ 否□

注音□

倉頡□

無蝦米□

漢語拼音□

其他□

中文點字□

英文點字□

數學點字□

音樂點字□

其他點字□

是□

否□

點字觸摸 顯示器□ 每天□

點字板/ 點字筆□ 二~三天□

點字手錶□

其他□

四-五□

每週□

點字使用經驗 1.使用點字迄今多久(年) 2.使用點字的種類 3.在日常生活中, 是否有使用點字? 4.承上題,平常有使用哪些 點字產品? 5.平常使用點字的頻率 6.平常紀錄、記事的方式 7.其他任何意見

94

不使用


實驗時間:

5.我認為手機點字輸入法是整合良好的設計,可幫助我順 利完成各種任務,如建立通訊錄、撰寫簡訊、紀錄記事 6.我認為手機點字輸入法有很多不協調的地方,令人困惑 7.我認為大多數的視障者都能夠很快地學會如何使用此手 機點字輸入法 8.我認為手機點字輸入法難以使用 9.我非常有信心能順利使用這個操作介面完成各種任務 10.我認為我需要多花一些時間才能學會如何使用此手機 點字輸入法 選字需求調查與訪談 1. 您是否瞭解字義或字形 2. 您是否需要選字功能 3. 若手機點字輸入法未來實現在手機上您是否願意使用 4. 針對手機點字輸入法,請問您的任何意見

不 同 意

1

4.我認為我需要透過旁人協助才能使用手機點字輸入法

□ □ □ □

非 常 不 同 意

2

3.我認為手機點字輸入法是容易使用的

同 意

沒 有 意 見 3

2.我認為操作起來太複雜,有多餘之設計

非 常 同 意

4

1.我認為操作起來很親切,我很樂意繼續使用

5

手機點字輸入法使用性評量 請問操作手機點字輸入法實驗任務時,您認為...

□ □ □ □

□ □ □ □

□ □ □ □

□ □ □ □

□ □

□ □

□ □

□ □

□ □

字義□ 是□ 是□

字形□ 否□ 否□

視障者基本資料 名字 年齡 性別 視障程度 先天/後天,失明原因 幾歲失去視力(迄今多久) 是否與家人同住 教育程度

民國__年 男□ 度數___ 先天□

女□ 輕微□ 後天□

是□

否□

國小□

國中□

中度□ 原因:

重度□

全盲□

高中□

大專□

研究所(含) 以上□

職業 平日的興趣

謝謝您耐心回答,非常感謝您的合作

95


附錄四:手機點字輸入法實驗結果與錯誤分析對照表 中文 題目

1725 18 2 1725182 1475 128 2 14751282

OK OK

B小姐 15:30-15:36 6 分鐘 錯誤 實驗數據 分析 1725182 OK 14751282 OK

,ㄐㄧㄣ ,13 1456 3 3 17 1258 7 31712587

OK

31712587

注音符號

點字記號

A先生 15:16-15:25 9 分鐘

數字鍵盤

實驗數據 你 好 ,今

ㄋㄧˇ ㄏㄠˇ

1345 16 4 12351464

ㄊㄧㄢ

124 2345 3 142 4725 7 14247257

ㄏㄣˇ

1235 136 4 1475 178 2 14751782

ㄍㄠ

13 146 3

17 128 7

錯誤分析

1725182 14751282

OK OK

31712587

OK

14247257

OK

14274527

14751782

OK

14751782

OK

171287

OK

171287

OK

?

漏打

15172585

OK

OK OK

? 421585

漏打

OK

14251785 421585

OK OK

ㄏ:缺少 聲調5 1打成4、 7打成* ㄧㄥ: 沒按順序

ㄒㄧㄥˋ 15 13456 5 15 17258 5 15125875

實驗數據 錯誤分析

ㄧㄢ: 沒按順序

OK

4*4287

OK

C小姐 15:49-16:05 6 分鐘

認 識

ㄖㄣˋ ㄕㄦˋ

1245 136 5 1425 178 5 14251785 24 156 5 42 158 5 421585

ㄋㄧˇ

1345 16 4

1725 18 2

4*25182

1打成4、 7打成*

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

ㄒㄧㄝˋ ,15 346 5

3 15 728 5

3452785

1打成4

3157285

OK

3157585

OK

152785

ㄧㄝ: 沒按順序

157281

聲調 錯誤

157285

OK

OK

1725182

OK

OK

142547285

OK

OK OK OK

1512587 17517287 17217284

OK OK OK

OK

3142517285

OK

OK

452

OK

,謝 謝

ㄒㄧㄝˋ

15 346 5

15 728 5

ㄋㄧˇ

1725 18 2

ㄖㄜˋ

心 幫 忙

ㄒㄧㄣ ㄅㄤ ㄇㄤˊ

,讓

ㄖㄤˋ

ㄨㄛˇ

1345 16 4 1245 2346 5 15 1456 3 135 1346 3 134 1346 2 ,1245 1346 5 25 4

1425 4728 5 15 1258 7 175 1728 7 172 1728 4 3 1425 1728 5 45 2

1725182 OK 1725182 14254728 OK 142547285 5 1512587 OK 1512587 17517287 OK 17517287 17212874 ㄤ:沒按順序 17217284 31245127 ㄖ、ㄤ: 3142517285 沒按順序 85 452 OK 452

ㄇㄣ˙

134 136 1

172 178 1

4*21781

1打成4、 7打成*

保 持 聯 絡

ㄅㄠˇ ㄔㄦˊ ㄌㄧㄢˊ ㄌㄨㄛˋ

135 146 4 12 156 2 14 2345 2 14 25 5

175 128 2 14 158 4 12 4725 4 12 45 5

1751282 141584 1247254 12455

OK OK OK OK

1751282 141584 1247254 12455

OK OK OK OK

1751282 141584 1247254 12455

OK OK OK OK

,期

ㄑㄧˊ

245 16 2

3 425 18 4

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

待 下 次 再 見 面

ㄉㄞˋ ㄒㄧㄚˋ ㄘㄦˋ ㄗㄞˋ ㄐㄧㄢˋ ㄇㄧㄢˋ

125 4258 5 15 47258 5 425 158 5 145 4258 5 17 4725 5 172 4725 5

12542585 15472585 4251585 14542585 1747255 17247255

OK OK OK OK OK OK

12542585 15472585 4251585 14542585 1747255 17247255

OK OK OK OK OK OK

12542585 15472585 4251585 14542585 1747255 17247255

OK OK OK OK OK OK

145 2456 5 15 23456 5 245 156 5 125 2456 5 13 2345 5 134 2345 5 。

33

33

OK

33

OK

33

75%

正確率

96

1721781

OK

1721781

OK

91.7%

OK 97.2%


D小姐 16:23-16:43 20 分鐘 錯誤 實驗數據 分析

E先生 17:00-17:14 14 分鐘 錯誤 實驗數據 分析

1725182

OK

2814272

14751282

OK

31712582

F先生 17:19-17:27 8 分鐘

G小姐 20:06-20:14 8 分鐘

H小姐 13:16-13:24 6 分鐘

實驗數據

錯誤分析

實驗數據

錯誤分析

實驗數據

錯誤分析

X

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

5842172

X

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

聲調 錯誤

32821477

OK X

31712587

OK

31712587

OK

31712587

OK

14247252

聲調 錯誤

25158147

X

14247257

OK

14247257

OK

1424*25*

14751782

OK

25842872

X

14751782

OK

14751782

OK

14781702

171287

OK

172177

X

171287

OK

171287

OK

174207

15172585

OK

?

漏打

15172585

OK

15172585

OK

15125075

14251785

OK

24281475

X

14251785

OK

14251785

OK

14281705

421585

OK

512475

X

421585

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

1725182

OK

281427

X

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

3157285

OK

3158175

OK X

3157285

OK

3157285

OK

3152875

ㄧㄝ:沒按順序

157281

聲調 錯誤

158175

X

157285

OK

157285

OK

152875

ㄧㄝ:沒按順序

1725182

OK

28142427

X

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

142547285

OK

142547285

OK

142547285

OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

452

OK

452

OK

452

OK

1721784

聲調˙ 1打成4

1721784

聲調˙ 1打成4

142547285

OK

251447285

1512587 17517287

OK OK ㄇ: 拼錯

? 72828177

沒按 順序 漏打 X

28128174

X

3142517285

OK

3251428175

452

OK

542

17817284

OK X 沒按 順序

ㄊ:一方少點 2、7誤打到* 5誤打到8、 8誤打到0 1誤打到4、 8誤打到0 8誤按到0、 ㄧㄥ:沒按順序 5誤打到8、 8誤打到0

1721781

OK

2812874

X

1721784

聲調˙ 1打成4

1751282

OK

2842175

X

1751282

OK

1751282

OK

1751282

OK

141584

OK

2158144

X

141584

OK

141584

OK

141584

OK

1247254

OK

?

漏打

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

12455

OK

21545

沒按 順序

12455

OK

12455

OK

12455

OK

3425184

OK

3514274

12542585

OK

15472585

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

21451475

OK X X

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

OK

24581475

X

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

5142475 25451475

X X

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

1747255

OK

28581452

X

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

17247255

OK

2858145

X

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

33

OK

33

OK

33

OK

33

OK

33

OK

正確率

88.9%

13.9%

97.2%

97

97.2%

77.8%


I小姐 14:07-14:09 2 分鐘

J先生 14:45-14:57 12 分鐘

K小姐 15:42-15:47 5 分鐘

L先生 21:36-21:41 5 分鐘 錯誤 實驗數據 分析

M小姐 22:10-22:14 4 分鐘 錯誤 實驗數據 分析

實驗數據

錯誤分析

實驗數據

錯誤分析

實驗數據

錯誤分析

1725182

OK

1725182

ㄋ:少兩點(2,5)

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

31712587

OK

31712587

OK

31712587

OK

31712587

OK

31712587

OK

14247257

OK

14247257

OK

14247257

OK

14247257

OK

14247257

OK

14751782

漏打聲調

14751782

OK

14751782

OK

14751782

OK

14751782

OK

171287

OK

171287

OK

171287

OK

171287

OK

171287

OK

15172585

OK

15172585

OK

15172585

OK

15172585

OK

15172585

OK

14251785

OK

14251785

OK

14251785

OK

14251785

OK

14251785

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

ㄋ:少兩點(2,5)

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

3157285

OK

3157285

OK

3157285

OK

3157285

OK

3157285

OK

157285

OK

157285

OK

157285

OK

157285

OK

157285

漏打 聲調

1725182

OK

1725182

ㄋ:少兩點(2,5)

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

142847285 5誤打到8

142547285

OK

142547285

OK

142547285

OK

142547285

OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

1512587 17512787

OK OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

452

OK

452

OK

452

OK

122

452

OK

1721784

聲調˙1打 成4

1721784

聲調˙ 1打成4

1721784

聲調˙ 1打成4

1721781

OK

1721781

OK

1751282

OK

1751282

OK

1751282

OK

1751282

OK

1751282

OK

141584

OK

141584

OK

141584

OK

141584

OK

141584

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

12455

OK

12455

OK

12455

OK

12455

OK

12455

OK

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

33

OK

33

OK

33

OK

33

OK

33

ㄇ:漏打 點2 OK

正確率

88.9%

17247255

88.9%

97.2%

98

100%

97.2%


N先生 21:37-21:42 5 分鐘

O小姐 22:11-22:17 6 分鐘

P先生 15:39-15:47 8 分鐘

Q小姐 16:33-16:37 4 分鐘 錯誤 實驗數據 分析

實驗數據

錯誤分析

實驗數據

錯誤分析

實驗數據

錯誤分析

1725182

OK

1257182

ㄋ:沒按順序

1725182

OK

1725182

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

31712587

OK

31712587

OK

31712587

14247257

OK

14247257

OK

14751782

OK

14751782

171287

OK

15172585

R小姐 18:12-18:28 16 分鐘 實驗數據

錯誤分析

OK

1725182

OK

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

31712584

7誤按到 4

64*12587

OK 3誤按到6、 1誤按到4、 7誤按到*

14247257

OK

14247257

OK

14247257

OK

OK

14751782

OK

14751782

OK

47752782

14誤按到 47、 1誤按到2

171287

OK

171287

OK

171287

OK

471287

1誤按到4

OK

15125875

ㄧㄥ:沒按順序

15125875 ㄧㄥ:沒按順序 15172585

OK

15172585

OK

14251785

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14251785

OK

14251785

OK

14251785

OK

14251785

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

3157285

OK

3157825

3157285

OK

3157285

OK

3147285

5打成4

157285

OK

157821

157285

OK

157285

OK

147285

5打成4

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

4725182

1打成4

142547285

OK

142547285

OK

142547285

OK

漏打

142547285

OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

ㄧㄝ:728沒按順 序 ㄧㄝ:728沒按順 序、聲調錯誤

1512587 17517287

OK OK

1512587 17512787

OK OK

1512587 15717287

漏打點8 ㄅ:沒按順序

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

452

OK 聲調˙ 1打成4

452

OK

452

452

OK

452

1271781

OK

1721784

OK 聲調˙ 1打成4

1721781

OK

1721784

OK 聲調˙ 1打成4 點82 誤按成 點71

1721784 1751282

OK

1751282

OK

1571282

OK

1751282

OK

1751271

141584

OK

141584

OK

141584

漏打8

141587

8誤打7

141584

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

12455

OK

12455

OK

12458

OK

12455

OK

12455

OK

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

3425184

漏打8

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

漏打8 OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

33

OK

33

OK

33

OK

33

OK

33

OK

正確率

97.2%

88.9%

80.6%

99

91.7%

77.8%


X小姐 18:33-18:39 6 分鐘

Y小姐 11:53-11:58 5 分鐘

Z先生 10:39-10:46 7 分鐘

實驗數據

錯誤分析

實驗數據

錯誤分析

實驗數據

錯誤分析

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

14751282

OK

31712587

OK

31712587

OK

31712587

OK

14247257

OK

14247257

OK

14247257

OK

14751782

OK

14751782

OK

14781782

5誤按到8

171287

OK

171287

OK

171287

OK

15172585

OK

15172585

OK

15172585

OK

14251785

OK

14251785

OK

14251785

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

421585

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

3157285

OK

3157285

OK

3157285

OK

157285

OK

157285

OK

157285

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

1725182

OK

142547285

OK

142547285

OK

142547285

OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

1512587 17517287

OK OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

17217284

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

3142517285

OK

452

OK

452

OK

452

OK

1721781

OK

1721781

OK

1721781

OK

1751282

OK

1751282

OK

1751282

OK

141584

OK

141584

OK

141584

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

1247254

OK

12455

OK

12455

OK

12455

OK

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

3425184

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

12542585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

15472585

OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

4251585 14542585

OK OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

1747255

OK

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

17247255

OK

33

OK

33

OK

33

OK

正確率

100%

100%

97.2%

100


Abstract The surrounding environments in which we live today and the daily goods we use are mostly designed for the majority of us, rarely considered are those minority of visually impaired people, who are often confronting difficulties in their daily lives. For instance, mobile phones and the relevant applications available in the current market, in their design and developing phases, have hardly taken into consideration the needs of the visually impaired people. This research takes the stands of the needing users as the pivot viewpoint, by research into relevant articles along with questionnaires as well as in-depth interviews and participant observation methodology, to comprehend in depth the requests and latent requirements of the visually impaired people. The research targets are filtered by the roll-the-snowball sampling method for those visually impaired people most qualified to represent the phenomenon of the research and capable of providing abundant relevant information (Research Sampling). In the first phase of the research - “Mobile Phone Usage Requirements by the Visually Impaired People”, it comes to the fulfillments of : (1) comprehension of the five fundamental requirements by the visually impaired people, and two of which establishing address book and writing text messages, are bringing visually impaired people tremendous inconvenience and challenges of data input to and information usage on mobile phones; (2) three innovative value opportunity points extracted from the requirements of the visually impaired people. In the second phase, the three innovative value opportunity points are taken into consideration on the development of mobile phone and relevant applications, with focus on the visually impaired people, and a creative plan of 「Braille Application on Mobile Phone Text Input」 is proposed, which is terminologically called 「Mobile Braille IME (Input Method)」 in this research. The main features of the innovation: the Braille is composed of various combinations of six dots forming different pronunciations and meanings, in contrast with the traditional Mandarin Braille which is based on phonetic symbols to constitute various meanings. This research corresponds the Braille symbols of dots 「1、2、3、4、 5、6」with the digits of「1、4、7、2、5、8」on the mobile phone's digit keypad, and text messages are keyed-in based on the Braille rules of concept, aided with「speech i


synthesis」of 「real-time voice speak」 and hearing auxiliary feedback, so the visually impaired can be assured of correct inputs, and making “word spelling” possible. With experimental verifications and profound interviews, we learned that forms of various Braille dot combinations can be intuitively impressed in the minds of the visually impaired people. In these experiments, the visually impaired can key-in dotted words using the six dots combinations swiftly on the mobile phone keypad without too much pondering or the need of pre-learning, with high execution accuracy and user ratification. This is to promote practicality、convenience and efficiency for the visually impaired to use mobile phones in daily life. They can independently establish address book、write text messages and put down notes on mobile phones, and even go internet via mobile phones to search for information、actively participate in the society as well as have other aspects fulfilled. Keywords:Mobile Braille IME, Braille input, blind, visually impaired

ii


Table of Contents Abstract ...........................................................................................................................i Table of Contents ......................................................................................................... iii List of Figures ...............................................................................................................iv List of Table ...................................................................................................................v Chapter One: Foreword..................................................................................................1 1.1 Research Background and Motivation ..........................................................2 1.2 Research Purpose ..........................................................................................3 1.3 Research Scope and Limitations ...................................................................4 Chapter Two: Related Literature ...................................................................................5 2.1 Visually Imparied ..........................................................................................5 2.2 Invonative Design..........................................................................................5 2.3 Mobile phone for the visually impaired ........................................................6 2.4 Concept phone for the visually impaired ......................................................7 2.5 Speech synthesis and Speech recognition ...................................................11 2.6 Chinese input methods for computers .........................................................13 2.7 Bopomofo – Mandarin Phonetic Symbols ..................................................14 2.8 Braille ..........................................................................................................14 Chapter Three: Research Methods...............................................................................16 3.1 Questionnaire Survey ..................................................................................16 3.2 In-depth interviews......................................................................................17 3.3 Participant Observation ...............................................................................18 3.4 Integrated New Product Developmet, iNPD ...............................................18 3.5 Conclusion and discussion ..........................................................................25 Chapter Four: Innovation of Braille Applications on Mobile Phones .........................34 4.1 Motives and Purpose of the Innovation.......................................................34 4.2 Concept of the Innovation ...........................................................................34 4.3 Experiment Construct..................................................................................38 4.4 Experiment Objects .....................................................................................43 4.5 Precision Statistics and Analysis of the Experiment Objective ..................43 4.6 Survey and Interviews on Mobile Phone Usage Patterns............................44 4.7 Results of Survey and Interviews on Braille Usage Patterns ......................49 4.8 SUS Evaluation on Mobile Phone Braille IME...........................................51 4.9 Results of Experiments and Interviews on Mobile Phone Braille IME ......52 Chapter Five: Conclusion and Future Study ................................................................54 5.1 Conclusion...................................................................................................54 5.2 Future Study ................................................................................................55

iii


List of Figures Chapter Four: Figure 4. 1 Design Concept of Dotted Character on Digit keypad ..............................35 Figure 4. 2 Description on Mobile Phone Dotted Character IME ...............................38 Figure 4. 3 Exercises of the Experiment ......................................................................38 Figure 4. 4 Voice Speak of Experimental Exercise .....................................................39 Figure 4. 5 Visually impaired People Sharing on How to Use Book Teller................39 Figure 4. 6 Smart Phone S730 .....................................................................................40 Figure 4. 7 Experiment Process – Part 1/5...................................................................41 Figure 4. 8 Experiment Process – Part 2/5...................................................................41 Figure 4. 9 Experiment Process – Part 3/5...................................................................42 Figure 4. 10 Experiment Process – Part 4/5.................................................................42 Figure 4. 11 Experiment Process – Part 5/5.................................................................43

iv


List of Table Chapter Three: Table 3. 1 The Research Subjects ................................................................................26 Table 3. 2 How often do the subjects use the mobile phone........................................27 Table 3. 3 How many mobile phones have the subjects used......................................27 Table 3. 4 The reason why they change their previous mobile phone into a new one 27 Table 3. 5 The mobile phone preferences ....................................................................27 Table 3. 6 How do the subjects carry their mobile phones ordinarily .........................28 Table 3. 7 Whether the subjects use the earphone or not.............................................28 Table 3. 8 Top five use conditions in order .................................................................28 Table 3. 9 The last five use conditions in order ...........................................................29 Table 3. 10 Whether using the phone bookďźˆcontactor not ....................................29 Table 3. 11 Messages (Text) ........................................................................................30 Table 3. 12 The top five satisfactory mobile phone functions.....................................30 Table 3. 13 The least five satisfactory functions. ........................................................30 Chapter Four: Table 4. 1 Comparison Table of Dotted Symbols vs. keypad Digits...........................36 Table 4. 2 Duplicate Coding of Mobile Phone Dotted Character IME .......................37

v


Chapter One: Foreword The surroundings we live in and the products we use for in our daily lives were originally designed for the general public. However, the visually impaired, as the minority in the society, do encounter a number of difficulties in their everyday life oppose to the usual (majority). In the multicultural society nowadays, each individual forms his or her own needs according to the differences between the physical character and the capability. Moreover, the ability of a person even varies in the stages of growth in their life cycle. If those caring Industrial Product Designers with humanity concerns could be much more considerate for different groups of people while designing, the disability (physically challenged) might adapt to the society more autonomously accordingly. Furthermore, those considerate designs would reduce the distinctions between different groups of people, shorten the distant between different groups of people and promote a more harmonious society. The visually impaired individuals are a part of the members in society as well. Consequently, as a matter of course, they deserve the equal rights like everyone else. Moreover, in the multi-cultural modern society, with the viewpoint of equal civil human rights, people should take the issues concerning the visually impaired individuals seriously and pay more attentions on them. The mobile phones presently existed in the product market and concerning applications seldom take the visually impaired users’ needs into account when designing and developing. That is, the functions and the capabilities of the presented mobile phones are not enough for the visually impaired. Since the physical limitation of the sight, the visually impaired individuals could not be satisfied with the mobiles mainly work with vision and consequently to be mired in difficulties. The previous studies indicated that the developer and the designer in the past, on the one hand, regarded the individuals with visual impairment as the minority in the selling market and therefore have little effect on the sales revenue.(Muto,1996) On the other hand, the research and the development of the mobile advancement and system especially for the ones (the visual impairment) may be cost. Hence, the industrial product designers would only take the majority needs into consideration while exploring and designing. (Irie, Matsunaga & Nagano, 2005; Muto, 1996; Smith-Jackson, Nussbaum & Mooney, 2003)

1


As long as the industrial product designers could think of the physically challenged, whether visually or hearing, as the lead users and meanwhile put their special needs into account in the product development. The product might be applied not only to the disabilities but also the usual in situational disabilities. (Hannukainen, 2005) Thus, by this way, could extend the market at the same time maintain the cost. (邱曉萍,2009) The sense of sight is one of the most essential accesses to the information and the exterior experience in life for people. For long, the individuals with visual impairment have encountered lots of difficulties in their daily lives. However, the visually impaired individuals' difficult conditions and concerning rights and benefits have long been neglected by the social public as well. And to be more specific, the difficulties that the visually impaired individuals encountered not only lie in the physical limitations, such as binding their opportunities of learning, living and getting a job(萬 明美,2001), but also lie in the exterior unfavorable factors. As a consequence, the designer should alter their designs on the basis of the multiple needs from different groups of people rather than design things according only to the general public. Clearly, the designers should design in pursuit of the social equally. In other words, they should put themselves in the users’ positions and to see things through the users’ eyes, in order to make all the users make their use of things equally. (中川聰,2008) Further, the design should care not only the physical factors, but the psychological humanity non-barrier designs. (陳石明,2007)

1.1 Research Background and Motivation Most of the technological industries adopted the system-centered approach to the research and development of their new products, put emphasis on the technical improvement and development, and then explored the target market and the concerning application. This system-centered approach could raise the manufacture efficiency and to bring the specialty of the inventor into full play with an elaborate division of labor. Yet, the new skills and products usually go through the verifications of the practicality and usability by the consumers and the market only after completion. And then find out the manufactures or the techniques are unlikely to be 2


needed from the users which lead to a fail. As a consequence, the enterprises have realized that they should alter their original system-centered approach to the user-centered design approach under the cost limitation in the processes of research and development because of the potential risks of the system-centered approach application. Under the consideration of the users’ potential needs, the functions of the manufactures, and the interactions between the carry out of a task and the environment of exercise simultaneously, the enterprises could then figure out how the users make use of the products to complete their tasks. Accordingly, the enterprises confirm the functions needed of the manufactures under different conditions in order to develop the products and services more practicality and usability than they were. Besides, the enterprises also want the users adapt the products and services to their daily lives satisfactorily. What’s more, open a whole new market for the business. (Donald A. Norman, 1998) This research attempts to figure out the needs of mobile phone functions from the individuals with visual impairment by way of participant observations. During the interactions with the visually impaired subjects, the researcher tried their best to have an insight into the limitations as well as the possibilities when use of the mobile phone for the visually impaired individuals. With the human-oriented designs, the designers seek to find out the undiscovered needs and regardlessness. Accordingly, they bring their conceptions of design: to add some of the needed functions for the visually impaired individuals to the regular mobile phones, instead of designing a whole new mobile phone especially for those individuals with visual impairment. Thus, the new idea of the combination of the regular mobile phones with the needed functions for the visually impaired individuals can not only extend the using groups, but also remain the innovative cost. (At least won’t increase the development cost too much.) Hope that we can bring the society a more convenient life.

1.2 Research Purpose On the basis of the research background and motivation mentioned above, my research purpose is to bring up the idea of the user-centered design approach as an innovative design on cell-phone application, especially for the visually impaired. First of all, I investigated the needs of the visually impaired users for mobile phones. In 3


addition, I promote the innovative design of Braille input applied on mobile phones, or Braille input method system. First, I tried to find out what kinds of difficulties do the visually impaired individuals encountered when using mobile phones by thorough interview, participant observation, and questionnaires. Employ the data collected from the thorough interview, participant observation, and questionnaires to figure out the needs of visually impaired users for mobile phones and concerning applications. In accordance with the needs for individuals with visual impairment, to get the innovative product opportunity gaps(POGs) by the analysis and evaluation of the Integrated New Product Development, iNPD. Bring up the innovative design of Braille input applied on mobile phones, Braille input method system, according to the product opportunity gaps – POGs.

1.3 Research Scope and Limitations Owing to the complexity aspects of the development procedures in new products, this study bring up the Braille input method system, has not been put into practice yet. Therefore, there will be no more further discussions on the manufacturing, marketing or channels. The study subjects, came from more than six different groups respectively, were selected by a non-random sampling called “snow ball sampling”. Of the eight visually impaired individuals participated in the first survey of the needs for mobile phone functions, seven were severely visually impaired;One moderately. And twenty-one individuals with visual impairment took part in the second Braille input investigation. To make a further inquiry aim at the first and second item of the product opportunity gaps – POGs. As a result of the limitation of time and resources, the “walking guidance” part won’t be farther discuss in this study.

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Chapter Two: Related Literature 2.1 Visually Imparied Most visually impaired people who are not totally visually impaired read print, either of a regular size or enlarged by magnification devices. Many also read large-print, which is easier for them to read without such devices. A variety of magnifying glasses, some handheld, and some on desktops, can make reading easier for them. Others read Braille (or the infrequently used Moon type), or rely on talking books and readers or reading machines, which convert printed text to speech or Braille. They use computers with special hardware such as scanners and refreshable Braille displays as well as software written specifically for the visually impaired, such as optical character recognition applications and screen readers. Some people access these materials through agencies for the visually impaired, such as the National Library Service for the Visually impaired and Physically Handicapped in the United States, the National Library for the Visually impaired or the RNIB in the United Kingdom. Closed-circuit televisions, equipment that enlarges and contrasts textual items, are a more high-tech alternative to traditional magnification devices. There are also over 100 radio reading services throughout the world that provide people with vision impairments with readings from periodicals over the radio. The International Association of Audio Information Services provides links to all of these organizations(WIKIPEDIA, 2010).

2.2 Invonative Design The integrated New Product Development (iNPD) process is not just a set of methods that can be plugged into an existing company structure. It is a way of thinking that combines three key elements: (1) A truly horizontal and interdisciplinary structure. (2) A commitment to maintain a focus on what customers and other stakeholders value. (3) A system that begins with an emphasis on qualitative methods of discovery and development and evolves toward quantitative methods of refinement 5


and manufacture . There are three key factors that must be present to guarantee the highest potential of success. First is the ability to identify product opportunities. As cultures continue to change, opportunities emerge for new products. These products do not just solve existing problems, they also create possibilities for new experiences. The second is a heightened understanding of customer needs translated into actionable insights that define attributes. These attributes serve as a guide in developing the product's form and features. In order for products to be successful, they must have features and forms that consumers quickly recognize as useful, usable, and desirable. Third is a true integration of engineering, industrial design, and marketing. Merely putting teams together in a multidisciplinary context is not sufficient. They must be supported and managed effectively in an atmosphere where each discipline respects and appreciates the perspective of the others.

2.3 Mobile phone for the visually impaired 1.

Alva MPO Phone The Mobile Phone Organizer (MPO) is a compact, easy to carry all-in-one device

for mobile situations. Use the MPO to make phone calls, send SMS messages, look up information and take notes. Enjoy today's wireless communication, information and entertainment services at home, or on the road. The MPO operates for about one day on rechargeable batteries (depending on functionality and output medium), and can be linked to a PC to exchange data(AVLA, 2009). For the visually impaired user all functions including menus, contact information, SMS messages, services, and system information are made accessible in braille and speech. To enter information, the MPO offers an 8-key braille keyboard. 2.

The Owasys 22C Phone The Owasys 22C is designed specifically for people who are visually impaired or

have low vision. Manufactured by the Spanish company Owasys (pronounced "oasis"), the 22C is a "screenless" cell phone that is designed specifically for people who are visually impaired or have low vision. The Owasys 22C is a "brick-" or "candy-bar-"style cell phone measuring 4.6 by 1.9 by 1.1 inches and weighing 4.5 6


ounces. On the front panel, there are 6 control buttons laid out in 2 rows of 3 each. Below these control buttons are the 12 dialing keys, arranged in the standard 3-by-4 grid, and the side panel has an Up key and a Down key that are used to adjust the volume. Although this telephone does not feature many of the extras that are found on today's cell phones, such as a camera, web access, or a video recorder, it comes equipped with speech-synthesis software from Babel Technologies to guide you through all the features that it does have, including a searchable phone book, SMS text messaging, and a vibrating ring feature. The software runs on the Linux operating platform, and the phone uses the GSM cellular network, which is the network used by T-Mobile, Cingular, and other smaller local carriers(AccessWorld, 2004). 3.

Nokia Magnifier Nokia Magnifier application utilizes the existing camera functionality on your

Nokia S60 phone. It can be used to improve readability in every-day life situations such as reading "fine print". Anyone who has difficulty seeing "fine print" or small objects can benefit from using this application readily available on their S60 phone. Nokia Magnifier has a built in stabilizer to reduce the effects of a shaky hand and negative filter enabling users

to switch from light to dark backgrounds improving

readability. By using the existing camera technology, users can also snap a picture of the enhanced image for later reference(Nokia Beta Labs, 2010).

2.4 Concept phone for the visually impaired 1. The B-Touch mobile phone The B-Touch mobile phone takes the iPhone touchscreen revolution a step ahead by incorporating innovate features to make a touchscreen cellphone for the visually impaired. Limitation of senses does not hinder the sensitivity of this phone coz it combines technologies of visually impaired-touch screen (Braille), voice systems and programs to function as regular phone, navi-system, book reader and object recognizer. Take a look at the video after the jump to understand it better. Designer: Zhenwei You.(YankoDesign, 2009)

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2. Make SÉNS Phone "SENS", from Takumi Yoshida, is a mobile phone design catering for those with visual impairment including complete visually impairedness. The phone assists visually impaired users through a special keypad design, real-time audio feedback and touch sensing technology. Yoshida developed "SENS" (written [SÉNS]) following a series of user research, interviews, observations and testing with a group of students from RNIB college in the UK. For ease of use, all of the keys on the keypad are different to each other to touch, whilst keeping visual uniformity in order to reduce unnecessary finger movements to locate where the finger is. This decision was the result of feedback from the user group revealing that the “visually impaired man’s dimple” on the number five key on regular phones is of little or no use. To improve interaction between the user and the phone, [SÉNS] combines touch sensors and regular mechanical keys to provide real-time audio feedback. When the user touches a key, the phone tells them what key has been touched without actually registering it as an input. The user may hover across the keys to gain feedback on which key they are touching. Once the user is sure their finger is on the correct key, they can then press it just like on any other standard handset; a click sound is then fed back to confirm the input. In order to eliminate the need for other people in public to also hear the audio feedback from the phone, [SÉNS] has an integrated Blutooth headset which ensures it can’t get misplaced. Incorporating touch sensing and mechanical input on a single key provides the additional benefit of software flexibility. By double tapping a key like double clicking on a mouse, the key toggles the input mode and corresponding audio feedback is given. For example, if the number two key is continuously tapped at a certain speed, the input mode will be toggled and audio feedback will be given such as: “2, a, b, c, 2, a, b, c …” Different menu items like contact lists, text messages and Internet can also be respectively assigned to the dial keys and may be accessed through the same toggling method. Although severity varies, most visually impaired people have some degree of sight and can sense light. By providing large color illumination on the side, the [SÉNS] phone also exploits the most basic level of visual capability to offer better usability 8


for those with some degree of sight. Different color illumination can indicate some basic phone status such as low battery indication, incoming calls and messages. Yoshida’s [SÉNS] phone took out third prize at the Design & Technology Enterprise Award 2008 awarded by Loughborough University Enterprise Office. 3. Samsung Touch Messenger Samsung has always been quick to claim the world’s firsts, world’s thinnest, world’s biggest or world’s smallest title, but now they have another claim to fame. They can say that at least a few of their products are “excellent”, because the Touch Messenger Braille mobile phone has taken home the Gold at the Industrial Design Excellence Awards (IDEA). Instead of being developed in their home Korea, the Touch Messenger was rather the creation of the Samsung’s Chinese wing based out of Shanghai. While TTY and similar solutions for the deaf have been on the market for ages, this innovative handset allows “visually impaired users to send and receive Braille text messages.” They want to reach out to every segment of the market, including the visually impaired. In this way, it is said that the Touch Messenger is in line with the company’s mantra of “human-oriented high-tech products.” 4. The Samsung Braille Phone Designed by Seonkeun Park, the Braille Phone is a concept for the visually impaired by Samsung. The Braille Phone has a smooth design and its keyboard is specially designed for the visually impaired using the Braille printing system. EAP (electric active plastic) is used to create Braille figures, texts and Braille numbers on the cell phone. 5. Nokia Braille Reader Nokia Braille Reader gives SMS for the visually impaired and visually impaired. It captures received SMS messages and brings them to the foreground for reading using Braille and tactile feedback(Nokia Beta Labs, 2009). The application has been developed in a joint project between Nokia, Tampere University and the Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired.

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6. Google Eyes-Free Google engineers have shown an experimental “Eyes-Free� touch interface for Android powered mobile phones. Through tapping, sliding and releasing, the interface can be used to quickly enter a phone number without having to look at the screen, and it’s not only vision impaired users that are set to benefit from the technology(Mick Webb, 2009). The screens on many mobile phones can leave a user feeling distinctly vision impaired, especially if her attention is divided between tapping virtual buttons and walking or driving(Kate Greene, 2009). Fortunately, engineers at Google are experimenting with interfaces for Android-powered mobile phones that require no visual attention at all. At Google I/O, the company's annual developer conference held in San Francisco last week, T.V. Raman, a research scientist at Google, demonstrated an adaptive, circular interface for phones that provides audio and tactile feedback. "We are building a user interface that goes over and beyond the screen," says Raman. Often, eyes-free interfaces are employed for visually impaired users, but Raman, who himself is visually impaired, assures that these interfaces have much broader implications. "This is not just about the visually impaired user," he says. "This is about how to use these devices if you're not in a position to look at the machine." Eyes-free interfaces aren't new. In fact, in 1994, Bill Buxton, a researcher at Microsoft, explored the idea of marking menus--round menus that were meant to be easier to use without the benefit of looking than a pull-down list. In recent years, Patrick Baudisch, another Microsoft researcher, who is also a professor at the Hasso Plattner Institute, in Germany, has applied the approach to MP3 menus that also provide audio feedback. When configured as a numeric keypad, the first touch sits directly on the number "5." Swiping it to the upper right produces a "3," and to the lower left a "7." Each time, as the finger passes over a number, the phone vibrates, and when the finger is raised, indicating that a selection has been made, a computerized voice repeats the number. To navigate through the phone's address book, a user touches the screen to produce a circular set of eight letters. (See a video of the interface in action here.) Swiping to the upper left, where the "A" is located, opens a new circular menu of 10


eight more letters: "B," "C," "D," and so on. Employing this approach, says Raman, a user only needs to move his finger, at most three times, to access any letter. Android also supports text-to-speech capabilities so that developers can design apps to verbalize the text that appears on a screen, but this doesn't help users input information. Microsoft's Baudisch says that it will be exciting if these sorts of interfaces are to find their way outside of research labs. "It's wonderful that [the Google researchers] are doing it, and they implemented it nicely," he says. "Marking menus are great, and it's time that somebody puts this into the products that it belongs in." Raman acknowledges that it's still early days for eyes-free interfaces and that there is much to learn about what consumers will find useful. One possible way to improve eyes-free interactions would be to have the phone predict a user's intent, he says. For instance, a person might regularly check the arrival times for a bus after work each day. Given that, the phone could respond to a certain gesture, such as tracing the letter "B" after 4:15 on weekdays, by telling the user when the next bus is due.

2.5 Speech synthesis and Speech recognition 1.

Speech synthesis Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. A computer

system used for this purpose is called a speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware. A text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech; other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech(WIKIPEDIA, 2010). Synthesized speech can be created by concatenating pieces of recorded speech that are stored in a database. Systems differ in the size of the stored speech units; a system that stores phones or diphones provides the largest output range, but may lack clarity. For specific usage domains, the storage of entire words or sentences allows for high-quality output. Alternatively, a synthesizer can incorporate a model of the vocal tract and other human voice characteristics to create a completely "synthetic" voice output. 11


The quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its similarity to the human voice and by its ability to be understood. An intelligible text-to-speech program allows people with visual impairments or reading disabilities to listen to written works on a home computer. Many computer operating systems have included speech synthesizers since the early 1980s. 2.

Speech recognition Speech recognition (also known as automatic speech recognition or computer

speech recognition) converts spoken words to text. The term "voice recognition" is sometimes used to refer to recognition systems that must be trained to a particular speaker—as is the case for most desktop recognition software. Recognizing the speaker can simplify the task of translating speech (WIKIPEDIA, 2010). Speech recognition is a broader solution which refers to technology that can recognize speech without being targeted at single speaker—such as a call center system that can recognize arbitrary voices. Speech recognition applications include voice user interfaces such as voice dialing (e.g., "Call home"), call routing (e.g., "I would like to make a collect call"), domotic appliance control, search (e.g., find a podcast where particular words were spoken), simple data entry (e.g., entering a credit card number), preparation of structured documents (e.g., a radiology report), speech-to-text processing (e.g., word processors or emails), and aircraft (usually termed Direct Voice Input). People with disabilities can benefit from speech recognition programs. Speech recognition is especially useful for people who have difficulty using their hands, ranging from mild repetitive stress injuries to involved disabilities that preclude using conventional computer input devices. In fact, people who used the keyboard a lot and developed RSI became an urgent early market for speech recognition. Speech recognition is used in deaf telephony, such as voicemail to text, relay services, and captioned telephone. Individuals with learning disabilities who have problems with thought-to-paper communication (essentially they think of an idea but it is processed incorrectly causing it to end up differently on paper) can benefit from the software[citation needed].

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2.6 Chinese input methods for computers Hundreds of Chinese input methods are available to enter Chinese into computers, but most keyboard-based methods rely on the pinyin readings or shapes of Chinese characters. Although a pinyin method is easier to learn, the latter is often preferred by professional typists due to its faster input speed (WIKIPEDIA, 2010). Besides keyboard-based methods, there are also handwriting methods which allow users to write characters on a particular pad, which could mean an extra equipment but it may also be accomplished with a mobile phone with a touchscreen. The development of input methods flourished in 1980s. Modern keyboard input methods can be classified into two main categories including keyboard-based and shape-based methods. All methods have its strengths and weaknesses. For someone who is familiar with pinyin, the pinyin method can be learned instantly, however, the maximum typing rate is limited. Wubi takes much effort to learn, but expert typists can enter text much faster with it than with the phonetic methods. Due to the complexities, there is no "standard" method evolving. In the mainland China, wubi (shape-based) and pinyin methods such as Sogou Pinyin and Google Pinyin are the most popular; In Taiwan, Boshiamy, Cangjie and zhuyin are predominate; In Hong Kong, Cangjie is the most popular method taught in schools. Other means of entering Chinese characters include handwriting recognition, OCR and voice recognition. The first and last of these usually must be “trained” before use; that is, the user must first use the system in a special “learning mode” so that the system can get accustomed to the user’s handwriting or speech pattern, and failure to do so will increase the recognition error rate. These, especially the latter two, are less frequently used than keyboard-based input methods and suffer from relatively high error rates, especially when used without proper “training”, though the error rates are an acceptable trade-off to many users.

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2.7 Bopomofo – Mandarin Phonetic Symbols The bopomofo (pronounced buh puh muh fuh, for the first four symbols of it) is, like the english alphabet, a phonetic alphabet. That is to say, each character is a sound. In Taiwan, students use the bopomofo to learn how to read traditional Chinese characters. It is also a common way to type traditional chinese characters into a computer keyboard, and is used to look up words in dictionaries(Mandarin Book, 2010). The other main alphabet used for learning mandarin is the pinyin system. The pinyin system, adopted by mainland China in 1958, is just another phonetic alphabet used for sounding out mandarin words. Unlike the bopomofo, however, it uses roman characters to sound out the words. The pinyin system has been adopted by the United Nations and is increasingly the standard system worldwide for transcribing mandarin into a roman alphabet. However, many agree that the bopomofo is much better suited for capturing the phonetic structure of the mandarin language than the pinyin system. The bopomofo consists of 37 symbols, which were derived from Chinese characters. Just like in pinyin, there are 21 initials (consonants which start syllables), and 16 finals (kind of like vowels that end syllables). Pinyin has additional "compound finals", which the bopomofo doesn't feel like it needs because it so accurately captures the sound of Chinese pronunciation. The funny thing about the bopomofo is that it has about four different names. Bopomofo is the most common name, and then there is zhùyin fúhào, zhùyin fo, or just zhùyin.

2.8 Braille Braille is a series of raised dots that can be read with the fingers by people who are visually impaired, visually impaired, or deafvisually impaired. Teachers, parents, and others who are not visually impaired ordinarily read Braille with their eyes(Braille Facts, 2010). Braille is not a language. It is a code by which all languages may be written and read. Braille is now used in almost every country in the world and has been adapted to almost every known language, from Albanian to Zulu. 14


Braille codes have also been developed to represent the many symbols used in advanced mathematical and technical material, musical notation, and shorthand. Braille symbols are formed within units of space known as Braille cells. A full Braille cell consists of six raised dots arranged in two parallel vertical rows, each having three dots. The dot positions are identified by numbers one through six. Sixty-three combinations are possible using one or more of these six dots. Cells can be used to represent a letter of the alphabet, number, punctuation mark, or even a whole word.

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Chapter Three: Research Methods

The statistical analysis in this study was grounded on the questionnaire survey; moreover, recording the inner thoughts and opinions of the visually impaired subjects in detail by qualitative in-depth interviews and collecting the non-linear cross-section data through qualitative participant observations. Besides, the qualitative research especially aimed at the unusual subjects, in order to gather considerable concerning data, including a great deal of diversification and varieties. Under the complete context of every single case, this study also put emphasis on the differences between the visually impaired users / subjects. Consequently, this research attempted to uncover the visually impaired individuals' hidden and unspoken patterns of their own viewpoints, cultures, lifestyles, behaviors and emotions. By recording thorough the observations of the particular and concrete events as well as collecting the new resources for distinctive insights, the researchers placed themselves in the visually impaired individuals’ positions with compassionate and sympathy to fully interpret. As a result, through the systematic analysis tool of the Integrated New Product Development, iNPD, I induced the analysis outcome to acquire the potential needs of individuals with visual impairment thoroughly and to predict the possibly opportunities of the new products on the market. In addition, after getting the product opportunity gaps, POGs, the researcher transform the outcome into a practical and specific design project. This study intended to bring the Braille in the innovative design of mobile phone input, which is called the Braille input method. Afterwards, the researcher put all these mentioned above into scientific experiment and systematic evaluation so as to carry them out in practice (bring them to market).

3.1 Questionnaire Survey The questionnaire survey is a widely used methodology in many disciplines, particularly, social science. And it's also a way to discover the social reality. Thus, after collecting concerning information and literature, the researcher established the research purpose and then began to concentrate on studying the details. In order to ensure the reliability and the validity of the questionnaire survey, this research invited 16


the visually impaired individuals, who are also the experts of communication products, to give some suggestions. That is, in other words, this research had been reconfirmed and adjusted accordingly. Besides, the researcher also applied the Likert Scale to this research, 1 point represents the least whereas 5 represents the highest, to evaluate and analyze the scale of satisfaction, need and usability. The first part of the questionnaire survey including: (1) Life-style investigation: to acquire the mobile phone use habits, difficulties and under what kind of condition do the visually impaired subjects use mobile phones; (2) Satisfaction survey: deep-going investigations on the existing mobile phones of the visually impaired.; (3) The needs and mobile phone functions investigation: this part of investigation is conducted after reorganizing and inducing the collected data, to understand the potential needs of the visual impairment for the follow-up references when planning and designing the mobile phone and the additional concerning applications for the visually impaired individuals.; (4) Make use of the in-depth interviews and participant observations to make up for the lack of the questionnaire survey. The second part of the questionnaire survey conducted the system usability scale, SUS, aimed at the innovative design of Braille input applied on mobile phones, or Braille input method.

3.2 In-depth interviews According to the in-depth interviews of the qualitative research, mainly put emphasis on the statements of the perception of self and life experience, the researcher can thereby obtain, understand and explain the visually impaired subjects' cognitions toward the social reality. (Minichiello et al., 1995)(林金定、嚴嘉楓、陳美 花,2005) In addition, the researcher has the responsibility to safeguard the subjects' right of privacy. As a consequence, the parts with regard to the research subjects in this paper are written anonymously. What’s more, if the sound recording, video recording and shooting are needed, the researcher must ask for the consent before doing so to build a mutual trust foundation. 17


With regard to the advantage of the in-depth interviews of each case is that the researcher got a plenty of time to let the visually impaired individuals to say one's say in their own words. As a consequence, they can even heartily express their life and experiences, therefore, bring this in-depth interview into a new light. In addition, the in-depth interviews of the visually impaired subjects provide us with various dimensional aspects and plentiful materials. Hence, their new ideas made this research a more valuable research.

3.3 Participant Observation On participant observation, its aim is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (the visually impaired in this study) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment, usually over an extended period of time. And the researcher might undergo a self experience to some extent. (Brian Roberts, Sarah Thornton, 1990) Therefore, the researcher in this study had learned and experienced the Mobile Braille IME (Input Method) in person. What’s more, the researcher had also participated in experiencing the Braille pen and Braille board actually, as well as the procedures and the execution of Mobile Braille IME (Input Method).

3.4 Integrated New Product Developmet, iNPD Jonathan Cagan and Craig M. Vogel coined the idea of Integrated New Product Development, iNPD, in 2002. To be more specific, the iNPD, which means “an approach to product development that supports team integration based on fulfilling the needs, wants, and desires of customers and interests of other significant stakeholders.� (Jonathan Cagan and Craig M. Vogel, 2002) From the angle of User-Centered iNPD, the evaluation was made from three different dimensions including sociological, economical and technological, while combining the engineering, designing and marketing into the investigation. Thus, such multi-disciplined (cross-domain) consideration and cooperation could make the new products more attractive in fashion and at the same time polish the core technique to make the new products much more valuable. 18


The following are the developmental procedures of the User-Centered iNPD: 1. Phase I:Identifying the Opportunity In order to make sure the induction of the SET factors into the product opportunity gap, POGs, as a crucial index, this research by way of the SET factors, undertake the evaluation of "emerging tendency" from three different aspects, including social change, economical development and technological advancement. Therefore, to get a clear understanding of the new product positioning and needs on the market. So that gives advantages to the following innovative designing programs. The SET factors stand for: S-social, representing the social change, culture transition and fashion trend; E-economic, representing the fluctuation/transition economical conditions; and T-technology, core-tech promotion. The relationships between these three are as shown in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3. 1 The SET Fators 2. Phase II:Understanding the Opportunity After getting the product opportunity gap, POGs, in the phase I, the researcher then establish the value opportunity charts and analysis, VOA, to do a diversity of research predictions defining the traits and the opportunities of the new products. The concrete grading items contain the emotion, ergonomics, aesthetics, identity, impact, core-tech and the quality. And there are some more sub items under the grading items. (As shown in Figure 3.2)

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Emotion All of the Value Opportunities support the product's ability to contribute to the user's experience, however emotion defines the essence of the experience; the emotion contribution defines that fantasy aspect of the product . Sense of adventure: the product promotes excitement and exploration. Feel of independence: the product provides a sense of freedom from constraints. Sense of security: the product provides a feeling of safety and stability. Sensuality: the product provides a luxurious experience. Confidence: the product supports the user's self-assurance and promotes his or her motivation to use the product. Power: the product promotes authority, control, and a feeling of supremacy. Aesthetics Aesthetics, focuses on sensory perception. Many products only focus on visual and tactile senses. However, stimulating as many senses as possible through the use of a product or environment builds a positive association of the product with its application. Visual: The visual form must relate shape, color and texture to the context of the product and the target market. Tactile: The physical interaction of the product, primarily focusing on the hand but also including any other physical contact between the product and user, must enhance the product experience. Auditory: The product must only emit the appropriate sounds and eliminate undesired sounds. Olfactory: The product must have an agreeable smell, providing appropriate aromas and eliminating undesirable odors. Gustatory: Products that are designed to be eaten, used as a utensil, or may otherwise be placed in the mouth (e.g., a child's toy) must have an optimum flavor or no flavor at all.

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Product Identity Products in the Upper Right make a statement about individuality and personality, expressing uniqueness, timeliness of style, and appropriateness in their environment. Personality: The two main issues in a product personality are 1) the ability of a product to fit among yet differentiate itself from its direct competition, and 2)the connection that a product has to the rest of the products produced by that company. Point in time: In order for a product to be successful, it has to capture a point in time and express it in a clear, powerful way. Point in time is a tricky combination of features and aesthetics. Sense of place: Products must be designed to fit into the context of use. Impact A company has a number of ways to demonstrate that it can be a responsible manufacturer and respond to socially oriented issues. Social responsibility is connected with the customer's personal value system and, can often build brand loyalty. Social: A product can have a variety of effects on the lifestyle of a target group, from improving the social well-being of the group to creating a new social setting. Environmental: The effect of products on the environment is becoming an important issue in terms of consumer value. Design for the environment, or " green design," focuses on minimizing negative effects on the environment due to manufacturing, resource use of the product during operation, and recycling. Ergonomics Ergonomics refers to the dynamic movement of people and their interaction with both static and dynamic man-made products and environments. Ergonomics has both a short-term and long-term effect on the perception of a product. Ease of use: A product must be easy to use from both a physical and cognitive perspective. A product should function within the natural motion of the human body .The ergonomics of the size and shape of components that a person interacts with should be logically organized and easy to identify, reach, grasp, and manipulate. 21


Safety: A product must be safe to use. Moving parts should be covered, sharp corners eliminated, and internal components shielded from users. Comfort: Along with ease of use and safety, a product should be comfortable to use and not create undo physical or mental stress during use. Core Technology As aesthetics and personality target the style aspects of the Positioning Map, the core technology and quality Value Opportunities target the technology aspects. Technology alone is not enough, but technology is essential. Enabling: Core technology must be appropriately advanced to provide sufficient features. Core technology may be emerging high technology or well manufactured traditional technology, as long as it meets customer expectations in performance. Reliable: Consumers expect technology in products to work consistently and at high level of performance over time. Quality The final Value Opportunity is quality: the precision and accuracy of Manufacturing methods, material composition, and methods of attachment. Products should be perceived to be of high quality when purchased and they should meet that expectation over a long period of time. Craftsmanship -fit and finish: The product should be made with sufficient tolerances to meet performance expectations. Durability -performance over time: The craftsmanship must hold up over the expected life of the product.

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Figure 3. 2 The VOA The style-tech positioning map of the new products was defined by the technology, T, and the style, S. Hence, the X axis represents the technology while the Y axis represents the style, which composed the coordinate system (the style-tech positioning map). And the upper right quadrant stands for the “High use of Style and Technology”; the upper left quadrant stands for the “High use of Style, high use of technology”; the lower left quadrant stands for the “Low use of style and technology”; the lower right quadrant stands for the “Low use of style, high use of technology”.

Figure 3. 3 Positioning Map of style versus technology; great products are value-driven and found in the Upeer Right. 23


In addition, the LEF factors respectively stand for: L, lifestyle impact; E, ergonomics; F, features, to create a three-dimension relationship as shown in Figure 3.4.

Figure 3. 4 The LEF

3. Phase IIIďźšConceptualizing the Opportunity On the basis of the value-opportunity, VOs, form the diversification conception. Combining all these conceptions, different designing ideas, from the Phase II produce the conceptualization designing proposal. Value Opportunities Value can be broken down into specific attributes that contribute to a product's Usefulness , usability, and desirability, and connect a product's features to that value. Since products enable an experience for the user, the better the experience, the greater the value of the product to the consumer. These seven Value Opportunity classes - emotion, aesthetics, identity, ergonomics, impact, core technology, and quality - each contribute to the overall experience of the product and relate to the value characteristics of useful, usable, and desirable. The ergonomics, core technology, and quality Value Opportunities each address the satisfaction of the product during use, both immediately and long-term, 24


The social and environmental impact, product identity, and aesthetics VOs each address lifestyle aspects of the consumer. The emotion VO connects most directly with the consumer's fantasy in using the product. The VOs are an extension of the breakdown of value as lifestyle impact, features, and ergonomics. Lifestyle impact represents the emotion, aesthetics, identity, and social impact Value Opportunities; features represent the core technology, quality, and environmental impact VOs. 4. Phase IVďźšRealizing the Opportunity Make the outcome of the conceptualization designing proposal from Phase III into the characterization. After the completion of the innovative designing program, this research promotes the innovative design of Braille input applied on mobile phones. The ultimate purpose of this Phase is put this new products into practice and to market and sell this new product in the market.

3.5 Conclusion and discussion Draw up a preliminary questionnaire for the visually impaired individual users according to the research purpose and the concerning literature to figure out their needs toward mobile phones.

3.5.1 Questionnaire design (1) Life style investigation: to acquire the mobile phone use habits, difficulties and under what kind of condition do the subjects with visually impairment use mobile phones. (2) Satisfaction survey: deep-going investigation on the existing mobile phones of the visually impaired. (3) The needs and mobile phone functions investigation: this part is conducted after reorganizing and inducing the collected data, to understand the potential needs of the visual impairment for the follow-up references when planning and 25


designing the mobile phone and the concerning applications for the visually impaired individuals. (4) Make use of the in-depth interviews and participant observations to make up for the lack of the questionnaire survey.

3.5.2 The Research Subjects The primary research subjects are the individuals with visual impairment and eight of which had participated in this phase of the questionnaire survey. The personal information (basic information) of the eight subjects is as shown in Table 3.1. Table 3. 1 The Research Subjects Subjects

Ablepsia

Ages Vision Severity

1

Mr. A

47

2

Mr. B

48

3

Ms. C

35

4

Mr. D

48

5

Ms. E

51

6

Ms. F

31

7

Ms. G

28

8

Mr. H

31

Factors

Severely,with sensation of brightness Severely,without sensation of brightness Severely,with sensation of brightness Severely,with sensation of brightness Severely,with sensation of brightness Moderately Severely,without sensation of brightness Severely,without sensation of brightness 26

For how many

Occupation

years

acquired

44

Social Welfare

inborn

48

None

acquired

4

Social Welfare

acquired

42

Social Welfare

acquired

21

Public Official

inborn

31

None

inborn

28

Massage

acquired

3

Massage、 Online Auction


3.5.3 The outcome and analysis of the mobile phone use habit 1. How often do the subjects use the mobile phone? Table 3. 2 How often do the subjects use the mobile phone How often do the subjects use the mobile Total Votes Total phone Votes (%) everyday 6 75% 2-3 days 2 25%

2. How many mobile phones have the subjects used? Table 3. 3 How many mobile phones have the subjects used How many mobile phones have the Total Total Votes (%) subjects used Votes Over 20 2 25% Over 10 6 5 5

1 1 2 2

12.5% 12.5% 25% 25%

3. The reason why they change their previous mobile phone into a new one. Table 3. 4 The reason why they change their previous mobile phone into a new one The reason why they change their previous mobile phone into Total Total a new one

Votes

Votes (%)

Out of order

6

75%

In pursuit of the new functions、To understand the operation

2

25%

systems、Research、Teaching、Promotion

4. The mobile phone preferences. Table 3. 5 The mobile phone preferences The mobile phone preferences Total Votes Total Votes (%) Bar phone

5

55%

Folder phone

5

45%

27


5. How do the subjects carry their mobile phones ordinarily? Table 3. 6 How do the subjects carry their mobile phones ordinarily How do the subjects carry their mobile phones Total Votes Total Votes ordinarily

(%) Put in the personal bag.

4

50%

In the bum bag or clip on the belt.

2

25%

In the pocket.

2

25%

6. Whether the subjects use the earphone or not? Table 3. 7 Whether the subjects use the earphone or not Whether the subjects use the earphone or not Total Votes Total Votes (%) Never

4

75%

At times when listen to the radio

1

12.5%

Use the Bluetooth Headset

1

12.5%

3.5.4 The outcome and analysis of mobile phone use condition. 1. Top five use conditions in order. Table 3. 8 Top five use conditions in order Top five use conditions in order Top 5 ďźˆIn order Contact others

1

Emergency and rescue

2

Got lost

3

Call the police

4

Contact clients

5

28


2. The last five use conditions in order. Table 3. 9 The last five use conditions in order The last five use conditions in order The least 5 (In order) Listen to the radio

1

Listen to music

2

Surf the internet

3

Listen to the weather forecast

4

Use the alarm clock

5

3. The mobile phone use conditions that are not on the list in the questionnaire: shooting, sound recording and chatting with friends.

3.5.5 The satisfaction evaluation of the existing mobile phone (their own mobile phone). 1. Whether using the phone book (contact) or not. Table 3. 10 Whether using the phone book (contact) or not Whether using the phone Total Total Annotations book (contact) or not Not

Votes

Votes (%)

5

62.5%

Without a Mobile Speak

Yes

3

37.5%

With a Mobile Speak

Figure 3.6 Mobile Speak Soft-word Applications 29


2. Messages (Text) Table 3. 11 Messages (Text) Messages (Text) Total Votes Total Votes (%) Annotations Not

5

62.5%

Without a Mobile Speak

Yes

3

37.5%

With a Mobile Speak

3. The top five satisfactory mobile phone functions. Table 3. 12 The top five satisfactory mobile phone functions The top five satisfactory mobile phone functions. Top 5(In order) The on / off key

1

The phone ring

2

Confirmed standby

3

Standard 12-button numeric keypad

4

Phone model

5

4. Except the Phone book (Contact) and the Messages (Text) functions, the least five satisfactory functions. Table 3. 13 The least five satisfactory functions. The least five satisfactory functions The least 5 (In order) The alert of battery status 1 Whether have elected to the right functions 2 The stand by time 3 Material texture 4 The mobile phone size 5

5. In addition to a quarter of the subjects with visually impaired who do use the alarm clock function, the satisfaction was 4 in average, the rest of the functions, such as music mp3 player and radio, had never been used by them before.

30


3.5.6 The outcome and analysis of future mobile phone in demand for the visually impaired individuals. The top ten mobile phone functions in demand form the visually impaired individuals. 1. The Standard 12-button numeric keypad: The visually impaired subjects are disapprove of adding the raised Braille system on each number keys for that would interfere them with the tactile sense. 2. The voice activated confirmation. 3. The screen display and battery status alert. 4. The voice alert for missed calls, GPS walking guidance, and the TTS (Text To Speech). 5. The text reader、multiple ring tone settings. 6. The vvibrating alert. 7. The sound recorder. 8. The voice alert for unread messages, PA, E book reader. 9. The vibrating alert for missed calls and camera. 10. The voice activated dialing.

3.5.7 The conclusion and discussion of the interview and observation. Except for the function needs mentioned above, the interview and observation had following additional outcomes: 1. The “notes recognition” and the “color recognition” system / machine: The visually impaired individuals can identify the coins through the sense of touch while they cannot identify the differences between the notes. However, the transactions happen all the time in day life. Thus it is a problem that needs to be solved urgently. Most of the individuals with visual impairment are unable to distinguish the 31


colors. As a result, they might put on a pair of two different colors of socks or go wrong with the cloth matching. Even though the visually impaired individuals can not see how they look like themselves, they still at heart want to give others a nice impression. Therefore, if we could combine the “notes recognition” and the “color recognition” into the smart phone, we could thereby make the visually impaired individuals’ life and social intercourse more convenient. Meanwhile, the realization of the combination smart phone could also meet and satisfy the visually impairer’s needs for respect and self-fulfillment.

2. The “smart phone” and the “touch screen”: The researcher in this study had accompanied the visually impaired subjects to the Guang-Hua 3C Mall for several times to shop and purchase the electronic products, including mobile phone. However, the researcher had found out that the existing smart phone with the touch screen had replaced the traditional numeric keypad in the feature phone on the market. In other words, the standard 12-button numeric keypad is out of fashion and is on more common on the market. As a consequence, if the smart phone could add the “haptics feedback” to its touch screen, such as Google Eyes-Free, might let the visually impaired individuals available to use the smart phone and also enjoy the convenience and enchantment of life. 3. The keypad with cubic diamond on each of the key. According to the visually impaired users / subjects, the original keypad is too smooth to distinguish the right key they expected. Consequently, they (individuals with visual impairment) often make mistakes when key in. on the contrary, the keypads with small cubic diamonds on each of them are easier for them to distinguish the keys. 4. Five basic needs for the visually impaired individuals to use the mobile phone: To answer the call, to contact others, to establish a contact phone book, to text and receive the text. In these five basic needs, to use the phone book and to text both required the voice control to assist. 5. Unfold (layout) the main functions: 32


We sort out the analysis and research outcome with the spirit of “Universal Design”. Under the greatest possibility, the designs of mobile phone hope to do the most to comply with the visually impaired individuals’ needs. In other words, to design a mobile phone that caters to the individuals with visual impairment. The following are the main functions layout: (1) The preservation value of the Standard 12-button numeric keypad and the screen (2) The Mobile Speak (3) The Mobile Braille IME (Input Method) (4) The voice guide (electronic compass) and GPS walking guidance (5) The voice book combined with the TTS (Text To Speech) technique. (6) The camera. (7) The built-in multiple ring tone. (8) The vibration. (9) The sound recording. (10) The hands-free operation. (11) The voice dialing. 6. Three innovative product opportunity gaps, POGs. By way of the Integrated New Product Development, iNPD, to analysis the product opportunity gaps, POGs, the researcher bring up three innovative designs aim at the individuals with visually impaired: (1) The Mobile Speak. (2) The Mobile Braille IME (Input Method) (3) The GPS walking guidance.

33


Chapter Four: Innovation of Braille Applications on Mobile Phones 4.1 Motives and Purpose of the Innovation In the first phase of the research - 「Mobile Phone Usage Requirements by the Visually Impaired People」, it comes to the fulfillments of : (1) comprehension of the five fundamental requirements by the visually impaired people, and two of which establishing address book and writing text messages, are bringing visually impaired people tremendous inconvenience and challenges of data input to and information usage on mobile phones; (2) three innovative value opportunity points extracted from the requirements of the visually impaired people. In the second phase, the three innovative value opportunity points are taken into consideration on the development of mobile phone and relevant applications, with focus on the visually impaired people, and a creative plan of “Braille Application on Mobile Phone Text Input” is proposed, which is terminologically called “Mobile Braille IME (Input Method)” in this research.

4.2 Concept of the Innovation The main features of the innovation: the Braille is composed of various combinations of six dots forming different pronunciations and meanings, in contrast with the traditional Mandarin Braille which is based on phonetic symbols to constitute various meanings. This research corresponds the Braille symbols of dots 「1、2、3、 4、5、6」with the digits of「1、4、7、2、5、8」on the mobile phone's digit keypad, and text messages are keyed-in based on the Braille rules of concept, aided with 「speech synthesis」of 「real-time voice speak」 and hearing auxiliary feedback, so the visually impaired can be assured of correct inputs, and making “word spelling” possible. With experimental verifications and profound interviews, we learned that forms of various Braille dot combinations can be intuitively impressed in the minds of the visually impaired people. In these experiments, the visually impaired can key-in dotted words using the six dots combinations swiftly on the mobile phone keypad without too much pondering or the need of pre-learning, with high execution accuracy 34


and user ratification. This is to promote practicality、convenience and efficiency for the visually impaired to use mobile phones in daily life. They can independently establish address book、write text messages and put down notes on mobile phones, and even go internet via mobile phones to search for information、actively participate in the society as well as have other aspects fulfilled. The digits「3、6、9」on mobile phone keypad are defined as special keys for punctuation and special symbol inputs, including hot-key input and manual input; key 0 is space key instantly available without need of switching input mode, while key ✽ is a switch key to different input modes; a short pressing of key#to switch between English upper and lower cases, and a long pressing to switch between full-width and half-with characters.

Figure 4. 1 Design Concept of Dotted Character on Digit keypad

35


Table 4. 1 Comparison Table of Dotted Symbols vs. keypad Digits

ㄅ ㄆ ㄇ ㄈ ㄉ ㄊ ㄋ ㄌ ㄍ ㄎ ㄏ ㄐ ㄑ ㄒ ㄓ ㄔ

Dotted Symbols 135 1234 134 12345 145 124 1345 14 13 123 1235 13 245 15 1 12

24

42

ㄖ ㄗ ㄘ ㄙ

1245 125 245 15 Dotted Symbols 3 2 4 5 1

1425 145 425 15

16 Vowel Syllables ㄚ ㄛ ㄜ ㄝ ㄞ ㄟ ㄠ ㄡ ㄢ ㄣ ㄤ ㄥ ㄦ ㄧ ㄨ ㄩ 22 Union Rhymes ㄧㄚ ㄧㄛ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄞ

Digit Keypad

ㄧㄠ

246

428

7 4 2 5 1

ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄤ ㄧㄥ ㄨㄚ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄞ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄢ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄤ ㄨㄥ ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ ㄩㄥ

234 2345 1456 46 13456 35 25 2356 1246 12456 123456 456 12346 236 45 256 235

472 4725 1258 28 17258 75 45 4758 1428 14258 147258 258 14728 478 25 258 475

21 Vowels

5 Tones 一聲 ˊ ˇ ˋ ˙

Digit Keypad 175 1472 172 14725 125 142 1725 12 17 147 1475 17 425 15 1 14

36

Dotted Symbols 345 126 2346 26 2456 356 146 12356 1236 136 1346 1356 156 16 34 1256 Dotted Symbols 23456 356 346 26

Digit Keypad 725 148 4728 48 4258 758 128 14758 1478 178 1728 1758 158 18 72 1458 Digit Keypad 47258 758 728 48


Table 4. 2 Duplicate Coding of Mobile Phone Dotted Character IME

Traditional Chinese

Phonetic Alphabets

ㄋㄧˇ

Dotted Symbols Vowels+ Vowel Syllable/Union Rhyme+Tune 1345 16 4

ㄏㄠˇ

12351464

1475 128 2

,今

,ㄐㄧㄣ

,13 1456 3

3 17 1258 7

ㄊㄧㄢ

124 2345 3

142 4725 7

ㄏㄣˇ

1235 136 4

1475 178 2

ㄍㄠ

13 146 3

17 128 7

ㄒㄧㄥˋ

15 13456 5

15 17258 5

ㄖㄣˋ

1245 136 5

1425 178 5

ㄕㄦˋ

24 156 5

42 158 5

ㄋㄧˇ

1345 16 4

1725 18 2

,謝

ㄒㄧㄝˋ

,15 346 5

3 15 728 5

ㄒㄧㄝˋ

15 346 5

15 728 5

ㄋㄧˇ

1345 16 4

1725 18 2

ㄖㄜˋ

1245 2346 5

1425 4728 5

ㄒㄧㄣ

15 1456 3

15 1258 7

ㄅㄤ

135 1346 3

175 1728 7

ㄇㄤˊ

134 1346 2

172 1728 4

,讓

ㄖㄤˋ

,1245 1346 5

3 1425 1728 5

ㄨㄛˇ

25 4

45 2

ㄇㄣ˙

134 136 1

172 178 1

ㄅㄠˇ

135 146 4

175 128 2

ㄔㄦˊ

12 156 2

14 158 4

ㄌㄧㄢˊ

14 2345 2

12 4725 4

ㄌㄨㄛˋ

14 25 5

12 45 5

,期

ㄑㄧˊ

245 16 2

3 425 18 4

ㄉㄞˋ

145 2456 5

125 4258 5

ㄒㄧㄚˋ

15 23456 5

15 47258 5

ㄘㄦˋ

245 156 5

425 158 5

ㄗㄞˋ

125 2456 5

145 4258 5

ㄐㄧㄢˋ

13 2345 5

17 4725 5

ㄇㄧㄢˋ

134 2345 5

172 4725 5

33

37

Digit Keypad 1725 18 2


4.3 Experiment Construct This research takes the visually impaired people’s daily use of mobile phones as a simulation scenario, in which everyday words are used for experimental text messages. The experimenter first explains to the testees the design concept and user rules of the visually impaired dotted character IME (see figure 4.2), the testees then touch the mobile phone keypad to get familiar with key positions and begin simple practices on words like “Hello everybody” and “Dotted Character IME”. The testees can freely decide the length of practice till they feel no more practice needed. And then the formal experiment begins.

Figure 4. 2 Description on Mobile Phone Dotted Character IME

Figure 4. 3 Exercises of the Experiment 38


The exercise of the formal experiment is a text message of 36-character long Chinese. Voice speak of the experimental exercise are divided into multiple segments as shown in figure 4.4, and the testees are advised that no time constraint is imposed on the experiment - just doing it by ordinary message key-in rhythm and the purpose of the experiment is to evaluate usability and satisfaction level of the mobile phone dotted character IME, rather than test their input efficiency and capability.

Figure 4. 4 Voice Speak of Experimental Exercise When the testees are working on the exercise, the experimenter are making observation and taking notes beside. When the exercise is done, questionnaires are handed to the testees to fill their usage patterns on mobile phones〠dotted characters and Braille IME for SUS evaluation as well as satisfaction evaluation. Finally, it comes to profound interviews (See Figure 4.5).

Figure 4. 5 Visually impaired Sharing on How to Use Book Teller 39


1. Experimental Device This experiment uses HTC S730 intelligent mobile phone (see figure 4.6) as the experimental device, which has a solid standard digit keypad and its enter-key executes a carriage return to the next line. Testees’ dotted inputs are recorded as experiment data for later input precision analysis.

Figure 4. 6 Smart Phone S730 2. Experiment Objective The experiment objective is to let the visually impaired testees to establish their own text messages of daily life words. To make sure that proper words and statements are used in the experiment, visually impaired experts with many years of experience in electronic products as well as visually impaired social service workers were invited to provide opinions on pre-test questions. It was found that in the pre-test the exercise of daily words included Chinese、English、numbers and punctuations, but according to the expert opinions, not all visually impaired people were familiar with English Braille. Therefore, this research made modifications accordingly, and again had the experts and social workers help double check till final version was reached. The final experimental text message had 36 characters of 31 Chinese characters and 3 punctuations mixed. The testees listened to the voice speak and used the mobile phone’s standard digit keypad to key-in words on the dotted character symbolic rules (see figure 4.7-4.11). When the test was done, the experimenter checked with the operation objective and the comparison table of dotted symbols vs. digit keypad, and worked on precision analysis. 40


Figure 4. 7 Experiment Process – Part 1/5

Figure 4. 8 Experiment Process – Part 2/5

41


Figure 4. 9 Experiment Process – Part 3/5

Figure 4. 10 Experiment Process – Part 4/5

42


Figure 4. 11 Experiment Process – Part 5/5 4.4 Experiment Objects The experiment duration was from June to July, 2010. Twenty-one visually impaired people – eight males and thirteen females, were selected with non-probability roll-the-snowball sampling method. Their ages were between twenty-five and fifty-six years old. Twenty of them were severely visually impaired and the other one was with medium visual disturbance.

4.5 Precision Statistics and Analysis of the Experiment Objective 1. Experiment Objective Operation Times (1) Slowest: 20 minutes; Fastest :2 minutes (see Appendix 4 for details on Table of Experiment Results and Error Analysis on Mobile Phone Dotted Character IME) (2) Average operation time: 7.7 minutes 2. Precision Rate

43


(1) Average Percentage(see Appendix 4 for details on Table of Experiment Results and Error Analysis on Mobile Phone Dotted Character IME) (2) Decimal numbers are rounded off to the second decimal point. (3) Precision Percentage:83.1%. (4)Excluding the one with the deviated low precision of 13.9%ďźŒthe average precision percentage of other twenty testees is: 86.53%. 3. Analysis on the Cause of Errors (1) The mobile phone’s keypad is small, and it is easy to mistakenly touch the adjacent keys (2) Unrecognizable tunes. (3) Not complying with the input order of the dotted character input rules. (4) Missing characters (5) Incorrect spellings.

4.6 Survey and Interviews on Mobile Phone Usage Patterns 1. Years of using mobile phone: Years of using mobile phone Over 20 10-20 10 at least

Total Votes (n=21) 2 14 5

Total Votes (%) 9.5% 66.7% 23.8%

2. Frequency of using mobile phone: Total Votes (n=21) 21

Frequency of using mobile phone Everyday

44

Total Votes (%) 100%


3. The brand of the currently used mobile phone: Total Votes (n=21) 1 1 1 2 16

The brand of the currently used mobile phone K-Touch Samsung Motorola Sony Ericsson Nokia

Total Votes (%) 4.8% 4.8% 4.8% 9.5% 76.2%

4. The model of the currently used mobile phone: The model of the currently used mobile phone Bar phone Shall phone Slip phone

Total Votes (n=21) 15 5 1

Total Votes (%) 71.4% 23.8% 4.8%

5. The price of the currently used mobile phone: mobile phone packaged with phone number、a second-hand、a gift The price of the currently used mobile phone A gift Don’t know A second-hand NTD.4000 NTD.2000 Normal NTD.4000

Total Votes (n=21) 3 2 4 5

Total Votes (%) 14.3% 9.5% 19% 23.8%

6. Acceptable price of a new mobile phone: Acceptable price of a new mobile phone 2,000 5,000 8,000 10,000 20,000 45

Total Votes (n=21) 2 10 2 5 2

Total Votes (%) 9.5% 47.6% 9.5% 23.8% 9.5%


7. Mobile phone usage occasions: contacting relatives and friends, or for works Mobile phone usage occasions: contacting relatives and friends, or for works Contact friends and work

Total Votes (n=21)

Total Votes (%)

21

100%

8. Often-used mobile phone functions: Multiple Selections Receiving Calls、Making Calls Receiving Messages、Sending Messages Listening to Messages Listening to Date & Time Notebook、Calendar Establishing & Querying Address Book Listening Missed Call Change of Incoming Call Tinkle Alarm Clock Recording e-mail Listening to Incoming Call Numbering Listening to Phone Provider’s Message Box

Total Votes (n=21) 21 8

Total Votes (%) 100% 38.1%

1 3 2

4.8% 14.3% 9.5%

2

9.5%

2 2 1 1 1

9.5% 9.5% 4.8% 4.8% 4.8%

1

4.8%

1

4.8%

9. Real-time Voice Speak Menu: it is a mobile phone internal function, not external, therefore cannot work on advanced voiced menu. Total Votes (n=21) 13 7 1

Real-time Voice Speak Menu Yes No Low level menu voice speak

Total Votes (%) 61.9% 33.3% 4.8%

10. How to Use the Functions of Text Message Query:

How to Use the Functions of Text Message Query Yes No

46

Total Votes (n=21) 13 8

Total Votes (%) 61.9% 38.1%


11. How to Use the Functions of Establishing Text Messages: How to Use the Functions of Establishing Text Messages No Yes

Total Votes (n=11) 10 11

Total Votes (%) 47.6% 52.4%

12. To Establish Text Message IME: Phonetic Alphabet IME縲,hinese Pronunciation IME To Establish Text Message IME Phonetic Alphabet IME Phonetic Alphabet IME

Total Votes (n=11) 8 3

Total Votes (%) 72.7% 27.3%

13. Opinions on the mobile phone Braille IME: Opinions on the mobile phone Braille IME Acceptable Discontent- incapable of directly selecting Chinese characters Discontent- having to memorize phonetic alphabets on keypad positions.

Total Votes (n=8) 4

Opinions on Chinese Pronunciation IME 1.discontent- being incapable of directly selecting Chinese characters 2.discontent- to many options following each pronunciation to pick up a correct one

47

Total Votes (%) 50%

2

25%

3

37.5%

Total Votes (n=3)

Total Votes (%)

3

100%


14. Opinions on the Convince of Mobile Phone Text Input: Opinions on the Convince of Mobile Phone Text Input Phonetic alphabet IME is acceptable With voice guidance system, phonetic alphabet IME is easy to use Discontent- phonemic alphabet IEM is incapable of directly selecting Chinese characters Discontent- having to memorize phonetic alphabets on keypad positions. Using phonetic alphabet IME to input characters is not convenient Having never used it because of lack of voice guidance system

Total Votes (n=21) 2

Total Votes (%) 9.5%

3

14.3%

3

14.3%

3

14.3%

4

19%

9

42.9%

15. Mobile Phone Functions in Urgent Need of Improvement or Possession: (1) ă€ŒReal-time Voice Speak Menuă€?functions are not generalized enough. (2) Mobile phone camera also needs to have real-time voice speak functions. (3) Voice speak should be capable of reading a single word in a sentence. The current English mobile speak can only speak one alphabet by another. (4) Able to independently establish address book without helps from others. (5) Able to independently key-in text messages. (6) Input method should be user friendly, easy to operate. (7) Input precision can be increased. (8) Capable of using the input method proposed by this research without the need of memorizing the phonetic alphabet positions on the mobile phone keypad. (9) For people with low visual disturbance, big screen fonts with high contrast brightness are needed. (10) Mobile phone keypad needs to have salient keys; the size should be fitting into a palm suitable for a single-hand data input; no need of special exterior outlook for visually impaired people, be the ordinary one as with the commonality. 48


(11) Able to go internet、search for information、record data、listen to news、listen to music、use Skype and GPS as well as handle the incidental mobile internet fees. (12) GPS walk navigation. (13)Connected with government resources for services like incoming bus notification. (14) long-lasting battery power. (15) Recording

4.7 Results of Survey and Interviews on Braille Usage Patterns 1. Years of Using Braille: Years of Using Braille 10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50

Total Votes (n=21) 1 7 9 2 2

Total Votes (%) 4.8% 33.3% 42.9% 9.5% 9.5%

Total Votes (n=21) 21 19 2 19 8 2 1

Total Votes (%) 100% 90.5% 9.5% 90.5% 38.1% 9.5% 4.8%

Total Votes (n=21) 19 1 1

Total Votes (%) 90.5% 4.8% 4.8%

2. Types of Braille Used: Types of Braille Used Chinese Braille English Braille English Braille(not familiar) Mathematics Braille Music Braille Janpanese Braille German(not familiar)

3. Whether using Braille in daily life: Whether using Braille in daily life Yes sometimes no 49


4. Frequency of Using Braille: Frequency of Using Braille Yes Every week no

Total Votes (n=21) 19 1 1

Total Votes (%) 90.5% 4.8% 4.8%

Total Votes (n=21) 18 11 5 4 4 3 1 1 1 1

Total Votes (%) 85.7% 52.4% 23.8% 19% 19% 14.3% 4.8% 4.8% 4.8% 4.8%

5. Products Used for Braille: Products Used for Braille Touch Screen/Computer Braille Board/Braille Pen Braille Device Braille Watch Bible、Periodicals、Magazines、Books Lyrics、Music Notations、Letters Braille Printing Device Braille Home Telephone Braille Poker Braille Chinese Chess 6. The Often-used Method of Data Recording: (1) Computer: with Braille-equipped touch-screen. (2) Braille Device: bigger in size, not portable. (3) Braille Board/Braille Pen: Keeping phone numbers and notes, suitable for fast writing down small-quantity data. (4) USB harddisk for files like book teller: capable of storing text files、MP3 files as well as recording. There is lots of today’s information in electronic format, which can be converted into voice files for story telling and novel reading. (5) Memorize it. (6) Large quantity of Braille data can be dot-printed by Braille printer. This is usually not for personal use. 7. Other Opinions on Braille: (1) When using touch-screen computer, multiple tasks are possible. But with sound screen software (voice reading of screen information), there will be only one task at a time. For example, when using sound screen, music playing cannot 50


happen simultaneously. (2) For things to learn or memorize, touch-screen device will be needed; for the routine of listening to news or anything with no need of memorizing, sound screen will be good enough.

4.8 SUS Evaluation on Mobile Phone Braille IME User Friendliness: Total Votes (n=21) 19 1 1 0 0

User Friendliness Highly Agreeable Agreeable No Comment Disagreeable Highly Disagreeable

Total Votes (%) 90.5% 4.8% 4.8% 0% 0%

Survey and Interviews on Character Selection 1. Comprehension of Character Meaning and Patterns: Comprehension of Character Meaning and Patterns Character Meaning and Patterns Understand the Meaning but Not the Pattern

Total Votes (n=21) 7

Total Votes (%) 33.3%

14

66.7%

Total Votes (n=21) 16 2 1 2 0

Total Votes (%) 76.2% 9.5% 4.8% 9.5% 0%

2. The Need of Character Selection Function: The Need of Character Selection Function Highly Needed Needed No Comment Not Needed Absolutely Not Needed

3. If the function is realized in the future, the willingness of using it: If the function is realized in the future, the willingness of using it Highly Agreeable Agreeable No Comment Disagreeable Highly Disagreeable 51

Total Votes (n=21) 19 2 0 0 0

Total Votes (%) 90.5% 9.5% 0% 0% 0%


4.9 Results of Experiments and Interviews on Mobile Phone Braille IME 1. 9.5% of the visually impaired people suggest for error prompt sound for occasions like unreasonable spelling、incorrect spelling or mistakenly pressed keys. 2. 4.8% of the visually impaired people actively suggest that the corresponding keypad digit positions be changed from this research’s initially planned「1、4、7 -2、5、8」to「1、4、7-3、6、9」. 3. 4.8% of the visually impaired people think the experimental mobile phone Braille IME does not confuse users as does the phonetic alphabet IME or Chinese pronunciation IME. Instead, it is quite similar to Braille board. 4. With Braille IME on the personal computer, two hands are both on the keyboard, and six dots are pressed simultaneously in various combinations without order of priority – only character patterns are concerned. But this research requires Braille’s order of priority. There are 14.3% of the testees say they prefer IME without order of priority, while some other testees think the order of input priority is necessary to avoid typing errors, i.e. mobile phone’s keypad is much smaller than that of a personal computer, it is not easy to press multiple keys at the same time and hence typing errors could easily occur without the order of input priority. For visually impaired people familiar with Braille IME, they can key-in text messages by the order of input priority and even talk to others at the same time. There are 85.7% of the testees are agreeable to Braille IME by the order of input priority. 5. As for selecting characters, all of the visually impaired testees think this as an 「very important」function particularly in occasions of sending messages to

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non-visually impaired people and sending formal messages with recipient’s name for reason of politeness. It is nevertheless not so important with messages sent to visually impaired people. 6. Many visually impaired testees actively express that, despite its more key presses, mobile phone Braille IME does not need switch among input modes of Chinese〠English and numbers, and visually impaired people are more familiar with it. Therefore, it is more suitable to visually impaired people than phonetic alphabet IME is. 7. To those who become visually impaired in their mid-life, more time are needed in the experiment, because they are less familiar with Braille. But once they get used to it, they will be able to use the mobile phone Braille IME comfortably. 8. The testees express they are highly interested and satisfied with the mobile phone Braille IME for its fast typing, and are looking forward to its arrival in the commercial market.

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Chapter Five: Conclusion and Future Study 5.1 Conclusion This research takes the stands of the needing users as the pivot viewpoint, by research into relevant articles along with Q&A questionnaires as well as profound interviews and direct participating observation methodology, to comprehend in depth the requests and latent requirements of the visually impaired people. The first phase of the research is focused on「Mobile Phone Usage Requirements by Visually Impaired People」, and has conclusions of : (1) the five fundamental requirements by visually impaired people, which are making phone calls、receiving phone calls(including missed incoming class)、 establishing address book、writing text messages and reading text messages; (2) three innovation value opportunity points (POGs) extracted by using operational innovation method (iNPD), which are real-time voice speak、 braille application on mobile phone and walk navigation. In the second phase, the three innovative value opportunity points are taken into consideration on the development of mobile phone and relevant applications, with focus on the visually impaired people, and a creative plan of “Braille Application on Mobile Phone Text Input” is proposed, which is terminologically called “Mobile Braille IME (Input Method)” in this research. The main features of the innovation: the Braille is composed of various combinations of six dots forming different pronunciations and meanings, in contrast with the traditional Mandarin Braille which is based on phonetic symbols to constitute various meanings. This research corresponds the Braille symbols of dots 「1、2、3、4、 5、6」with the digits of「1、4、7、2、5、8」on the mobile phone's digit keypad, and text messages are keyed-in based on the Braille rules of concept, aided with「speech synthesis」of 「real-time voice speak」 and hearing auxiliary feedback, so the visually impaired can be assured of correct inputs, and making “word spelling” possible.

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With experimental verifications and profound interviews, we learned that forms of various Braille dot combinations can be intuitively impressed in the minds of the visually impaired people. In these experiments, the visually impaired can key-in dotted words using the six dots combinations swiftly on the mobile phone keypad without too much pondering or the need of pre-learning, with high execution accuracy and user ratification. This is to promote practicality、convenience and efficiency for the visually impaired to use mobile phones in daily life. They can independently establish address book、write text messages and put down notes on mobile phones, and even go internet via mobile phones to search for information、actively participate in the society as well as have other aspects fulfilled.

5.2 Future Study Concept of「Mobile Phone Braille IME」Applied to「Intelligent Mobil Phones」: Intelligent mobile phones bring about open system architecture, with which all functions can be implemented by various application software and this was not possible in the past proprietary mobile phone environment. After profound interviews, we found that more and more visually impaired people want to use intelligent mobile phones. It is a challenging and valuable topic on how to make technology breakthrough to effectively increase「tactile feedback」and let visually impaired people use mobile phone touch-screen dotted character IME. Intelligent mobile phones with open system architecture can have the above special features considered during the design and manufacturing process without increasing production cost, and can also expand its customer base by benefiting the visually impaired people.

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There are more and more companies in the technology industry taking part in the research and development of relevant applications, such as Google’să€ŒEyes-Freeă€?. We can see a high feasibility of combining our mobile phone Braille into the industrial development. This research is with a sincere hope that the day will come early when the visually impaired people can enjoy the convenience with intelligent mobile phones just like ordinary people do.

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A Study on the Innovative Design of Braille InputApplied on Mobile Phones  

A Study on the Innovative Design of Braille InputApplied on Mobile Phones

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