A Historical and Medical Perceptive on the Passion, Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ
Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………,.i The Passion of the Christ…………………………………………………………….1 The Death of the Christ………………………………………………………………7 The Resurrection of the Christ………………………………………………………13 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………..ii Bibliography………………………………………………………………………...iii
Introduction Jesus of Nazareth has been the most controversial name in all of history, known for his good deeds, known for his great teachings but more importantly but more importantly known for the question of his divinity. Some argue either he was the Christ or just another person in history. As the writings about Jesus found in the four Gospels, discuss and explain the death and resurrection of Jesus, much discussion is examined as we come to question if he actually died and if he actually rose from the dead. In this investigative report, we will study in depth the understanding of the medical and historical perceptive of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. We will unravel the mysteries of the passion with a detailed look though the eyes of history and medicine. With the blood drops that dripped from his forehead like sweat in the garden of Gethsemane to the mystery behind the death on the cross, to discover what really happened on resurrection Sunday. During this investigation we propose that the evidence that is given about his passion, death and resurrection confirm the deity of Jesus as the Christ. Through this investigative report we will configure and confirm that Jesus is the Christ through the evidence found in medical journals and in the historical books.
The Passion of the Christ
he Passion of Jesus Christ can be better understood as his final days alive. And can be classified as the road, from the Garden of Gethsemane to the Cross at Calvary. He showed the obedience that was put upon him1 and the chastisement of God that was
given to Him2 that was demonstrated as he went towards the cross. The events leading to the death of Jesus named the Christ are essential to determine if he really was the Christ. For throughout the Bible, there is a mention of a “messiah” or “savior” to come to the Jewish people to free them from oppression. The time leading up to the one of the most important event of Jesus‟ life is known as the time that he spent praying the night that He was betrayed by Judas in the Garden of Gethsemane3, a garden between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives.
As we start the investigation of Jesus as the Christ we must understand what really happened to Jesus before the deity was challenged through the historical and medical perceptive. The Garden of Gethsemane is important to determine the deity of Jesus as the Christ for as he prayed before being betrayed, He prayed
earnestly that his sweat became like great drops of blood
Figure 1; the Mount of Olives
falling to the ground (Luke 22:44). We must determine whether or not this is actually possible in a human being or was a miracle in itself. After the betrayal of Jesus that happened in the Garden 1
Philippians 2:8, (NKJV): And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross. 2 Isaiah 53 (NKJV) 3 Luke 22:39-44 (NKJV)
of Gethsemane, He was turned over to the Sanhedrin court for a Jewish judgment but since the court had no power to put Jesus to death the sentence was sent over to a Roman Governor named Pontius Pilate. After going through the judgment of Herod and Pontius Pilate, Pilate gave the final order to have Jesus brutally scourged and let loose. But as the Jewish crowd insisted by the leadership of the Jewish High Priest, he was sent to be crucified. On a hill named Golgotha or the Place of the Skull, Jesus was sent to be crucified around the third hour of the day4 and in the sixth hour of the day a great darkness came over the land until the time that Jesus died on the cross5 that was placed under the order of Pontius Pilate.
The Garden of Gethsemane The Garden of Gethsemane is said to have been located at the foot of the Mount of Olives located outside the city of Jerusalem6, where we can still find to this day. If we can travel to Jerusalem today at modern day Israel, we can find the Garden of Gethsemane still standing. The Mount of Olives can also be known as Mount Olivet, or Har HaZetim; Jebel ez-Zeitum in Arabic or the “Mount of the Summit”, it is given its name due to the Olive Trees that cover the garden. The name “Gethsemane” comes from the Hebrew word “Gat,” meaning “a place of pressing” and “Shemanim”, which means “oils” and according to tradition in the garden of Gethsemane is the place where the olives from the Mount of Olives were pressed into oil. To this day there are eight olive trees in this garden that may be at least 2,000- 3,000 years old. According to history and archeology the place of the Garden of Gethsemane cannot be disproven and thus the witness of history remains that Jesus named the Christ could have visited this site before his death. 4
Mark 15:25 (NKJV) John 23:44-46 (NKJV) 6 Elizabeth Knowles. "Garden of Gethsemane." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Oxford University Press. 2006. Encyclopedia.com.(November 5, 2009). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-GardenofGethsemane.html. 5
While he was in this garden, he prayed all night until His sweat became like drops of blood (Luke 22:44). Alexander Metherell, M.D., PH.D., challenges this medical condition can be known as hematidrosis7 or hemachromatosis which is associated with a high degree of psychological stress. Metherell mentions that during a severe anxiety of this magnitude it releases chemicals that break the capillaries in the sweat glands which results in bleeding into the glands or sweat becoming as though it were blood. According to the Figure 2: Sickle Cell Anemia
medical journals, this is a rare disease that is an excess of iron deposits throughout the body which results in cardiac failure.8 Another condition comes as a result of sickle cell anemia9, a condition in which there‟s not enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. Some of the symptoms that this causes are fatigue, periodic episodes of pain or crises, and jaundice, which is known as liver dysfunction, causing a yellowing of the skin and the whites in the eyes. Sickle cell anemia also may cause stroke, chest pain, and pulmonary hypertension, resulting in cardiac arrest. So there could be no way that during this extreme pressure that Jesus could have actually survived through this pain that is believed to have occurred during this process. So it could have been possible that Jesus could have suffered cardiac arrest during his prayer in the garden. So why is it that he didn‟t die in the garden and instead of the cross? And, how could one man suffer all this and still live?
Lee Stobel, The Case for Christ, p. 195 hemochromatosis, p . 856, Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions 9 Mayo Clinic Staff, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER); (2009) http://mayoclinic.com/health/sickle-cell-anemia/DS00324 8
After Jesus had prayed in the Mount of Olives, he was betrayed by one of his closest students, Judas Iscariot, with him accompanied the Roman Soldiers and the Temple Guard to arrest Jesus. They took him into the judgment of the High Priest, Pontius Pilate, Herod, then back again to Pontius Pilate, where Pilate decided to have Jesus Christ scourged and then crucified. Before we go into detail of the Roman process of scourging, we must first ask ourselves if Pontius Pilate actually existed and which of the Herod Dynasty passed judgment on Christ.
Who is Pontius Pilate? According to the gospel according to Luke, Pontius Pilate was a governor of Judea under the reign of the Roman Emperor, Tiberius Caesar10.
“The best known of the Roman governors of Judea was Pontius Pilate (26-36 CE), under whom Jesus was crucified. He was not a good administrator, and he angered the Jews by setting up votive shields in Herod‟s palace. He also put to death many Samaritans, as a result of which an embassy was set to Vitellius, The Roman legate, complaining of his actions. Pilate was ordered to go to Rome to answer before the emperor, and he was removed from his governorship.” 11
Josephus the Historian gives us a witness of the existence of Pontius Pilate in his writings, Antiquities of the Jews.
“Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal 10 11
Luke 3:1 (NIV) ADRIAN CURTIS, HERBERT GORDON MAY, “Oxford Bible Atlas”, Oxford University Press, 2007, p.56.
men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.”12
Pontius Pilate made the decision to have Jesus Christ scourged and then to be crucified. So History can tell us that Pontius Pilate existed to make this judgment on the Christ.
The Scourging Jesus before being crucified was scourged, until it was said that his face was unrecognizable, that “his appearance was so disfigured beyond that of any man and his form marred beyond human likeness13,” that he didn‟t look human in his appearance is a image that none can imagine on a human being. Eusebius Figure 3: Roman Flagellum
gives reference to the scourging that would happen under Roman rule, “the sufferer‟s veins were laid bare, and the very muscles, sinews and bowels of the victim were open to exposure.”14
Scourging was practiced by the Romans for cruel punishment, usually before being crucified. Normally there were between one and six trained Roman officers called lictors, who were responsible of punishing the victim. The instrument used for scourging is a short whip called a flagrum or flagellum to which was attached short braided leather like material of different
Flavius Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews, 18.3.3. Isaiah 52:14 (NIV) 14 Eusebuis, Historia Ecclesiastica, IV, 15 13
lengths. Knots were tied in the ends of each braided leather, and sheep bone or iron balls were inserted into the knots at the end of each braid. The person was stripped of his clothing and his hands are tied to a post. Roman soldiers repeatedly strike the victim‟s back, butt and legs with full force causing deep cuts. Blow cuts would go deep into muscles and rip the overlaying skin of the back to a point where it hangs as ribbons of bleeding flesh. Once the victim fainted, the Roman soldier or lector would check his pulse and detect sufficient respiration or breath, the beating would continue, once the prisoner was near death, the beating would stop. According to Jewish law15 the prisoner was to receive no more than 40 lashes, the Pharisees always making sure the law was strictly kept, insisted that only 39 lashes be given in case of a miscount. But the Roman law did not have a limit set on the number of blows one could give. The main objective of the scourging was to weaken the prisoner to a state near to death, were the name was given “half death.” Many did not survive this cruel punishment, and due to the extent of blood loss would determine how long the prisoner would survive on the cross.
“[Roman] Slaves were continually punished by flagellation. Whips of various types were used. The terrible Roman flagellum, made of thongs of ox-leather, cut into the flesh like a knife. According to Horace, the sadistic cruelty and vindictiveness of some judges let them to order floggings with were so excessive, and continued so long, that the executioner often enough, through sheer exhaustion, was obliged to desist before the sentence was completed. Many slaves died under the whip. The thongs were knotted with bones and pieces of metal; sometimes lead balls, cruel hooks or spikes were affixed to the ends. Ladies who could not wield the whip themselves hired the public executioner or compelled other slaves to flog their servants.”16
Deuteronomy 25:3 George Ryley Scott, History of Torture Throughout the Ages, p. 48-49.
Alexander Metherell, M.D., PH.D., describes that when someone would be flogged, â€žthe victim would experience tremendous pain and go into Hypovolemic Shock, which is 1/5 blood- loss in the body. Some of the symptoms are anxiety or agitation, confusion, pale skin color, and rapid breathing17. Which gives us a brief description of what Jesus went through as he made his way to Golgotha. Without a doubt Jesus would and could have died on the wiping post, but the question still remains if he is who he said he was?
The Death of the Christ
he death of Jesus named the Christ is the one of the most essential parts to determine the deity of the Jesus as the Christ. If his death did not happen, the basic Christian doctrine would be of no worth. The Gospels give us a description of what happened as Jesus died on the cross, we must first examine the location, the process and the detailed death of Jesus named the Christ.
The Place Before we can start examining the acts, we must first determine the place. The exact place where Jesus died was called Golgotha, named place of the skull18, and according to some scholars and historians this could have been the exact place where the temple mount was built and the place where the Abraham tried to off up Figure 4: Golgotha
University of Maryland Center (UMMC), 16 November 2009, available from http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000527all.htm; Internet; accessed 16 November 2009. 18 John 19:17
Isaac his one and only son, as a sacrifice19, still some argue these two were to different locations. Golgotha is said to be located outside the wall of Jerusalem near the Mount of Olives. In Hebrew, the word "Golgotha" means, "the PLACE of the skull" or "Skull Hill"2021 the emphasis was on a place where a skull would be found. This skull can still be seen today at the face of the mountain, but the question still remands if his is the exact place where Jesus was crucified?
The Cross One of the details that we find in the Gospel According to Luke is the importance of two criminals also being crucified with Jesus, showing us that Jesus was not the only one in history to be crucified. Even though some historians argue that there was no mention of other crucifixions. Biblical Scholar Raymond Brown writes, “as for crucifixion by Jews, one of the earliest references to the practice is the execution in the early first century B.C. of 800 prisoners by Alexander Jannaeus. As Roman armies began to interfere in Judea, crucifixion of Jews became a matter of policy, e.g., the governor of Syria crucified 2,000 Jews in 4 B.C. In the first century A.D. Jesus is the first Jews whom we know to have been crucified. Otherwise Josephus records no crucifixions of Jews during the first part of the Roman prefecture in Judea (A.D. 6-40), though there is an ample attestation of crucifixion during the second part of the prefecture (A.D. 44-66).”22 So we can see and understand that the practice of crucifixion was practiced during the time of Jesus. But the process of death by crucifixion was known to be the most agonizing pain
Genesis 22 Luke 23:25 21 Golgotha (gŏl’gəthə) definition found: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Golgatha 22 Brown, The Death of the Messiah, vol. 2, p. 946. 20
ever felt. The origins of crucifixion could have started with the Persians23 and then expanding the custom by Alexander the Great, as he introduced the practice, to the Egyptians. It also appears that the Romans learned this practice from the Carthaginians. Even though the Romans did not invent crucifixion, they perfected it as a perfect form of torture and punishment, their goal was to cause the most pain possible while the prisoner slowly died.
As Jesus was crucified in the place called Golgotha, some historians say that is the place where a man would suffer the worst pain injected upon a human being. Cicero called death by crucifixion, “the most cruel and hideous of tortures” and the “extreme and ultimate penalty for a slave.”24 “The pain was absolutely unbearable,” relates Alexander Metherell, M.D., Ph.D. “In fact, it was literally beyond words to describe; they had to invent a new word: excruciating. Literally, excruciating means „out of the cross.‟”According to the accounts that are written in the Gospels, the pain that Jesus suffered on the cross was unbearable until he gave up his last breath, meaning that he willingly gave up his life willingly. So how did the Christ suffer?
If Jesus was crucified, just as the Gospels explain, historians agree on some of the following discoveries; such as the hands and feet being pierced and death by respiratory complications that would soon follow. One of the important medical discoveries about the cross is the way they would hang the body on the cross, horizontal, vertical, or upside down. The Romans configured the human anatomy in such a way to conflict the most pain possible. The procedure that the Romans used is still known but for this investigation we will start investigating the hands and feet of those crucified and the way the prisoner was hung on the cross.
Friedrich G:Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, p. 572, 573, 632 Cicero, V in Verrem.
As the prisoner would be hung on the cross, the Romans would first by law would give the prisoner would be given a drink of wine mixed with myrrh (gall) as a analgesic or pain killer.25 Than the Romans would secure the hands to hold the body in place, and for this they used five to seven inch long spikes. Now, much controversy has been brought up about this point due to the fact that the depiction of Jesus is him being crucified in the palm of his hand but according to studies shown, the palm of the hand would not be a wise decision due to the fact that the hand could not support such body weight so studies show that through the wrist would be the reasonable location of the nails. Alexander Metherell, M.D., Ph.D., speaking of the crucifixion of Jesus, comments that, “through the wrist, this was a solid position that would lock the hand; if the nails had been driven through the palms, his weight would have caused the skin to tear and he would have fallen off the cross. So the nails went through the wrists, although this was considered part of the hand in the language of the day. And it is important to understand that the nail would go through the place where the median nerve runs. This is the largest nerve going out to the hand.”26It is said that the nails were placed about one to a inch and half below the palm of the hand, and through this part of the wrists is located the median nerve. Dr. Smalhout describes the pain that resulted from this: “One of the principle nerves, the median, crosses the wrist joint… The nail almost always came into contact with this nerve. Touching or damaging a nerve would cause the maximal amount of pain possible.”27 This would have caused the body to experience some of the worst pain ever felt. After the piercing of the hands they would go to the feet.
Stroud W: Treatise on the Physical Cause of the Death of Chlist and Its Relation to the Principles and Practice of Christianity, p. 28-156, 489-494. 26 Lee Strobel, The Case for Christ, p. 197. 27 Smalhout, The Terrible Easter of A.D. 33, p. 4.
Figure 5: Nailing of wrists As the hands were pierced the feet also followed, this was important for the crucifixion to fulfill its purpose. The Romans would place one foot above the other, bending the legs, knees, and placing the nails in the second metatarsal space. This would happen to cause the purposed effect of excruciating pain. As the process of death by crucifixion had taken its route, the worst pain was soon to come.
Alexander Metherell, M.D., Ph.D. helps explain what would happen as Jesus would be hung on the cross:
â€œOnce a person is hanging in the vertical position, crucifixion is essentially an agonizingly slow death by asphyxiation. The reason is that the stresses on the muscles and diaphragm put the chest into the inhaled position; basically, in order to exhale, the individual must push up on his feet so the tension on the muscles would be eased for a moment. In doing so, the nail would tear through the feet, eventually locking up against the tarsal bones. After managing to exhale, the person would then be able to relax down and take another breath in. Again heâ€&#x;d have to push himself up to exhale, scraping his bloodied back against the coarse
wood of the cross. This would go on and on until complete exhaustion would take over, and the person wouldn‟t be able to push up and breathe anymore. As the person slows down his breathing, he goes into what is called respiratory acidosisthe carbon dioxide in the blood is dissolved as carbonic acid, causing the acidity of the blood to increase. This eventually leads to an irregular heartbeat.”28
As this punishment continued some say that they would eventually break the prisoner‟s legs to secure the death of each prisoner. Frederick Farrar gives this explanation about death by crucifixion:
“For indeed a death by crucifixion seems to include all that pain and death can have of horrible and ghastly- dizziness, cramp, thirst, starvation, sleeplessness, traumatic fever, tetanus, shame, publicity of shame, long continuance of torment, horror of anticipation, mortification of unintended wounds- all intensified just up to the point at which they can be endured at all, but all stopping just short of the point which would give to the sufferer the relief of unconsciousness. The unnatural position made every movement painful; the lacerated veins and crushed tendons throbbed with incessant anguish; the wounds, inflamed by exposure, gradually gangrened; the arteries- especially at the head and stomach- became swollen and oppressed with surcharged blood; and while each variety of misery went on gradually increasing, there was added to them the intolerable pang of a burning and raging thirst; and all these physical complications caused an internal excitement and anxiety, which made the prospect of death itself- of death, the unknown enemy, at whose approach man usually shudders most- bear the aspect of a delicious and exquisite release.”29 Death by a cross was literally unbearable and painful; this would have without a doubt had killed Jesus. But the one issue remains either he was the Christ as he said he was. Was He the Christ or just another man?
Lee Strobel, The Case of Christ, p. 198-199. Josh McDowell, The New Evidence that Demands a Verdict, p. 222-223, quotes, Fredrick Farrar, The Life of Christ, p.440. 29
Figure 6: Respiration during Crucifixion
The Resurrection of the Christ
he Resurrection of Jesus is the most controversial discussion to ever be discussed, for as understandable it is that Jesus could have died, the issue of him coming back to life from the death leaves many in doubt. Even the apostle Paul wrote of what
have been if Jesus would not have resurrected from the dead.30 Still atheists to this day argue over this mere part of the life of Jesus, to see if he was actually dead, or if his body was stolen, or was he the Christ?
1 Corinthians 15:12-19 (Holman Christian Standard Bible)
The Tomb According to the Gospels, after the death of Jesus on the cross, there was a man named Joseph, a member of the Sanhedrin court from Arimathea, a Judean town31. This man went to Pilate asking for the body of Jesus and with his permission placed the body of Jesus in a tomb that was located in a garden where He was crucified.32 William Lane Craig describes how archeologists have found three different types of tombs during the time of Jesus: “(1) kokim or tunnels perpendicular to the walls of the tomb, about six or seven feet deep, three in each of the three inner walls of the tomb, into which the body was inserted headfirst; (2) acrosalia or semi-circular niches two-and-one half feet above the floor and two to three feet deep containing either a flat shelf or a trough for the body; (3) bench tombs containing a bench that went around the three walls of the tomb on which the body could be laid. Joseph‟s tomb is described as being a bench or acrosalia tomb; these types of tombs were scarce in Jesus‟ day and were reserved for persons of high rank. But such tombs of the Sanhedrin attest. Near the Church of the Holy Sepluchre, the traditional site for Jesus‟ grave, acrosalia tombs from Jesus‟ time have been found.”33 The Visitations The Gospels relate that after three days of Jesus being placed inside the tomb, he rose from the dead, and there were witnesses. On the day that Jesus was raised from the dead, he appeared to his followers, even on one occasion, one of his closest students put his finger in his wounds. But how did this happen? If Jesus were dead, how it possible is that one man would rise from the dead after three days? According to medical journals the brain starts to die after 4 minutes the heart stops beating, so if Jesus was pronounced dead the Roman Guard, than there would be no possibility that he would rise from the dead. But the only solution is the visions that people had about Jesus, would this be considered a mass prank or the truth?
Luke 23:50-53; John 19:38-42; Matthew 27:57-61; Mark 15:42-46 John 19:41 33 Josh McDowell, Sean McDowell: Evidence For the Resurrection, p. 171-172, quotes William Lane Craig, Assessing the New Testament Evidence For the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus, p. 186-187. 32
In the Gospels we can see that after that specific Sunday, Jesus appeared to more than over five hundred different people, and this is in need of investigation to determine if Jesus is the Christ or just another man. There at least has to be three different solutions; the story of the resurrection is nothing but legend; it was nothing but hallucinations that the people saw Jesus walk again; or Jesus who he said he was. The Story of the resurrection as a legend has been observed by Peter Kreeft and Ronald Tacelli, “there was not enough time for myth [legend] to develop…several generations have to pass before the added mythological elements can be mistakenly believed to be facts. Eyewitnesses would be around before that to discredit the new mythic visions. We know of other cases where myths and legends of miracles developed around a religious founderfor example, Buddha, Lao-tzu and Muhammad. In each case, many generations passed before the myth surfaced.”34 In other words, the theory of the story being a legend is physically impossible since the story was written by first hand witnesses. The next theory of hallucinations has also been observed before by Gary R. Collins, PH.D.: “Hallucinations are individual occurrences. By their very nature only one person can see a given hallucination at a time. They certainly aren‟t something which can be seen by a group of people. Neither is it possible that one person could somehow induce a hallucination in somebody else. Since an hallucination exists only in this subjective, personal sense, it is obvious that others cannot witness it.”35 Hallucinations could not have been the problem that all the followers of Jesus could see and touch him. Another theory is the theory of the disciples stealing the body, but Josh McDowell observes this point: “Each of the disciples, except John, died a martyr‟s death. They were persecuted because they tenaciously clung to their beliefs and statements. As Paul Little 34
Josh McDowell, Sean McDowell, Evidence for the Resurrection, p. 204 quoted Peter and Ronald Tacelli, Handbook of Christian Apologetics, p. 190-191. 35 Lee Strobel, The Case for Christ, p. 238-239 quoted Gary R. Collins, PH.D.
wrote, “Men will die for what they believe to be true, though it may actually be false. They do not, however die for what they know is a lie.” If the disciples had stolen the body of Jesus, they would have known that their resurrection claim was false. Nevertheless, they never wavered in their commitment to the risen Jesus. Not only did they die for this „lie,‟ but as a testimony to the strength of their convictions, they placed the resurrection of Jesus as the centerpiece of their preaching.”36 If the disciples were all lying, wouldn‟t it be obvious for at least one to come out with the truth. Only one would have ruined all credibility of Jesus but not one stood up. So what remains?
Josh McDowell, Sean McDowell, Evidence for the Resurrection, p. 218.
Conclusion Is Jesus the Christ? “I am trying to prevent anyone saying that the really foolish thing that people often say about Him [Jesus]: „I‟m ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don‟t accept His claim to be God.‟ That is one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic- on a level with the man who says he is a poached egg- or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God: or else a madman or something worse. You can shut Him up for a fool, you can spit at Him and kill Him as a demon, or you can fall at His feet and call Him Lord and God. But let us not come up with any patronizing nonsense about his being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to.” 37
The only conclusion that we can come up with as we examined the thesis, using historical and medical evidence can we prove the deity of Jesus as the Christ, we can come to the conclusion that the Jesus had to be the Christ in order to suffer so much pain and still come back from the dead. If Jesus would have been just another regular man, the impact that he had throughout the generations would have faded. From the death of his followers to the continuation of the life and teaching of Jesus, we cannot refute the deity of Jesus as the Christ. There can be no other solution to argue that the Christ died on the cross and resurrected from the dead on the third day.
C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity, p. 52.
Bibliography Books Stroud W: Treatise on the Physical Cause of the Death of Christ and Its Relation to the Principles and Practice of Christianity, ed 2. London, Hamilton & Adams, 1871. Friedrich G: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Bremiley G (ed-trans). Grand Rapids, Mich, WB Eerdmans Publisher, 1971, vol 7. Lee Strobel: The Case For Christ, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Mich, 1998. Josh McDowell: The New Evidence That Demands a Verdict, Here‟s Life Publishers, Inc., 1981. Josh McDowell: More Than a Carpenter, Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Ill, 1977. Josh & Sean McDowell: Evidence For the Resurrection, What it Means for Your Relationship with God, Regal From Gospel Light, Ventura, Cal, 2009. George Ryley Scott: History of Torture Throughout the Ages, Kessinger Publishing, 2003. William Ramsay, Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani: A Manual of Roman antiquities, Charles Scribner‟s Sons, New York, NY, 1895. Adrian Curtis, Herbert Gordon May, “Oxford Bible Atlas”, Oxford University Press, 2007. Flavius Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, Tenn., 1998. Josephus, the Complete Works, translated by William Whiston, A.M. Clive Staples Lewis: Mere Christianity, HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY, 1952.
Bibles New King James Version Holy Bible, The Chronological Study Bible, Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2008. New King James Version, Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1982. New International Version Holy Bible, The NIV Student Bible, Revised, Compact Edition, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Mich, 1986, 1992, 2002. The New International Version, International Bible Society, 1972, 1978, 1984. Holman Christian Standard Bible Holy Bible, The Holman Illustrated Study Bible, Holman Bible Publishers, Nashville, Tenn., 2006. Holman Christian Standard Bible, Holman Bible Publishers, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003.
Pictures Figure 1: The Mount of Olives http://www.bibleplaces.com/mtolives.htm Figure 2: Sickle Cell Anemia http://mayoclinic.com/health/medical/IM01729 Figure 3: Roman Flagellum http://www.instonebrewer.com/bpg2009/thumbs/la/world/lifestyl/measures/Denarius%20silver% 20c%20132%20BC%20%20%20Left%20-%20Rome%20and%20%20indic.jpg Figure 4: Golgotha http://www.ebibleteacher.com/images/golgotha.jpg Figure 5: Nailing of wrists http://www.frugalsites.net/jesus/crucifixion.htm#7 Figure 6: Respiration during Crucifixion http://www.frugalsites.net/jesus/crucifixion.htm#7 Websites Elizabeth Knowles. "Garden of Gethsemane." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Oxford University Press. 2006. Encyclopedia.com.(November 5, 2009). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-GardenofGethsemane.html. Mayo Clinic Staff, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER); (2009) http://mayoclinic.com/health/sickle-cell-anemia/DS00324 University of Maryland Center (UMMC), 16 November 2009, available from http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000527all.htm; Internet; accessed 16 November 2009. Golgotha (gŏl‟gəthə) definition found: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Golgatha