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THE EXPLORATION OF PAPER WITHIN GRAPHIC DESIGN. JULIA HICKS


CONTENTS INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT INTRODUCTON TO PAPER EXAMPLES OF PAPER IN DESIGN PEOPLE THAT USE PAPER IN THEIR WORK BREAK DOWN OF THINGS TO DO NEXT HOW PAPER CAN COMMUNICATE A MESSAGE THE EXPERIMENTS BEGIN CUTTING INTO PAPER OTHER WAYS OF MANIPULATING PAPER SURVEY ON PAPER HOW PAPER CAN AFFECT THE MESSAGE HOW TO PRESENT MY INFORMATION DEVELOPMENT OF MY TEXTBOOK CONCLUSION


INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT.


WHY DO THIS PROJECT?

Paper can be made into almost any subject. Like wood or metal, its endlessly changeable in its forms and in what it can form. Its inexpensive and lightweight. It doesnt require a forge to be shaped. The human hand can supply enough force to change its form. Despite the growth of CD-ROMs, DVDs and the Internet, printed design is bigger than ever. Only one design element separates digital designs from print: paper. In the world of print, paper choice influences every design project. Paper can act as the driving force behind a design. Attention should be given to how paper choice is incorporated into a design - as it is a means of expressing concept, for its aesthetic qualities and for its structural properties.


WHY DOES IT INTEREST ME?

I think that this topic can be overlooked by designers these days and paper is just as important as any other part of the design process. This project will probably be an exploration into understanding the uses of paper within design and how it can help me with my design work in the future. Alot of design using just paper really draws me in, and I find the fact that you can create a piece of work just out of paper and still give off a strong message without inks really interesting. The target audience for this project willl be for designers who overlook the process of paper and its uses. It would also interest people who want to understand paper and its uses more within the design world, as well as peopel who want to create a diffferent approach to their design work


BRAIN STORMING

Become a paper chef, expert. Create receipes Take elements from childrens books & use it for something like an annual report. Take away editing totally

This is a subject that designers overlook, is there enough books on paper?

Collected different objects printed on different papers and compare, note different patterns

Get a swatchbook of paper, blind people and see what they say or feel, what emotions come to mind? Simplifying to extremes

Books and magazines with nothing on it, just paper representing the page on a whole Look at different paper stocks

Look into basic information about paper, create a catalogue.

Research on printers

Crystal Goblet TheoryWine in a crystal glass

PAPER IN GRAPHIC DESIGN Steven Farthing Abstract form- Looking at things without text and imagery

Experiment by printing different things on different paper e.g. what would the sun look like printed on vogue magazine paper.

Imagery without type and image, just paper

A receipe book on paper when put with design. How you can do alot more with less?

Sushi served on newspaper print that fish & chips is served on.

How would just paper be represented for different things e.g.what texture would anger be?

Warde, Beatrice. “The Crystal Goblet, Or Why Printing Should Be Invisible.� Rob Ryan

Different paper techniques depending on the product you are selling.

Look at accidental collages e.g. Mimmo Rotella.


TUTORIAL 1 WITH DARREN

We talked about paper engineering - is what you are interested in paper manipulation rather than construction? Is is about playful interventions with paper? Rather than paper folding it’s just working with different types of paper and doing things quite simply with paper (folding, creasing, ripping, scrunching etc). Looking at Richard Serra verb list - maybe create your own version/list of words. Maybe look at Rob Ryan http://www.misterrob.co.uk/ or paper based folk art: http://www.polskiinternet.com/english/info/artpaper.html We talked about how could you illustrate/ communicate visually using nothing but paper - not imagery, colour etc. Stephen Farthing (a professor ofdrawing says, ‘Dirtying the Paper Delicately´. We also talked about who is the potential target audience for this project? Maybe look at different types of paper - different processes to make paper - different chemicals, colours, weights etc - different places and uses of paper in our lives and world. Plan could be to spend a couple of weeks being a ‘paper’ nerd and finding out as much about paper as possible whilst undertaking simple practical and open experiments with paper documenting what you do on flickr or other simple online tool.


INTRODUCTION TO PAPER.


DEFINITION OF PAPER

Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. Paper is a versatile material with many uses. Whilst the most common is for writing and printing upon, it is also widely used as a packaging material, in many cleaning products, in a number of industrial and construction processes, and occasionally as a food ingredient, particularly in Asian cultures. The word paper derives from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. The immediate predecessor to modern paper is believed to have originated in China in approximately the 2nd century AD, although there is some evidence for it being used before this date. Papermaking is considered to be one of the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China, since the first pulp papermaking process was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun. China used paper as an effective and cheap alternative to silk, letting them sell more silk, leading to a Golden Age. The use of paper spread from China through the Islamic world and entered production in medieval Europe in the 13th century, where the first water-powered paper mills were built and mechanization of papermaking began. The industrial production of paper in the early 19th century caused significant cultural changes worldwide, allowing for relatively cheap exchange of information in the form of letters, newspapers and books for the first time. In 1844, both Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty and German inventor F.G. Keller had invented the machine and process for pulping wood for the use in paper making. This would end the nearly 2000year use of pulped rags and start a new era for the production of newsprint and eventually all paper out of pulped wood.


PAPER SIZES

STANDARD SHEET SIZES

1

3

5

6

4

2

The ISO system ISO paper sizes, illustrated above, are derived from an A) size rectangle which has the area of one square metre. There are a number of different paper ‘series’ which use the ISO system for determining sizes. 1. ‘A’ sizes are intended to be the finished job sizes. 2. ‘RA’ sizes are to allow grip on the printing press. 3. ‘SRA’ sizes allow for both grip and bleed. 4. ‘B’ sizes allow for oversize formats

A series A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

mm 841 x 1189 594 x 841 420 x 594 297 x 420 210 x 297 148 x 210 105 x 148

B series B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6

mm 1000 x 1414 707 x 1000 500 x 707 353 x 500 250 x 353 176 x 250 125 x 176

RA series RA0 RA1 RA2 RA3 RA4

mm 860 x 11220 610 x 860 430 x 610 305 x 430 215 x 305

SRA series SRA0 SRA1 SRA2 SRA3 SRA4

mm 900 x 11280 640 x 900 450 x 640 320 x 450 225 x 320

Standard US 8” x 11” 17” x 22” 23” x 29” 23” x 35” 24” x 36” 25” x 38” 35” x 45”

mm 216 x 280 445 x 572 483 x 635 584 x 889 610 x 914 635 x 965 889 x 1143

B series considerations Unlike the other metric sizes above, there are many derivatives of the B series. B stock sizes differ from the theoretical Bsizes listed above. For example B1 can be 720 x 1020mm, 720 x 1010mm or 700 x 1000mm - all are regarded as B1 size. To avoid confusion, either slipulate the size or check the dimensions of the sheet.


FOLDING PAPER


STOCK CONTENT

TYPES OF PAPER UNCOATED Uncoated papers come in a wide variety of finishes and qualities. They are often described as ‘Offset’ or Cartridge’ papers. These are typically rougher and used for more general uses such as envelopes and pads. Laser papers are generally smoother and designed to work well for office printing. Uncoated ‘Text & Cover’ papers are usually of the highest quality for excellent reproduction in brochures and will generally show very good results when printing solids and four colour imagery. COATED It is worth remembering that all papers begin life as uncoated. Coated papers are produced by applying a coating mixture of china clay, chalk and latex. This can be done either on the paper machine (at the end of the drying process) or on a coating machine. Applying a coating has the effect of making a sheet smoother and more receptive to the ink resultking in a technically superior printing surface. ‘Matt’ coated papers are produced by the application of the coating which is scraped off using a very sharp blade, leaving a smooth matt finish. Silk finished papers are produced by slightly ‘calendaring’ (which means polishing) using heat, pressure and polished rollers. High gloss papers, sometimes referred to as ‘Art’ papers, are produced by coating the paper, exactly as a matt coated but then subjecting the paper to extreme pressure, very high temperature and highliy polished rollers. TEXTURES AND FINISHES There ar a variety of different finishes which can be applied to paper both during the papermaking process and after. The characteristics of ‘Laid’ papers (with narrow linear patterns commonly used for stationery) and ‘feltmarked’ papers (textured like artists paper) are producted during the paper making process. Embossed papers that look like leather or linen are produced after the papermaking process with the pattern being pressed into the paper by a heavy steel roller

PAPER MAKING PULP. The majority of paper is made from woodpulp which contains a micture of hard and soft wood and processed mechanically and chemically before being bleached. These fibres are then ‘pressed’ on a continuous machine which forms sheets of pulp which look like crude sheets of thick card. This is then collected into half tonne bales ready to be used for paper making. Fibres such as Hemp Bamboo can also be used but with current technology, wood is the most efficient fibre source. THE PAPER MAKING PROCESS. A paper machine is large, typically 4 metres wide and over 100 metres long. Bales of refined pulp are tipped into a “Hydropulper’ which breaks the pulp up by adding huge amounts of water and movement. After several more refining stages the ‘stock’, now 99% water and 1% fibre, is pumped to the start of the paper machine called the Headbox. The stock is sprayed onto a fast moving mesh which due to gravity allows most of the water to fall through the mesh. The remaining fibres are matted together on the mesh forming a knitted ‘web’ of interlocked fibres (if you tear a sheet of paper you can see the fibres). The web of paper which is still about 60% moisure passes through the press section which compacts the fibres and removes more moisture before entering the drying section which finally reduces moisture by use of steam heated drying cylinders. The web is then wound into large rolls at the end of the machine which can weigh 30-100 tonnes. PAPER CONVERTING. The large rolls are then slit into smaller rolls which can either be used for web offset printing, or cut into sheets.


STOCK WEIGHT

PAPER CHARACTERISTICS All papers are manufactured to a given specification. Usually this will involve a substance (weight), a thickness (bulk), and a shade or colour. Below are some descriptions of some useful common terms: GSM This is the abbrieviated term for ‘Grams per Square Metre’. In the metric system, the weight or substance is expressed as gsm or gm2. It is calculated by the physical weight of one sheet of paper measuring 1 x 1 metre. In reality, no one actually folds down a sheet of paper that large to weigh it, so it is generally measured using a scaled down measure of 10 x 10cm. BULK The thickness or caliper of a sheet of paper is often described as ‘bulk’. It is measured using a micrometer and expressed in microns.

SELECTING THE RIGHT PAPER.

PAPER AND BOARD Substanced up to 170gsm are generally classified as ‘paper’ weights. Weights above 170 gsm are usually classed as ‘board’.

The production of printed literature necessitates that peper must alwasys be looked at as part of the design and ideally should be considered at the beginning of a project. Think about these questions: Is paper going to add anything to the design? By selecting the right type of paper will I help answer the brief any better?

COLOUR/ SHADE. Most paper made is white. Coloured paper is made by adding dies to the pulp and (on some paper machines) later in the papermaking process. When paper is made it is constantly monitored to give a consistent shade and colour. SPECIAL PAPER WEIGHTS There are instances where specified weights have been developed for particular used or economical manufacturing, for example: Tissue paper 17 - 22gsm; Airmail paper 33gsm; Bible paper 28 - 60gsm; Newsprint 45- 48gsm; Bank paper 28 - 44gsm.

Have I considered the damage that can be done by selecting or accepting an inferior paper for the job? Either when choosing a paper or when the job is ready to be talked through with the printer, it is a very good idea to have a ‘dummy’ made. This can either be done by you, the printer or paper merchant The production of a plain paper replica means that you can judge the overall appearance, bulk and weight. It is only at this stage that you can be confident that the choice of material is practical and successful. It is also the time to see the material, the shape and the binding or folding working together.


USEFUL PAPER TERMS

ACID FREE Papers which have a ph value or 7.0 or above and do not contain free acids - which cause premature ageing of paper. An essential quality for books and documents that require a long life span. ART PAPER Highest quality mineral coated paper. The coating results in an exceptionally smooth paper, with high brightness and opacity, and even ink absorption. BANK A thin and strong paper of between 45 - 60gsm originally used for duplicate typewriter copies. BOND A writing paper similar to bank but of higher grammage, above 60 gsm.

CHROMO PAPER AND BOARD Usually one side is coated, having a heavy coating weight and containing the best types of mineral pigments. Often used for book jackets and labelling applications. DECKLE EDGE This term refers to the feathered edges of sheets of paper made by hand, or in a mould. This can add prestige to the appearance of the job when retained in the format. The Deckle edge produced on a paper machine is also a feathered edge which is trimmed off just before the reel is wound. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY Changed to the dimentions and flatness of paper and board that occur with variations in its moisture content DUPLEX BOARD Board made up of two layers of different paper material or colour

CALENDERING The smoothing of the paper by passing through a series of roll nips. There are two types: ‘machine calendering’ done on the papermaking machine with metal rolls, and ‘super calendering’ done as a separate operation with alternative metal and soft rolls.

EQUILIBRIUM RELATIVE HUMIDITY When a paper is in moisture equilibrium with the atmosphere to which it is exposed. In this state the edges of the sheet will not distort. This is particularly important for offset litho printing where there is 100% contact with the paper in the printing nip. It is also important for colour register work. For the UK, printing paper should be delivered in equilibrium with 50-55% relative humidity at 23oC.

CARTRIDGE Originally the term had a precise meaning and was the paper used for making gun cartridge cases. It was a strong paper with a fairly rough surface. Cartridge papers are now understood to be uncoated, reasonably even sided sheets for offset litho printing.

FORMATION The manner in which fibres are distrubuted in paper, which can be seen when examined with transmitted light (the look through). The extremes are ‘even’ and ‘wild’ (blotchy). The former is desirable for printing quality but is more difficult to achiece with strong papers.


USEFUL PAPER TERMS CTN

IVORY BOARDS Were once ivory coloured, but are now often white with a smooth finish, even formation and have been made with an exceptionally smooth surface. MACHINE FINISHED Uncoated paper which is calendered on the end of the paper machine with a stack of metal rolls. Has good bulk, its not particularly smooth but is excellent for bookwork without halftones. MACHINE GLAZED Paper that has dried on the papermaking machine with a single very large drying cylinder, known as a ‘Yankee drier’. The side of the paper in contact with the drying cylinder, normally the wire side, is given a gloss finish, the reverse side remaining rough. Used for posters and packaging. MATALLIC PAPERS These include metal foil coated paper printed with with aluminium deposited These papers are suitable for boxes and can be produced

laminated to base paper, metalic ink, or coated paper on it while in a vacuum. labels and expensive decorative either on sided or two sided.

MOULD- MADE PAPER A good imitation of handmade paper. It is made on a cylinder mould and varying sized sheets of paper can be produced with four deckle edges. OPTICAL BLEACHING AGEN An almost colourless substance used in paper to improve brightness by converting ultra-violet light into visible light. It is not effective in tungsten light and ironically the source that makes it effective, sunlight also destroys it. For this reason, paper end boards that contain large amounts of OBA should not be used in window displays as they will soon yellow.

SURFACE SIZED The application of a liquid, le starch or alginate, to the surface of the paper by a size press in the drying section of the papermaking machine. The treatment increases the surface strength of the paper as neccessary for offset litho printing, but also for improved print gloss and print density. TWIN WIRE MACHINE A papermaking machine that has two wires on which separate webs of paper are formed. The two webs are brought together and pressed and dried as a single sheet. WIRE SIDE The side of the paper which was in contact with the wire on a Fourdrinier machine. On uncoated paper it is the poorest side for print quality but the strongest. There is less filler present and it carries the impression of the pattern of the wire, although most current papers are mich better in this respect. WOODREE PAPER Paper that is primarily made from chemical wood pulp, with no greater than 10% mechanical wood pulp, which is used for the best grades of paper.


APPLICATIONS OF PAPER

To write or print on: the piece of paper becomes a document; this may be for keeping a record (or in the case of printing from a computer or copying from another paper: an additional record) and for communication; see also reading. Paper can be produced with a wide variety of properties, depending on its intended use. To represent a value: paper money, bank note, cheque, security, voucher and ticket For storing information: book, notebook, magazine, newspaper, art, zine, letter. For personal use: diary, note to remind oneself, etc.; for temporary personal use: scratch paper for communication to someone else: By transportation of the paper from the place where it is written or printed to the place where it is read: delivered by sender, transported by a third party (e.g. in the case of mail), or taken by the receiver, by writing at the same place as where it is read: If sender and receiver are not there at the same time, in the case of a posted notice

If sender and receiver are both present, but use paper for illustration, or if communication by talking is not suitable: because one is mute or the other is deaf To avoid other people hearing it, because it is secret, or in order not to disturb them in a noisy environment For packaging: corrugated box, paper bag, envelope, wrapping tissue, Charta emporetica and wallpaper For cleaning: toilet paper, handkerchiefs, paper towels, facial tissue and cat litter For construction: papier-mâchÊ, origami, paper planes, quilling, Paper honeycomb, used as a core material in composite materials, paper engineering, construction paper and clothing Other uses: emery paper, sandpaper, blotting paper, litmus paper, universal indicator paper, paper chromatography, electrical insulation paper (see also dielectrics and permittivity) and filter paper.


TYPES THICKNESS & WEIGHT

The thickness of paper is often measured by caliper, which is typically given in thousandths of an inch. Paper may be between 0.07 millimetres (0.0028 in) and 0.18 millimetres (0.0071 in) thick. Paper is often characterized by weight. In the United States, the weight assigned to a paper is the weight of a ream, 500 sheets, of varying "basic sizes", before the paper is cut into the size it is sold to end customers. For example, a ream of 20 lb, 8½ x 11" paper weighs 5 pounds, because it has been cut from a larger sheet into four pieces. The 8.5" x 11" size stems from the original size of a vat that was used to make paper.At the time, paper was made from passing a fiber and water slurry through a screen at the bottom of a box. The box was 17" deep and 44" wide. That sheet, folded in half in the long direction, then twice in the opposite direction, made a sheet of paper that was exactly 8.5" x 11". In Europe, and other regions using the ISO 216 paper sizing system, the weight is expressed in grammes per square metre (g/m2 or usually just g) of the paper. Printing paper is generally between 60 g and 120 g. Anything heavier than 160 g is considered card. The weight of a ream therefore depends on the dimensions of the paper and its thickness.

The sizing system in Europe is based on common width to height ratios for different paper sizes. The largest standard size paper is A0 (A zero). Two sheets of A1, placed upright side by side fit exactly into one sheet of A0 laid on its side. Similarly, two sheets of A2 fit into one sheet of A1 and so forth. Common sizes used in the office and the home are A4 and A3 (A3 is the size of two A4 sheets). The density of paper ranges from 250 kg/m3 (16 lb/ft3) for tissue paper to 1500 kg/m3 (94 lb/ft3) for some speciality paper. Printing paper is about 800 kg/m3 (50 lb/ft3)


GFSMITH SWATCH BOOK

A typical way of understanding what types of paper to use is to look through a swatch book. Here they have a variety of paper swatches, whether it be different thicknesse, embossing, or colours. These are all elements that need to be considered when designing and it is important to look at a swatch book to help our overall design work.


GFSMITH SWATCH BOOK

There are so many things to take into consideration, however little details can really make a difference. Different companies have certain budgets so sometimes thicker, embossed, luxurious paper cant be afforded so people tend to stick to more affordable paper. Looking through this book it amazed me to how many different elements of paper that I would never have taken notice of before.


GFSMITH SWATCH BOOK

These are swatches within the book that I wouldnt have noticed unless looking into this project. It shows you just how many different textures and strengths there are and how important it is to research your paper before printing as there are many possibilities.


GFSMITH SWATCH BOOK

There are alot of different colours of paper that need to be looked into within design that tends to be overlooked. Companies such as GFSmith paper, and Fegrigoni, are major paper companies that provide alot of variety and focus on the quality of their papers. All these different types of papers have different uses, whether that be for embossing, cutting, folding, or general printing they each have different ways of appearing when the final design has been produced.


EXAMPLES OF PAPER IN DESIGN.


INSPIRATION

I love the look of all these designs and how it suits/ matches the type of paper that has been used depending on the theme of the design that its trying to sell. All of these designs are organic and give the sense that its home made. This type of paper is usually used for wedding invitations and organic products.


SIMPLISTIC DESIGNS ON PAPER

Different text and illustrations can look totally different depending on the paper being used. It gives off a different feel. If this book was printed on magazine paper then it wouldnt give the same homely feel.


USING PAPER AS DESIGN

These were people that used just paper to communicate a message. The methods they seem to use is cutting. All of these pieces communicate a message successfully and are also tangible and interesting to look at. When using paper people photograph their work to capture the overall look of it.


PAPER FRIENDLY COMPANIES

I looked into paper friendly companies and how they look at paper with their designs. All these companies are interested in environmentally friendly paper, or they place emphasis on the face that paper does aid with their design work. Paper should be chosen before the design.


PAPER USED ON THE WEB

People have increasingly started to incorporate paper within websites. This is used visually when they want to give the feel of a handmade design or an organic/user friendly project/ advert. Paper gives a different experience with touch so they tend to use textured papers on the web so people can visualise the touch as well as seeing the look.


PRINTING ON PAPER

Different colour palettes need to be considered when printing on different types of paper. Certain colours work better on different types of paper, so inks and a colour scheme need to be considered when printing as well.


PAPER AS ART

Paper is often used as an artform and is used often to meaning. It is such an easy medium to manipulate as being very playful. It can be used for 3D formats and 2D and still portray a strong meaning in an interesting and pleasing way.

express well as formats visually


PAPER USED IN VIDEOS

Paper is being increasingly used within videos at the moment to express meanings. In Sias video she uses paper as the scenery around her . B.o.b uses a collage format of layering different images of girls to make them look like one; and in Itv’s programme ‘Married, Single, Other’ They uses a fortune teller unfolding to show different characters within the programme.


EMBOSSING & DEBOSSING

The creation of a three-dimensional design or image on paper is known as embossing . Heat and pressures reshapes the surface of the paper to create the image. Single, multi-level, beveled, and sculptured are the styles of embossing. Embossing can be done on plain paper or combined with ink, images, or foil for special effects. In debossing an image such as a logo, a title, or other design is heat-pressed into the surface of the paper with a die, creating depressions rather than raised impressions as in embossing. The same technques used for embossing — blind and foil can be used with debossing to create visual effects and texture. Debossing can be done on hard and soft covers.


HOW PAPER CAN EXPRESS A MESSAGE

This book communicates a personal message about life. It does this by butting holes in the book or using other elements such as a pop up. The type of paper they use has been considered, as it has to be strong enough to cut into whilst giving off a homely personal feel, which they have successfully done.


PEOPLE THAT USE PAPER IN THEIR WORK.


ROBERT RYAN

Rob Ryan uses the simple form of cutting to create his messages and illustrations. He writes and illustrates by cutting out of paper and then using a laser cutting machine for mass production. I love the fact that no ink is used for this and proves you don’t need ink to communicate or create a beautiful piece of design.


ROBERT RYAN

Rob Ryan uses soley paper in his design work. He designs the illustration and then cuts into paper creating different messages and illustrations. Theres something very beautiful about his work and its something that I would really like to experiment with.


MIMMO ROTELLA

Mimmo Rotella is a pop artist who uses collages to express emotions. He used old billboards originally and took off different layers to reveal older posers which turned them into collages. He also layered up different types of paper and used the same technique to create either more typographic based collages, or plain paper to allow it to speak for itself.


WYCINANKI

Wycinanki (vee-chee-non-kee) is a Polish version of the art form of papercutting. Wycinanki in Poland originated with sheepherders cutting designs out of tree bark and leather. Paper wycinanki dates from the early to mid 19th century. Colorful wycinanki were pasted on furniture or roof beams as decoration, hung in windows, and given as gifts. Wycinanki vary by region. For example, wycinanki created in the Kurpie region are typically all one color, while wycinanki from the Ĺ owicz region are multi-colored. Techniques include cutting, clipping, punching, tearing, and carving of paper as well as nalepianki in which multiple layers are glued together. Subject matter includes peacocks, roosters, and other birds, circular or star-shaped medallions (gwiazdy), flowers, and decorative scenes depicting particular yearly events such as Easter, Christmas, and so on. In some towns and villages competitions evolved to create the most beautiful wycinanki. Traditionally done as relaxation in rural areas of Poland, the techniques were passed down from generation to generation, with new themes and ideas developing as the papercuttings became more detailed and intricate.


YULIA BRODSKAYA

There are a number of different approaches to papercrafting in currency at the moment. Origami and paper construction, for instance, feature a lot of folding and result in three-dimensional objects, scenes and characters all made from the reformed pulp of the world’s finest pines. Meanwhile, pattern-cutting and collage involve a lot more scissor work. Brodskaya employs a technique called quilling, in which strips of coloured paper are cut, then wrapped round a quill (or a stick or straw) resulting in curls. These are then glued onto a backing card and built up into images and text. The technique was used heavily in the 19th century by ladies of leisure who quilled their time away between tea and gin. In the 21st century, Brodskaya’s post-Baroque coloured curls are winning her major clients including Nokia, The Guardian, and New Scientist. Creating paper-based images and text for clients has its challenges. Firstly, once the paper has been glued down, there is no Apple-Z to undo, so Brodskaya warns her clients about this upfront. “I’m fine with the finality issue,” she says. “I trust myself, and the whole working process is quite slow so I get enough time to think and consider the options before I glue a single paper strip. I always try to explain all the nuances to clients from the beginning, to avoid any misunderstanding in the end.” One of the main drawbacks to her work, she finds, is that although it’s created in three dimensions, most people only encounter it printed in a flat format. One of her favourite personal projects, for instance, is entitled London, and incorporates both quilling and illustrated elements. She’s a little disappointed the full 3D effect and details don’t come through as well in the final photo.

“The project demonstrates that paper elements can be combined with hand-drawn illustrations, and there are endless possibilities in doing that,” she begins. “This artwork is my imaginary London. I just wanted to have some fun illustrating the key London attractions and iconic things such as animals or people, like the Big Ben guy. It’s much more interesting to look at the physical thing, as here the hand-drawn elements dominate the image; the photo doesn’t show the eminent parts well, and this is one of the disadvantages of using a combination of the two techniques.” As she points out, photography is critical to the effectiveness of an image when papercrafting is involved, and she often works with professional photographers to get this right. For anyone who wants to get into making imagery out of paper, an understanding of photographic skills is a definite plus. “Lighting the work can make or break the success of the image. It needn’t necessarily be complex, but the light needs careful control in direction, intensity and the level of softness,” she explains.


YULIA BRODSKAYA

And she also points out that without great photography the work wouldn’t be seen in mainstream media: “Representation of paper artworks with photography allows papercraft to get a lot more exposure and be used in a new context, in various forms of graphic communication.” Another factor that deeply affects her work is the availability of coloured paper. Although an avid paper collector, Brodskaya is never quite satisfied with what’s around and is always on the lookout for a greater range of colours. Unlike working digitally, or even with paints, the colour palette in each piece depends on the range of colours supplied by paper manufacturers. The limited choice – as well as quantities – paper is sold in, are hurdles she constantly battles. “Everywhere I go – even if I’m abroad on holiday – I visit shops selling paper, but still can’t find all the colours I need. So I have to work with what I’ve got. I would really appreciate any advice on where to find good quality paper in dozens of colours, without the need to buy packs of 100 sheets of each colour. For my needs, five sheets are enough,” she says.

Aside from paper, her main tools are scissors, cutting knifes, tweezers, straws, cocktail sticks and glue – all of which she buys from craft supply stores. Of course, although the work is done by hand, the computer is never far away. In the early stages, she uses her Mac to edit her roughs and drawings, and to email them to clients. “I begin with sketches. This is a very important stage because once I glue a piece of paper I can’t remove it – the glue is an intentionally strong adhesive. Thus there is no room for error, and I need to have a very clear idea about what I’m doing from the beginning. “There’s always room for experimenting with the actual paper while I’m working, however, because sometimes it’s difficult to see what will look good before starting the physical paper work.” She continues: “I always tell the clients from the beginning that the amendments must be done at the sketching stage. I can always add some elements, but can’t remove or change what has already been done. But of course there are cases when they still want me to get rid of some paper strips. If this happens, the background has to be retouched digitally after the photo shoot.”


YULIA BRODSKAYA

Yulia Brodskaya uses the art of ‘Quilling’ and cutting into her work which is simply rolling up different kinds of paper. They make beautiful pieces of work and are very eye catching, however would they be as strong without the different types of coloured paper.


YULIA BRODSKAYA

Its interesting to see how you can still shade and create vivid shapes by manipulating paper. It is probably a much slower process than designing on screen and printing, however the outcomes are stronger and more lively.


LAURA COOPERMAN

Like Rob Ryan, Laura Cooperman uses the art of just cutting into paper. She also incorporates the use of a 3D element into her work and lets shadows of the paper become part of the art form. I think they are really strong pieces as they give off the impression of being delicate, but still create eye catching pieces by cutting into the paper.


DOILIE

A doily (or doilie) is an ornamental mat, originally the name of a fabric made by Doiley, a 17th-century London draper. They are crocheted and sometimes knitted out of cotton or linen thread. Openwork allows the surface of the underlying object to show through. In addition to their decorative function doilies have the utilitarian role of protecting fine-wood furniture from the scratches caused by crockery or decorative objects. Many patterns for crocheting or knitting doilies were published by thread manufacturers in the first part of the 20th century. The designers were often anonymous. The designs could be circular or oval starting from the center and working outward, reminiscent of the Polar coordinates system. Doilies, as well as other household items, may be made by crocheting rows on a grid pattern using a technique called filet crochet, similar to points on the Cartesian coordinate system. Although it may to some extent interfere with the original use, some doilies have raised designs (rose petals, popcorn, or ruffles) rather than being flat. Contemporary designers continue to make patterns for modern hand craft enthusiasts. In more recent times disposable paper doilies are used to decorate plates, placed under the food for ornamentation. This is something that is used in our everyday lives, which cuts into just paper to create an interesting visual.


“

The number of handcrafts in the creative world today is suprising given the dominance of digital techniques. It is the physicality- the ability to mould, shape, and play with the physical stuff that makes paper manipulation a far more immediate and intuitive means to create objects, visuals and works of art.

“

RICHARD SWEENEY 2009


HOW PAPER CAN COMMUNICATE A MESSAGE.


DESIGN USING JUST PAPER

This shows that paper can express a meaning just as well as ink can. You can shade with it you can draw into it without using ink ad you can create images and text. They are all bold pieces and it shows how designers should be focused more on different methods of communication.


SIMPLE WAYS TO COMMUNICATE WITH PAPER

I like how these are all simple forms of graphic design but they are not obvious ones. They can be seen as conceptual art as people can interpret the message as they wish. The top images can be seen like graphs where the higher the colour is the higher the percentage can be.


PAPER & DYSLEXIA

Dyslexia shows that designers should be more involved in the design process as little things such as the type of paper you use for a book can affect the simpilest of things. 30% of your audience are dyslexic so the type of paper that you use should be thought about. Tinted paper was harder to read than plain a4 paper. When tinted paper was present dyslexic people use tinted see through coloured pesplex to help them focus their eye site.


PAPER & DYSLEXIA

Coloured overlays do not resolve most dyslexic issues but they can and do remove a significant barrier for a number of people.


WAYS OF DISPLAYING INFORMATION

I wanted to look into information design and what types of info design would be best suited when communicating with paper. Coloured paper tends to be used quite a lot and they use interesting shapes with not too much detail.


WAYS OF DISPLAYING INFORMATION

Seeing as I have a lot of information these would be ways of considering to how I could present the information that I find out as they are colourful, simplified, and simply present the information in a colourful and strong way.


PRESENTING INFORMATION USING PAPER

Different people use different ways of manipulating paper to express what they desire whether it be typography, illustrations, sculptures, or an installation, it just proves that you can use just paper to communicate what you want. These pieces are all strong and are more eye catching than a printed book.


PRESENTING INFORMATION USING PAPER

These are sculptural pieces taken from the book ‘Tactile’. Sculptural pieces made out of paper can also help you can understand the message that they are trying to communicate. IT shows that you can also interact with paper and humanise it by creating different forms of expression, and beautiful and delicate art forms. This would be a disadvantage as if made out of paper it wont last as long, however a photograph lasts a life time.


PRESENTING INFORMATION USING PAPER

The images show how you can create an image by using just paper. Mixing 3D elements can portray information design by making certain parts of the pieces higher or lower, and different colours when cut out can create illustrations which forms shading.


PRESENTING INFORMATION USING PAPER

All these images have used the arts of just paper. When asking people what they thought of these pieces they stated that they were more drawn to them as they are colourful and have a tactile tangible feel to them. The shadows also add character.


PRESENTING INFORMATION USING PAPER

Photographing paper needs to be done correctly if you do choose paper as your medium. All the previous designers have stated the importance of the lighting and the way you photograph your work when capturing your design. These examples show how strong the images work when captured properly and when designed completely out of paper.


THE EXPERIMENTS BEGIN.


WRECK THIS JOURNAL

Keri Smith’s ‘Wreck this Journal’, allowed me to manipulate each page according to the instructions that were given. It was a very experimental way of using paper to express emotions and was fun to see different things that you can do to manipulate a page.


PLAYING WITH PAPER

to roll to crease to fold to store to bend to shorten to twist to dapple to crumple to shave to tear to chip to split to cut to sever to drop to remove to simplify to differ to disarrange to open to mix to splash to knot to spill

RICHARD SERRA “Verb List Compilation: Actions Relate to Oneself� Do as many of the list below to the blank paper supplied. These are mine and others interpretations of the verb list.

to lift to inlay to impress to fire to flood to smear to rotate to swirl to support to hook to suspend to spread to hang to collect of tension of gravity of entropy of nature of grouping of layering of felting to grasp to tighten to curve to light to droop

to scatter to arrange to repair to discard to pair to distribute to surfeit to compliment to enclose to surround to encircle to hole to cover to wrap to dig to tie to bind to weave to join to match to laminate to bond to hinge to mark to expand to dilute

to modulate to distill of waves of electromagnetic of inertia of ionization of polarization of refraction of tides of reflection of equilibrium of symmetry of friction to stretch to bounce to erase to spray to systematize to refer to force of mapping of location of context of time to flow to continue


PLAYING WITH PAPER

These were a continuation of the Richard Serra verbs. I got different people to do their own interpretations as different people had different ways of manipulating the paper to show the verb. It was interesting to see how even people that werent very creative would still make interesting pieces out of the paper., and how others would cut shapes out of the paper. The contrast of different outcomes of manipulating the page were interesting to look at.


PLAYING WITH PAPER

After playing with different ways of manipulating paper I was collecting the left over bits and pieces and to me they looked interesting when looked at close up and these are all different angles of paper whether it be curved, flat, pointed, cut or folded when mixed together it still looks visually pleasing.


PAPER, PEOPLE & DESIGN

I thought that an interesting experiment to try out would be to see if what paper people would use if they were to express a spread/page from a magazine. I gave a different variety of paper swatches to different people to see what would happen. Initially people would use colours to express the pages by picking out the most prominent colour. So I decided to choose a more limited palette.


PAPER, PEOPLE & DESIGN

When taking the colours away I picked out all the plain paper swatches, some textures some not, but they were all neutral colours. It was interesting to see how people then matched up the swatches with the spreads. People would choose more textured/ cream papers for luxurious items, and pages where there were patterns people were drawn to textured papers. Most people chose different swatches for each page but they all had similiarities.


CUTTING INTO PAPER.


SCORING PAPER

I tried to see how the different variety of papers cut differently. Again the thicker the paper the harder it was to cut into the paper, however the thinner the paper the more likely it was to tear when scoring the paper.


CUT OUT EXPERIMENT

I experimented to see if a design can work just as well if it was cut out. I used a design I have created previously and cut into it. On the ink side it made the overall design more interesting to look at and made me want to touch the design more, it could also become a playful design, simply by just cutting into it. I also thought that the plain side worked just as well as it slows the design just with no ink. It does however give off a sense of coldness as its white.


CUT OUT EXPERIMENT

This was my experiment to exploring into Rob Ryans way of designing. I found that it was easy to cut into but it was quite fiddley and as the paper was thinner it was easier to tear. Overall I think i successfully managed to cut a design into paper and it would look interesting as a card design?


CUT OUT EXPERIMENT

Children’s books are commonly known for using paper to communicate a message, whether it be pop outs, cutouts, of flaps. I wanted to take a childrens book that hadn’t used any of these methods, and incorporated it into the book myself. This automatically made the book more interactive.


CUTTING INTO PAPER

I started to experiment into cutting into paper. I firstly experimented with tyrpography. These proved to be strong as the 3D element makes them interesting to look at, and when the light shines through the holes it also works well as it still communicates the message using the art of cutting.


CUTTING INTO PAPER

I also tried to create images by cutting into paper and layering it up, as well as using different materials to incorporate into the cuts. These are methods that children’s books uses as it helps the audience interact with the book and it makes you want to touch it more and see what is beneath the layers.


VISUALISING INFORMATION WITH PAPER

This was my attempt of using the Polish art of paper cutting to create other forms. I thought that it worked very well and the colours compliment each other. I think paper can create strong images just as well as ink can.


VISUALISING INFORMATION WITH PAPER

From the cutouts that I had used I also tried to place difference colours underneath the cutouts to see what kind of feel they would give off. They work really nicely and the cut outs work really well in contrast to the different colours. They are strong and bold. The thicker the paper you use the better the paper cuts and gives more depth when placing another colour underneath.


PAPER EXPERIMENTS CONTINUED

I wanted to experiment to how I can create an effect by using paper. I decided to attempt a ‘splash’ illustration. I used 4 layers so the further down the hole went the deeper the image looked. The shadows did give a sense of a 2D element looking more realistic and the object was still understandable.


PAPER EXPERIMENTS CONTINUED

I then decided to contrast with the plain paper I would see how the same technique worked with coloured paper. It gave off the same effect but the colours did make the design more interesting to look at. So maybe coloured paper can communicate a stronger message than plain paper?


PAPER EXPERIMENTS CONTINUED

I then tried out another way of layering up the shading rather than laying it down. This method seemed to prove more successful as the shading works better and the image stands out of the page a lot better.


LOGOS USING PAPER

I thought it would be interesting to see if a logotype would appear differently. When the colours and ink were taken away and different papers would be used instead to represent that aspect. Using textured and cream coloured papers made these particular logotypes look more sophisticated and do not give off the feel of their original branding.


LOGOS USING PAPER

It shows that you can still create a logotype by cutting into paper however colours seem to play an important role as with the make ‘Chanel’ the cream papers work as it presents class, whilst in contrast to the Olympics logo, it looks unusual to see such neutral colours.


LOGOS USING PAPER

I also tried out putting different types of paper underneath the cutout versions, and using the shadow on different types of paper. Different types of paper did give off a different feel. The textured paper appeared more elegant whilst the striped paper changed the overall tone.


OTHER WAYS OF MANIPULATING PAPER.


FOLDING PAPER

I gathered different types of paper and tested to see which paper would fold/bend easier than others. The thicker the paper, the harder it was to fold or bend it. And the thinner the page the easier it was to manipulate or keep in a certain position.


FOLDING PAPER

I also found that when folding the paper the thicker the paper the more likely it would eventually lose its shape and fold back to its original state. Whilst thicker paper would stay in a position for a longer length of time.


VISUALISING INFORMATION WITH PAPER

Exploring with different paper techniques was a fun way of creating visuals and information. When you stack things on top of one another it gives you a sense of going up or down. Different cuts and folds can create the effect of looking down or shading. I also tried the old school technique of a paper snowflake which proved unsuccessful.


VISUALISING INFORMATION WITH PAPER

These are different ways of manipulating paper to express a meaning. The coils show how certain information gathered could be higher in the results. The bigger the swirl, the higher the percentage? I also tried out other methods of blending colours together. I think these are all methods which work successfully.


VISUALISING INFORMATION WITH PAPER

I tried out another way of blending colours together, and the 3D aspect of using paper to show information. I thought these images were strong as they are integrating visuals to look as they have different angles within them. Also folding paper can show a different hierarchy of information.


VISUALISING INFORMATION WITH PAPER

This was the orange peel technique! These were simply cutout into a spiral format and then stretched to see what different angles and curls it would give. I thought these were really interesting to look at as they can give off a message in a simple/interesting way. The shadows incorporated with the 3D element really work. It looks 2D as well as being 3D.


FOLDING PAPER

I started to experiment to how I could create objects using just paper so I used the art of origami. These created objects just my simply folding into the paper, but they are still understandable to what they are and when attempting origami with no colour people could still distinguish what the items were, proving you don’t always need colours to portray a message.


VISUALISING INFORMATION WITH PAPER

I tried to make everyday objects/scenario’s by just using paper depending on the way I cut into each of the papers it created a different visual. Coloured paper seemed to be important in this particular task as the different shadings and tones couldn’t be understood with plain paper. I think these are successful and can easily be understood what they are.


PAPER WEAVING

Paper weaving is a fun way of creating visuals. It can show shading or be a way of showing how one pieces of information is greater than another piece of information like a bar graph. I also tried neutral colours to see how they contrasted with the bright colours. Whilst the bright colours are eye grabbing and bold, the neutral colours show sophistication.


QUILLING

Quilling or paper filignee is an art form that involves the use of strips of paper that are rolled, shaped and glued together to create decorative designs. The paper is wound around a quill to create a basic coil shape. The paper is glued at the top and the coil shapes are then placed into images.


QUILLING

During the Renaissance, French and Italian nuns and monks used quilling to decorate book covers. I decided to experiment with this art form as it was a simple way of creating a message or image using just paper. There is something beautiful about the overall look of the paper when placed together. You can create different shapes, shades and still make a strong piece of design.


QUILLING

I also attempted layering the quils on top of each otheras they gave off an interesting affect. These would be a good form of communicating a message by looking interesting to look at, at the same time. They create different shades and look abstract. It could work as abstract pie charts.


QUILLING

I attempted to use neutral colours to see if they affected the overall look and feel of the art of quilling They do not look as exciting and eye catching however they compliment each other well and could be used for less bolder images.


WAYS OF BLENDING COLOURS WITH PAPER

The close ups showed how when different tones where put together that paper can also create shading as well as different inks. It looks more visually pleasing than ink as the paper strands give an interesting look.


WAYS OF BLENDING COLOURS WITH PAPER

After looking at quilling, it was interesting to see how you could also use coloured paper to blend different colours together. When strips of paper are all placed together and bent in a certain way they create interesting visuals that can represent different forms of information by looking at the amounts of certain colour.


PAPER ALPHABET

I attempted to make an alphabet using just A4 paper. These prove successful as a simple cut or fold would show a letter. I placed the letters on the light box to give them a more realistic feel.


PAPER ALPHABET

I then projected the paper alphabet onto the wall using its shadows and they worked just as well proving that you can create letter forms using just paper.


PAPER AND HANDWRITING

After looking into typography using paper I then attempted to create words and letters out of strips of paper to try and give more of a handwritten feel using the art of bending paper. I thought that these werent very successful and were awkward when trying to bend into shapes and keeping them in that position.


SURVEY ON PAPER.


SURVEY ON PAPER

I created a survey to see what other peoples opinions were on paper and the design that is used with it, to see if a persons perception of design could be affected by the type of paper used.


QUESTIONS TO ASK PEOPLE

Are you male or female? What are you studying/ what is your profession? What age group are you in? 17 - 24, 25- 35, 36-50, 50 + In your work what value do you give to your choice of paper to be used? Why? On the scale of 1 -10 how important to you is the type of paper used with a design? Why? Do you think paper can affect the overall look and feel of a design? Why? Would you not like a design because of the type of paper used? Describe in 3 words what to you is bad quality paper. What sort of design do you usually see on that type of paper? Describe in 3 words what to you is good quality paper. What sort of design do you usually see on that type of paper?


SURVEY ON PAPER


SURVEY RESULTS


SURVEY RESULTS


SURVEY RESULTS


SURVEY RESULTS


ANALYSIS OF SURVEY

Male: 52% Female: 48% 76% said that paper was important within their current positions. 24% thought that it wasn’t. 80% of people stated that paper was important when incorporated with a design. 20% didnt. They said it was important mostly because it makes a design, it shows a thoughtful process, gives a good impression of final work, it shows quality, it reflects on the designer, it expresses the style, and it helps the audience interact with the design. 100% stated that it affects the overall feel and look of a design 92% of people would not like a design because of the paper. 8% didnt think it mattered. Bad Quality Paper: Newspaper, Takeaway menus, Take away flyers, Pizza Flyer, Shiny Paper, Cheap Business Cards, Thin, Glossy, Leaflets, Flimsy, Wrapping Paper, Grainy, Shiny, Weak. Good Quality Paper: Wedding Invitations, Nice Texture, Thicker Weight, Letter writing paper, Business Cards, looks & Feels Nice, Brochure, Photography, Recycled Paper, Strong, White, Birthday Cards, Posh Designs, Expensive.


ANALYSIS OF SURVEY

Male: 52% Female: 48%

92% of people would not like a design because of the paper. 8% didnt think it mattered.

100% stated that it affects the overall feel and look of a design

76% said that paper was important within their current positions. 24% thought that it wasn’t.

80% of people stated that paper was important when incorporated with a design.


HOW PAPER CAN AFFECT THE MESSAGE.


DIFFERENT PAPERS & INK

This experiment involved looking at how different paper soaks up different inks. Depending on the paper the design would print differently as different papers soaked up more or less inks. Shinier paper wouldn’t soak up as much whilst thinner papers would soak up more.


DOES PAPER AFFECT THE DESIGN?

I wanted to look into whether printing different designs on to different papers can affect the overall feel of a design. 80% of people stated that it did as when it was printed on shiny paper it looked tacky, whilst when using textured or cream coloured papers, people then stated that the design then became more sophisticated.


DANIEL EATOCK & PAPER

Daniel Eatock looked into how different papers soaked up different inks, so I was inspired by him to try an experiment of my own and create my own version. I used 4 different pens and alot of different types of paper and observed which papers absorbed more in that others.


INK ABSORBING EXPERIMENTS

I drilled 4 holes into a piece of wood and placed 4 different pens in it. Every 3 hours I would swap over the type of paper that was being used and at the end I observed the different patterns on the different papers caused by the different pens.


INK ABSORBING EXPERIMENTS

There was no particular pattern with the ink absorbings. Thin paper tended to soak up the inks easier, but different papers soaked up different colours which I found unusual. I think they look really interestng to look at and could make a future poster design.


INK ABSORBING EXPERIMENTS


PAPER AROUND US

Over the 6 week period I have been gathering different examples of design and looking at the different papers they use. I also got people to categorise to what they thought was good or bad quality paper. These tended to be birthday cards and general thicker paper which had a textured recycled feel to it. IT tends to be used for brands such as Costa/The V&A/ and Luxury hotels such as The Dorchester.


PAPER AROUND US

These were categorised as medium kinds of paper used in the industry. These tended to be handouts from Waitrose/Topshop advertisements and leaflets for museums. People stated that it wasn’t nice paper but it wasn’t bad paper and didn’t give off a feel of cheapness and some thought had been put into it.


PAPER AROUND US

These were the types of paper which were categorised as bad quality paper. These tended to be takeaway flyers, cheap quick designs and telephone adverts which use shiny matt paper, or is flimsy paper. The paper thickness tended to be looked into when deciding if paper was expensive or not. People thought the thinner the paper the cheaper it was. The worst the design, the more the paper hasn’t been considered.


HUMANISING PAPER

By cutting out a simple shape out of paper and placing it in everyday situations you can give the paper a personality and make it come alive. By bending it in different ways you can make it look as though its looking into something or relaxing in a chair.


HUMANISING PAPER

By placing it everyday situations and manipulating it slightly it can give the characteristics of a human being as then we relax we slouch backwards and when we look down we bend forwards. This was a playful experiment to see how paper can be given character.


THE CRYSTAL GOBLET THEORY

“Imagine that you have before you a flagon of wine. You may choose your own favorite vintage for this imaginary demonstration, so that it be a deep shimmering crimson in colour. You have two goblets before you. One is of solid gold, wrought in the most exquisite patterns. The other is of crystal-clear glass, thin as a bubble, and as transparent. Pour and drink; and according to your choice of goblet, I shall know whether or not you are a connoisseur of wine. For if you have no feelings about wine one way or the other, you will want the sensation of drinking the stuff out of a vessel that may have cost thousands of pounds; but if you are a member of that vanishing tribe, the amateurs of fine vintages, you will choose the crystal, because everything about it is calculated to reveal rather than to hide the beautiful thing which it was meant to contain. “Bear with me in this long-winded and fragrant metaphor; for you will find that almost all the virtues of the perfect wine-glass have a parallel in typography. There is the long, thin stem that obviates fingerprints on the bowl. Why? Because no cloud must come between your eyes and the fiery heart of the liquid. Are not the margins on book pages similarly meant to obviate the necessity of fingering the type-page? Again: the glass is colourless or at the most only faintly tinged in the bowl, because the connoisseur judges wine partly by its colour and is impatient of anything that alters it. There are a thousand mannerisms in typography that are as impudent and arbitrary as putting port in tumblers of red or green glass! When a goblet has a base that looks too small for security, it does not matter how cleverly it is weighted; you feel nervous lest it should tip over. There are ways of setting lines of type which may work well enough, and yet keep the reader subconsciously worried by the fear of ‘doubling’ lines, reading three words as one, and so forth.” “The Crystal Goblet or Printing Should be Invisible” from Beatrice Warde, The Crystal Goblet, Sixteen Essays on Typography, Cleveland, 1956


PAPER & PRESENTATION

After looking at the Crystal Goblet theory. I wanted to see if paper can affect the presentation of food. When the food was placed on a newspaper print it brought the class of the object down, however when using luxurious hand made paper it automatically made the object look more elegant.


PAPER & PRESENTATION

If you were to serve fish and chips on sophisticated hand paper and sushi on newspaper print it would totally switch rolls of class. Sushi is seen as expensive and uses expensive packaging and paper whilst fish and chips is cheap and uses news paper print as it gets thrown away straight away. These images prove the same theory.


PAPER COLLAGES

A collage (From the French: coller, to glue) is a work of formal art, primarily in the visual arts, made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. A collage may include newspaper clippings, ribbons, bits of colored or hand-made papers, portions of other artwork, photographs, a piece of moss or even a dead mole and other found objects, glued to a piece of paper or canvas. The origins of collage can be traced back hundreds of years, but this technique made a dramatic reappearance in the early 20th century as an art form of novelty.


PAPER COLLAGES

I played around with paper collages using different types of neutral papers. It was interesting to see how different textures worked together when placed next to each other, as well as seeing how different tears were formed depending on the type of paper. Collages can create a message whether it be simplified or detailed. I particularly liked how these collages worked as they dont look as cramped compared to the other ones and can show how on epiece of information can be greater or smaller than another like an abstract bar graph


SIMPLY PAPER

I placed the same type of paper in different ways and layered them either on top of each other or I changed the angle of them. Different results were created with shadows as the different corners and folds created different images. These can be seen as abstract diagrams using paper. The more space there is of one layer the higher the percentage it would be representing in a diagram.


SIMPLY PAPER

Different lighting and different shapes showed different visuals. This is paper at its simpilist as it is all one type of paper but it still creates an image which tells a story in its own way.


FEELING PAPER

These were the objects that I gave to people. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Sticker paper A photgraph Flyer Normal a4 paper Tracing Paper Textured writing paper Money Cinema Ticket Handmade paper


FEELING PAPER

A lot of people related back to the feel of paper so a good experiment to try out was to blind fold people and ask them what they think they would see on that type of paper or where they would find it. They tended to feel the weight and texture to help them understand what the object was.


FEELING PAPER

I gave each person 9 paper samples and each one of them all gave similar answers to what each of the objects were. People would classify a shinier surface as a photgrraph, a textured surface as a wedding invitation or writing paper, and the thicker paper was recognised as business card or a flyer. People also always guessed what the feel of money was. This shows that the touch and feel of a design is important and does go recognised as all the objects given were recognised by the art of touch.


HOME MADE PAPER

Out of different types of papers I made home made paper, which proved quite difficult! I firstly tried making paper out of magazine paper, then luxury papers with textures, followed by newspapers to see if the results came out any differently. However they were all the same apart from the magazine paper which had a slight colour to it.


HOME MADE PAPER

The process of making home made paper was quite simple but the results werent very good. You rip up any kind of paper that you want and leave it to soak in warm water. You then blend the paper together until it makes a thicker mix. You then pour the mixture onto a netted frame to drain the water out and then leave it to dry. This isnt an accurate way to make paper but it is a fun way to recycle old paper.


HOW TO PRESENT MY INFORMATION.


PRESENTING MY INFORMATION

I thought bout how I could create my own message using just paper by being influenced from the paper experiements that I have done through out this project. Curved joint/type looked better when cut into paper rather than separate letters so I took one of the facts from this project and joint all the letters together to create an outline that I would be able to cut into afterwards.


PRESENTING MY INFORMATION

This was the process of cutting. I used a sharp blade and a thick type of card as thats paper was the best for cutting into without breaking seeing as the typography was quite delicate. I attempted to place the type on different types of background paper to see what would contrast the best. The stencil of the words was legible, but didnt give the feel that I was looking for.


PRESENTING MY INFORMATION

At first I attempted to place the words on a4 textured paper, however the writing lookd too squished and the background didnt work well with the white lettering that I had used. I decided to place the words on A3 paper instead and use a paler type of paper.


PRESENTING MY INFORMATION

I experimented with different ways of photographing the quote by trying out different angles with different types of lighting. I then tried to incoporate quilling within the type as the page looked a bit blank.


PRESENTING MY INFORMATION

I didnt like the colour scheme of the coils within these photos and the lighting wasnt working as well. I do however like the angular version of the writing as it is still legible but interesting to look at. You can also see the 3D element of the text this way.


PRESENTING MY INFORMATION

I liked the different types of lighting that have been used for these photos. The photograph without the streaks works best however and I also thought that when you crop the colour out of the photo your attention is drawn more to the actualt text written within the page. This showed me the importance of lighting when photographing your work


PRESENTING MY INFORMATION

These were the final posters that I thought worked best out of all the photographs. I thought the quills looked like they were floating too much so I decided to crop it and found that the composition worked alot better that way.


PRESENTING MY INFORMATION

I like the lighting within these photos as they are simple and they capture the shadows of the type alot more clearer. It makes the overall image not look so boring, and I found that the white quils were a big improvement of the coloured quils as they integrated more within the overall image.


PRESENTING MY INFORMATION

I attempted my own ways of creating pie charts by using just paper. I thought that the cut out pie charts looked like abstract information design and it was still obvious that it was a pie chart showing each percentage. I also tried scoring into the paper to create the lines within the pie chart as well as cutting out the circles and using different papers to place underneath to create a different shade to represent different information.


PRESENTING MY INFORMATION

These are abstract versions of pie charts taken from the art of Quilling. I think they work really well, they are strong interesting visuals which give the same message as a pie chart would of which information was more dominant than another.


DEVELOPMENT OF MY TEXTBOOK.


LOOKING AT TEXT BOOKS

Because of the amount of intormation there is within this project I decided that I could produce a text book of information to reflect on my discoveries and to advice people on paper and teach them what I have learnt.


TYPICAL TEXT BOOK FORMAT

These were typical textbooks that you find when you want to research on a particular topic. They are text based and can be very boring to reas as there are limited images. Although I wanted to create a textbook I also wanted to make it a bit visually pleasing.


DIFFERENT WAYS OF PRESENTING IMAGES

I looked into how other people had laid out information incorporated with pictures at the same time. The images tend to be enlarged and there is either alot of text or very limited depending on the type of information that wants to be displayed


DIFFERENT FORMATS OF INFORMATION

Within textbooks the diagrams tend to be very limited or enlarged. The information is very categorical and there are alot of sections within the book. Again I wanted to simplify the information that I had found out about not complicated it


WAYS OF PRESENTING SIMPLY

These were some interesting ways of displaying information. The book breaking and making the grid was interesting to see how many different ways there were to lay out alot of text.


LAYOUTS THAT COULD HELP ME

These layouts in particular influenced me to design my text book as they all look into crafts and take those hand made elements and integrate them within their designs. I also liked the colour schemes that they used and the positioning ot the text as there is the right amount of information.


IMAGES AND EXPLANATIONS

I liked the idea of having more visuals in comparision to text so that people could associate the image with the information that was being given. The images were then more eye catching making my textbook not so text heavy.


DEVELOPMENT OF MY TEXTBOOK

Here are different ways in which I played around with the cover and contents page when trying to lay out my book. As the book went on it all seemed to flow into place but it took a while to make a decision.


CHAPTERS

There is alot of information within this pdf so I need to categorise it into easily digestable categories. I think these are the most sensible ways of placing the information: Introduction to Paper Existing Examples of Paper within Design Ways of Presenting Information Using Just Paper Presenting Information CREATING VISUALS WITH PAPER Playing with Paper Ways of Shading with Paper Cut out Experiments Colour Paper vs Plain Paper Simplifying Paper Home Made Paper Visualising Information with Paper Paper and Ink Paper Around Us Humanising Paper Paper & Typography Paper , People and Design Survey on Paper Feeling Paper Paper & Presentation Conclusion

Simplified version of the categories: Introduction Examples of paper in design Profiles of Designers that use paper Cutting into paper Folding Paper What message does paper give Conclusion


PLAYING WITH LAYOUTS

Playing with a colour scheme and deciding what fonts and layouts to use within the book. Because the book was on paper I attempted to scan in different types of paper as the pastel colours werent working very well.


PLAYING WITH LAYOUTS

Here I explored with the colours that I could use within the book and different ways of placing the text for the book. I thought that it worked best when there was a separate section for photographs to text as it splits the page in a neater and easier way to digest.


PLAYING WITH LAYOUTS

As the book was on paper I thought it would be a good idea to have different types of paper for the different chapters so that you can tell the difference between each chapter. I also decided to use washed out colours as alot of people stated that they associated paper with pastel colours rather than bold / strong colours. To stick to the same grid format I also decided to have a running dashed line to represent one of the ways you can manipulate paper


PLAYING WITH LAYOUTS

Full bleed images looked stronger on the pages when laying them out. However sometimes they did look like they were sticking too much out of the page at times. Some of the images that I had wouldnt work in full bleed so I woould place up to 4 images per page.


CONCLUSION.


RATIONALE

I found this project overall a very big learning curve, as I have got so use to working on screen and designing everything on a computer, I hadn’t used tactile hand made methods in a long time so it was good to explore with different visuals all made my hand. I have learnt alot about paper and the importance of it within the design industry. It does truely change an overall feel of a design and this is proved by all the experiments that have taken place. You can cut into paper, create shading, fold it, curl it and manipulate it in many other ways in order to communicate the message that you want to give across. Alot of people that I have spoken to within this project have stated that paper is an important element within design and can affect the overall quality of a product and have also noticed that maybe they dont pay enough attention to detail when it comes to paper. Different papers need to be considered through the printing process as inks absorb differently in different papers. When using methods such as folding and cutting thicker papers seem to work better for this process as they are easier to manipulate and are durable. I have realised the importance of touch with paper as it is one of the most important appeals to the senses when taking in a design. People are able to recognise what type of paper is used for different things just by feeling it, and they stated that weight and texture were the main reasons behind identifying what type of paper they were feeling. Some of the processes were very time consuming and fidgety especially cutting out words as they would take me a whole day at times. With the increase of web design amongst us, it is easy to forget to take a step back and communicate a message using other ways that don’t involve technology. Paper can be just as strong in communicating a message, it is just a slower process as it involves being made by hand.

Initially the final outcome was going to be a series of posters which would express what I had learnt through my experiments and research, however later on after looking at my research and talking to Darren there was so much information that I had learnt from the project I decided that maybe it was best to highlight what I had learnt through a book format, but I had very little time to do this. What I have submitted is the taster and feel of the book which I will extend for the show. I like the design of the book as it represents paper and is an easy amount of information to digest from what I have learnt from the project. I decided that for now it would be a good idea to have a downloadable pdf as there is not enough information on Design and paper on the internet, however for the exhibition I would like to finish and extend the book and see how it would look printed.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Websites

Books Paper- Tear, Fold, Rip, Crease, Cut- Paul Sloman Paper Engineering- Natalie Avella Choosing & Using Paper For Great Graphic Design- Keith Stephenson Paperwork: The Potential of Paper in Graphic Design (Phaidon Colour Library)- Nancy Williams Papercraft: Design and Art with Paper- Robert Klanten Wreck This Journal- Keri Smith Fingerprint: The Art of Using Handmade Elements in Graphic Design - Chen Design Associates Creative Handmade Paper- David Watson Paper + Craft: 25 Charming Gifts, Accents, and Accessories to Make from Paper- Minhee Cho Experimental Formats: v. 2- Roger Fawcett-Tang Tangible: High Touch Visuala- Matthias Hubner

www.littlepaperplanes.com/ www.bitique.co.uk/ visuelle.co.uk/ www.formfiftyfive.com/ www.damnmagazine.net/newsitems/index/year:2009 www.inspiremepapers.co.uk/?logout=1 www.allgraphicdesign.com/paper.html www.goodonpaperdesign.com/cgi-local/content.cgi www.mateoilasco.com/ www.stevenharrington.com/site.html www.ohjoy.com/ www.ohjoy.blogs.com/ www.also-online.com/ www.lagasa.com/ss.html www.colourlovers.com/ www.maryemmahawthorne.com/ www.designerslibrary.typepad.com/ www.noahread.net/blog/2009/11/13/graphic-design-theory-thecrystal-goblet/ www.artyulia.com/ www.computerarts.co.uk/in_depth/interviews/yulia_brodskaya www.danieleatock.com/projects/prismacolor-pen-print/2/ www.fedrigoni.co.uk/ www.gfsmith.com/


“The Exploration of Paper within Graphic Design.” Julia Hicks juliahicks6@hotmail.com


Exploration on Paper within Graphic Design  

A project on exploring lots of elements towards communicating a message using just paper.

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