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TOWARDS SMART REGENERATION: HOW ADAPTABLE & MORE RESILIENT URBANISM CAN RE-INTEGRATE UNDERUTILIZED AREAS BACK INTO THE URBAN TISSUE. THE CASE OF RE-STITCHING A LONDON INDUSTRIAL AREA

MAJOR RESEARCH PROJECT Juan Felipe Herrera - 2015

Sources: Flickr


UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON FACULTY OF THE BUILD ENVIRONMENT BARTLETT SCHOOL OF PLANNING

MAJOR PROJECT: Towards Smart Regeneration: How adaptable & more resilient urbanism can re-integrate underutilized areas back into the urban tissue. The case of re-stitching a London industrial area

Juan Felipe Herrera

Student of MSc. Urban Design & City Planning Bachelor of Architecture – (First class Hons.)

Word count: 7978

Being a Major Project in Sustainable Urbanism submitted to the faculty of The Build Environment as part of the requirements for the award of the Urban Design & City Planning at University College London, I declare that this project is entirely my own work and that ideas, data and images, as well as direct quotations, drawn from elsewhere are identified and referenced.

Juan Felipe Herrera Date: 01 September 2015

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

I would like to acknowledge and highly appreciate the guidance and substantial help my supervisor Tobias Goevert, provided me during this long hours process. Not only as a mentor on how to steer the progress but as a advisor on the accurate tasks to be performed on both, carrying out research and design phases. I would also like to offer my special thanks to David Syme who helped me identifying an accurate scope to deal with within the study limited time; and to Peter Reese and Kathryn Firth, for they valuable inputs on my presentations. I am particularly grateful for the assistance, advice, patience and attention given by Professor Lorenzo Fonseca, during the research bulk process and the production of an useful tool-kit. Also for his unconditional support on every aspect concerning my road to this life chancing experience, and during this long year of decision making processes. Finally, I would like to express my very great appreciation to Maria Sol Echeverri for her outstanding support, patience and unconditional presence on this task. Motivation, incentive and moral to keep up are just a few of the many inputs this extensive process received from her tender endorsement. All in all, general assistance provided by my professors, class-mates and friends was greatly appreciated.

Juan Felipe Herrera Date: 01 September 2015

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ABSTRACT

Within a few decades we will inhabit an even crowded planet, as well as struggle into huddled cities. According to National statistics UK’s population is expected to rapidly grow from 64.1 million in 2015, to 68.2 million people by 2025; what is more, by the same time London is expected to become a mega-city surpassing the 10 million inhabitant’s latitude. Current sprawling dynamics have proven to fail as a sustainable response to accommodate this growth, by proposing developments on, or further the greenbelt designation; increasing commuting dynamics and demanding expensive infrastructure provision. Therefore there is an urgent need to focus on the metropolitan areas, and make the most from London’s underutilized zones that have resulted from industrial migration or disqualification processes, without undermining the task of how still remaining valuable industrial activities should best be accommodated to maintain their economic activities. In an time where demand

for housing & employment increases, and land available is progressively constrained; the efficient utilisation of existing land sets the next step to look at for future development. Thus, the aim of this project is to understand the influence of a set of interventions on reviving and reconnecting these areas back to its surroundings, by creating adaptable strategies to allow both, housing, housing-related activities and industry to co-exist within a hybrid development. It will explore why and how some European case studies succeeded as post-industrial regeneration strategies, and why these types of operations are not being developed or in some cases have failed to promote an accurate integration in the London scenario. This framework, and the lessons learnt will be therefore applied in proposing a re-stitching operation for the East London Alperton industrial area, tracing a guideline for future post-industrial areas regeneration within the UK.

LIMITS AND SCOPE OF STUDY: This project will limit its scope to study low impact activities located on London’s Previously Designated Industrial Land (PDIL); nominated by the London plan as ‘‘logistics’ that have relatively little impact on land and land-uses’’; categories B2 (Factories) and B8 (Warehouses) will comply the centre of this study. Therefore, it will address activities that doesn’t require land re-mediation processes, and that may be compatible to sit along housing dynamics. Underpinning that studying long-term re-mediation processes of contaminated land is a topic that requires further research, and may be the subject of a whole new study. (Source: Industrial and Warehousing Land Demand in London, 2004)

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CONTENTS

A.

B.

01. A GLOBAL BACKGROUND. - Pg. 08

07. JUSTIFICATION - Pg. 18

02. INTRODUCTION - Pg. 09

08. OBJECTIVES - Pg. 18

03. POLICY CONTEXT - Pg. 10

09. METHODOLOGY - Pg. 20

04. PROBLEM - Pg. 13

10. CURRENT PRACTICE - Pg. 21

C.

D.

E.

11. LITERATURE REVIEW - Pg. 24

14. THE SITE - Pg. 45

21. CONCLUSION - Pg. 74

- Industrial Sites Regeneration Pg. 25 - Pursuing Mixed-Use Neighbourhoods. Pg. 26 - Principles to Achieve Industrial Mixed-Used Areas. Pg. 27 - Tools on Integrate land-uses. Pg. 28 - Re-stitching mix-used areas with its surroundings. Pg. 29 - Business Improvement Districts BID’s. Pg 30

15. SITE ANALYSIS - Pg. 49

22. CRITICAL REVIEW - Pg. 76

16. EXISTING MASTERPLAN - Pg. 55

23. FURTHER RESEARCH - Pg. 77

05. RESEARCH QUESTION - Pg. 13

17. APPLYING THE TOOLS - Pg. 56 18. TOWARDS A MASTERPLAN - Pg. 59

24. REFERENCES - Pg. 80 25. APPENDICES - Pg. 82

- Lessons learnt. Pg. 31 06. CONTRIBUTION - Pg. 15

19. PROPOSED MASTERPLAN - Pg. 69 12. CASE STUDIES - Pg. 33 20. MAKING IT HAPPEN - Pg. 71 - Lessons learnt. Pg. 39 13. TOOL KIT - Pg. 40

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PAGE

TABLE OF FIGURES

Contents Fig.01 - Global urbanization context.

8

Fig.02 - London growing population

8

Fig.03 - London’s urban footprint + industrial land 2011

9 12

Fig.05 - London’s post 2005 regeneration schemes on previous SIL’s.

15

Fig.06 - Methodology Chart.

20

Fig.07 - London strategic operation, key diagram.

21

Fig.30 - Alperton’s SPD site Specific allocation and project work area.

48

Fig.08 - Mixed used examples

25

Fig.29 - Alperton moving routes map.

49

Fig.09 - Nuisance activities

26

Fig.31 - Alperton’s Land use by sector.

50

Fig.10 - Light industrial spaces example to be retained

27

Fig.32 - Alperton’s industrial Land use by sector.

51

Fig.11 - Theory on infill, Refill and Stacking

28

Fig.33 - Alperton’s Analysis conclusion diagram

52

Fig.12 - Urhan urban design parameters.

29

Fig.34 - Alperton’s Demographic Figures 2001 vrs 2011.

53

Fig.13 - BID’s examples in the UK.

30

Fig.35 - Alperton’s Activities Analysis

54

Fig.14 - IBA - Emscher Park & Dortmund Eving regeneration.

34

Fig.39 - Brent’s Council masterplan Critique Diagram

55

Fig.15 - Carlsberg Brewery site regeneration.

35

Fig.36 - Applying the tools map - Area tier.

56

Fig.16 - King Spadina regeneration.

36

Fig.37 - Applying the tools map - Plot tier

57

Fig.17 - Koopmansstad area regeneration.

37

Fig.38 - Applying the tools map - Block tier.

58

Fig.18 - Hackney Wick regeneration.

38

Fig.40 - Proposal 4 different districts

59

Fig.19 - Lesson learnt Case studies analysis.

39

Fig.41 - District 1 - Principles

60

Fig.20 - Tool-kit.

40

Fig.42 - District 1 - Case studies

61

Fig.21 - Tool-kit (Part A) - Area Tier.

41

Fig.43 - District 2 - Principles

62

Fig.22 - Tool-kit (Part B) - Plot Tier.

42

Fig.44 - District 2 - Case studies

63

Fig.23 - Tool-kit (Part C) - Block Tier.

43

Fig.45 - District 3 - Principles

64

Fig.24 - London SIL’s 2012

45

Fig.46 - District 3 - Case studies

65

Fig.25 - Section of the Underground map - Alperton area

45

Fig.47 - District 4 - Principles

66

Fig.27 - Park Royal’s Spacetype by sector map

46

Fig.48 - District 4 - Case studies

67

Fig.26 - Par k Royal and Alperton Area Relations

46

Fig.49 - Masterplan proposal

69

Fig.28 - Alperton zoom in - Satellite image

47

Fig.50 -Masterplan Facts Review

75

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Fig.04 - London’s urban sprawl over industrial land.

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A. 01. A GLOBAL BACKGROUND 02. INTRODUCTION 03. POLICY CONTEXT 04. PROBLEM 05. RESEARCH QUESTION 06. CONTRIBUTION

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_

01._A GLOBAL BACKGROUND ? Fig.01 - Global urbanization context.

GLOBAL URBANIZATION

Fig.02 - London growing population

London’s growing population

Daytime population - 2014 9.985.000 8.6 million

8.308.000

From, 1965 - 1980 -- 2.6% From, 1980 - 1990 -- 4.5%

WORLD POPULATION GROWTH

Worlds population will reach a 10 billion peak by 2050. More than 3/4 of it will inhabit urban areas

AT PRESENT THERE ARE MORE THAN 90 MILLION NEW HUMAN BEINGS EVERY YEAR. A new China every 12 years.

POPULATION DENSITY

By 2025 they will concentrate in big cities. With densities over 100 inhabitants / Km2.

By 2060 more than 70% of the population will live in metropolitan-areas. Will Mega-cities like London, no longer be functional? Will problems exponentially grow, and resources run short? Its an uncertain future. But definitively encouragement of sprawling as an answer will create issues with repercussion at global levels.

GROWTH RATE

- By 2050 about 630 million will live in one of 37 mega-cities. with population grater than 10 million.

-London is about to surpass the 8.6 million people peak reached in 1939. Centralization of housing and work places.

-London’s Day time population is 1.67 million higher than its residents. City of London daytime population is 20 times bigger than its residents

...London is a city that has clearly survived and evolved more by fortune than by design... (Hebbert,_1998:18)

Sources: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2014. - Census and ONS Projections - LSE cities

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02._INTRODUCTION

According to this panorama, over the next 20 years, London will continue to grow. It will require more housing, job space and strategic approaches to deal with future demands, markets, sprawling pressures and certainly on dealing with disqualified areas within its urban tissue. Whether or not this results in a significant intensification network is unclear; an undisputed topic is that substantial smart urban strategies that deal with re-generating pieces of the city, encouraging adaptability and socioeconomic improvement; will be required as a framework to overcome challenges. Requested as a strategy to face population and urbanisation accelerated trends. By 2016 London’s population will have surpassed the 8.6 million peak reached in 1939; which continue to rise, driven by its centralized demand of housing and work places location.

Underused areas, on the other hand, are critical resources. London’s networked tissue, described by Roberts(2002) as land-uses patchwork, is the result of sprawl processes that engulfed districts of once industrial activities -amongst others-. Conurbation forced businesses migration and triggered abandon, physical obsolescence, disconnection and consequently vacant land/structures. Hence, the growth/space pressure is on again, and it’s time for these areas to contribute, hosting a proportion of urban development, gentrification and re-vitalization of the city; whilst attracting population, employment, new types of industries, and by connecting strategically to its surroundings; contribute to stop sprawling. Challenging once more the city to adapt, within is complexity, as a dynamic system(Roberts et, al.2000).

Fig.03 - London’s urban footprint + industrial land 2011

Sources: LSE Cities - Travers & Gordon, 2010. London planning the ungovernable city.

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03.1_CONTEXT: POLICY CONTEXT These processes occur within the following policy and physical context:

NATIONAL POLICY PPS_4:

LONDON PLAN:

SUPPLEMENTARY PLANNING GUIDANCE FOR INDUSTRY: -Planning for Sustainable Economic Growth: Guidance for all economic land-uses relating to Industrial development, ensuring pro-active support to achieve development. -Employment land provision: -Policy_EC1: States that local evidence bases should assess the need for, and supply of land for economic development. -Policy_EC2: States regional planning bodies and local planning authorities must identify the general location of strategic sites; making the most efficient and effective use of land, prioritising previously developed land suitable for re-use.

-Policy_2.5 Creates five sub-regions (North, East, South, West, and Central) and encourages partnership-work at this level. -It differentiates between Outer London, Inner London and Central Activity Zone’s_(CAZ) different functions in the metropolitan-economy.

SPG is in conformity with the NPPF, to address London’s plan policies 2.17, 4.44,6.2 amongst others.

-It provides guidance on the implementation of policies related to land for industrial type activities and transport through policies:

The SPG considers how the management of industrial capacity can support sustainable economic growth, contribute to strategic and local planning objectives, especially those to provide more employment areas and housing and respond to climate change.

-2.17_Strategic Industrial Locations, -4.44_Managing Industrial Land; -6.2_Providing Public Transport Capacity and safeguarding Land for Transport.

London economy has changed from traditional manufacturing industries to service sector. However, still exiting industrial areas provide for a wide range of different employment sectors: 550,000 jobs-approx.13 % of London’s total employment. (SPG Industrial Land,_2005) Sources: London Plan + SPG - Industrial and transport Land + Industrial Land Demand and Release Benchmarks in London

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GUIDANCE ON LAND FOR INDUSTRIAL USES:

L.P. Promotes management of industrial capacity through 3_types of location: Strategic Industrial Locations_(SIL’s): Main resource of industrial capacity, subject to periodic review. Located close to the strategic transport infrastructure, two types: -Preferred Industrial Locations_(PIL): General industry, light industrial, storage and distribution, recycling, utilities, and wholesale markets. -Industrial Business Parks_(IBP): Better quality surroundings: research and development, light industrial waste management, utility, wholesale markets and small scale distribution. Locally Significant Industrial Sites_(LSIS) Sites protected on an area, regularly reviewed and justified in of supply and demand assessments. Other smaller industrial sites that historically have been susceptible to change as they can better meet London Plan’s or continuing strategic role for industry.

GUIDANCE ON RELEASING INDUSTRIAL LAND:

SUMMARY: 1._National agenda prioritizes economic growth and sustainable development on all economic land-uses relating to Industrial development;

-Industrial land in London is occupied by: B2_(factories) and B8_(warehouses). -A number of SIL’s and Opportunity Areas have been identified in Policy 2.16 as potential Strategic development centres. -London boroughs are categorised into three groups to reflect the pressure of demand and land release: -Managed transfer: boroughs with generous supply. Should allow managed release of industrial land to other uses. -Limited transfer: boroughs encouraged to manage and reconfigure portfolios of industrial land, to reduce vacancy rates for land and premises. -Restricted transfer boroughs with an under-supply of industrial land and little or no land protected by SIL designations.

2._Supplying right quantity/quality of employment land strategically located, is essential to achieve it. 3._The planning framework must make the most efficient use of land for the range of business activities: Evidence Base+Land identification 4._Strategic guidance_SPG is provided to label, manage transformation and release of industrial uses/areas. 5._London boroughs are categorized by the amount of area they can contribute with and the type of SIL’s land they can release. -This raises a question on the role of industrial land in the economic contribution considering its lower land value. -In order to make sure land is used most efficiently, it is important to determine how these areas can be addressed to contribute to the solution, without undermining their valuable economic dynamics.

Sources: London Plan + SPG - Industrial and transport Land + Industrial Land Demand and Release Benchmarks in London

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03.2_CONTEXT: LONDON SPRAWLING

1650

1750

1850

1950

2010

2000

Fig.04 - London’s urban sprawl over industrial land.

-London’s historic growth has produced an sprawled city: -Sprawling Absorbed once industrial sites within the city boundaries. Triggering:

THE CONCERN:

THE MAIN ISSUE:

Roberts_(2000;2) points out that many different inputs can contribute to the occurrence of urban issues, therefore they can be explained as ‘multi-layered’ issues.

Thus, the described phenomenon of growth and conurbation of once peripheral, yet underused industrial land-use areas (e.g. wholesale, food, manufacturing, etc.) requires an urgent intervention.

In addition, current dynamics in economy operate as Paul Hawken explains: “by stealing the future, selling it in the present and calling it GDP.” -De-industrialization/migration -Disqualification, abandon, and deprivation -Over-supply of inner-city industrial land -Buildings & areas no longer needed that could therefore be released to other uses. -Framed in an Innovation and technology era, where less space for clean industry is required and more housing is urgent.

Cities like London cannot afford to keep stealing area from its surroundings to cope with space crisis or demands for environmental-friendly developments; nor, responding to them with unplanned growth dynamics saved for future developments (Travers et,al.2010), or Londoners will end up living in a place that also steal solutions from their own future instead of answering to challenges by re-using existing resources. While keep questioning how long this future will last?

One that tackles empty structures regeneration, local businesses decay and abandoned landscapes threats, in the quest for new development space; one that stops resident’s and industry migration, detriments on life quality & safety perception and isolated areas that fragment city’s operation. Guided by the impact innovation has proven on cleaner and housing compatible industry, which according to Coupland in Reclaiming the City: Mixed use development (1998:3) has reduced space requirements, made them more adaptable and created a new panorama on using this oversupply space to cope with the housing/job space crisis.

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0.4_PROBLEM

Therefore, the main problem this study aims to tackle is:

P.1_How to re-develop and re-stitch industrial areas as a contribution to the need of housing and

employment space.

How to address an intensification process, whilst retaining/enhancing viable dynamics and local micro-economics.

...Industrial vacant structures within the city = Regeneration Opportunity (Physical, Social, Economical, Environmental & Political scenarios) (Travers & Gordon_2010).

0.5_QUESTION Translated to the research questions:

Q.1_ What can be done to retrofit the interface between an underutilized industrial area and its surroundings? … To provide smart operation. … To make use of its strategic location & infrastructure. ... To respond to London’s growth needs from the inside.

Q.2_Can these areas be redeveloped whilst maintaining employment spaces?

Providing Good housing, decent employment, pleasant environment, lively culture, and efficient transportation within London’s metropolitan area, will all play their part on overcoming the crisis and on granting the economic survival of the city. (Thorney,_2000)

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RE-STITCHING?

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06._CONTRIBUTION

Approximately 65% of regeneration schemes planned Post 2005 outside of the CAZ are taking place on SIL’s (Strategic industrial land) released for development. (London’s Industrial Baseline, 2010)

Harrow Regeneration

Brent Cross Regeneration

Camden Regeneration

Hackney Regeneration

Lee valley Regeneration

THEREFORE, THE PROJECT IS PROPOSED AS:

1._A research & design tool to contribute to current priorities for the city; retro-fitting, intensification, and re-connection industrial land. 2._An answer to fit London’s growth within it’s own metropolitan boundaries. Through a NON sprawling-NON long commuting approach. 3._A study to a successful mix between manufacturing industry and housing, in a time of service economy.

Ealing

Old Oak Common

Croydon

Canada Water

Greenwich Peninsula

Greenwich Peninsula

Fig.05 - London’s post 2005 regeneration schemes on previous SIL’s.

Sources: Source: London’s Industrial Baseline 2010 + Author

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PREPARING TO HOST GROWTH?

...OR TO KEEP SPRAWLING ? Sources: Source: The Guardian - www.theguardian.co.uk

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B. 07. JUSTIFICATION 08. OBJECTIVES 09. METHODOLOGY 10. CURRENT PRACTICE

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07._JUSTIFICATION

As Aldous points out industrial areas are complex systems that reflect many processes of economic, social and environmental transition. But, at the same time they can also be prime generators of many such changes, as they cluster vital functions for city’s operation such as: goods-provision, shelter, social interaction and trade(Aldous,et,al.1998:9). When industrial city districts stop providing conditions for these changes to be positively stirred, the space to find an interplay between opportunities and challenges allows regeneration and smart strategies to revisit this linkages and forecast development in the process. Thus, studying strategies to work on underused areas researches on a possible set of tools to respond to London’s growth demands, to accommodate housing and employment space and to produce a small contribution on the quest for long-term results and efficient industrial sites re-adaptation.

08._OBJECTIVES

Hence, these goals can be translated to the following objectives:

OB.1_

To explore a set of (design/planning) interventions on ‘re-stitching’ an industrial area back into the surroundings.

OB.2_To produce a tool-kit for disqualified areas; as an approach to contain city’s sprawling and

promote re-densification.

OB3_To test the successfulness of the tools by applying them on an London district. Without un-

dermining existing micro-economics and how they can cooperate in the process.

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CONTAIN SPRAWLING...

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09._METHODOLOGY

PROPOSAL

ANALYSIS

RESEARCH

To achieve these objectives, this study will use the following methodology:

O.1

Understanding the Context - An Expanding London: -Uses of industrial land and employment sites to meet this demand. -Current operations research: best & worst practice on redeveloping industrial sites to identify issues

O.2

Problem to address: -How to accommodate growth within inner-city disqualified industrial areas, and integrate them back to the urban tissue

O.3

Question: Can these areas be redeveloped and re-stitched as mixed use neighbourhoods whilst retaining viable businesses.

O.4

Researching Literature Review + Case studies -Regeneration strategies -Issues and how has it been done before? -Typologies & strategies used

O.5

Lessons Learnt form Research: List of parameters and tools researched

O.6

Establish a tool-kit: Design options from the research stage to test on the chosen site

O.7

Choosing and Assessing the site: -What is there on the site? -Are the businesses suitable neighbours for a mixed use development? -What should be kept and enhanced? -Structures that could be used for employment or housing space.

O.8

Applying the tool-kit on site: -Creating a Vision and Evaluating success. -Extrapolate the findings and create a framework for the site. -Masterplan intervention

CRITICAL REVISION

O.9

Conclusion: -Numbers and figures Achieved -Self-critique -Future research to be addressed.

Fig.06 - Methodology Chart.

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10._CURRENT PRACTICE

CURRENT APPROACH:

CURRENT TOOLS: Opportunity Areas: London’s major source of industrial land with capacity for new housing, commercial and other development linked to existing or provision of public transport. https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/planning/opportunity-areas

Urbanisation dynamics are not a new phenomenon, nor is there any lack of analysis on the matter. The city has been studying strategies to accommodate considerable parts of this growth within Opportunity and Intensification Areas identified within the London Plan_(FALP:2015). Some of London’s industrial areas have been yet identified and currently run a regeneration plan under the guidance of one of these tools:

Intensification Areas: Built up with good existing or potential public transport links and can support redevelopment of jobs and housing at higher densities. A level below from Opportunity Areas. https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/ planning/opportunity-areas/location-londons-opportunity-and-intensification-areas-0 Area Action plan_AAP’s: An optional development plan document aimed at establishing a set of proposals and policies for the development of a specific area.

Fig.07 - London strategic operation, key diagram.

Source: FALP - The London Plan

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As pointed out by Greenstein(2004;16), London’s de-industrialization processes are framed by the neoclassic explanation of employers moving to suburbs for cheap land and operation cost, followed by workers, who trying to minimize commuting, left behind neighbourhoods with a legacy of abandoned factories and underutilised land:

WHY IS LAND UNDERUTILIZED?:

10.1_CURRENT LIMITATIONS

WHY AREN’T THESE PROPERTIES REDEVELOPED?:

OPPORTUNITIES?:

PHYSICAL OBSTACLES: Increased site preparation costs: on removal or retrofitting underground/ overground obstacles, and contamination issues.

After mid 1970’s London’s industry was undergoing a rapid change, a shift from manufacturing locations to facilities for services providing was evident. Hence, properties were abandoned and remained sub-used, because they posed technical or physical problems, as when horizontal facilities where favoured over vertical ones (SungunEryilmaz,2005). The interaction between land values, underinvested neighbourhoods and previously designated industrial, yet vacant land, has produced a series of obstacles for redevelopment, still evident in current times. (Hayek,et.al.(2007):

CONSTRUCTION VIABILITY OBSTACLES: Limitations on building growth, and efficiency of development, where profit levels cannot achieving 15-25% rate. LAND OWNERSHIP OBSTACLES Complex and fragmented ownership interests. Landowners unrealistic perceptions of land value, and unknown land-owners. PLANNING OBSTACLES: Long negotiations processes. Local authority reserving land for housing. Planning guidance contradictory, and Wrong Designation of gardens as Vacant land, ‘garden-grabbing’. -Local authority protecting land to maintain industrial uses within the city_SIL’s,

Industrial land in urban areas can be both eyesore and an opportunity. Once a small intervention is well positioned, it can represent a magnet for businesses/civic engaged communities to provide the basis of a new attractor for the surroundings. Improving neighbourhood’s liveability, bringing jobs, tax revenues, repaired infrastructure, and reduction on the health and environmental risks. (Sungun-Eryilmaz, et.al.2005)

Overcoming these obstacles is clearly a matter of initiative, partnership and accurate funding sources strategically organized to bring back life into a disqualified district.

Sources: London industrial Baseline 2012 + Flickr + Google images

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C. 11. LITERATURE REVIEW. - Lessons learnt. 12. CASE STUDIES - Lessons learnt. 13. TOOL-KIT

23.


11._LITERATURE REVIEW

As described above, current demographic and urbanisation trends are rapidly evolving, and so are our interests in improving urban living experience. Major topics as climate change, densities, resources, and suburban sprawl have awakened a more conscious UK approach that targets the use of previously developed industrial land_(PDIL) to deal with these issues(Lee,2012: 3). However, although London’s recent efforts are proving some areas renewal and economic revitalization, many industrial sites continue to fight with underutilized, abandoned, and otherwise derelict assets(Garton-Ash,2011). We must also acknowledge the vital role industry plays for London’s economy. It provides a high proportion of jobs and covers important sectors, like food, construction industry and manufacturing services, operating on a daily basis. Moreover, basic tasks provision like waste management, recycling and distribution, crucial for city’s operation; therefore their proximity is key for efficiency(Beunderman,et,al.2006). This chapter will evaluate the literature on possible operations to achieve PDIL successful regeneration, protecting existent valuable industrial activities in the process.

HENCE, THIS REVIEW IS BASED ON: LR_1: How to achieve Industrial Sites Regeneration LR_2: Achieving Mixed-Use Neighbourhoods. LR_3: Principles for Industrial Mixed-Used Developments_(M.U.D) LR_4: Tools on Integrate land-uses. LR_5: Re-stitching mix-used areas with its surroundings. LR_6: Business Improvement Districts-BID’s

Despite the decaying scenario and that managed release of industrial land is accepted in the London Plan; the strategic policy underlines the necessity for industrial activities to be kept within the city. (Talon,2010).

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LR_1.INDUSTRIAL SITES REGENERATION:

SE T U D EN E X MI LOPM VE E D

Industrial areas are integral part of the capital expansion, and their road to dereliction is being produced as global production, market trends and commodification speeds up(Edensor, 2005:12). Edensor argues that disqualification and underused of facilities will mark an end of an era for industrial sites, when the economy that steers progress will no longer rely on them. But, he also stresses that they must awake new opportunities for development, promising future prosperity as they enrol new trends and flows.

enhance compatibility of existing activities. Within the range, one of the most sensible and successful ways of regeneration is by introducing Mixed-use Developments_M.U.D.(Greenstein and Sungun-Eryilmaz, 2005).

Therefore, any step towards regeneration must provide an opportunity to forecast a future that keeps existing activities, whilst responds to mid-term needs of urbanisation.

Their book ‘’Recycling the city; use and reuse of urban land’’ states that to achieve full reconnection of industrial areas to surroundings, despite presenting new attractive and permanent activities; primarily transitional areas between core-operating industry and adjacent residential neighbourhoods are needed. Aiming to zoning and densities categories that serve both as a buffer, and as a standard for ‘tailored and permeated’ mixed-developments.

Actions to retrofit PDIL have been developed as strategies to cope with this city feature, ranging from ‘Tabula-rasa’ or completely transforming the area by introducing different uses as housing(Firidin, 2013); to suggest new types of high-tech industry as information technology, software or biotechnology, which according to Raco(2012;2), can cluster and

This approach is been explored by many recent UK publications such as: Sustainable Communities Plan(2003); London Plan(2004) and; Urban Task Force’s report Towards an Urban Renaissance(1999). With a big consensus on how mixed-use is essential to create sustainable communities, ensure vibrancy and flexibility over time.

“Lively, diverse, intense cities contain the seeds of their own regeneration.” (Jacobs, 1961: 448).

SE T U D EN E X MI LOPM VE E D

ED L RY SE T US D U NT D IN IXE PME M LO VE E D

Fig.08 - Mixed used examples

Source: Masterplanning futures (Bullivant, 2012)

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LR_2.PURSUING MIXED-USE NEIGHBOURHOODS:

Many examples of cities focusing economic/ development efforts on re-using old industrial districts, have proven to success; measured in both physical regeneration and the creation of thousands of new jobs, affordable housing, and millions on tax profits. (E,g. Emscher park, & Buik-Sloterham) As pointed by Bronstein(2005) in ‘Industry and smart city’, these M.U.D. areas have evolved as a common pattern in older working class neighbourhoods, providing living spaces compatible by design with the industrial work space. However, a fundamental scenario is that these sites are characterized by a built “fabric” which provides flexibility of use, opportunity of retrofit, and layouts that are not prescriptive in their design. Thus, the need for higher densities allocation, preferably in already settled areas can provide an opportunity to make the most of the existing infrastructure, to achieve a substantial number of residents, cooperation of activities, and integration of dynamics that PDIL areas needs to be financially feasible. The ‘Industrial vs. Mixed-use zoning Economic impact’ study(CB Richard Ellis,2012), shows that in the process of mixing, some industrial activities will remain mostly undesirable to be allocated close to community: given to

reasons such as they could be too smelly, dusty or noisy. Therefore, bulk-goods handling, construction yards or chemical industries should not be allowed next to housing, On the other hand, as pointed by the ‘Industry in the city’ study from Urhahn Urban Design(2006), given the massive scientific advances, processes innovation and new building methods, many industrial activities can now be integrated with residential uses. Such activities -ranged as low-tech and mid-tech scope- can include textile and furniture production, food manufacturing, printing and even certain waste recycling processes(Raco,et.al,2012). Increasing opportunities to retain productive non-residential uses alongside the creation of a good living environment. Finally, according to both studies, M.U.D in the UK can provide 300% to 500% greater annual tax profits than industrial uses, due to higher density using existing infrastructure; which allows increments on ground floor industries, upper level residential live-work units, and higher property values per square foot; translated in significant annual tax incomes, as keeping area’s vital industrial businesses for the City allows collection on property and businesses taxes, sales taxes, utility taxes, and documentary transfer taxes; proving the mix of both activities as an effective tool.

Fig.09 - Nuisance activities

Source: Life between buildings competition (Mastalski & Storjohann, 2012)

26.


LR_3.PRINCIPLES FOR INDUSTRIAL MIXED-USED DEVELOPMENTS_(M.U.D): Many approaches have been made to achieve industrial mixed-areas, such as Denmark’s Orestad regeneration; London’s Royal Woolwich, and Arsenal housing, or L.A’s fashion district, USA.

The study shows that an active and vibrant M.U.D neighbourhood is not reliant on including every building in the process, but rather that there is compatibility between buildings with distinct programs.

When analysed together on a study by the Centre for sustainability at the University of British ColumbiaUBC, on urban industrial infill for San Francisco and Calgary(2012); a key issue identified was the way interaction between live and work-spaces is achieved. Addressed under four main goals:

Physical elements like patterns of ground floor points of entry/access, ground floor apertures, heights, and building scale contribute to a compatible neighbourhood fabric despite the difference of adjacent uses.

1._Retain and incentive production of new space for light industrial activities; 2._Provide flexible incubator space for a variety of small businesses; 3._Guide residential development such that: industrial displacement is avoided, minimizing land-use and nuisance conflicts; 4._Provide green, public and walkable spaces for all users to interact; Embedded in the concept of land-use integration along two tiers, “horizontal-mix” and “vertical-mix” based on patterns of positive habitat/working environments: HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION: Is based on housing, industrial or complementary uses occupying adjacent parcels, where integration happens in plan and across lot lines rather than within a single building.

-Guidelines must be provided to address inclusion of loading and parking requirements. VERTICAL INTEGRATION: Is referred to housing, or complementary uses existing above industrial-uses at ground floor. This can be seen in many areas where apartment buildings and residential areas with warehouses, carpentry shops, and window repair shops, etc, on ground floor or garage spaces. The study stresses the need to avoid vacant ground floor or office-sized spaces, in order to promote important spatial relationships within the same building, and that flexibility is key. -Guidelines must be provided for minimum ground floor heights and depths, parking access, location, loading/ unloading requirements, structural issues and fumes extraction.

Fig.10 - Light industrial spaces example to be retained

Source: Centre for sustainability of the UBC University of British Columbia

27.


LR_4.TOOLS TO INTEGRATE LAND USES : A recent interpretation of vertical and horizontal integration of activities is proposed by Mastalski & Storjohann_(2012) within Life between & beyond buildings concept, resulting after a housing ideas competition.

According to the Infill Philadelphia Community Design Collaborative(2007), this type of development is essential to renew blighted neighbourhoods, providing vibrant mixture of tenants, activities types, and for knitting them back with more prosperous communities.

This approach is based on 3 concepts, designed initially as intensification tools:

Critics:_The infill processes may cause overloads on urban services, bring-in no compatible uses, and generate nuisance conflicts.

INFILLING-VOID AREAS: To Brooks(2011;9), in the ‘The Oxford Handbook of Urban Economics and Planning’ infill is the use of empty space within a built-up area for further construction. It could be related to the rededication of land in an urban environment, or to the fill up action of gaps left within the urban tissue. It only occur on previously developed land, constructed on vacant areas, underutilized land or between existing buildings. Critics:_Many commentators argue it overloads urban services including increased traffic congestion and pollution.

REFILLING-EXISTENT BUILDINGS:

The refill action focuses on reusing obsolete or underutilized built structures. Chapter_5 of ‘Liveable cities is preservation of the wild’(Michael,2010), explains it is an operation that incurs on adding new technology or features to older facilities. It draws analogies in terms of new housing or complementary uses that can be inserted in segments or in the bulk of an existing building.

STACKING–NEW USES ABOVE EXISTING STRUCTURES:

Is refereed to the insertion of additional housing units and/ or complementary uses ‘reasonably’ developed on top of an already built property. It comprises the opportunity to build above an existing structure (typically a heritage building: an industrial facility or a church); in the UK scenario is grounded in the Air-rights initiative popularized in London after Terry Farrell’s Embankment place above Charing-Cross station. As a conceptual tool, it has been promoted by design offices as MVRDV or Urhan Urban-design. Freilich(2010;2) explains that stacking above uses is one of the New Urbanism’s doctrines, and that as a smart growth trends is influencing intensification to reduce needs for automobiles, encourage walking, and overall aiming for energy-saving processes. Critics:_It requires special engineering/design to support new developments feasibility and structural challenges, extensive planning process, and cannot be done on air corridors.

Fig.11 - Theory on infill, Refill and Stacking

Source: Life between buildings competition (Mastalski & Storjohann, 2012)

28.


LR_5.RE-STITCHING INDUSTRIAL MIX-USED AREA WITHIN THE SURROUNDINGS: The UK planning system, as described above, is re-adapting to meet the challenge of retain some industrial activities within the city, and the urban renaissance agenda, as well as the urban living expectations are pointing towards higher density, compact, mixed urban areas. The challenge is thus in the ‘trade-off’ that residents expect from being part of these industry-led areas. Where provision of lifequality, multi-use outdoor spaces, services and safety perception rates indicate a standard of comparison. Hence, Beunderman explains that the success of integration to surroundings depends on seeing them as processes rather than projects in which a range of physical actions contribute in conditioning the area. For this is essential to: 1._Invest in infrastructure to create a robust spatial framework. Pedestrian and cycle linkages, as well as services like broadband and waste removal.

4._Area planning frameworks should provide guidance about the future built form, paying attention to basic factors such as: are plot size, car parking, density, and mixing. On the other hand, he stresses that social reintegration of depends on two factors: -Relationship and proximity to community facilities (existing/provided) such as public open spaces, communal facilities, schools, local shops; -Attention to the boundaries design which finally grant the reintegration process. Both emphasised by the insertion of activities that grant 24/7 operation. Urhan’s Urban design ‘Industry in the city’ study(2006), presents a list of design strategies that can be combined to achieve specific area objectives like vibrancy, integration to surroundings, and intensification:

2._Provide Public transport accessibility is a priority, but access for Lorries and distribution vans must be maintained.

1._Define a clear but flexible spatial framework

3._Good quality and safe public space as well as amenities are a key precondition for everything else to exist.

3._Invest in large-scale hybrid buildings

2._Promote flexible buildings 4._Minimise environmental disruption 5._Encourage vertical stacking of industry

6._Create attractive private courtyards 7._Encourage built parking solutions 8. _Promote excellent design 9._Comprehensive masterplans

architectural

10._Create public space/meeting places 11._Define atmosphere, mix and design rules 12._Make the most of existing assets 13._Make active use of transitional zones 14._Create critical mass 15._Separate access routes for different uses 16._Control the views from residential units 17._Mix on different scales. As standard tools they must be addressed into sitespecific conditions, needs and priorities in order to tackle singular issues. Therefore, only through accurate site assessments is possible to choose the most suitable ones, to scope the correct level of mixture needed, and achieve a strong ‘tradeoff’ for new residents, and aim for the accurate scenario to create local businesses partnership and Business improvement Districts_BID.

Fig.12 - Urhan urban design parameters.

Source: Urhan Urban design (Beunderman, et, al. 2006)

29.


LR_6.BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS_BID’s:

A BID is a defined area within existing businesses have commonly agreed to pay an additional levy in order to fund projects within the district’s boundaries(Yang,2010). They are primarily funded by levy collection, however they can also draw on other public and private funding sources. And are often created to provide services ranging from cleaning streets, providing security, making capital improvements, construction of pedestrian and street-scape enhancements, to regeneration operations; services that are supplemental to those already provided by the city. From 2005 onwards enabling legislation for BIDs has been introduced in the UK, allowing businesses within a defined

area to vote for increasing their business-rate levy to cover local area improvements. The BID mechanism allows for a large degree of flexibility and as a result BID’s vary greatly in shape and size of partnership. While their emerging use has been directed in towncentres, it compels an appropriate tool to be extended on industrial areas regeneration, as the BID levy money is ringfenced for use only in the BID area. Links to the individual websites of London Business Improvement Districts (BIDs): https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/businesseconomy/vision-and-strategy/focus-areas/ business-improvement-districts/london-bids-links

Fig.13 - BID’s examples in the UK.

Source: The birthplace of BIA’s celebrates 40 years (Yang, 2010).

30.


11.1_LITERATURE REVIEW: LESSON LEARNT From the 6 topics researched on the Literature review the following lessons can be drawn, Yes or No decisions are based on particular recommendations from the combined authors:

LR_2.PURSUING MIXED-USE NEIGHBOURHOODS:

LR_1.INDUSTRIAL SITES REGENERATION:

Actions can range from_(Greenstein, 2005):

NO

NO

Tabula-rasa: Introducing a completely different character. Change character: Introducing new types of industry. Creation of ‘‘Industry Led’’ Mixed-use

YES neighbourhoods

LR_3.PRINCIPLES FOR INDUSTRIAL MIXED-USED DEVELOPMENTS_(M.U.D):

Actions require_(Brooks,et,al.2011):

YES Scoping compatible industrial activities to be mixed with housing.

NO

Bulk-goods handling, construction yards or chemical industries

Actions require_(Sungun,et,al.2005):

YES Retain incentive & buffer space for light industrial activities

YES Provide flexible incubator space for a variety of small business enterprises;

NO Attractive transitional areas between

YES industry residential neighbourhoods. YES Processes of innovation and new build-

YES ing methods to tackle conflicts.

Industrial displacement, minimizing land-use nuisance conflicts. Provide green, public and walkable spaces for all the users to interact.

YES Stimulate Vertical or Horizontal Integration/mix

YES Creation of Business improvement Districts-BID’s.

31.


LR_4.TOOLS TO INTEGRATE LAND-USES : Vertical or Horizontal mix_(Mastalski,et,al.2012)

Infilling Void areas; Refilling Existent buildings; Stacking New uses above existing structures. Demolition/replacement (subject to state of the art analysis)

LR_5.RE-STITCHING INDUSTRIAL MIXUSED AREAS WITH THE SURROUNDINGS: (Brooks,et,al.2011)_Actions require:

Investment In infrastructure to create a robust spatial framework (Pedestrian+Cycle linkages, open spaces) Improve Accessibility: Public transport, Lorries and distribution vans must be maintained. Good quality and safe public space is precondition for everything else to exist. Area planning framework: for future built form and integration with the city. Relationship and proximity to community facilities–existing/proposed Especial attention to edges which finally grant the reintegration process.

6.RE-STITCHING DESIGN STRATEGIES:

Actions require_(Beunderman,et,al.2006):

1_Define a clear but flexible spatial framework 2_Promote flexible building types 3_Invest in large-scale hybrid / flexible buildings 4_Minimise environmental disruption 5_Encourage vertical stacking of uses (Parking) 6_Create attractive private courtyards 7_Encourage built parking solutions 8_Promote excellent design 9_Comprehensive architectural masterplans where appropriate 10_Create public space and meeting places 11_Define atmosphere, mix and design rules 12_Make the most of existing assets 13_Make active use of transitional zones and buildings 14_Create critical mass 15_Separate access routes for different uses 16_Control the views from residential units 17 Mix on different scales.

The 8 highlighted strategies are the minimum criteria to achieve a successful re-stitching. (Beunderman, et, al. 2006)

32.


12._CASE STUDIES

The case studies were analysed through 4 stages, Summarized in individual charts for:

STAGE1_Test of literature review principles.

STAGE2_Scope of the regeneration actions that took place.

STAGE3_Proposed relationship with sur-

STAGE4_Parameters that are able to be

SCOPE

INTERACTION

TRANSFER

roundings.

extrapolated from each of them.

Identifying how Beunderman’s minimum criteria for a successful re-stitching were or not accomplished in the case studies.

TEST Output

Output

1. YES

2. YES

3. YES

4. NO

5. YES

6. YES

7. YES

8. YES

Analysis matrix of accomplished principles explained in a YES or NO checklist.

Output

Regeneration By: 1.New Industries inclusion - Subsidised start-ups 2.Buildings with latest tech in energy and efficiency. 2.New Identity on Cultural economic development. etc.

Relation with surroundings: New public space & amenities provided edges to encourage attractiveness

Scoping a list of the main actions that improved area’s quality.

Scoping a list of the proposed actions to connect the area to the existing context.

Output

-Combining housing with light industry -Very Flexible spatial framework -Vertical mixing of employment & residential uses -Courtyard block model

Identifying a list of successful actions that can be used in other interventions.

33.


CASE STUDY 1: DORTMUND EVING EMSCHER PARK, GERMANY

GENERAL FACTS

Former industrial area Coal, mining and steel.

-Covers 800 km2 - 2m population -1979 Ruhr Action programme -1984 Future technologies land initiative -Poor housing & weak industrial base -IBA 1989 to evaluate & encourage proposal on creating a new image -Funded 90% state + EU, 10% private sector.

Dortmund STAGE_1.

STAGE_2.

STAGE_3.

STAGE_4.

1. YES

2. YES

3. YES

4. NO

5. YES

6. YES

7. YES

8. YES

Regeneration By: 1._New Industries and buildings with the latest technologies in energy and design efficiency. -Former mine shafts used as new offices clusters for design offices (Dortmund Eving) (Redgrove,2002) -CENTRO shopping and leisure complex (Oberhausen) 2._New Identity Based on Cultural economic development. 3._Subsidised Industrial start-ups units 4._Links To educational facilities; Offering appropriate technical courses. 5._Environmental Improvement

Relation with surroundings: -New public space & amenities provided edges to encourage attractiveness. -Old mines and industrial sites are reinvigorated. Green areas integrated to function as amenities and attractor of insiders and outsiders

-High density & permeability around Hub -Industrial units_(lower levels) -Combining housing with light industry -Flexible spatial framework Fig.14 - IBA - Emscher Park & Dortmund Eving regeneration summary table.

34.


CASE STUDY 2: CARLSBERG BREWERY SITE COPENHAGEN, DENMARK

GENERAL FACTS

Former industrial Beer Breweries and manufacturing.

STAGE_1.

STAGE_2.

STAGE_3.

STAGE_4.

-More than 300 hectares - buildings from 1840’s -2008 Carlsberg breweries industry left Copenhagen, While the company headquarters remain. -Landmark buildings from the 19th and 20th Kept -Masterplan featuring ten slim towers as landmarks -Using the layout of the century-old lager cellars for the new city’s street layout.

1. NO

2. YES

3. YES

4. YES

5. YES

6. NO

7. YES

8. NO

Regeneration By: 1._State of the art approach on existing buildings. 2._Combining rented, cooperative and owner-occupier dwellings in the same buildings: on small industry businesses and shops at street level, with homes and offices above. 3._A new district based on innovation and exchanges between different people; 4._Focus on creating attractive urban spaces, relaxation zones, sunlight, materiality and experience. 5._Entrepreneur start-ups area, offering a rich variation of new and old, tall and low, deep and narrow, dark and light, open and dense. Relation with surroundings: -Rich variation of new and old, tall and low, deep and narrow, open and dense on the border to allow inviting space for neighbours to interact with. -Brewery retrofitted and green areas included on centre courts to work as amenities and attractor for insiders and outsiders

-Combining housing with light industry -Very Flexible spatial framework -Vertical mixing of employment & residential uses -Courtyard block model Fig.15 - Carlsberg Brewery site regeneration summary table.

35.


CASE STUDY 3: KING SPADINA SITE TORONTO, CANADA

GENERAL FACTS

Former Industrial Garment/manufacturing district.

STAGE_1.

STAGE_2.

STAGE_3.

STAGE_4.

-Area 50 hectares. -Industry leaves the area in the 1970s, combined with the subsequent recession in the early 1990s. -From manufacturing towards more cultural, retail, professional, and institutional industries.

1. YES

2. YES

3. NO

4. YES

5. YES

6. YES

7. YES

8. YES

Regeneration By: 1._Introducing Entertainment features, sky-dome (sports) theatres, nightclubs restaurants, maintaining the historic built character. 2._Refill and stacking operations over existing buildings. 3._Dynamic set of rules to act on former industrial districts. 4._Many of the old warehouses have been redeveloped as grand loft apartments or offices. 5._Mixing Local and regional functions, big and small buildings, working and housing facilities and formal streets with informal passages in a flexible framework. 6._Great diversity of developments within a single block This kind of renewal also inspired developers to new typologies and prototypes of housing.

Relation with surroundings: -New public space & amenities provided edges to encourage attractiveness. -Mix of open and dense throughout the edge + public space. -Specific regeneration projects at the beginning and end of the project’s central spine. -Large & orientated terraces with sun -Courtyard block model -High density & permeability around Hub-Flexible spatial framework -Vertical mixing of employment & residential uses Fig.16 - King Spadina regeneration summary table.

36.


CASE STUDY 4: KOOPMANSSTAD AREA, ROTTERDAM, NETHERLANDS

GENERAL FACTS

Former industrial manufacturing area.

STAGE_1.

STAGE_2.

STAGE_3.

STAGE_4.

-Built in 2006 is an intensification project of more than 160 new housing units and 4000m2 of offices. -The building was built next to the site, and after finishing it was lifted above the existing buildings. -One of the interesting aspects is also the co-operation between City and developer to link housing to commercial development.

1. YES

2. YES

3. YES

4. YES

5. YES

6. YES

7. NO

8. YES

Regeneration By: 1._An iconic bridge building, stacked above an operating factory that becomes an instant landmark within the city. 2._Proposal for a development of 180 live/work units 3._A flexible development with the possibility of flexible interior dwellings layout and frontage. 4._Structure allows ease of movement for underneath industry 5._Units with a large ground floor ceiling height to allow a future change of uses.

Relation with surroundings: -Rich variation of new and old, tall and low, deep and narrow, open and dense on the border to allow inviting space for neighbours to interact with. -Open court blocks model on the edge with public space provision and communal facilities.

-Flexible spatial framework and interior dwellings layout -No All buildings with heavy building structures -Encourage high density around specific areas -Vertical mixing of employment & residential uses Fig.17 - Koopmansstad area regeneration summary table.

37.


CASE STUDY 5: HACKNEY WICK LONDON, UK

GENERAL FACTS

Former manufacturing area, clothing, printing workshops

STAGE_1.

STAGE_2.

STAGE_3.

STAGE_4.

-Area between the London Borough of Hackney and the London Borough of Tower Hamlets in east London. -Furniture and household goods, Silk industry, printing, -Construction of the A12 (1970s) isolated physically Hackney Wick off from Hackney, -No current connecting streets or local amenities introduced to reinforce the masterplan. -Current densities and communal amenities are not enough enhancing the sense of disconnection caused by the railway line. -No re-stitching process with the surrounding area, the Olympic site on the east, or continuity of infrastructure. -No attractiveness nor relationship to the canal.

1. NO

2. YES

3. NO

4. NO

5. YES

6. NO

7. YES

8. NO

Proposed regeneration by: 1._Conservation and retrofitting, Hackney Wick Conservation area (Hackney) and Fish Island & White Post Lane Conservation Area (Tower Hamlets). 2._Low amount of housing proposed within the area, low levels of densification and activities introduced.

Relation with surroundings: -One small square towards underground station -Specific regeneration projects at the beginning and end of the site.

-No Free-standing block model -No Single footprint buildings -Flexible spatial framework must be encouraged -Vertical mixing of employment & residential uses Fig.18 - Hackney Wick regeneration summary table.

38.


12.1_CASE STUDIES: LESSON LEARNT

6 Lessons were drawn from the case studies analysis:

1. GENEROUS OUTDOOR SPACE FOR HOUSING

3. ENCOURAGE VERTICAL MIX

YES YES

5. INTRODUCE HIGH DENSITY

YES

Vertical mixing of employment & residential uses

High density concentrated around Hub

Large & orientated terraces with sun

NO

NO

NO Single footprint buildings

Low densities

Small balconies

2. ENCOURAGE STACKING ABOVE LIGHT INDUSTRY

4. OPEN UP THE COURT BLOCK

YES

Industrial units (lower levels)

YES Combining housing with light industry

NO No all large building structures with heavy and expensive vertical infrastructures, allowing mix with light building structures for budget saving

6. CREATE INVITING STREET FRONTS

YES Courtyard block model

YES

Housing / other services (upper levels)

NO Free-standing block model

Fig.19 - Lesson learnt Case studies analysis.

Sources: Source: Case studies review + Maxwan architects, 2008 + Author

39.


13._TOOL KIT

AREA / NEIGHBOURHOOD TIER RE-STITCH 9 PRINCIPLES

PLOT TIER RE-CONNECT 3 PRINCIPLES

BLOCK TIER RE-DENSIFICATION 3 PRINCIPLES

STRATEGIES ON INDUSTRY-LED M.U.D’S_(MIX USE DEVELOPMENTS) From the lesson learnt on the literature review research and from the case studies analysis: a Tool-kit based on 3 tiers of action is proposed as an answer to reinvigorate these areas by creating an Industry led mixed-used development.

Fig.20 - Tool-kit.

40.


1. FLEXIBLE SPATIAL FRAMEWORK

AREA-NEIGHBOURHOOD TIER RE-STITCHING

2. INVEST IN LARGESCALE HYBRID BUILD.

3. MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL DISRUPTION

AC SEPA CE RA SS TE RO UT ES -C RE ONT SID RO EN LLIN . VI G EW -D S E INT NS EN ITY SIT & Y

RE-STITCHING STRATEGIES: 1._Define a clear but flexible spatial framework Infrastructure 2._Invest in large-scale hybrid/flexible buildings 3._Minimise environmental disruption

4. ENCOURAGE VERTICAL STAKING

5. CREATE PUB. SPACE AND MEETING PLACES

6. DEFINE ATMOSPHERE MIX AND DESIGN RULES

4._Encourage vertical stacking 5._Create public space, meeting places & Communal facilities 6._Define atmosphere, mix and design rules Intensity)

(Density/

7._Make the most of existing assets 8._Make active use of transitional zones and buildings 9._Acting on both sides of the edges.

7. MAKE THE MOST OF EXISTING ASSETS

8. TRANSITION ZONES AND BUILDINGS

9. ACTING ON BOTH SIDES OF THE EDGE

Fig.21 - Tool-kit (Part A) - Area Tier.

41.


Court Block

Allow access Into yard and to break street faรงades

Community facilities (where possible)

Rationalize shapes And sizes - Community facilities

40 % yard + parking Street -Retail

HOUSING & OTHERS - UPPER LEVELS

Yard & parking

Street

50 % build

2. CREATE INVITING STREETS AND ACTIVE COURTYARDS

Terraced houses

Towers

1._Open up the court block: Industry and Housing improvement

3._Creating permeability through the area

closable gate

(where possible)

RE-CONNECTING - STRATEGIES:

2._Creating inviting courtyards & active frontages

More attractivefrontages

Industrial Towers

PLOT TIER RE-CONNECTING

Large units

Small units

INDUSTRY - LOWER LEVELS

Court Block

Open up block for lighter and more spacious streets

Rationalize Position High rise shapes dwellings Open up blocks further - Low rise

1. OPEN UP THE COURT BLOCK

3. CREATE PERMEABILITY THROUGHOUT THE AREA

Fig.22 - Tool-kit (Part B) - Plot Tier.

42.


BLOCK TIER RE-DENSIFYING

RE-DENSIFYING - STRATEGIES: (VERTICAL & HORIZONTAL MIX) 1._Infilling Void areas+gaps between buildings and blocks 2._Refilling Existent buildings with new and flexible units/uses 3._Stacking Uses above existing structures

1. IN-FILL

2. RE-FILL

3. STACKING

Fig.23 - Tool-kit (Part C) - Block Tier.

43.


D. 14. THE SITE 15. SITE ANALYSIS 16. EXISTING MASTERPLAN 17. APPLYING THE TOOLS 18. TOWARDS A MASTERPLAN 19. PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 20. MAKING IT HAPPEN

44.


14._PROPOSED SITE

The proposed site to test the tool-kit is Alperton area:

London’s industrial land 2012

4 3

2

4 3

2

-Situated in the south-west of Brent Borough. -Zone 4 Between Alperton_(Picadilly line), Stonebridge Station_(Bakerloo) -According to Brent Council’s SPD Supplementary planning document (2011) and to the Alperton masterplan proposal (2012); the area is set by GLA as a transformation and intensification district from industrial area into a new type of light-industry mixed within residential neighbourhood qualities. Fig.24 - London SIL’s 2012 Fig.25 - Section of the Underground map - Alperton area

Sources: Alperton SPD + Park Royal Atlas + Author

45.


14.1_SITE RATIONALE

Park Royal Areas

ALPERTON

Space type by sector - Park Royal

BRENT

X

X

VARIETY OF SPACE TYPE BY SECTOR

BRENT

X PARK ROYAL

EALING

PARK ROYAL

EALING

-Is the isolated North-west corner of Park Royal_(P.R) industrial area. -Is the P.R area with the poorest quality public realm and highest ratio of derelict buildings sitting immediately to housing. -Brent LDF & Core Strategy 2012: Have released planning protection for the SIL to be Redeveloped -Is the area with the highest variety of industrial space types within the P.R. Ranging from empty Yards, Large Warehouses to small offices.

Fig.27 - Park Royal’s Spacetype by sector map Fig.26 - Par k Royal and Alperton Area Relations

Sources: Alperton SPD + Park Royal Atlas + Author

46.


Underutilized Industrial Area located in the middle of low density suburban neighbourhoods.

Grand union canal

HOUSING HOUSING

RETAIL

HOUSING

INDUSTRIAL PARK ROYAL

Fig.28 - Alperton zoom in - Satellite image

Sources: Author

47.


Brent Core Strategy 2010 -Site Specific Allocations_2012

6 SSA +4 underutilized industrial areas +5 Local community assets

LCA C3 LCA C4

LCA C2

LCA C5

LCA C1 SSA A7 AUIA B2

SSA A6 SSA A3

AUIA B5

SSA A5

AUIA B1

AUIA B4

SSA A1 SSA A2

SSA A4

SSA Additional ind, area Adittional community facilities Site Specific Allocations (SSA)

Additional underutilized industrial site

Local community Assets (LCA)

Fig.30 - Alperton’s SPD site Specific allocation and project work area.

Sources: Alperton SPD + Park Royal Atlas + Author

48.


15._SITE ANALYSIS

-Lack of permeability, connectivity and accessibility. -Sense of lossless, lack of a clear circulation structure -Disconnection from natural assets -Lack of a clear landmark structure -Lack of infrastructure for industrial use

ACCESSIBILITY?

CONNECTIVITY?

Existing moving routes Major Road Secondary road Local Access road Pedestrian Cycle Heavily Trafficked area Underground station railways

?

? ?

?

PERMEABILITY?

Fig.29 - Alperton moving routes map.

Sources: Alperton SPD + Park Royal Atlas + Author

49.


Land uses by Sector

Residential use sited adjacent to large industrial areas +office district close to Alperton station

Alperton Community School (Lower School)

Alperton Community School

Lyon Park Infant & Junior Schools

One tree hill Park Community garden

Playing fields

Mount pleasant

Heather Park Typical community facilities

Housing

Residential Industrial Transport Education Health Religious Retail Retail Local Parks & opens space Water Canal/River Offices Community centres Hotel

Sainsbury’s

Typical industrial facilities

Loon Fung

Access Self storage

1930s semi detatched suburban residential streets with cul-desacs

Industrial facilities

Community facilities

Typical housing

Fig.31 - Alperton’s Land use by sector.

Sources: Alperton SPD + Park Royal Atlas + Author

50.


Industrial land uses by Sector

Still operating tech businesses

Manufacturers in large warehouses

Vacant Yards & buildings

Dominated by vehicles related activities+Vacant land +Manufacturing and wholesale.

Manufacture Food Manufacture Metal Manufacture Reproduction Manufacture Other Utilities Construction Vehicle Sale and Repair Wholesale Food Wholesale Other Transport and Storage Info. and Comm. Services Professional Services Other Public Services Retail, Restaurants, Hotels Other Business Activities Vacant Unknown Other Mixed - Main Two Sectors

Vacant Yards

Derelict Industrial buildings On the Canal

Highly dense and derelict Buildings

Fig.32 - Alperton’s industrial Land use by sector.

Sources: Alperton SPD + Park Royal Atlas + Author

51.


Spatial analysis conclusion

3 Community Schools

Assets

Bridgewater Road

Alperton St. Railways

Shri Sanathan Hindu Temple

X

Grand Union Canal

Sports grounds Availability

X

Ealing Road

Lyon Park Infant & Junior Schools

Alperton Community School

One tree hill Park Community garden

Sports Ground

Mount pleasant

X

Housing

Alperton Community School (Lower School)

Ealing Road is constantly congested

Beresfore Avenue

Housing

X

Lack of permeability

Commercial area Superstores

Heather Park

X

Industrial area

Housing

Isolation from the rest of Park royal industrial Area

Grand union Canal

Housing iver

nt R

Eali

Bre

ng d Roa

Sports ground

X

Stone bridge Park Railways

ad

r ro

i

hc

rt No

la rcu

Bus Stops - 224 Only route serving the area.

Issues:

Canal and industrial areas isolated despite closeness to housing districts (not buffered)

About 20 Ha of vacant yards and warehouses

Derelict Industrial buildings on the Canal and seated very close to housing

Nuisance complaints: Noise, Visual dust, Odor, Transport density

Underused assets such as the canal and green areas.

Low PTAL levels towards the centre of the neighbourhood.

Lack attractiveness, urban structure & Quality of public realm. Segregation of areas and disconnection

Fig.33 - Alperton’s Analysis conclusion diagram

Sources: Author

52.


Demographics

Population by five-year age band

WHO LIVES THERE:

25 - 34 years

25 - 34 years

-Alperton’s population 2011 was 14,017_(48% females, 52% males) -Biggest scope is ranged from 25-34 years. -Largest ethnicity has an Asian Background, speak English in a higher-level -Largest religion is Hinduism -More than 50% of tenures are owned -The highest level of qualification is level 4

Ethnicity

Asian

English proficiency

Asian

THE RESIDENTS TARGET: -Aim to satisfy needs of biggest range of the population and -Aim to enhance interaction between predominant ethnicities. -Aim to enhance attractiveness and Hinduism communal facilities. -Overall aim to introduce a new mix of tenants, types of dwellings and ownership tenures.

Religion

Tenure

Highest level of qualification

Fig.34 - Alperton’s Demographic Figures 2001 vrs 2011.

Sources: Brent council - Alperton Census 2011+ Park Royal Atlas + Author

53.


Employment analysis conclusion

NO

WHAT CURRENTLY WORKS THERE:

YES -P.R. atlas shows the vast majority of units accommodate car sales/repair operations. -Followed by manufacturing and metal manufacturing activities. -Food Wholesale and informatics in a minor proportion -There is a small number of Successful businesses such as the Ace-café, dispersed and disorganized.

WHAT’S WORTH KEEPING:

YES

NO

YES

NO RELOCATE

Manufacturing

YES

YES

Vehicles

NO

YES

NO

YES

ENHANCE RELOCATE

NO

NO

Wholesale -Aims to keep: Info & communication, Wholesale and Manufacturing businesses in situ (except metal); intensifying land around them. -Car sales/repair can be maintained but require relocation to less-conflictive areas. -Businesses will required to be organized in clusters of operations and accurately allocated to avoid nuisance conflicts: allowing interaction with housing and cultural activities.

YES

Info & communication. Vacant

YES

YES

ENHANCE

YES

YES Fig.35 - Alperton’s Activities Analysis

Sources: Park Royal Atlas + Author

54.


CRITIQUE. Brent ‘s council has produced a SPD represented in the following masterplan, as part regeneration strategy. Although is a good design approach, this masterplan doesn’t maintain current industrial uses, businesses or buildings. Added to the following issues:

SUCCESSFUL OPERATIONS

YES

16._EXISTING MASTERPLAN_CRITIQUE

OPENING UP INDUSTRIAL BLOCKS:

HOUSING TYPOLOGIES TO MERGE WITH CONTEXT:

VARIETY OF ACTIVITIES ALONG THE CANAL:

-Making the most of pre-existent industrial block by generating active centre courts.

-Using similar typologies as a tool to create a gradient between new and existent densities.

-New and attractive activities provided along some areas of the canal as thriving nodes.

NEW PUBLIC REALM AND MEETING POINTS POCKET PARKS AND MEETING POINTS ENHANCEMENT

YES

INT TU ENS NIT IFIC IES AT NO ION T E OP XP PO R LO ITE D

YES

YES

NO

ITY

TIV

G IN ER VIT RIV N I T UN EN RE E BR U H CT TE E T HI LUD C AR INC TO

X

FOCUS ON IMPROVING ONLY THE NORTH SIDE OF THE CANAL

RPO OP TED N I TIO PLO X ICA SIF NOT E N E T S IN ITIE N TU

EC NN

LA

CO

X

YES CO

CK

OF

NN

T EC

NO ACTIVE FRONTAGES ON INDUSTRIAL OR HOUSING DISTRICTS TO THE CANAL

OF

TY

IVI

YES

YES

NO

NO

DIFFERENT SCALE & ENCLOSED ACTIVITIES POINTS

YES

LACK OF CONNECTIVITY

UN-SUCCESSFUL OPERATIONS

-Making the most of the existing buildings, enhancing their operation and mixing with housing to attract 24/7 activity.

-Encourage of new mix-use buildings with housing and businesses uses on the ground floor

CK

X

MAINTAINING EXISTING INDUSTRIAL USES & INTENSIFYING:

LA

NO

INTENSIFYING OFFICES AND HOUSING MIXED USE DEVELOPMENTS:

LACK OF PUBLIC SPACE PROVISION TO RE-STITCH:

INTENSIFICATION OPPORTUNITIES NOT EXPLOITED:

TABULA-RASA ON EXISTING INDUSTRIAL AREAS:

INTENSIFICATION OPPORTUNITIES NOT EXPLOITED:

INTENSIFICATION OPPORTUNITIES NOT EXPLOITED:

-Some derelict spaces that could be transformed into public areas to connect surroundings

-Areas that could be intensified and included in the masterplan to achieve higher outputs

-Old industrial Areas completely replaced by new housing districts; no preservation

-Not derelict districts with high potential-to be enhanced, very close to houing- included to achieve full results.

-Stacking new uses above industrial units and encouraging vertical operation

Fig.39 - Brent’s Council masterplan Critique Diagram

Sources: Author over Brent’s council masterplan

55.


17._APPLYING THE TOOLS AREA / NEIGHBOURHOOD TIER RE-STITCH

PLOT TIER RE-CONNECT

BLOCK TIER RE-DENSIFICATION

PRINCIPLES_1+7:

PRINCIPLES_2+4:

-Canal as flexible spatial framework: connect or embrace the surroundings.

Retrofit large-scale buildings: -Northfield or Abbey -Industrial estates -Encouraging vertical operation of industrial+housing uses

-Canal as thriving footpath+amenities: reconnecting to South-Wembley and Park -royal (Pedestrian+freight)

PRINCIPLES_5:

TR

ICT

4

MEETING PLACES

3

RE-STITCH TO SOUTH WEMBLEY

1

RI

C

CT

T DIS

T DIS

2

-Minimizing impact on the canal: edges improvement. -Creating transition zones+ improving building specifications

MEETING PLACES

T

PRINCIPLES_3+8:

DI

DIST

RIC

T

RI

S

RE-STITCH TO PARK ROYAL MEETING PLACES

New public space: -The canal -Beresfore avenue New meeting places close to assets: -Alperton station -Schools integration -Parks integration

PRINCIPLE_9:

PRINCIPLE_6:

-Working on both sides of the boundary: integration of uses.

- Creating 4 districts with different densities, intensities and mix.

Industrial area boundary AC SEPA CE RA SS TE RO UT ES -C RE ONT SID RO EN LLIN . VI G EW S INTDENS EN ITY SIT & Y

1. FLEXIBLE SPATIAL FRAMEWORK

2. INVEST IN LARGESCALE HYBRID BUILD.

3. MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL DISRUPTION

4. ENCOURAGE VERTICAL STAKING

5. CREATE PUB. SPACE AND MEETING PLACES

6. DEFINE ATMOSPHERE MIX AND DESIGN RULES

7. MAKE THE MOST OF EXISTING ASSETS

8. TRANSITION ZONES AND BUILDINGS

9. ACTING ON BOTH SIDES OF THE EDGE

Fig.36 - Applying the tools map - Area tier.

Sources: Author

56.


AREA / NEIGHBOURHOOD TIER RE-STITCH

PLOT TIER RE-CONNECT

BLOCK TIER RE-DENSIFICATION

PRINCIPLE_1: -Opening up big industrial blocks allowing public space+communal facilities on the centre.

PRINCIPLE_2: -Creating an inviting footpath along the canal: cultural+retail activities to accompany the path. -Allowing new space for communal facilities within the mixed-use district and opened blocks.

PRINCIPLE_3: -Creating permeability+connectivity from housing districts through former industrial areas and back.

- ACTING ON BOTH SIDES OF THE EDGE: OF THE RIVER AND THE INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT

-Allowing different widths from alleyways to wide streets.

- NEW CROSSING PROVIDED OVER CANAL

Industrial area boundary

Community facilities (where possible)

1. OPENING UP THE COUTBLOCK

2. CREATE INVITING STREETS AND ACTIVE COURTYARDS

9. CREATE PERMEABILITY THROUGHOUT THE AREA

Fig.37 - Applying the tools map - Plot tier

Sources: Author

57.


AREA / NEIGHBOURHOOD TIER RE-STITCH

PLOT TIER RE-CONNECT

BLOCK TIER RE-DENSIFICATION

PRINCIPLE_1: -Infilling possible Gaps between buildings and blocks.

PRINCIPLE_2:

PRINCIPLE_3:

-Refilling Buildings with new uses and flexible units. -Providing different types/ size of units and tenures.

-Stacking new uses above industrial units: encouraging vertical operation.

Industrial area boundary

Fig.38 - Applying the tools map - Block tier.

1. IN-FILL: Gaps between buildings and blocks

2. RE-FILL: Buildings with new uses and flexible units

3. STACKING: New uses above industrial units

4. REPLACE

Sources: Author

58.


THE DISTRICTS. The analysis evidences a need of performing different site-specific actions to enhance opportunities. This process includes 4 adjacent districts that contribute on the intensification process, and moreover on the re-stitching goal.

18._TOWARDS A MASTERPLAN

Hence, they draw different: operations, densities, tenures, amenities, ways to use tool-kit strategies, and to deal with existing built/natural assets. Throughout the following rules:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Industrial area boundary

Fig.40 - Proposal 4 different districts

Sources: Author

59.


DISTRICT 1_PRINCIPLES

OPENING-UP BLOCKS Making the most of pre-existent industrial blocks: by generating active centre courts.-Introducing retail+communal

STACKING USES New uses stacked on top of existing industrial buildings, enhancing vertical intensification of housing/industry.

THE CANAL AS FRAMEWORK CHARACTER:_AN ACTIVE TOWN CENTRE. -High street vibrant shops and amenities. -Super-stores connection with canal+Ealing road. -Enhancing Schools public realm -Improving Alperton Station public realm -Enhancing Public transport access

Making the most of natural assets, as the spine of the plan, with attractive pathways on both-sides and green inviting areas that work as fingers connecting to surroundings.

DENSITY: -High rise housing 10-12 storeys West of Ealing road an over the canal -Mid rise housing 4-7 storeys East of Ealing road -Encouraging infill and Stacking as intensification tool. -Low rise housing West of Atlip road to match existing typologies and character.

SECTION 1-1’

Fig.41 - District 1 - Principles

Sources: Author

60.


Gran union canal

public / private

public / private

noise control park

DISTRICT_1 AIMS FOR:

street

2. QUALITY HIGH RISE HOUSING MIXED WITH MID RISE DEVELOPMENTS - 250CITY ROAD LONDON - UK

1. A VIBRANT COMMERCIAL HIGH-STREET: CARNABY STREET LONDON - UK

SECTION 1-1’

3. MIXED USE COMPLEX WITH LIGHT INDUSTRY / OFFICES ON GROUND FLOOR OSLO - NORWAY

Fig.42 - District 1 - Case studies

Sources: flickr images

61.


DISTRICT 2_PRINCIPLES

NEW PUBLIC AREAS New open spaces provision as meeting places Retrofitting single building as cultural facilities.

IMPROVING CONNECTIVITY -New connection points between districts and the south of the canal neighbourhood/re-stitching -Ephemeral structures for retail activities.-Cafés/galleries.

CHARACTER:_CULTURAL, RESIDENTIAL & LIGHT-INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT. -Connecting to the canal as a vibrant foot and cycling path. -Family homes and light-industrial uses. -Commercial & cultural dwellings along canal and within opened-up blocks -New meeting points and pockets parks with communal facilities. -Improving accessibility, permeability and public realm of residential areas.

A THRIVING CANAL SIDE -Cycling+sport+green path. -Amenities+meeting points and boats bays -Lighted and secure to operate on day and night times.

DENSITY: -Mid rise housing 4-7 storeys over the canal area -Low rise housing Woodside end road to match existing typologies and character. -Encouraging Refill as intensification tool.

SECTION 2 - 2’

Fig.43 - District 2 - Principles

Sources: Author

62.


Carlyon Road

New canal Foothpath

New canal Foothpath

Woodside End

DISTRICT_2 AIMS FOR:

Woodside Place

Woodside Close

1. HIGH QUALITY NEW HOUSING OSLO - NORWAY

Gran union Canal

2. QUALITY COMMUNAL SPACES AND POCKET PARKS NEW YORK - USA

SECTION 2-2’

3. A THRIVING FOOTPATH ALONG THE CANAL CLEVELAND - USA

Fig.44 - District 2 - Case studies

Sources: flickr images

63.


DISTRICT 3_PRINCIPLES

OPENING UP BLOCKS -Making the most of industrial block by generating active centre courts.

CHARACTER:_INDUSTRY AREA:

LED

MIXED-USE

-Reinvigorated industrial activities existing along housing. -Open-up big court blocks: infilling commercial+communal activities+public areas. -Providing a buffer space for housing. -Introduction of green areas and public realm improvement. -Enhancing transport operation: housing/ industry

A FLEXIBLE STRUCTURE The area will permit flexible development based on an Individual block developments, reconfigured according to future market needs: Allow new uses, types of dwellings and typologies in time.

DENSITY: -Mid rise housing 4-7 storeys -Encouraging infill, Refill and Stacking as intensification tools. According to state of the art analysis. Fig.45 - District 3 - Principles

Sources: Author

64.


Edson Road

New commercial facilities

New meeting places

DISTRICT_3 AIMS FOR:

Opening courtblocks

Protection buffer

1. ACCURATE MIX / RETROFIT OF OLD INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS ‘THE PEEL PROJECT’ SOUTH KILBURN LONDON - UK

Gran union Canal

2. QUALITY COMMUNAL SPACES TO CONNECT NATURAL FEATURES NEW YORK - USA

SECTION 3-3’

3. AN ACTIVE COMMERCIAL & BUSINESS ROAD - LINCON RD. BOULEVARD MIAMI - USA

Fig.46 - District 3 - Case studies

Sources: flickr images

65.


DISTRICT 4_PRINCIPLES

STACKING New buildings from 3 to 5 storeys stacked above Northfield. Creating landmarks and intensification.

NORTHFIELDS SQUARE AS AN URBAN PATTERN -New active public areas in the centre of the space. -Attractiveness vibrant meeting points.

CHARACTER:_A HOUSING+BUSINESS CENTRE DISTRICT: -Offices, housing and service apartments, mixed with light-industry. -Northfield industrial state intensification. -A new meeting point Nothfields-Square. -Existing businesses improvement Ace-Café -New vehicular crossing over the river Brent connecting North circular Road. -Introducing community facilities to activate the new public areas. -Connecting Stone-bridge station

A BUSINESS DISTRICT -New district built from empty yards, will allocate offices and headquarters of Park royal industrial activities -Co-working spaces, offices buildings and housing,

DENSITY: - Mid rise housing 4-7 storeys around the district. - High density 7-10 storeys toward canal - Encouraging Refill and stacking as intensification tool.

SECTION 4 - 4’

Fig.47 - District 4 - Principles

Sources: Author

66.


Carlyon commercial Road

New public space

Stacking over industries

Gran union Canal

New canal Foothpath

DISTRICT_4 AIMS FOR:

New public space

2. QUALITY MIXED USE BUSINESS & HOUSING NEIGHBOURHOOD NEW YORK - USA

1. HIGH QUALITY HIGH RISE DWELLINGS TOWARDS THE CANAL UK+ NORWAY

SECTION 4-4’

3. AN ACTIVE COMMERCIAL & BUSINESS ROAD - LINCON RD. BOULEVARD MIAMI - USA

Fig.48 - District 4 - Case studies

Sources: flickr images

67.


DISTRICT 4_NORTHFIELDS STACKING POTENTIAL

1. SHOREHAM STREET -STACKING ON TOP OF INDUSTRY SHEFFIELD - UK

2. PORTE AUTONOME -REGENERATION RUE DE LA ROCHELLE STRASSBURG FRANCE

3. MODERN ARCHITECTURE, DESIGNS HOTEL NHOW SPREE RIVERSIDE, BERLIN, GERMANY

68.


A NEW VISION. The integration of the four districts produces a more sensible regeneration approach where intensification takes place whilst existing relevant buildings, businesses and site-economics are maintained as the main core of the master-planning process.

19._MASTERPLAN

4. 1.

2. 3.

DISTRICT 1: ... AN ACTIVE TOWN CENTRE

DISTRICT 2: ... LIGHT-INDUSTRY, CULTURE, HOUSING & AMENITIES.

DISTRICT 3: ... THE INDUSTRY LED MIXED USE AREA

DISTRICT 4: ... THE NEW DISTRICT AS A BUSINESSES MIXED USE AREA

Fig.49 - Masterplan proposal

Sources: Author

69.


70.


20._MAKING IT HAPPEN

THE PROPOSAL:

PARTNERSHIPS:

The focal point of the masterplan is to create an ‘industry-led M.U.D’. Enhanced by housing, cultural activities, and clusters of communal/retail facilities around the canal; it will host businesses and co-working spaces that reinvigorate underused industrial activities. 6 steps will be needed for each district: 1._Strategically locate intervention nodes related to canal and stations. (Regenerating+intensifying buildings)

-Released of Alperton’s SIL’s Land requires that any regeneration/partnership must pursue the principle of mixed-use development.

2._ Improving the continuous atmosphere in the East-West natural axis, and gradual change of experiences -housing, to mixed-use, to housingon the North-south axis.

-Continuing partnerships between delivery agencies to ensure local and regional influences.

3._Facilities like retail, kiosks, playgrounds, barbecue spots, are distributed along the improved canal, to achieve urban dynamism. 4._Canal spine fingers reinforced by a network of open spaces and meeting points. 5._Integration of new and existing community facilities, to achieve a chain of landmarks, legibility and sense of belonging. 6._Connections and attractiveness relations to the surroundings; Especial attention to edges design/re-stitching.

-Project will maintain links to local community interested in improving Alperton -at all stages-. -Strategic alliances would be needed.

between

landowners

-Strategic alliances between businesses would be needed to cluster activities an encourage corporative growth. -Probably the most important alliance will be to Park Royal’s industrial activity. This partnership will help to develop the business district and bring more actors to the creation of a Business Industrial District.

71.


OUTCOMES_DELIVERABILITY:

FUNDING:

-District_1 will be enhanced by improving public space and introducing residential-uses. -District_2 land values are considered to be intermediate. Land is assembled; which will allow faster timing for delivery. Costs related actions on improving existing structures. -Districts_3+4, will host an improved proportion of housing and offices, adding value to maintained businesses. -Land ownership is fractured, may lead to costs relating to assembly. -The project aims to achieve 3000 new houses, to be completed in 8 years time.

PHASING: -Phasing will be developed in this order: 1st_District 1 and 4: to attract investment. 2nd_District 2. 3rd_District 3 funded by district 1+2+4 BID.

-Development will be funded by 3 main sources cooperating in a Public/Private/Community partnership: -1st_By a contribution from the public sector collections through strategies as Direct government funding through Brent Council’s Capital Programme; and Growth Area Funding. -2nd._By the creation of a BID Business Improvement District, amongst the maintained industrial clusters, which will fund infrastructure and public areas projects; -3rd._By the Community Infrastructure Levy contributions; proportion that will be determined by the nature of the developments and the impact on their land value.

Sources: Alperton SPD + Park Royal Atlas + Author

72.


E. 21. CONCLUSION 22. CRITICAL REVIEW 23. FURTHER RESEARCH

73.


21._CONCLUSIONS

This study has researched innovative methods to re-develop industrial sites, seeking for effective re-stitching processes of post-industrial and residential areas. LINKING BACK TO OBJECTIVES: It has specifically explored whether and how a set of tools can address metropolitan deprived industrial areas, tackling isolation from the surrounding urban fabric, lack of everyday activities and absence of a clear public realm structure. Tested in London’s Alperton locality, a 3 category tool-kit was proposed to help London and UK cities to deal with post-industrialization threats: A first tier of strategies aiming for re-stitching to surroundings; a second tier of strategies aiming to re-connect activities in the plot level, and; a third tier proposing mechanisms to area’s re-densification. Tools aiming to condition an area, promote interaction, intensification and contain city’s sprawling. WHAT WAS LEARNED?: Hence, this study has argued that the process of regeneration and the wider building of communities around PDIL (Previous Developed Industrial Land) is possible through the creation of ‘Industry-led mixed-use developments’. Which must be seen as open-ended frameworks of continuous processes rather than single projects. Stressing that cooperation, financing and implementation of these type of districts are linked components of a process of local economic development. Where feasibility is inextricably linked to: partnerships schemes; business industrial district creation and on the greater annual tax profits they prove to produce as opposed to simple industrial uses, given to higher density using existing infrastructure. WHY IS IT A BETTER PLACE NOW?: The new Alperton’s proposal showed that through the accurate assessment of the tool-kit is possible to reinvigorate a piece of the city, in contrast to ‘tabula-rasa’ approach. Furthermore that the right mix can aim for a thriving new industry-hub, enhanced by residential, businesses, and natural facilities; as popular places to live, work and play.

It also provides a confident and coherent addition to the metropolis, while staying true to the context in which it sits. This includes establishing a dialogue with the encompassing built fabric, whilst protecting vulnerable areas of the Grand union canal and existing industrial heritage. WHAT CAN BE TRANSFERRED?: Therefore, to create these types of districts is essential to transfer the proposed tool-kit aiming for: 1st._An accurate introduction and mix, of new compatible uses, on a flexible framework (future needs); 2nd._Organization of existing business around clusters, and accurate typologies, stimulating vertical operation/mix, and; 3rd._A sensible urban design approach where public realm, urban blocks and intensification protect existing industrial buildings, local micro-economics, and makes the most of existing assets. 4th._An overall approach that avoids compatible-Industrial displacement, by using design guidance and innovative building methods to minimize land-use and nuisance conflicts. Levels and type of mix have great influence on final district’s, satisfying expectations from community, stakeholders, and new businesses incubators. Therefore, generic planning won’t provide the framework to achieve full potential; any operation must pursue the exact level of combination of tools that responds to site-specific priorities.

A CONSEQUENT PHASING The order of factors will alter the product. To avoid unnecessary disruptions, this type of operations must aim for developing the strongest components first, in order to attract investment, density, landmarks-creation and vitality. Thereafter, less strong districts can be sported and funded in their road to regeneration. Different phases of the area transformation require planning in such a way that disturbance from infrastructure or building works is also minimised. THE PROPOSAL NUMBERS-CONCLUSION. An overall assessment, allows to summarize the outputs in comparison to a Brent’s council masterplan:

74.


BRENT MASTERPLAN

NEW HOUSES

2200_UNITS

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN

SAME APPROACH TAKEN IN LONDON INDUSTRIAL AREAS WOULD MEAN:

3000_UNITS

45% OWNED

30%

Approx. More housing units provision from re-fill, Infill and stacking

50% OWNED

50% 31% SOCIAL RENTED

30% SOCIAL RENTED

17% PRIVATE RENTED

20% PRIVATE RENTED

TYPE OF TENURE

30% AFFORDABLE

1500_JOBS

2300_JOBS

JOBS MAINTAINED

800_JOBS

1350_JOBS

COMMUNAL FACILITIES

4_NEW 2_MANTAINED

PUBLIC SPACES PROVIDED

4_NEW

TIME OF COMPLETION

15_YEARS-VISION

COST OF COMPLETION

1.65B_£

9_NEW 2_MANTAINED 8_NEW 8_YEARS-VISION 2.23B_£

20%

A target for 50% owned tenures + 30% Socially rented + 20% Private rented. Aiming for 45% of affordable units.

45% AFFORDABLE

NEW JOBS PROVIDED

30%

40% 70%

Approx. More new jobs by intensifying a new business district.

of jobs maintained by organizing site activities in operational clusters.

Of new communal and cultural facilities provided on opened block centre courts. More public spaces obtained by redensification of built areas not new dev.

60%

60%

50%

Faster development, as retrofitting processes can be completes in 1/3rd of new construction time. Infill, stacking, and retrofitting processes, may incur in additional costs.

From the graph we can see that this approach is able to deliver at least 700 more housing units, and 70% more jobs than Brent’s council. Possible by using the tools on regenerating structures, keeping businesses and providing more varied type of tenures and units.

30%

related to prepare existing sites, buildings or new structures provision.

Taking this approach in other London industrial areas will allow delivering about 30% more housing units, whilst retain at least 40% of existing jobs. Will permit to integrate 2/3 more Although it proves to be a helpful tool on producing and re- communal spaces/facility on inner courts, provide almost as taining more jobs due to continuity/improvement of the built twice public space (as intensification occurs in already-built environment; it might generate up to 30% of additional costs, plots), and certainly a more efficient and faster development. Fig.50 -Masterplan Facts Review

Sources: Calculations based on Alperton masterplan 2012, Harrow borough regeneration and proposal estimates.

75.


22._SELF CRITIQUE

WHY NO-ONE ELSE IS DOING IT? Although this study proposes a flexible framework to be delivered; Industry-led M.U.D’s require a reassessment of complex relationships between economic change, design of new urban environments, retrofitting of structures and long planning processes; that involve many interests and conflicts that hinder its efficiency: 1st_Higher upfront development costs compared to standard building types. 2nd_Lack of clarity on planning guidance about what can be mixed. 3rd._Lack of alternative commercial premises for temporarily displaced businesses. 4th_Lack of economic viability; not achieving desired profits levels. 5th._Fragmented land ownership obstacles; 6th_Unclear and non-strategic politics to relocate land uses; require a more economic concerned approach.

MARKETING THE PROPOSAL Some of the high-density and intensification tools proposed might not be economically attractive to London’s current market circumstances. However, interests on these tools will be targeted in a close future when supply of cheap land will be limited, and where use of blocks typologies will no longer prove efficiency to infill the remaining lay-outs.

7th_As its easier, developers of Housing and industrial projects usually take traditional approaches that avoid mixing of uses to skip the planning and economic issues. A change on regeneration-culture is urgent, emphasized on understanding who is there, why they are there and how practical is to actively work with those businesses, keeping them in place as the core for new development; as once they are gong they are gone.

76.


23._FURTHER RESEARCH

FURTHER RESEARCH Despite tackling conflicts, This study has also identified that there are three types of industrial activities: -Those that no longer represent important environmental threats; -Those that pose a moderate level of constraint possible be addressed with technical and design solutions. Both of them addressed on this study, and; -Those for which mixing with other activities remains undesired, which may still be suitable for further research, On the other hand, as argued by URBED’s study ‘Smart Growth and Intelligent Local Finance’: the funding tools available for industry-led implementation are insufficient to create the change. This research has evaluate the CIL levy and the Creation BID’s as a possible solution, but in their words: ‘there is a case for the introduction of more creative financing mechanisms for public/private co-investment into major regeneration and infrastructure projects, such as ‘value capture’ mechanisms.’ Therefore, to explore the full-spectrum of limits and opportunities, this initial research would require further analysis on individual intervention costs (bridges, schools, housing, etc) and on how other funding mechanisms and industrial categories can be addressed, in order to achieve extrapolated results.

RECOMMENDATION TO COUNCILS Changing current post-industrial planning and funding approaches to disqualified areas will unlock symbolic potential to intensification. Active council led planning and master-planning beyond the vigilant designation of protected land and separation of activities by the Use-Class-Order, is urgent. Towards smart regeneration, integrative and proactive vision beyond the land-use terminology will be required. Although, the extent to which these changes can be coherently structured will vary from place to place, given their different background of physical, social and economic disqualification; councils must take a proactive approach in addressing underused and industrial buildings by rehabilitating these properties and bench-marketing them back, as productive ones, aiming for intensification and M.U.D’s, rather than the one of industry relocation or worst ‘tabula-rasa’.

77.


78.


R. 24. REFERENCES

79.


23. _REFERENCES

INDUSTRIAL LAND

LONDON ISSUES AND IMPLICATIONS

REGENERATION & MASTER-PLANNING

SMART CITIES

POLICIES, FUNDING, TAXATION, STRATEGIC LAND DESIGNATIONS

-Coupland, A (1998) Reclaiming the City: Mixed use development, Taylor & Francis.

-Travers, T. (2005) Big, chaotic and out of control. LSE-cities.

-Edensor, J. (2005). Industrial Ruins: Space, Aesthetics and Materiality. Berg 3PL.

-Gordon, I. & Travers, T. (2010) London: Planning the ungovernable city. LSE-cities.

-CB Richard Ellis, (2012). study: ’Industrial vs. Mixed-use zoning Economic impact and job creation’’ [Accessed June 2015]

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A. 25. APPENDICES

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TOWARDS SMART REGENERATION: HOW ADAPTABLE & MORE RESILIENT URBANISM CAN RE-INTEGRATE UNDERUTILIZED AREAS BACK INTO THE URBAN TISSUE. THE CASE OF RE-STITCHING A LONDON INDUSTRIAL AREA

MAJOR RESEARCH PROJECT Juan Felipe Herrera - 2015

85.

MSc. Urban Design & city Planning  

Dissertation Project

MSc. Urban Design & city Planning  

Dissertation Project

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