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Design of Gaharu Essential Oil Extraction Plant with Capacity of 450L per Annual

Plant Design Project (SKF 4824)


Introduction of Gaharu  Scientific name: Aquilaria malaccensis  One of most previous tree in the world  Can be trade in the form of chips, flakes, oil and powder  Gives off a unique aromatic scent when the wood is burnt  Gaharu oil grade-depending on resin content  Formation of resin as a response to wounding induced by external factors or microbial infection


Gaharu from plant to product


Gaharu in Use


Site selection Factors to be consider:  Land price  Raw Materials  Transportation  Power and Water supply  Labours  Proximity to market  Waste disposal  Government incentives


Plant location: Lot 103, Jalan Kulai, 80000, Kulai, Johor, Malaysia


Global Market

GAHARU IMPORTERS

• • • •

UAE JAPAN SAUDI ARABIA TAIWAN

GAHARU EXPORTERS • • • •

SINGAPORE MALAYSIA INDONESIA THAILAND


Extraction method – Steam Distillation

Distillation

->

Condensation

->

Oil water separation


Equipment selection 1. Propeller Mixing Tank

2. Autoclave

3. Cooler

4. Incubator


5. Steam distillation unit

Steam Boiler 6. Oil water separator

Distillation still

Condenser


Physical properties of oil constituents β-agarofuran

norketoagarofuran

Agarospirol

Kusunol

Jinkoh-eremol

Formula

C14H22O

C14H22O2

C15H26O

C15H26O

C15H26O

Flash point (°C)

113.281

127.781

114.626

116.628

109.677

137.562

Boiling point at 760 mmHg (°C)

269.305

313.614

312.188

315.716

303.513

327.13

Mr (g/mol)

206.3238

222.32328

222.3663

222.3660

222.36634

Density (g/cm3)

1.0080

1.066

0.962

0.958

0.96

0.98

Enthalpy of Vaporization (kJ/mol)

48.6990

55.471

64.139

64.574

63.072

56.94

Vapour Pressure (mmHg at 25°C)

0.012000000104 3081

0

0

0

0

0

Properties

dihydrokaranone

C15H26O


Basis and Assumption of Mass Balance Material out = Material in + Generation – Consumption – Accumulation

 Inlet of gaharu = 600kg/day.  Production of the plant = 1.26L/day  Gaharu contain 0.006 % of β-agarofuran (C15H24O), 0.006 % of nor-ketoagarofuran (C15H24O), 0.047 % of agarospirol (C15H26O), 0.04 % of jinkoh-eremol (C15H26O), 0.029 % of kusunol (C15H26O), 0.024 % of dihydrokaranone (C10H16O), 0.058 % of oxo-agarospirol (C10H16O) and 99.79 % of cellulose (C6H10O5).


Basis and Assumption of Energy Balance Energy out = Energy in + Generation – Consumption + Accumulation

 Q = ∆H = ∑ṁĤin - ∑ṁĤout  Kinetics and potential energies are neglected

 Reference of calculation, H = 0, Po = 1atm, T = 298.15 K  All of the unit operation are in steady state


Waste Management

Waste

Solid waste

Joss stick

Gaharu pallet

Waste Water

Waste water treatment plant


MECHANICAL DESIGN

Autoclave still

Incubator

Distillation


Profitability Analysis Total Capital Investment, TCI

RM 5 381 057.98

NET Annual Profit, ANP

RM 2 856 106.44

Pay Back Period Rate of return, ROR

2.8 years after 3 years startup period 55.17 %


Novelty  Special design of multi-functional tanks (Autoclave, incubator – mixing, heat, reactor)  Minimize the number of unit operations  Pretreatment – Enhance productivity

Plant design presentation  

Gaharu oil extraction plant