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Intimate Cortege sound and architecture

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The intimate sensation and translation of sound Masters Project by :

Juan Felipe Sanchez University of South Florida School of Architecture and Community Design.

Sound Sound has many characteristics: therefore, related to architecture and its context, it possesses the ability to influence the human perception in an unconscious manner. The combination of sound and architecture can take a one’s mind to another place for this to happen one has to undergo an intuitive translation of sound and imaginative surge of sound. Fred Rush, On Architecture, Thinking in Action (New York: Routledge, 2004).

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Finding the tune of space

Spatial sensation is experienced when sound travels along an abstract three-dimensional line. Nevertheless it is not a space all the boundaries of which can be experienced at once (static space) nor is it a space the boundaries of which change within a certain pattern (“dynamic, fluid space�). It is a space which is created and which fades away at the same time, proportion by proportion with the developement of sound in time. Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).

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Commitee

Robert MacLeod Faculty Chair Lavent Kara Faculty coChair Steve Cooke

Faculty Advisor

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Acknowledgements

I would like to thank all my colleagues at the University for their support throughout the years. I retain a feeling of gratitude for the outstanding education provided to me at the University of South Florida. The incredible learning experience has proven to be an exceptional challenge for the mind body and soul wich has enrich me with broad knowledge and wisdom. I would like to thank Fernando Delgado and Robert Macleod for being such incredible mentors throughout my education here at the University, and to all that I have worked so closely for so many years. I want to deeply thank with immense love and appreciation for the support given to me outside the university to Nicolas Herrera and Maria Elena Herrera. Last, but not least, I would like to thank Laura Herrera for her understanding and love during the past few years. Her support and encouragement was what made this thesis possible.

Dedication I would like to dedicate this book to my Brothers Daniel, Andres my Sister Angelica and my nephews Camilo and Daniel F. Especially to my parents, Hernan and Esmeralda, receive my deepest gratitude and love for their dedication and the many years of support during my education that provided the foundation for this work.

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Special Thanks

Steve Cooke Beverly Frank Cecilia Guardia Shannon Basset Miachel Halflants Dan Powers Martin Gunderson, Jr. Lavent Kara Bob Hudson

Dimitar Dimitrov Jonathan Tottes Juan Angel Fedyk Sobieslaw and Friends

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Contents

Intimate Traslation of Sound Commitee Acknowledgements Abstract Proposal

Introduction Field Studies Presedent Study

Soundscape Phenomenology Movie The Parts The Plan Sound Surface Midpoint Sequence Section Detail Illustration Concluding Statement | 13


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Abstract Proposal When one moves through space, one leaves a trace of a sound. The sound translates in an omni-direction that reverberates against the walls of an alley way, bouncing back to one’s ears making us aware of the space. With the hearing sense, we strike the boundaries of space the ability to measure space and make it comprehensive in terms of scale. The ability to hear creates a sense of connection and solidarity; it links us to the surrounding space. On acoustic intimacy, Juhani Pallasmaa writes “Our cities have lost their echo altogether, the wide, open spaces of contemporary streets do not return the sound”. Juhani Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin Architecture and Senses (Chichester, England; John Wiley and Sons, 2005) page 49. Within the last century, cities, the media and even school systems have manipulated the auditory sense and made the visual sense dominant ; consequently auditory sense is under educated and underdeveloped. Cities and architecture should be an auditory experience, creating a way to connect back with one’s senses. Understanding sound is a vital factor and one should develop the sense in order to perform a more fluent and sound design.

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Sound Is created when an object vibrates, vibrations perceived by the ears are sent to the brain. The brain analyzes these signals and lets us know what sound we hear. “Elements of Music - The Basic Elements of Music.� May 2012

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Sound Ilustration of Barcelona’s Botanical Gardens

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Sound + Vision It is true! Architecture acts as an instrument of communication which activate the senses; therefore, senses are the audience of the symphony. Light, Space, Sound and Time form the melody which delights us.

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Sound and vision collage based on an urban center

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“I turn to Light, the giver of all presence’s. By will. By law. You can say to the light, the giver of all presence’s, is the maker of a material and the material was made to cast a shadow, and the shadow belongs to the light.” Louis Kahn

Collage of lights and sounds of the streets

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Sound+Light. The importance of sound and space is the effect that both has on a human perception. Although light is the dominant raw material, sound+light without world there would yield no effect. Visual impact that light has on human perception is remarkably similar to the sound impact on one’s brain; Therefore, sound and light are communicative elements architecture.

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Experimentation with light, color, and sound permitted the emergence of architecture, controlling the sensations and perceptions on onlookers. Also, we all posses a tactile sense for experience and understanding of the world. However, the very essence of the lived experience modulated by hapticity and peripheral unfocused vision in lived experiences. Eiler Rasmussen Steen, Experiencing Architecture. (Cambridge, MA. M.I.T. Press, 1962).

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Collage of surface altered by the force of sound.

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True Synaesthesia is where one experience sensations of what would ordinarily be considered different sensory modalities as inherently conjoint

Lights on space create a pattern based on sound.

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Sound + Space Phenomenological point of Space and Sound. One might sugest that bodily rythm is affected by change of perspectival line, parallax vision, the hue of color on walls, the feel of building material and the play of shadow and light at different times of the day. in a way is similar to the impact of melody, thematic alteration, tonality, and the “color� of instrumentation in music

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Sound + Layer . The Procession of sound as one moves through space and time leaving a trace of faded vibrations, vibrations enhance one’s experience throughout architecture. Experience must take one beyond the form or looks of a building, past its design and even superseding the reference that buildings have to one another.

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Layers of collage reacts to different exposures of sound.

The progressional layers of sound manipulates shapes and colors. |

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Field Studies

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Repetition of sound brushes |

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Graphic of sound Procession of Sound space and time has many characteristics in terms of architecture and its context, it possesses the power to influence the human perception in an unconscious manner. The combination of sound and architecture can take one’s mind to another place. For this to happen, one has to experience an intuitive translation of sound and imaginative leap of sound. During my research, I have traveled to different places and concluded a series of studies which consist of translating sounds into graphic representations of strategic public and private spaces. I have categorized these places into three types; The sounds of a city, music inside architecture and sound/noise in open spaces.

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Sound of steps over gravel in Amsterdam‘s museumplein

Amsterdam’s street red sound activity

Water sound and movement in Amstel Channel, Amsterdam |

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Urban public space Klaus Library, Barcelona.

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Brush of sound The project is more about experimentation and speculation rather than conformation. The intention is to generate a series of graphic representations from sound. The graphics produce certain emotions or reactions. Finally, the graphic studies of sound and music composed in a manner that will inform a set of architectural concepts and the design of architectural spaces.

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Superimposed sound The sounds of a city have a strong influence upon the mind of the citizen. Its poetics can be rhythmic, chaotic, relaxing, violent and so forth, depending on the diversity of sound vibrations and the time and the modality of the city. Each element of the city has its own rules and application, but in reality, it is their mutual interaction that delight the senses and give rise to a new perceptual dimension. To discover a new state of mind within the city context, one might speculate that the effect sound and space has on human perception is less prominent than light. However, sound and light without space would have no effect ; consequently, sound and space are the instrument to transport one another place in one’s mind.

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Caixa Forum enclosed sound study, Madrid.

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Music and Architecture I believe music is a universal language as is architecture. One can say that these two disciplines have a positive impact in one’s mind when joined with poetics. The poetics of Music and Architecture are remarkably similar. Songs can take your breath away as does a magnificent space. When composing music and designing architecture, one strives to produce emotions. The following is an relevant quote which has informed my work. “Good Architecture is like a piece of beautifully composed music crystallized in space that elevates our spirits beyond the limitation of time.� Tao Ho.

Intertwining sounds of Richard Mier museum contemporary art, Barcelona |

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PrecedentStudy BernhardLeitner

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SoundSpace BernhardLeitner Spatial sensation is experienced when sound travels along an abstract three-dimensional line. Nevertheless it is not a space all the boundaries of which can be experienced at once (static space) nor is it a space the boundaries of which change within a certain pattern (“dynamic, fluid space�). It is a space which is created and which fades away at the same time, proportion by proportion, with the development of sound in time. A line of sound can never be static. Lines of sound are the result of a continuous movement of sound. This is a new not yet evaluated, very complex way to create space. Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).

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Sound Cube 1980/81 420x420x360 cm Study of the trnaslation of sound within a cube. Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).

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The Building material for sound architecture. A number of loudspeakers are distributed in such a way that the sound traveling between the speakers define the abstract line. This line will delimit the planned space. Sound is the material for both defining space in its dimensions as well as determining its character: architecture which has its possibilities and limitations in the laws and principles of the world of sound.

Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).

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The motion of sound One is tempted to associate a musical composition with the word “sound”. In the context of space- through-moving sound, “sound” is an acoustical stimulus comparable to the visual stimulus which allows spatial perception. It has been demonstrated by Bernhard Leitner that spatial sensation is experienced when sound travels along an abstract three-dimensional line. Ber-

nhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998). page 44.

Changing the speed Changing the timbre Intensity Low intensity= invisible boundary High intensity= a noisy volume like a solid wall changing the intensity The listener reacts as planned not by chance. Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998). page 45

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Repetition: The only way to experience the same space over a longer period of time is to repeat it. For example, recognizing the space or waiting for the space. Rhythm In the sequence of spaces which are themselves created through lines of sound. Pause The duration of an interruption in the development space. Theoretically this interruption is a “spaceless� situation. Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).page 45.

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Sound Tube 1973 40 loudspeakers Studies for the sound tube . Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).


Electronic sound, noise, human voice and language, as well as conventional instruments, are the tools to express, define, and build sound architecture. The importance of the acoustical environment is such that the ear should be able to measure it to experience it consciously- but the ear it self is under developed. Neurophysiological experiments have proven that acoustics are the critical lever for changing the level of brain activity. Specific musical elements produce specific unconscious nervous reactions. Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).page 47.

Acoustical changes influence space perception. The influence of acoustics on balance and orientation. The control of psychological variables(muscle stress, brain activity) -Biopsychological experiments -Fast transformations of a narrow space into a wide one and vice versa. -Stimulation of street experience. -Crowding versus openness. -Space created through traveling sound for medical purposes. -Acoustical space perception. -Sound Architecture as therapy- spaces for relaxation. Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).page 49.

Metal waves 1998 | 6 metal sheets 125x250 cm Corridor architecture Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag,

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Le Cylindre Sonore. Sound spaces in free landscape. nature intervenes in the composition. A complex tissue drifts in space, moving almost unnoticed. The wind pick up the sounds that have been blown around electronically, blowing them further in its directions. While around the cylinder, it produces its own sound space in the bamboo leaves. Deep , bowed sounds roll in space in the oppressive , muggy heat. In this thick air they sound different than in the dry crisp cold. Sound movements change physically, depending on humidity, air density, temperature, as well as the acoustic sensorium. The listening body reacts to this changes, to atmosphere, to light and dark. Early in the morning one hears differently than late at night . An observation. Piercing, high-pitched sounds are called up in quick succession on all sides. Birds have populated the densely grown bamboo thicket . surrounding the circular architecture. They react, they respond to the sound event . With similar tones, in a similar time scale, they call together their own sound space from all directions. Electronic space is expanded into nature . Art space and nature space one echoed the other | 46

Poem Le Cylindre Sonore, Parc de la Villette, Paris. Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).page 161.


Le Cylindre Sonore 1987. Parc de la Villette Paris Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).page 149.

Wing space 1996 Composition of form and time distribution.

Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998).page 149.

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Trip Photography All photography played an inspirational role during the development of the project, each of the images shown taken form field empirical studies during the thesis trip. I personally find the images poetic to the context of humanity art and architecture.

Antonio Gaudi Park G端ell 1900-1914 Guards house window Barcelona , Spain

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Bicycle Principal mean of transportation Amsterdam, Netherlands

Richard Mier Museum Contemporary Art Barcelona , Spain


Streets of Sevilla Sevilla, Spain

Royal Palace of Alcazar Sevilla, Spain

Antonio Gaudi Park G端ell 1900-1914 Aqueduct Barcelona , Spain

Streets of Sevilla Sevilla, Spain

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Antonio Gaudi Sagrada Familia 1882Exit spiral stairs Barcelona , Spain

Public housing 2006 Thom Mayne Madrid, Spain

Caixa Forum Water and compressed space Madrid, Spain

Royal Palace of Alcazar Baths of Lady MarĂ­a de Padilla Sevilla, Spain


Amsterdam Public Library Niche for reading spaces Amsterdam, Netherlands

Bicycle Principal mean of transportation Amsterdam, Netherlands

Bell Church Spiral stairs Amsterdam, Netherlands

Bell Church Oldest bell hammer | Main Bell Amsterdam, Netherlands

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The Movie Sequence

Soundscape Phenomenology Video 2:05 minutes 2.35:1 Color Final Cut Soundtrack 2:47 minutes Stereo sound Soundbooth http://youtu.be/itoYE-uVeTE

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Soundscape PhenomenologyScene | Photography 0:20

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Soundscape PhenomenologyScene Photography 0:35


Soundscape phenomenology is the result of the empirical studies I have undertaken. Listening, measuring, verifying, making notes on my immediate experience with sound lines and space. The early studies involved the translation of sound into image. Due to the subjectivity of inherent in the images, I found it necessary to use media related to sound and video. The use of sound media that I recorded during my travel experiences drives this project. I have composed a sound track with material recorded in several urban and architectural contexts. The video is derived from the composition of sounds that follow the components of sound in four sensorial stages: tranquility, chaos, memory and intimacy.

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Tranquility The Combination of harmonics and the low intensity of the sound makes the introduction warm and powerful, Then, tranquility is broken by repetition creating an expressive cycle leading to a different place. By superimposing images, a transition begins and creates an understanding of what the “thing� is, leaving comprehension to emerge through perception.

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Soundscape Phenomenology Scene Photography 0:06

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Chaos In the process of layering complex images along with overtones and loudness of sound, the scene takes a turn towards a chaotic character. In this case tranquility enhances the role of chaos. Midrange frequencies produce an energy that makes one’s acutely sensitive to the origin of the sound.

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Soundscape Phenomenology Scene Photography 0:15

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Memory A time line to evoke memories in one’s mind. A song that once touched one’s heart with lurid constructed images created a impression. High frequencies produce a sound presence and life-like quality.

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Soundscape Phenomenology | Scene Photography 1:32

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Soundscape Phenomenology Scene Photography 1:55

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Intimacy Intimacy attained with the presence of a sound, suggesting we are close to its origin. Images of reflection create personal moments, sounds and surroundings for contemplation to achieve an affinity between the space and the mind.

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CityTextures

movie

Video 2:20 minutes 2.35:1 Color Final Cut “Nocturnes, Op. 37/No. 1 In G Minor Soundtrack 2:20 minutes Stereo sound Soundbooth http://youtu.be/SCukf9WgTdo

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Plaza Espa単a Sevilla, Espa単a

Palau de Musica Barcelona, Espa単a

Plaza tirso de molina. Madrid, Espa単a

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Urban Sounds

movie

Video 2:04 minutes 2.35:1 Color Final Cut Soundtrack Urban sounds 2:04 minutes Stereo Soundbooth http://youtu.be/iTQPcl7t4tM

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Part of section detail

Solidarity Space

Platform texture

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Lineation

Inexplicable, lines in space are wondering, unexpectedly Lines develop an expressive rhythm. Suddenly a sharp interference appears, obligating the lines to shift. A radical turn of space occurs undulating and kneading. An optimist spatial leap taken, interferences intertwining moving lines resulting into a conclusive space.

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Studies of sound and lines Collage superimposed with three-dimensional spaces |

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The Parts

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Figure Collage of the Parts Study of geometry and sound |

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Procession of Sound This diagram is an acoustical map which addresses the natural surroundings and the change of materiality in a series of spaces. The soundscape varies as one approaches, the place changes. This involves ground, sky, wind, water. The compression of a space tends to have an influential impact on a person, The compression of sound varies with the quality of the surrounding materials.

Acoustical plan study |

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The section addresses the impact of the natural surroundings and changes on elevation and materiality throughout a series of spaces. The procession takes cycle considering moments of enclosure, openness, compression, release and so forth. It reveals expectations of the soundscape variables as one approach the place.

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“we are not normally aware of the significance of hearing in spatial experience, although sound often provides the temporal continuum in which visual impressions are embedded� Juhani Pallasmaa

Acoustical Section study |

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Barcelona


The site

The district of Barceloneta located on the beach front of Barcelona, historically known to be a fishing village now converted into a middle class residential district. The area has few open spaces, and no civic cultural centers. There is a pedestrian and visual disconnection in relationship to the water, consequently, creates a separation between the district and the city. In addition, the typical residents from Catalu単a abstain exterior activity.

District of Barceloneta | 79


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Collage of the Soundscape Phenomenology in relationship with the site. Studies of the movie imagery with geometry and sound.


The collage of procession Sound spaces are always led to spatial sensations. As interior spaces, they always with reference the body. During the project, I worked on sound space, studying the delineation of space by making sound move around, through, under and above the body. Parallel to this, now resulting spatial experiences and spatial concepts were examined. During the past year, soundscape phenomenology was developed from a series of experiments involving sound time and space.

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Scheme 1

Scheme 2


Scheme 3

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The plan The plan became a combination of three schemes following the principles of “Soundscape Phenomenology”. Divided into four moments where the individual will encounter several expressions of sound. The procession will have different spaces that impact the occupant’s perception in different manners. The further development is an acoustically motivated design which takes consideration of the site urban and architectural context.

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Plan study follows the acoustical procession of the concepts.


Awol Sound

A steel door squeaks. Suddenly the space is alive with steps on the gravel, calm water gradually changing the modality of the heart varies, just like the whispers invading the empty space, but no one listens. Concrete walls do not listen to what the bodies have to say, but the wooden floor absorb the secrets and the wind take the words away. why don’t get far, through those boundaries why waste time on the accumulation of silence make the sound be heard on the world of emptiness.

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Model light study of the intervention.


Context Site model study. |

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Sound Surface The study of the color of sound inhered the manipulation of the sound of a digeridoo. Five sound distortions were applied to obtain the maps, of midrange frequencies, sonic destruction, maximum loudness, reduced harshness. The result of the process was a complex three-dimensional surface.

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Early surface study

Color of sound study

Didgeridoo maps

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Sound surface light study.


Three-Dimensional map of sound The sound surface analysis yields a three dimensional form, the treatment of the surface makes it a remarkable element can be used for many purposes. The surface can be used to redirect sound in different directions, and to eliminate or amplify sound. Complex treatment of light on the surface, in a more expressive manner.

Sound surface shadow and texture study. |

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Carving Sound The task to carve sound emerged from analyzing the treatment of light on the sound surface. The elevation of the piece exposed to the light generated a series of shading shapes. The shading shapes are traced and carved out to create a standing screen. The caved shading shape now becomes the opening to filter the light into the space in a more dramatic modality. The material used should posses a reflective sound quality on one layer and an absorptive sound quality in another layer.

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Carved layered screen . |

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Form and architecture study model model


The site

The intervention intends to integrate the beach front and to adjust the residential blocks with green public space . Also, the project gives a more engaged communal sensebility to the occupants, in turn, create a rich public environment. The fluid nature of the building and the intentional manipulation of the volumes create an outdoor space that is both passive in design and highly considerate to Barcelona’s climate.

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Form and architecture study model model


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| 100 Entry volume


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| 102 Second gallery


Midpoint Sequence Three consecutive galleries separated by sectional qualities and transparent boundaries linked through the ground changing platform. The first gallery uses perforated planes and sound reflective materials. The second gallery uses sound absorptive materials and stepped sequence. The third gallery uses the acoustical quality of compressed planes,perforated planes and inside, outside areas.

First gallery

Third gallery

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Longitudinal Section |

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plan platform level | 106 Floor Barceloneta


Site plan Barceloneta |

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Cross Section |

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Section detail |

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The section detail The section detail expresses the structural intent of the project. The opening from top floors allows for natural light and defines the conceptual and poetic relationship between the outside and the interior spaces. The materials pallet and detailed connections express a rich tectonic quality of the building. According to the concept and the needs of the project the use of sound and light has been strategically utilized, both the needs of the gallery spaces and providing the necessary views to the exterior connecting the exterior realm with the interior of the building.

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| 114 Refletion pool and glass detail


Pedestrian way, seating detail of reflection pool . |

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| 116 View of stepped gallery


View of open space from platform. |

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| 118 View of cascade


Ilustration The renderings assumes the richness and quality of space sorrounding the exterior portion of the programed public areas. The ground contains reflective pools in sequence with a series of terraced steps, leading the public to experience the water cascade. The paths are well defined and reveal themselves as a subtle gestures inviting the pedestrian meander in between the buildings from any direction.

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Concluding Statement

This exploration has given me a greater appreciation of the sensorial aspect of architecture. It has made me explore exercises using the auditory sense to shape design I have learned to combine architecture and sound to conform spaces filled with meaningful spirit sensitivity towards poetry, dwelling, social encounters, natural context, spiritual environments, community and urban understanding. Often, many built public spaces do not address the problem of sound architecture. The procession has been an extremely prominent part of soundscape phenomenology flexible gestures allow different urban activities to occur. Space of sound integrates public realm with sensorial individuality throughout the procession of the project. This project changed my perception towards the use of sound and materiality I learned how everything interconnects through the world of humans, animals and nature. The project celebrates and recognizes the interactions with the built environment, nature and the human condition. Sound architecture should evoke the hearts of many to enhance the spirit, physical and sensorial experience of the space.

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References

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Chicago: Sound Sapce - Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern : Cantz ; New York : Distributed by Distributed Art Publishers, c1998. Chicago: Will Lewis: The Daily Telegraph’s youngest-ever editor, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/will-lewis-thedaily-telegraphs-youngest ever-editor-426919.html Chicago: Book Excerpt: Buildings as Total Sensory Experiences, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2010/10/ book-excerpt-buildings-as- total-sensory-experiences/64110/ Chicago Book Title: Experiencing Architecture. Contributors: Steen Eiler Rasmussen - (author. Publisher: M.I.T. Press. Place of Publication: Cambridge, MA. Publication Year: 1962.) Juhani Pallasma, The Eyes of the Skin Architecture and Senses (Chichester, England; John Wiley and Sons, 2005) Fred Rush, On Architecture, Thinking in Action (New York: Routledge, 2004). Bernhard Leitner Ostfildern and Cantz Verlag, Sound Sapce (New York : Cantz Verlag, 1998). Eiler Rasmussen Steen, Experiencing Architecture. (Cambridge, MA. M.I.T. Press, 1962). Alain de Botton, The Architecture of Happiness, (New York, Vintage International, 2006) The Architecture of Ludwig Wittgenstein (Hailfax 1974 New York Press, 1975) Geometry of Sound Reihe Cantz ( Ostfildern 1997) Sound Architecture- Space created trhough traveling sound (Artforum, New York 1971) The Poetics of Space, Gaston Bacherald, ( Bosto, Ma Beacon Press,1958)

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School of Architecture and Community Design University of South Florida Š

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Intimate Cortege Thesis Document