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URBAN DESIGN FRAMEWORK a public realm & transportation strategy for downtown pittsburgh

School of Architecture Urban Design Laboratory | Fall 2010

Carnegie Mellon University | School of Architecture


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BIG PICTURE IDEAS Framework Urban Design Guidelines Strip District Connection

10 32 52

OPEN SPACES Street Character Paving Strategies Open Space Strategies Downtown Vacancy Riverfront

60 68 74 84 98


INFRASTRUCTURE Civic Arena Infrastructure Fort Wayne Pedestrian Bridge

106 116


FOOD & SHELTER Street Vendors Infill Housing

126 132


TRANSPORTATION Riverbus Multi-modal Transit Hub

140 146




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Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh

STUDIO PROFESSORS Rami el Samahy Eve Picker

TEAM CONTRIBUTORS Mekha Abraham Catherine Adams Patrick Amorosa Adam Aviles Abigail Branch Samantha Carter Ishita Gaur Adam Himes Anna Hong Matthew Huber Dan Hudock Hiro Ichikawa Fatima Kanchwala Euginie Kwan Drew Lightfoot Lindsay Mannion Josh Marshman Silvia Park Judy Podraza Arlie Schrantz I-Shan Tam Giacomo Tinari Roxanna Viray Bizhou Wang Eddie Wong Kevin Wong Daniel Zhang


Carnegie Mellon University | School of Architecture

INTRODUCTION the purpose behind the project The fifth-year architecture students from Carnegie Mellon University Urban Lab Studio have spent a semester studying Downtown Pittsburgh under the direction and guidance of professors Rami el Samahy and Eve Picker. Through conversations with downtown residents and commuters, personal observations and analysis, the studio proposed a variety of potential designs for the future. Initially, our project developed through exercises in exploring the city as well as analysis of urban design precedents from cities around the world. Those findings, observations, and research were transformed into maps, animations, and videos that were presented at the Cultural District’s fall Gallery Crawl on October 1. At this event, we asked for feedback from the public through personal interaction, surveys, and written responses on our wall scroll. After reviewing the public’s opinion of the downtown area, the studio developed four different framework proposals. Each framework proposal looked at large scale interventions for downtown and the surrounding neighborhoods. These ideas

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh

were presented at a community meeting at the Cultural Arts Education Center on October 13. Upon reviewing feedback from the second community meeting, the studio redesigned the framework to encompass one cohesive idea for the public realm and transportation systems in Downtown Pittsburgh. Small groups of students then focused on a particular element of that framework to further investigate the proposal in greater depth. This booklet is the final result of our ultimate proposal to make the downtown neighborhood a better place to live, work, and visit. These proposals are firmly rooted in making downtown a more walkable, user-friendly place with improvements to the moveability and transformation within as well as to and from the area. We understand the challenges involved in implementing any of these strategies, but we hope our proposals begin to foster discussions and ideas of how downtown can be transformed in the future.



Carneg Car negie neg ie e Mel Mellon lon Un U ive ersi rsity ty | Scho hool ho ol of Arc Archit hitect hit ecture ect ure re

VISION downtown embodies the unique patchwork of interconnected, liveable communities Downtown Pittsburgh is made up of several distinct districts that each embody their own character and feel. The city is composed of two opposing street grids. Therefore, moving through the city can be difficult and confusing as one travels from one end the other. We recognize the unique characteristics of Downtown and our strategy aims to bridge the connections between the patchwork of districts through transportation strategies that make movement through the city easier and more transparent. Throughout our findings, we have noticed the growing dependence on vehicular traffic that adds to the congestion of the city. The dominance of the car is apparent through the multiple parking structures and surface parking lots in downtown. In addition, the public spaces such as streets, alleys, parks, squares and riversides lacked connection. These public spaces that should offer enjoy-

Urban Urb an Lab Labora orator toryy | Do Downt wntown own Piitts ttsbur burgh gh

ment, entertainment, and social interaction are under utilized or unwelcoming. Moreover, vacant lots and building vacancies are high and spread across the city center. The proposal that the studio put together responds to the strengths of downtown and addresses its challenges. The ultimate objective of the studio's strategy is to provide better transportation systems to and within Downtown that also begin to enhance the rediscovery of old and new public spaces within the city center. More emphasis is given to the pedestrian through a network of street arteries that bridge the districts of Downtown. These efforts are augmented by a branding campaign for the city center that not only educates the public of the new changes to transportation but also advertises the new benefits to residents, businesses, and visitors to the downtown area.


big framework urban design guidelines strip district connection


Carnegie Mellon University | School of Architecture


Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh

FRAMEWORK a movement and transportation strategy for downtown designed by Mekha Abraham, Patrick Amorosa, Adam Himes, Matthew Huber, Judy Podraza

The plan for Downtown Pittsburgh promotes a pedestrian friendly environment that connects the districts of Downtown as well as Pittsburgh to its surrounding context. Currently, the city center is overloaded with transportation systems; buses, cars, bikes, and pedestrians all fight for their right of way. Over 90 bus routes pass through the city center, servicing 140 bus stops. This congestion added to the vehicular traffic and two opposing street grids creates an inefficient transportation network. Our proposal establishes a hierarchy among these movement systems in order to elevate the pedestrian experience, meanwhile streamlining public forms for transportation. The new transportation systems reestablish connections to the riverfronts and public green spaces, streamlining transportation nodes that intersect with different movement systems. When read together the transportation interventions server as a network of


connective tissue that ties together the disparate fragments of the existing city, reconceptualizing it but as a continuous fabric that weaves together fields of distinct, intensified urban character. The main intervention first focuses on the two pedestrian-only street corridors that connect the downtown area to the riverfront. These streets are then supported by a tram loop that connects the other districts. The existence of the tram allows the reduction of bus routes and relocates them to the outer triangle along Liberty Ave, Boulevard of the Allies, and Grant Street. In addition, a new bus rapid transit loop connecting Oakland to Downtown is proposed. Finally, a regional riverbus system will begin to connect the river countries to downtown and other parts of Pittsburgh, minimizing the traffic on major bridge thresholds into the city center.

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Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


bike paths in and around Downtown

vehicular traffic divides and defines Downtown

bus routes are run through Downtown for as few as one stop

bus route redundancies congest the city

bus stop proximity further worsens congestion

people significantly obstruct the sidewalks while waiting for buses out of Downtown


Carnegie Mellon University | School of Architecture

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh





































3rd BL VD










above - a network of bike paths and two pedestrian-only streets give priority to the flaneur below - section through Market and 6th Street shows the re-established connection to the rivers as well as added open and green space to the city center


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above - implementing new bike paths simply requires a bright coat of orange paint, which greatly increases biker presence on the road

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


primary pathway secondary pathways above - the development of new green spaces, such as the Civic Park in the east, serve to create transectional pathways that visitors create by linking their paths to a number of public outdoor spaces. The bright red shows the new primary Point-Civic Park axis while the darker reds depict paths suggested by smaller interventions. below - a section that follows the Point-Civic Park axis as drawn in bright red on the map above. Note how it links new spaces like the Civic Park to existing areas such as Mellon Square or the Point.


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Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


Penn Ave : 10th St Penn Ave : Katz Plaza

Union Station William Penn Pl : Liberty Ave

Penn Ave : Gateway Center Mellon Square Blvd of the Allies : Stanwix St Blvd of the Allies : Market St Blvd of the Allies : Cherry Way

right - at approximately 1.84 miles in length and taking trafďŹ c delays into account, three trams could service each of nine stops along the loop at a little over ďŹ ve-minute intervals below - view of tram stop at the corner of Blvd of the Allies and Cherry Way

To aid in the decongestion of the central business district, a tram line will be instituted that runs in a loop along Penn Avenue, Boulevard of the Allies, and William Penn Place/Cherry Way. The tram links local pedestrian and bicycle traffic to regional transit lines such as PAT buses or Amtrak at Union Station. At the local level, frequent tram service makes an already walkable downtown area even easier to navigate. Perceptually, the tram reinforces the conception of Downtown as the meeting point of the three rivers by reflecting the triangular form of the landmass. This also helps visitors to orient themselves by creating a connection between seeing the tram line and understanding that the river's edge is not far away. Additionally, it both defines and links the central business district and its surrounding districts.


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Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh



Carnegie Mellon University | School of Architecture

Union Station

Gateway Center

Blvd. of the Allies

There currently exists a strong regional bus systems within Allegheny County. The three existing dedicated busways, shown in red on the above map, extend from Downtown to the east, south and west of the city. Also, shown in blue, is the light rail system, know as the T, which links the communities to the south of the city to the Downtown. To supplement these three existing mass transit routes, the addition of a limited access bus loop route that would extend along the corridor between Downtown and Oakland. Currently this corriUrban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh

dor sees the heaviest ridership anywhere with the bus systems. Providing a limited access loop would create a express transit link that would reduce the travel time between these to strong communities. Within Downtown proper, to eliminate the congestion currently caused by the many routes that weave through the area, buses are rerouted to the edges the triangle. Therefore making buses travel around, but not through the heart of Pittsburgh.



In terms of regional connectivity, one asset that is often overlooked is three rivers. These natural links tie the city together. To capitalize on this resource, a Riverbus system is proposed as a additional regional transit system. The systems would link the communities along the rivers edge not only to Downtown but also to each other. The rivers allows for expedient and efficient regional connections. In the proposed schema, outlined in the map on the right, the Riverbus directly links to the municipalities in grey as well as supports the municipalities highlighted in blue. Within Downtown there are two main stations, located on the north and south sides of the triangle. These allow for easy access on foot to a majority of the downtown.



13 m

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Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


Greyhound Union Station East Busway Amtrak

Oakland Loop - In

Gateway Center Oakland Loop - Out Boulevard of the Allies

South Busway

West Busway


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One of the keys to a successful public transit systems is the easy with which a passenger can transfer within the system. Keeping this consideration in mind, the proposed mass transit system within Downtown is organized around three major transfer hubs: Gateway Center, Union Station, and the Boulevard of the Allies. From each of these three hubs one can easily begin to navigate Downtown, as shown with the red 5 minute walking circles in the image to the left. Also the three part systems creates an easy cognitive map for visitors to the city. Each hub will have a canopy shelter that makes them easily identifiable as a place where you can access the mass transit system.

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh



Downtown Users wants, needs & projected use

how many are there? what do they want?

what do they need?

140,000 ease of travel to workplace and eateries for lunch and small breaks.

regional transportation network, food vendors, retreat spaces

what will they use?

12am 9pm 6pm 3pm 12pm 9am 6am


3am number of people


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Su M T W R F Sa

Su M T W R F Sa

family visit

business visit


permanent residents & students





Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh





public recreation spaces open late, food and grocery vendors, inner mode of transportation regionally connected to Greater Pittsburgh


public recreation spaces, daytime and nighttime events and programs, wellconnected transportation network


attend weeknight events at venues open late int the evening and have more amenities located centrally downtown


relax the day with activities downtown from afternoon into evening, with recreational, cultural, shopping, and athletic events


above - the pedestrian street insertion stitch together the two opposing grids and set the two rivers in relation to one another

above - the tram loop frees the city central triangle of congestion while delivering legibility to the boundaries of the Golden Triangle

above - the addition of the civic park and the related network of green spaces connecting to Point State Park generate a new axis that orients the city from the Hill to the vibrant city center


Carnegie Mellon University | School of Architecture

above - the combination of multiple interventions, including the pedestrian street, tram and civic park, yield a city-network with legible connections both internally and externally


Temporary Shuttle

Tram Infrastructure Pedestrian Street Paving

Pedestrian Street Development Bus Rerouting & BRT Bike Lanes

Riverfront Development


Union Station Project

RR P Bridg

Civic Park Development

Redevelopment of Vacant Storefronts Open Space Redevelopment Housing Strip District Mixed-Use Development Restaurants

Food Trucks, Carts



2016 Carnegie Mellon University | School of Architecture


These interventions can largely be completed over a twenty-year period. Projects are staged to propel the success of later projects. For example, the pedestrian streets' development relies on the implementation of the tram, which would result in the rerouting of buses downtown. Since the framework heavily emphasizes changes to public transit and is self-perpetuating, its success cannot be measured until most of the interventions are put into place. The success of this framework will result in a new Downtown Pittsburgh that enhances the pedestrian experience and promotes greater connectivity both within Downtown and at the regional level.

Pedestrian ge


Cable Car

2026 Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh



URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES enhancing the unique character of downtown's various districts designed by the Frameworks Group

As a microcosm of the greater city, downtown Pittsburgh is a collaged patchwork of various neighborhoods. While the frameworks plan focuses on traversing barriers and sewing together disparate urban agglomerations with the connective tissues of public space and public transportation, it is not a unifying plan. The city is not to be seen as purely singular. Rather, it is an assemblage composed of a multiplicity of cultural, po-


litical, and physical aggregates. This section of the book focuses on the unique character of each district in an attempt to maintain the intensity and differentiation of that district. Three of the districts contain existing urban characters, two propose guidelines for new construction, and the remaining districts will be enhanced by adaptive reuses guidelines.

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Blue: Gateway and Grant Street districts exhibit a strong, distinct character, and therefore are not in need of new guidelines; where as Midway exhibits a heterogeneity that excludes guidelines.

Red: New development and adaptive reuse inserted into the Cultural District, the Mon, and the Pedestrian street will be regulated with proposed design guidelines aimed at enhancing the individual, distinct character of the place. While, the Allegheny Shore and the Civic Park guidelines are aimed at generating an urban character appropriate to the context for new construction.


Gateway Center Fulfilling the post-war modernist vision of a radiant city consisting of towers in a park, Gateway Center and its similar neighbors to the South emerged out of Pittsburgh's redevelopment renaissance that occurred during the 50'S. and 60's. The complex is complemented by the adjacent point state park. The architectural character maintains the modernist insistence of abstraction. Pure. geometric volumes cleanly adorned


with modern materials dominates. The cruciform towers of Gateway Center harken to Le Corbusier's now iconic scheme for Paris. The plan represents a utopic vision for a future city. Today, the buildings are inhabited by a mix of uses. They contain both residential apartments, and offices on the upper floors, with commercial often located on the ground floor.

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below - Gateway Center urban condition

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


Grant Street On the west side of Grant street is found this concentration of government and institutional buildings. Due to the civic nature of the program, most blocks accommodate a single building monumental in scale. Though the formal character of the area's architecture mediates the typical bombast of monumental civic architecture with an intricacy and eloquence seldom achieved elsewhere. Paradigmatic of this strategy are Richardson's courthouse and Hornbostel's City-County Building. Both adjust traditional European architecture to a uniquely American character. They likewise, contrast heavy, massive, rough in Richardson's case, construction with


intricate detailing and light, airy, glazed openings. The stately character of the historical architecture is mirrored in contemporary additions as well. The heavy structural frame of the US steel tower, against its massive planes of glass can be seen as a modern articulation of Richardson's heavy/airy simultaneity. Broad granite sidewalks, brick paving on Grant, and clean tree planting urbanisticly reinforce the experience of a reserved, yet eloquent governmental center. The character of this district already manifests itself strongly and is expected to be maintained due to the permanent nature of the buildings.

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below - existing governmental and institutional typologies along Grant Street

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


Mid Town The bustling heart of Downtown, Mid Town serves as the city's central business district. Professionals of all varieties can be routinely seen crowding the streets in front of the area's many lunchtime eateries or hurrying across town to catch a meeting. The urban fabric is amongst Pittsburgh's most heterogeneous. Iconic corporate towers are juxtaposed against slender mid-rise sliver buildings and nineteenth century industrial era masonry office blocks. This lassie-faire character emerged organically as the city's business and industry leaders adjusted to evolving needs. The richness and intensity of experience brought by a radical diversity


of building types was generated by the contingencies of the market as some buildings stayed and others appeared, supporting a vibrancy of multiple uses and enthralling urban experience. Though this inner triangle will be relieved of the smothering congestion caused by an overload of buses, the reorganized public transit system ensures that pedestrian traffic will be enhanced in order to maintain the dynamic qualities characteristic of hectic city life without the perils of navigating the labyrinthine chaos imposed by swerving buses. The unexpected encounter of difference, both spatially and socially, remains a hallmark of this place.

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below - building typologies typical of Central Business District

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh



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Celebrate the gritty realism of urban elements tracing the city's past. Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


William Penn Way Pedestrian Street William Penn Way is a popular secondary street of Downtown with several retail and public spaces along its path. Its adjacencies to major destinations, including Mellon Park and the Convention Center, situates itself well to serve as a pedestrian street in the proposed framework. Its strength as a pedestrian street is supported with the proposal of positioning the newly envisioned tram loop along William Penn Way. William Penn Way is located between two populated districts— Mid Town and the Government District— that will help support the street to thrive as a pedestrian street. Workers will be more inclined to migrate to the area once it is activated with more retail and public space. All capable buildings should incorporate retail spaces at street level to encourage activity along the pedestrian street. Pedestrian corridors will encourage strong movement on the sidewalks; therefore, any parking structure should re-program at the street level to encourage use by actively engaging the

pedestrian street experience. Pedestrian throughways should be implemented in existing and new construction to encourage cross movement from outdoor and indoor public spaces. For existing buildings with a full-block depth and spanning more than three plots in width are required to open their lobby or ground floor to create passageways that travers the block, unless the throughway leads from a street to an alley or service street. This will allow for the free passage of pedestrian through the block. New construction of buildings a block in depth are required to provide pedestrian passage through the first floor if access would provide a street to street connection.To maintain the existing street character, new construction and adaptive reuse along the street should use similar materials that pays homage to the industrial past and history of the city. With the establishment of a consistent character, William Penn Way has the potential to serve as a thriving and comfortable pedestrian street.

setback tower


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above - material character of street is composed of several different textures that depicts the evolving history of the city through the use of brick, iron, glass, and steel; these hard materials are contrasted by pockets of green space found along the William Penn Way below, right to left - guideline diagrams illustrating the activation of parking garage at street level; diagram illustrating pedestrian throughways bottom, opposing page - street plan and section of William Penn Way street-level retail opportunities; a potential building typology that ďŹ ts with street character

Create Pedestrian Throughways

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh

Activate Parking Garages at Street Level


Mon Shore The southern edge of the river suffers most severely from an impenetrable disconnection between the level of the urban plane and the river itself. Multiple levels of interchange must be negotiated. The views across, however, boastfully present themselves as assets. The character of thee neighborhood is slightly eclectic, though not as radical a mixture as Mid Town. The buildings, despite separate origins in style and time, all seem to emanate a gritty


sense of worn, hard-working endurance paradigmatic of the Pittsburgh ethos. The gritty character allows for rough interventions, suitable for low rent level housing situations. This, coupled with the high vacancy rates, and loads of parking make it a community slated for redevelopment. Near the proposed riverfront connections, this site is bound to see rapid development. It is the perfect place to absorb excess housing desires.

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above - suggested material palette drawing from gritty character of the various existing building types. Though not industrial, materials exhibit wear as an expression of time, and are limited to a palette of basic materials, such as rusted steel, plywood, rough stucco, and basic aluminum ďŹ ns. below-left - housing can be inserted as slender in ďŹ ll or as a contrapuntal stack of volumes mediating an open lot and existing structures. Combining adaptive re-use with new construction is highly encouraged below-right - green roofs are encouraged as occupiable terraces in promotion of increased housing. Public parks are encouraged to replace surface parking. And party-walls are encouraged to remain visible as unique registers of Pittsburgh's history and urban fabric. Finally, a diagram portrays the interconnected nature between public space and active storefronts.

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


The Cultural District The Cultural District is Downtown's most lively area featuring an abundance of theaters, galleries, and concert halls including Heinz Hall, Byham Theater, Benedum Center, and Wood Street Galleries as well as restaurants and housing. The current energizing character of the district is most prominent at night when cultural venues operate and attract visitors in the city. In order to sustain a high daily activity level the district must incorporate a mixed-use programing to include both retail, cultural, residential, and office space.

Buildings at the street level should include retail and cultural spaces that can be activated by public use at various times of the day. Upper floors should be programmed with office and residential spaces. This programming should occur along all the major streets of the Cultural District including Liberty Ave, Penn Ave, and Fort Duquesne Boulevard to create a composite high activity level for the entire district.



sliver building

multi-bay midrise

setback tower







street section

low-density residential


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above - material character of street is eclectic and exempliďŹ es the artistic quality of the district; shades of blue, reds, and yellows are consistent in the neighborhood; the variety of materials aligns with the historical development of Downtown below right - guideline diagrams show how activating building at street level will create increased activity along the street and within the overall district below left - site plan of Cultural District's three major streets; the incorporation of street level retail and cultural programs with increase activity and when complemented with upper level residential will create a 24 hour city bottom far left opposing page - building typologies that should be maintained for cultural district; these three types of buildings should be incorporated to create a mixed- use district




















Activate at Street Level with Retail and Public Venues

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


Civic Park Redevelopment The Civic Park Redevelopment will establish a new form and city neighborhood with the integration of a public park that will replace the planned demolition of Mellon Arena. Currently, the character of the site is disjointed with its location between the two unconnected neighborhoods of Downtown and the Hill District. The proposed Civic Park will help establish this missing connection through an open green space and new outlook. The inherent contrasting characteristics of both Downtown and the Hill District must be mediated through a master plan strategy of building typologies surrounding Civic Park that evolve in

scale and use along the east-west axis. This should be established through a transition between low-density residential for areas along the park closest to the Hill District, then transitioning to highdensity residential in the central area of the park. The surrounding areas closest to Downtown should include a mix of both commercial and mixed use building typologies of both point loaded towers and double loaded residential slabs. This transition as well as maintaining open connections between both Downtown and the Hill District through the park will diminish the image of Downtown as a separate entity.


pointed loaded office tower


double loaded residential slab

single loaded residential slab

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above - material character of the Civic Park site varies dramatically with the changing neighborhood boundaries from brick, vegetation, steel, and heavy materials of concrete along Crosstown Expressway below - diagrammatic master plan of Civic Park site; Downtown and Hill District connections should be maintained to establish a currently nonexistent synergy between the neighborhoods bottom, opposing page - proposed building typologies to surround Civic Park that create a transition of residential to mixed use and commercial building types from east to west

low-density residential

row house

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


Allegheny Shore The Strip District Long home to the center of Pittsburgh's grocery import and export, the Strip District offers a cornucopia of culinary delectables in a variety of ethnic specialties. The rich textures and smells of the market are complimented by the gritty industrial sheds lining the long, roads running along the river. These immediate sensorial intensities are uniquely coupled with an almost bleak and sparse spatial composition. The landscape is amongst the flattest in the city and the experience


of the place is starkly horizontal and linear. Despite the unique character, the area remains poorly connected to the nearby cultural district. The master plan proposes a scheme that connects the two districts by mediating their unique characters. The no longer barren overpasses, parking lots, and sheds, however act as formal and phenomenal generators for the new architecture growing amongst them.

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above - suggested material palette drawing from existing industrial sources, including red brick masonry, rough concrete, corrugated steel, etc. below-left - articulating a separation between skin and body allows for both the accommodation of program in generic elements and the establishment of a formal dialogue between the existing industrial sheds and a folded skin clad in industrial materials. Additionally, the folding strategy allows the river-facing facade to open to views and pedestrian connection. below-middle - new structures will be predominantly linear and horizontal in the direction parallel to the river, while, allowing access in the transverse direction. below-right - axo of existing organization

Urban Laboratory | Downtown Pittsburgh


Urban Design Framework Downtown Pittsburgh  

a public realm and transportation strategy for Downtown Pittsburgh

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