Page 1

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED OR USED IN TEXT AND COMMENTARY {Names of editors or translators, whose editions/translations are cited in the commentary are printed in upper case}

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1. Books cited or used in the text o/The Twenty-One Books A. Ancient ArusTOTLE. Physica. ArusTOTLE. Meteorologica. AruSTOTLE. (attributed), Mechaníca, (Mechanical Problems). CAESAR, C. J ulius. Commentaria. CATO, M. Porcius. De Agricultura. CELSus. De Medicina. CoLUMELLA, L. Junius Moderatus. De Re Rustica. DrODORUS SICULUS, Biblíotheca Historica. FRONTINUS, S. Julius. De Aquis Urbis Romae. HERODOTUS. Hístoriai. l-IEsroo. Erga kai Hemerai, (Works and Days) . ]OSEPHUS, Flavius. De Antz'quitatz"bus Judaeoreum. MARCELLUS. De Medícamentis. PLINY, (C. Plinius Secundus) . HISTORIA NATURALIS (Natural History). Historia Natura/e di G. Plinío Secundo, tradotta per L. DOMENICHI. POLYBIUS. Historiae. SENECA, L. Annaeus. Quaestiones Naturales, (Natural Questions). SOLINUS, Collectanea Rerum Memorabilium.

STRABO. Geographia. TACITUS. Annales. THEOPHRASTUS. Peri Lithon, (On Stones). THEOPHRASTUS. Peri Aüíon Phyteon, (Causes of Planes). THEOPHRASTUS. Historia Phyteon, (History of Plants). VARRO, M. Terentius. De Agricultura. VEGETIUS, F. De Re Militari. VITRUVIUS, (M. Vitruvius Pollio). De Architectura. [659]

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The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

All references have been, so far as possible, checked in Loeb Classical Library editions, e.g.: VITRUVJUS. De Archítectura, ed. & trans. F. GRANGER (London 1962) But also; M. VITRUVIO POLLIOI\'E. De Architectura, traducto di Latino in Volgare. (by) Lurio DuRANTINO (Venice 1524): VrTRUVIUS. The Ten Books on Architecture, translated by M.H . MoRGAN (New York 1960, original edition 1914). FRONTINUS, S. Julius. Two Books on the Water Supply o/ the City o/Rome, ed. & trans. C. HERSCHEL (Boston 1899).

B. Books written in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ABACCO, A. dall' Libro... appartenente a l'Architettura, (Rome 1558). AGRICOLA, Georgius. De Ortu et Causis Subterraneorum, (Basel 1546) AGRICOLA, Georgius. De Natura eorum quae E/fluunt ex Yerra, (Basel1546) De la Generatione de le Cose che sotto la Yerra sono, e de le Cause de' loro El/etti e Natura, (Venice 1550). De la Natura di que/le cose, che de la Yerra Scorrono, (Venice 1550). Schn/ten zur Geologie und Mineralogie, ed. & trans. G. FRAUSTADT & H. PREsCHER (Georgius Agrícola- Ausgewahlte Werke ill. Berlín 1956). ALBERTI, Leon Battista. De Re Aedi/icatoria, (Florence 1486). L'Architettura tradotta da Cosmo BARTOLI (Florence 1550). L'Architettura, (De Re Aedificatoría). Testo Latín e Traduzione a cura di G. ÜRLANDI. Introduzione e Note di P. PoRTOGHESI (Classici Italiani di Scienze Tecniche e Arti, Milan 1966) On the Arto/Building in Ten Books, translated by J. RYKWERT, N. LEACH & R. TAVERNOR (Cambridge, Mass. 1988) CATANEO, Pietro I Quattro. Primi Libri diArchitettura, (1554). FULVIO, Andrea. Antichitá delta Cittá dt. Roma, (Venice 1543 ). MAGGI, Hieronymo. Delia Fortt/icazione delle Cittá, (Venice 1564). SERLIO, Sebastiano. Le Antichitá di Roma, (Venice 1540). TARTAGLIA, Niccolo. Ragionamenti... sopra la sua La Travagliata Inventione, (Venice 1551). VALLE, Battista della. Vallo, (Venice 1524). VIGNOLA, Jacopo Barozzi da. Le Regole del/e Cinque Ordini dell'Architettura, CRome 1562).

[660]

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Bíbliography

2. Works áted or used in commentary (introductions and notes)

{Other than those listed in l. A and B. above}

A. Ancient, Medieval and Early Modern, to 1800 APIANUS, Petrus. Cosmographicus Hber, (Landshut 1524). APIANUS, Petrus, Instrumentbuch, (Ingolstadt 1533). AGRICOLA, Georgíus. De Re Metallica, (Basell556). De Re Metallica, translated by HOOVER, H.C. & L.I. HOOVER (London 1912). BALDI, Bernardíno. In Mechanica Aristotelis Problemata Exercitationes, (Mainz 1621). BESSON, Jacques. Livre Prémier des Instruments Mathématiques et Méchaniques (n.p., n.d. 1571-2?). BESSON, Jacques. L'Art et Science de Trouver les Eaux et Fontaines Cachées soubs Terre, (Orléans 1569) {C/ edn. of A. La Roque (Columbus, Ohio 1969)} BIRJNGUCCIO, Vannoccio. De la Pirotechnia, (Venice 1540). SM11li, C.S. & GNUDI, M. T. The Pirotechnia o/Vannoccio Biriguccio, translated from the !tallan (American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. New York, 1942, 1959) CAUS, Salomon de. La Raison des Forces Mouvantes (Frankfurt 1615). CENNINO, Cenníno. The Cra/tsman's Handboook, <<11 Libro dell'Arte» trans. D.V. THOMPSON (New York 1960, original edítion 1933). ERRARD, Jean. Le Prémier Uvre des Instruments Mathématiques Méchaniques, (Nancy 1584). FRANCESCO DI GroRGIO, (Martíni). Trattati dz· Architettura Ingegnería e Arte Milt'tare, ed. C. MALTESE, transcription L.M. DEGRASSI (Milan 1967).

FRisrus, Gemma Renierus. De Locorum Describendorum Ratione et de eorum Dz'stantiis Inveniendis, (appended to bis edítion of Apianus' Cosmographicus Líber (supra) (1533 ). HOLANDA, Francisco de. Os Desenhos das Antigua/has que vio Francisco d'Holanda Pintor Portugues 1539-40, (Madrid 1940). KYESER, Konrad. Bellz/ortis, ed. G. Quarg (Düsseldorf 1967). ]UNTA, Thomas. De Balneis Omnia quae Extant, (Venice 1553). LOBATO, Francisco. Vida y Tecnica en el Renacimiento. Manuscrito de Francisco Lobato, vecino de Medína del Campo, introducción y estudio J.A. GARctA-DIEGO y N. GARC1A TAPIA (Valladolid 1987) MAURo, Lucio. Le Antichitá della Cittá di Roma, (Venice 1556). MONTAIGNE, Michel De. ]ournal de Voyage en Italie, F. Rigolot ed. (Paris 1992). PALISSY, Bernard. Discours Admirables de la Nature des Eaux et Fontaines, (París 1581). PAUSAI'IIAS, Description o/ Greece, (Loeb edn., London 1954-61). PLATIT!.R, Thomas. ]ournal o/ a Younger Brother. Trans, S. ]ENNETT (London 196.3 ). RAMELLI, Agostino. Le Diverse et Artt/itiose Machine, (París 1588).

RYFF, Walther. Mathematischen und Mechanischen Kunst, (Nuremberg 1547). SCAMOZZI, Vincenzo. L'Idea dell' Architettura Universale, (Venice 1615). STRADA, Jacobus. Künstlt'che Abriss, (Frankfurt 1618). [661]

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The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

STRADANUS, Johannes. Nova Reperta, ed. B. Dibner, (Burndy Library Publication no. 8 Norwalk, Conn. 1953). TACCOLA, Mariano. Marúmo Taccola and his Book De Ingeneis, eds. F.D. Prager & G. Scaglia (Cambridge, Mass. 1972). THEOPHILUS, De Diversis Artibus, ed. & trans. C.R. DODWELL (London 1961). UFANO, Diego. Tratado de la Artillería, (Brussels 1612). ZONCA, Vittorio. Novo Teatro di Machine et Edzficit', (Padua 1607).

B. Modern and Contemporary Works AVITZUR, S. On the History of the Exploitation o/ Water Power in Eretz-Israel, (Tel-Aviv 1960).

BAKER, M.N. The Questfor Pure Water, (New York 1949). BOYER, M.N. «Moving Ahead with the Fifteenth Century; New Ideas in Bridge Construction at Orléans». History o/Technology, (1981) VI:1-22. BOYER, M.N. <<A Fourteenth Century Pile Driver; the 'engin' of the Bridge at Orléans». History o/Technology, (1984) (IX:31-42). BOYER, M.N. <<Resistance to Technological Innovation; the History of the Pile Driver through the Eighteenth Century>>. Technology and Culture, (1985) XXVI: 56-68. DANIELS, J. & DANIELS, C. «The Origins of the Sugarcane Roller Mili». Technology and Culture, (1988) XXIX: 493-535. FoRBES, R. Studies in Early Petroleum Hzstory, (Leiden 1958). FERNANDEZ-CASADO, C. Ingeniería Hidraulica Romana, (Madrid 1985) GALLOWAY, J.H. «The Mediterranean Sugar Industry>>. The Geographical Review, (1977)

LXVII: 177-94. GARCtA-DIEGO, J.A. «The Chapter on Weirs in the Codex of}uanelo Turriano; a Question of Authorship». Technology and Culture, (1976) XVII: 217-234 . GARClA-DIEGO, J.A. & FRAGO GRACIA, J.A. Un Autor Aragones para los Veintiún Libros de los Ingenios y de las Maquinas, (Diputación General de Aragón, Zaragoza, 1988). García Tapia, N. Ingeniería y Arquitectura en el Renacimiento Español (Valladolic, 1990) GucK, T. Irrigation and Society in Medieval Valencia, (Cambridge, Mass. 1970)

HALL, A.R. Ballzstics in the Seventeenth Century, (Cambridge 1952). H uNTER, L. C. «The Living Past in the Appalachians of Europe; Water-Milis in Southern Europe>>. Technology and Culture, (1967), VIII: 446-466. ÍÑIGUEZ ALMECH, F. Las Trazas del Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial, (Madrid 1965) KELLER, A.G. «Archimedean Hydrostatic Theorems and Salvage Operations in Sixteenth Century Venice». Technology and Culture, (1971) XII: 602-617.

K!ELY, E.R. Surveying Instruments, (New York 1947). LóPEZ-SERRANO, M. Trazas de Juan de Herrera y sus Seguidores para el Monasterio del Escorial, (Madrid 1944). MULTHAUF, R. Neptune's Gi/t: A Hútory o/ Common Salt, (Johns Hopkins Studies in the History of Technology, new series no. 2, Baltimore 1978). [662]

fUNDACIÓJ\ JliA)IELO TURRIAJ\0


Bibliography

Thermae and Balnea,· the Architectural and Cultural History of Roman Public Baths, (Á.rhus 1990).

N IELSEN, l.

ÜLESON, J.P. Greek and Roman Water-Ufting Devices: the History o/ a Technology, (Phoenix Supplementary vol. 16: Toronto 1984). O'NEILL, H. Stone /or Building, (London 1965). PARSONS, W.B. Engineers and Engineering in the Renaissance, (1939; new edn. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass.-1968). PECKHAM, B.W. «Technological Change in the British and French Starch Industries, 17501850». Technology and Culture, (1986) XXVII: 18-39.

RETI, L. «A Postscript to the Filarete Discussion; On Horizontal Water-Wheels and Smelter Blowers in the Writings of Leonardo da Vinci and Juanelo Turriano». Technology and Culture, (1965) VI: 428-421.

REn, L. «Ün the Efficiency of Early Horizontal Waterwheels». Technology and Culture, Vlli: 388-394. SCHI0LER, T. Roman and Islamic Water-Li/ting Wheels, (Odense 1973). SANDSTRóM, G.E. The History o/Tunnelling, (London 1963). SMITH, N.F. A History o/Dams, (London 1971). SMITH, N.F. Man and Water,· a History ofHydrotechnology, (London 1976). SMITH, RC. Matenals o/ Construction, (New York 1966). VIGUERAs-GoNZALEz, M. La Tecnología Portuaria del Siglo de Oro Español, (Dirección General de Puertos y Costas, Madrid 1979). WILSON, P.N. Watermills with Horizontal Wheels, (Wind and Watermill section, Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, booklet 7, Kendal 1960). WuLFF, H. «A Postscript to Reti's Notes on Juanelo' Turriano's Water Milis». Technology and Culture, (1966) VII: 398-401.

[663]

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INDEX OF SUBJECTS

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fUNDACIÓl\ Jt..;A)IELO TURRIAKO


A

anchors:562;589; 600;601; 602;603; 610; 611; 613

absinth: 302

aniseed: 305

abutment: 522

antimony: 116;506

acid springs: 97

Antiquitates Urbis: 303

acid: 97

anvil:526

Acqua Felice: 174

apple tree: 478

acrid: 96; 97

apple: 468

Acliantum: 101

aqua fortis: 97

adjutage: 166

Aqueduct Virgo: 100

adobe: 248;295;347;577;594

aqueducts:; 85; 95; 149; 171; 173; 174; 176; 179-1; 186; 188-93; 195;219;242; 259;287;307;596

adobes: 502 adze:480

Arab astronomers: 142

aeolipile: 623; 624

Arabic (aljibe): 287

aguilones: 149; 161

Arabic: 317; 415

alabaster: 157; 158; 484; 488; 490; 498

Arabs: 299

alabasters: 157

Aragon: 118; 317

alcaduz: 149

araĂąencillos: 101

alcohol: 207

arch bridges: 509

alder:449;471;474;533 alembic: 89

arches: 509-12; 522; 524-28; 532; 543; 545;572;573;583

alignment level: 253-5

Archimedean hydrostatics: 588

almond: 468; 478

Archimedean screw: 510

almonds: 298

architects: 99; 101; 212; 220; 518; 522;

altimetric scale: 132, 139

552; 574; 576-8

alum: 92; 98; 111; 112; 115; 118-20; 122; 158;204;313;391;402-6;408;498;506

architectural: 484; 543; 578 Architecture Hydraulique: 322

alunite: 402 amethyst: 116

architecture: 131; 136; 138; 158; 181; 303; 356;377;443;460;521;551;552;576;577

Amiantus: 472

architraves: 526; 532 667

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The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

argo!: 152; 154

bastite: 490

Aristotelian dynamics: 2.31

bath: 311

Aristotelian mechanics: 2.31; .326

bathing: 115

arithmetic: 142; 146; 149

Baths of Caracalla: 288

arms: 398; 399

baths: 92; 114; 288; 289; 303; 308-11; 583

arquebus: 169

beach: 552

arsenal: 556

beech: 162;449;471;473 -6

arsenic: 117

beetle: 275;347

artĂ­fice: 57 6

belemnite: 116

artillery: 433; 441; 459; 500; 523; 524; 552

bell-metal: 323; 572

arubah: 317;.330;358

bellows: 464

asbestos: 472

bevel: 528; 553

ash: 449;469;471;47.3;475;476

Bible: 287

asphalt: 497

Biblical narrative: 296

ass: 538

Bibliotheca Historiae: 490

asthma: 116

birdlime: 159

astrologers: 131; 470

bitter orange: 474

astronomy: 142

bitter water: 124

attraction: 417; 420; 424

bitter: 97; 98; 126; 256; 297; 298

auger: 480; 481 axe: 480

bitumens: 82; 92; 93; 95; 96; 98; 111; 112; 116; 118; 120; 122; 150; 162; 601

azutes: 259

bituminous: 95; 118; 150; 487 black dye: 406 black lote: 476

B

black pine: 532 balance: 538

black poplars: 217; 471; 476

balsa y cubo: 330

black sand: 497; 596

ball bearings: 548

blacksmiths: 526

ball games: .310

bladder: 115; 116; 298

ball:581;598 banyan: 478

blades: 315 -17; 321-.3; .340; .344; .348-50; .366; .367; 464

barbicans: 553; 557; 558

bolt: .384; 385

barley: 297;389;392;394

bolted: .384

barths: 308

bolter: .38.3

basalt: 486

bolting machine: .38.3

bastion: 276; 584

bolting: .313

bastions: 279; 284; 577

Book of Levels: 253 668

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Index of Subjects

Book of Tunnds: 195

burnish arms: 284; 376; 398

boots: 405

burnt ochre: 303; 506

boreas. 300

buttercups: 101; 105

boring bars: 244

butterflies: 101

bornear: 143

e

boulders: 102 'boulting-hutch': 383

cadmia: 299

bowl: 495

caissons: 273; 583; 584; 587

box: 471;475;476

calamine: 117; 299

box-thorn: 292

camels: 589

brambles: 217

campania: 221

bran:384;385;396

camphor: 614; 615

brandy: 615

canallocks: 589

brass: 107; 169; 239

canal: 148; 219; 621

breakwater: 552

canals for navigation: 181

breccia: 486

candle: 613

briars: 217

canes: 397; 398; 440

brick-making: 501

cannon:526;589

brick: 151-4; 157; 158; 464; 483; 484; 500; 502; 644

cantilever bridge: 443

brickmakers: 483

cantilevered: 510

bricks: 161; 238; 464; 469; 500-8

cantoluta: 495

brickwork and tiles: 500; 501

caorises: 112

bridge of boats: 435; 559

Capillus Veneris: 101

bridge piers: 447

capstans: 241; 248; 250; 462; 601; 610; 613; 620

bridges: 211; 222; 223; 229; 232-4; 241; 255; 259; 273; 276; 431; 433 -441; 443-54; 456-58; 461; 479; 509-11; 518; 520; 524-32; 542;543;545-48;563;582;594; 601

caracolina: 164; 297; 486 carafe: 109 carob glue: 157

bronze: 166;274;279;299;300;494;522; 572;594;598;599;623;645

carreo: 360

bubble: 597

Carriage of che Gods: 84

bucket-chain: 415

carriage: 619-21

bucket: 321; 416; 627

carried: 541

buckets: 319; 322; 409; 416; 605; 607

cascade: 221

building stones of Aragon: 484

casks: 440; 441; 580; 598; 602; 609

buildings in the sea: 553; 554

castelo: 180

burato: 384; 385

castellum: 180 669

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1:

Castilian: 101

city: 561

cascles:529;545;547;579;587;591;600; 603

clapper: 353

cat-tail: 266

clay: 103; 124; 158; 165; 196;210;256; 295-7; 347

catarrhs: 115; 300; 302

clean a harbour: 604

cattail: 513

cleaning the harbour: 605

caverns: 84;86;89; 92; 93; 98; 180;303

deaning: 536

caves: 88; 91; 93; 118; 119;211;498

clepsydras: 623

cedar: 471;472;474-6;478

clocks: 351; 625-7

cellars: 90

cloths: 400

cenias: 414

cloves: 293

cevilla: 538

coagulant: 287

charcoal: 533

coagulation: 112

chain of pots: 390

coast: 552

chain towers: 569

cobble and brush weirs: 259

chain: 583; 602

cochleas: 417-419

chalcite: 115; 120

cofferdams: 273; 460; 461 -64; 509; 510;

512;551;580;587

chalk: 103; 124; 256; 307

colonnades: 561; 563; 569

channel-mills: 323; 328; 329; 351; 357

colophony: 153; 615

channel: 346

colossal: 524

chape!: 577

colt's foot: 101

charcoal: 159; 163; 165; 202; 644

columns: 526; 532; 558; 561; 563; 572;' 574

cheese: 151; 158; 159

compasses: 143; 144; 146; 198; 480; 507; 636

cherry: 471; 476

conduits: 120; 127; 143; 149-51; 156; 157; 160; 165; 166; 168; 169; 173; 180; 182; 190;201;203;205;207;208;213;214; 220;226;227;229;237;241;242

chest: 202; 449; 473-5; 592-4; 598 chestnut: 202; 449; 473 -5 chickpeas: 113

convents: 303

choler: 95

copper ball: 598

cholera: 114

copper pipes: 94; 163; 588

chorobates: 127; 138; 139; 143; 253

copper sphere: 588

chrysocolla: 92; 116

copper: 92; 107; 109; 113; 163; 166; 168; 169;239;288;297;300;389;400;416; 417;494;588;599; 613;614

churches: 242; 563 ciconia: 134 cinnamon: 293

copperas: 92; 115; 120; 158;405;406; 408; 615

cisterns: 87; 88; 125; 171; 287; 288; 290-6; 301;302;304;308; 343

corals: 303; 493

cities: 545; 547; 558; 561

coriander: 292; 306 670

il

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Index of Subjects

cork floats: 597; 598

De Aquis Urbis Romae: 100; 149

cork-tree: 471; 474

De Architectura: 310

cornel: 475; 476

De Diversis Artibus: 158

cornices: 526; 532; 573; 577

De La Anteguedad de Roma: 303

corona lisis: 573; 594

De Locorum Describendorum Racione: 143

corrosions: 149; 521

De Medicina: 122

corvus: 601

De Medicinis: 112

cosmographers: 147

De Ortu et Causís Suberraneorum: 81

Cosmographia: 143

De Re Aedificandi: 180

counterpond: 362

De Re Aedificatoria: 100; 112

counterweights: 356; 626

De Re Metallica: 81; 402; 405

cradles: 241; 242; 245; 246; 251; 253

De Re Militad: 578

cranes: 241; 355; 510; 536-538; 607

De Re Rustica: 101; 134; 204

cranks: 354; 383-386; 389; 424-27; 516; 545

deck:509;602;610;613

crankshatt: 354;397;420;424;425

deflector: 177; 358 deposition: 551 ; 552; 563; 566; 576

crape: 383; 384 crookstring:317;353;355;359;360;368

descending weights: 541

cross-beam: 580

dressings: 346 didoron: 503

crossbar: 534

Digest of Roman law: 180

crow: 601

dioptra: 139; 143-5

crowbar scoop: 535

distillatüon: 300

crowbar: 534-6

diver: 588

crown-wheels: 374

diving bells: 587; 588

ctesibica: 420

diving gear: 587

cubo:352

díving suits: 588

cuernos: 601

diving: 587

culantrillo: 101

docks:558;572

culvert: 173

dodrans: 149

customs house: 558; 569

Dog-star: 470

cylinders: 420; 424; 515

donkey mills: 313; 317; 374

cypress: 471; 473-6; 599

donkey:374 double-headed pick: 488

D

dovetails:521;522 dams:259;272;513

drainage: 220

damsel: 367; 383

drainpipe: 239; 291

De Antiquitatibus Judaeorum: 100; 125; 296

dwarf elder: 101 671

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The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

draughtsman: 576; 577

English: 287

drawbridges: 510; 526; 545-47

entrails: 114

dredge:518; 607

epilepsy: 163

dredgers: 510; 5.35; 588

ergata: 241

dressing: .346; .368

erosion: 119; 175; 259; 284; 509; 551; 552

drill: 459;460;580;581;587

esparto grass: 101; .395; 513; 514

dropsy: 115

esparto: 105; 397; .398; 426

droughts: 84

especo: 180

durmast oak: 471; 474; 476

evaporation: 105; 112

dwarf elder: 217

evergreen oak: 4 74; 4 76

dye: 400; 401

excavation: 518; 644

dyeing alum: 402 dyers: 400; 402

exhalations: 87; 88; 89; 90; 9.3; 98; 106; 113; 120; 122;300;56.3;645

dykes: 175

Exodus: 125; 296

dysentery: 108; 16.3

F

E

farriers: 578

earth grubs: .301

fennel: 292; 305

earthenware conduit: 227

ferry: 4.33

earthenware pipes: 222; 257

fĂ­bula: 443; 447

earthenware: 95; 106; 108; 109; 12.3; 125; 149; 151; 15.3; 156; 157; 159; 160; 16.3 -66; 168; 169:222;22.3;242;297;299; .300; 408;416; 487

fig-tree: 473 figs: 152; 475

earthquakes: 91

fir, pitch-tree: 469

eastern: .316

fir: 92; 202; 471; 473; 474; 475; 478

ebb and flow: 555

fish glue: 157

ebony: 474;476

fishermen: 580

ebulus: 101

fishing smacks: 611

eddies: 211;216;276;280;.3.39;.340;445;520

fishponds:221;239;288;.302

edge-runner presses: .394

fistula: 163; 165-8

edge-runner: .394; .396; .397

fleece: 107

elements: 8.3; 88; 224; .374

flint stone: 530

ehn: 159;292;.306;469;471;473-6;616

flint: 488

embankments: 552; 554; 557

floating milis: 369

emissario: 180

floats: 598

engineers: 519-21; 527; 5.30; 542; 549; 559-61; 576; 577

flood: 175;202;211;220;261;288; 302; 45.3;454;509;524

filtration: 112; 17.3; 287; 297

672

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;l\ Jt.:A>IELO

TURRIAJ\0


Index of Subjects

floods: 81; 87; 186; 188; 202; 208; 210; 222-4;231;233;235;261;267;284;286; 287;445;512;522;524;527;532;554;637

gardens: 237; 239 garlic: 159 gear: 323

floodwater: 211

gelatine: 150

flourmills: 315; 316

geodes: 103

flume mills: 321; 322; 324; 329; 330; 351

geographers: 91; 97; 111

flumes: 316; 324-6; 328; 329; 351; 358

Geographia: 84; 91

fluxes: 108; 163

geometers: 180; 629

fontaneros: 112

geometric quadrants: 139; 142

footbridge: 233

geometric square: 141-3

force pumps: 420; 424; 463; 586

geometrical calculation: 636- 637

fork to stir the kiln: 499

geometrical trígon: 142

fortification of harbours: 286 fortifications: 284-6; 543; 552

geometry: 131; 142;324;342;346;349;510; 524;552;557;565;576;623;628;637

fortresses: 555; 598

Germans: 260

fossiliferous: 486

gesso: 155

fossils: 492

ghiaia cantoluta: 495

foundations:512;518;520;532;535;553; 557;570;579;580;583;587; 644

giltheads: 239 ginger: 293

fountains: 119; 127; 131; 155; 238

glass ball: 597

friction: 548; 623

glass pipes: 163

frontages: 637; 639; 640; 642; 643

glass siphon: 225

fuller's earth: 391

glass windows: 598

fulling-mills: 313; 347; 383· 387· 389·' 391·' 525 )

)

glass: 152; 154-6; 158· 159· 164· 225· 296· , , , 492;498;588;597;598 ,

fulling-stocks: 391 goitre: 117

fulling: 621

gold: 111; 116; 164

furrows: 367

Gothic: 241 gourds:598

G

gout: 116 gabions: 214

grab:510;588; 604

galingale: 293

graduated leve!: 255

galleons: 600

grain: 363

galleries: 174; 241

grains of paradise: 293

galleys:558;584;598; 600

granite: 489

gallipuente: 190

grapevine: 478

gangways: 513

grass: 105 673

fUNDACIÓJ\ Jt.;A;-.¡ELO TURRIAJ\0


The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

hammers: 387; 389; 391; 392; 398; 424; 427;487;526;602

grasshoppers: 101 grate: 534

1

hand-mill: 354

grave!: 103; 105; 114; 298; 301; 307; 462; 464;495;525;530;582

barbour moles: 583; 587

gravelly sand: 495

harbour wall: 551

Greek authors: 299

harbours: 277; 278; 285; 535; 536; 551; 552; 558: 561-6; 569; 571-76; 578; 579;

Greek: 143;552; 623

572;578;583-85;588;592;594;598; 602-5

grid: 534

harona: 534

griego: 562

hatchet: 480

grillage: 532

hauling weights: 541

grille: 534

havens: 561; 572

grit: 530

hawthorn: 449;471

grout: 347

hazel: 533

groynes: 175; 214; 277

hazelwood: 480

guillochin: 514

heart: 538

gurn arabic: 151

helm: 600

gum tragacanth: 155

helmet: 597

gums: 115

Hellenistic: 415

gun-carriage: 526

hematite: 116

gunner: 578

hemp: 614

gunpowder: 174; 195: 525; 614; 615

hibernacula: 623

gunsmiths: 244

Historia Naturalis: 91; 111 Histories: 211

gypsum kiln: 498

hodometers: 131

gypsurn sifter: 500

hoe:494

gypsurns: 114; 116; 166; 200; 223; 256; 292;431;483;484;488;491;497-9

holmoak:202;242;264;323;329;366; 380;391;403;416;425;449;458;471; 473 -5;521;532;616

H

holly oak: 473; 474; 476 holly: 476

haematite: 111

honey of sugar: 398

hall: 89;301

honeycomb: 426

half-swirl-mill: 344; 346; 351; 363

hoppers: 317; 340; 352; 353; 355; 357; 358;360;363;368;372;384;385;535: 604;607; 608

half-swirl-back shroud: 344 hall: 614

horizontal milis: 316; 317; 321

hammer head mattock: 488

horizontal wheels: 316; 321; 330; 332; 333;335;338;340;342;357;358;362; 383; 394; 459

hammer-blows: 399 hammer-heads: 391 674

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;J\

JĂźA:-.IELO TURR!Al\0


Index of Subjects

hornbeam: 476

Italian authors: 497

horse: 538; 590; 621

Italian editions: 111

hot springs: 93; 95; 98

Italian terms: 484

hot vapour: 95

Italian translation: 303

hot water: 92

Italian: 81; 114; 435; 461; 484; 555

house for making vessels: 556

ivy: 101; 476

house for munitions: 556 huertas: 623

J

hulks: 581; 587; 592; 593 ; 611

J acob's staff: 142 jasmine: 23 7

I

jaspers: 153; 155; 156; 490 jets: 163; 238; 239; 322

incense: 153

jetties: 551

incile: 180

jib: 607

index-hand: 626; 627

Judges, book of: 287; 291

indigo: 156 ingenieros: 576

juices: 83; 87; 92; 95-98; 102; 113; 114; 118; 119; 122

inmissarium: 180

juniper grains: 292

Instrumentbuch: 227

juniper oil: 156; 472 juniper: 202; 216; 266; 471-3; 475

instruments: 131; 132; 134; 136; 139; 140; 142; 143; 145-47; 165; 167; 196-98; 207; 224;245;248;249;251;254;255; 265; 273; 461; 462; 464; 515; 5 17-9; 534-8: 586;596-98; 604; 608; 609

K keel: 600

insulated room: 623

keystones: 510; 528; 545

iron bar: 366

kidneys: 114; 298; 301

iron crowbar: 499

kiln for gypsum: 499

iron hoops: 264

kiln-shovel: 534

iron mallet: 263; 488

kilns:492;497-99;503

iron rings: 244; 245 iron rynd: 366

L

iron: 151-3; 157; 158; 163; 194; 196; 200; 265;274;280;292;293;321;323;328; 340;345;347;352;354;366;377

La RaĂ­son des Forces Mouvantes: 220 labyrinth: 472

irrigation: 120; 160; 175; 181; 207; 208; 220;231;237;259-61;264;269; 282;283; 411;412;414;478;615;621;624;628

lakes: 87; 113; 122; 222; 224; 288; 299-2; 599 lanterns: 323; 329; 338; 352; 356; 357; 370-2; 375-77; 379; 380; 383; 386; 397; 399;411-4;416;417;419;424;476;563; 583;604;605; 616; 617

isinglass: 151 islands: 623; 625; 637-39; 641-3

675

fUNDACIOJ\ Jt.;A~ELO

TURRIAKO


'~

The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

lapidaries: 158

lock-gate: 444; 461

larch: 471; 474-76; 92

locks:589;616;617

lard: 152

lote: 476

Latin editions: 111

lyes: 151; 153; 155; 159; 403; 406-8

LatĂ­n root: 287

M

LatĂ­n: 134; 149 t,

1atten: 522; 599

mace: 293

laurel: 476 11

mackerel: 239

laver: 563

machine theory: 510

laying pipes: 204

machine: 510

lead ball: 598

maidenhair of the well: 101

lead pipes: 163; 166; 222; 223; 238

maltha: 156

lead plates: 598; 599

rnallet:263;488;528;545;644

lead: 116; 156; 158; 163; 165-9; 222; 237; 242;245;299:300;354;406;506;521; 545;581;597;607;613;614;626

mallow: 105 maple: 469; 471; 476

leather: 376 lecio: 475

marbles: 153; 157; 158; 488-90; 496; 501; 644;645

lethargy: 301

marcasite: 120

levador: 317

Marcellus, De Medicarnentis: 117

levels: 79; 131-4; 136; 138; 139; 141; 143; 144; 146; 197;208;251-3;521

marine engineering: 589 marine erosion: 551

leveller: 253; 534

mariner's compass: 144

levelling instruments: 220; 226

maripuente: 190; 220

lewis: 510; 536

maritime pine: 473

Libro d' Arte: 150; 158

mar!: 95; 204

licorice: 292

marsh mallow: 101

light-houses: 584; 587

marsh: 105

lime kiln: 116; 483; 493; 494; 495; 498

Mary Rose: 589

limestone: 95

massicot: 153

linden: 469;475;476

mast: 543; 545; 600; 601; 607

linen cloth: 534; 599; 614

mastic: 151-4; 156-8; 614

linen: 297

rnathematician: 57 4

linseed oil: 107; 151; 152; 155; 157; 158; 615

mathematics: 336; 343; 352

litharge: 506

rnattock for stirring the lime: 494

liver: 114; 116; 301

mattock: 488; 499

Lives: 100

mattresses: 175; 214; 217; 218; 263; 266; 276;279

loam: 165 676

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;l\ JCA~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


Index of Subjects

ma~eed:216;266;644

mosquitoes: 101; 235

Mechanical Problems: 435; 510

moss: 269

mechanics: 374; 438

mountains: 84-88; 90-2; 95; 100-102; 123; 136; 143; 178; 180; 181; 183; 184; 188: 190; 195-7;203;209;224;242

Medicine: 120 Mediterranean ports: 551

moving of weights: 539

melancholy: 95

mud-mill: 588

melanteria: 115

muela: 200

menstruation: 115; 118

mulberry: 471; 474-6

mercury: 111; 125; 296

muricated oak: 474

meridian: 198

muscle: 374

metal: 522; 545; 644

muscle milis: 317; 351-3; 369; 374

Meteorologica: 82

muscle wheels: 414; 416

military engineers: 543; 552; 623

myrtle: 237

m.ilitary: 576 milk of figs: 151; 152

N

milk of tithymalus: 151; 153 naphtha: 118

milkwort: 151

narrow mattock: 499

mill-stones: 591

Natural Questions: 85

mili: 321

natural philosophers: 81

milipond: 328; 330; 357

navigation canals: 173; 175; 209; 214; 589

milis: 317; 346; 374

navigation: 148; 219 milistones: 317; 321; 323; 329; 334-6; 338; 340-7; 352-4; 356-8; 360; 363; 366-8; 371; 372;375;379;384;385;395;489;492

naviglio: 175

millwheel: 627

nests: 601

mine galleries: 174

New Red Sandstone: 103

mines: 85; 87; 93; 95; 112; 113; 174; 195; 199;402;405

night-soil: 408

misy: 98; 115

nippers: 510; 536; 537

mixts: 83

nitrous: 98; 111; 115; 126; 302; 521

mixtures: 113; 122

nivel de borneo: 253

mobile bridges: 434; 435; 510

noose: 609-11; 613

moles: 551; 557; 569; 570; 584

norias:409-11;414;416;588

molino de regolfo: 316; 317; 362

north: 562

molinos de sangre: 317

Nova Reperta: 389

mortar of lime and sand: 495

nozzles: 315; 316; 323-5; 327; 328; 331-2 334-6; 338-45; 347-50; 352; 359; 362-4

nerves: 115; 116

Nile: 84; 91; 299

Moslem: 316 677

fL'NDACIĂ&#x201C;J\ JUA~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juando Turriano

pebbles: 102; 10:3; 105; 116; 200; 462; 491;530

nuraghi: 496 nutmeg: 293

pedestals: 526; 532

o

penstock mili: 351 penstocks: :316; 317; 327; :328; 3:30; :331; 333 -5; :3:38-4:3; :346; :347; :350-2; :355; :358; :362

oaks: 162;202;222;223;236;242;251; 255; 265; 266; 269; 323; 324; 449; 468-71; 473 -75; 532; 533

pemadoron: 503 pentroughs: :381

octagenaria: 168

peperino: 487

ochre: 204

perfume: 310

oil-mills: 381; 391; :395

perpetua! motion: 316

oil-presses: :31:3; 424

perspective: 1:36

oil: 96; 107

petrol oil: 614; 615

olive and wild olive: 471

philosophers: 81; 99; 101; 111; 120; 125; 131; 182;296;324;336;349;352;368; 469;472;485-87;552;555;556;574

olive oil: 122; 126; 424; 472 olives: 107;202;:394;:395;:397;398;449; 473-6; 498; 5:3:3

phlegm: 114-6; 472; 95

On Stones: 96

pick with cutting blade: 488

onyx marble: 490

pick with diamond head: 488

open channel mili: 318

pick with heavy back: 488; 499

origin of water: 8:3

pick with sparrow beak head: 488

orpilnenc: 111; 116; 155; 156

picks: 487; 499

osier baskets: 592

picora: 196

osier: 279

piers: 276; 445; 447-9; 453; 454; 456; 458; 460; 461; 509-14; 517-21; 522-25; 527; 531;532;534;535;543;557;580;581; 583;586;591

osiers: 217; 266; 497 overshot vertical wheel: :320; :322; :328

pilasters: 569; 57:3; 596

p

pile-driver: 444; 457

pack-saddle: 538

piles: 301

paddle-wheel: 357

pine resin: 615 pine: 162; 196; 202; 245; 449; 469; 471; 473;474;476;5:3:3;599;615

paddles:329;:348;372;379;392;413; 419;426; 605

papyrus: 118

pipes: 85; 94; 95; 120; 147-50; 153; 156; 157; 160-6; 168; 169; 173; 176; 177; 179-81; 194; 195; 20:3; 205; 207; 222; 22:3; 226-29; 241-4; 252; 253; 256; 257; 284; 288; 290; 29:3;294;299;:307;379;397;400;417; 420;424;476;588;597;613

parallelogram: 635; 636

pit sand: 495; 496

pavemenc: 529; 530

pitch-pine: 474

pail: 61:3 painter's varnish: 157 palm:475

678

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;1\ JIJA~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


Index of Subjects

pitch: 92; 96; 152-4; 156-8; 242; 244; 264; 293;472;517;522;593;599;601;609; 614; 615; 644

purificacion: 112; 287; 296 pustules: 115 pyramids: 188

pits: 298

pyrites: 92; 115; 486

planisferio: 143 planisphere: 144; 174; 197; 198

Q

Plaster of París: 469; 491 plastering: 497

quadragenaria: 168

pleasure gardens: 205

quadrant: 138; 144; 625

plug: 239

quadrante: 143; 149

plumb-bob: 127

Quaestiones Naturales: 82

plumb-line: 521

quarrymen: 483; 492; 493; 576

Po, river: 210

quartz: 486

poker: 494; 495

quartzite: 486

polishing arms: 525

quays: 552; 563

pollard: 384; 385

quernites: 490

pond: 221

quinarias: 166-8

Pont Neuf: 509

quindenaria: 168

Ponte Santa Trinita: 509

quinquagenaria: 167; 168

pontoon brídges: 433; 447

R

pontoon mili: 316; 371 pontoons: 317;371

rag and chain purnp: 390; 417

poplars: 217; 245; 449; 476

rain: 83; 85; 87-90; 161; 288; 294; 298; 300; 318; 529; 563

porphyry: 490; 491 ports: 551; 552; 555-7; 560; 583

rainfalls: 82; 241

post and lintel bridges: 443; 457 postmill: 354

rainwater: 83; 85; 86; 88; 288; 290; 291; 293; 300; 301

potter's clay: 500

ram: 446;447;457;458;460;461

pound-locks: 589; 615

ramps: 529

powder: 375; 391; 392; 614; 615

ravine: 531

powdermills: 389; 391

receptacle: 84-5; 128; 180; 206; 406-7; 413

pozzolana: 484; 490; 497

red lead: 152; 153

precipitacion: 81; 82

red ochre: 303; 501

presa: 259

reed mace: 217; 266; 513; 514; 563

philosophers: 555

refractory: 487

promontory: 552

regolfo: 317

purnps: 390;400;404;407;417;420;515; 582;586;589;596;601

reservoirs: 85; 127; 180; 204; 222; 224; 294; 303 679

fUN DACIÓl\ JIJA~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

resins: 62; 96; 153; 615

salt-pans: 408

rice:389;392;394

salt: 90; 97; 111; 114; 119; 120; 123; 124; 169;296;406;408;496;596

river floods: 223 river sand: 495; 496

saltiness: 90; 97-9; 114; 123; 205; 256; 297; 302

rivers: 84-6; 89-91; 93; 97; 100; 119; 129; 200; 205-8; 210-7; 219; 220; 222-4; 232-5

saltworks: 408 salvage: 589

rock drill: 444

sand-banks: 583; 599

rock oil: 117; 118

rollers: 480; 498-500; 619

sand: 102; 105; 124; 165; 176-8; 205; 206; 210;215;239;275;279;285;293-5;297; 298;301;347;462;464;484;486;494-8; 500;501;508;520;521;525;552;554-7; 560;566;575;576;581;582;586;587; 592;594; 609;644

Roman arches: 509

sandarach: 116

Roman baths: 288

sandstone: 166; 196; 275; 486

Roman harbour: 552; 560

sarcophagus stone: 490

Roman naval base: 583

savin: 202; 216; 471; 473

Roman times: 443

scoop:494;495;534;536

Roman work: 173; 259; 288; 551; 578; 583; 588

scrapers: 462; 500; 510; 588; 607; 608

rock-salt: 492; 497 rocking-beams: 392; 397 roller milis: 397

screw presses: 394

rostra: 601

screw-pump: 417

round stairs: 574

screws: 390; 515-7; 586; 616; 617

rudders: 600; 601

Scripture: 99; 506

rule: 521 ruler: 521

sea bed: 566; 581; 585; 587; 597; 59J8; 610; 612

runner: 403

sea sands: 495; 600

rushes: 101; 217; 513; 514

sea shells: 155

rynd: 339; 340

seaweed: 514; 563 sedimentation: 173

S

senarius: 166; 167 serpentine: 490; 491

sagallon: 165; 500

service tree: 366; 476; 379; 615

sailors: 563; 576

setinaria: 166

sakieh: 415

Sette sale: 308

salagon: 196

settling tanks: 112

saltpetre: 120; 121; 124; 297; 313; 391; 614; 615;407;408

sheerlegs: 510; 536; 538

salt springs: 408

shellfish: 239

salt water: 114; 115; 120; 124; 221

shelly stone: 164; 166; 297; 486 680

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;l\ Jt.:A).IELO

TURRIAl\0


Index of Subjects

shipbuilding: 588

Spanish terms: 287; 484

ships: 520; 543; 545; 546; 558; 560-3; 588; 589; 598-602; 608-13

Spanish waterworks: 287 specus: 180

shorelines: 552

spike: 488

shores: 553-5; 557

spillway: 209

shovels: 494; 495; 535

spindle: 339; 340; 366; 426; 617

shroud-mill: 349

spleen: 301

shrouds: 316; 345; 347-51; 362; 364; 365; 386

springs: 81-93; 97; 111; 120; 128; 143; 151; 160; 171; 173-6; 178; 183; 186; 204-6; 219;222;224;227;255;288;298;300; 301;318;340;563;572;627;628

siege towers: 248 sieve: 500

spruce: 474-6

signs: 82; 100; 101; 105; 106; 128; 129

spur-whecls: 352

silica: 530

spurge: 151

silver: 111; 116; 163; 164; 92

square: 142

siphons: 224; 225

staircase: 237; 572

sling of the crane: 538

stairs: 238; 270; 291; 303; 304; 306; 363; 573

sling: 609; 611

stairways: 363

slipway: 590

stalactites: 493

smacks: 611-3

stamps: 284

snailstone: 491

starch: 395; 396

snows: 84; 85; 89; 99; 122; 256; 288; 300-2; 488

starlings: 449

soldiers: 576; 578

statues: 524

sole-tree: 317; 340; 344; 347; 358

steel: 323

sorb: 471; 616

steelyard: 321

sory: 98; 115

step level: 134; 136

South: 97; 562

steps: 238; 529; 563; 574; 585

spade: 494; 495

stibium: 116

spalt: 95

stocks: 621

spandrcls:524;526

stomach: 114-6; 302

Spanish: 81; 288; 319; 433; 457; 461; 476; 479

stone bridges: 255; 280; 381; 400; 433; 443; 457;458;460;465;511;557;580;586;596

Spanish baths: 289

stone: 166; 528

Spanish clay: 500

stonemason's hammer: 488

Spanish form: 504

stonemasons: 483; 484; 576; 577; 629; 644

Spanish names: 484

stream-lined: 520

Spanish port: 551

streets: 529; 530

Spanish practice: 260

stretcher: 538 681

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;J\ JCA~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

striding levels: 131; 137; 140; 147; 254; 255

throat: 115; 118

stucco: 158

riles: 483; 484; 487; 500; 503; 504; 506-8

Styx: 97

timber bridges: 529

subterranean fires: 121; 310

tin: 113; 494

subterranean lakes: 87

tithymalus: 150; 151

suction-pumps: 390; 461; 510

towers: 552; 558; 563; 584; 601; 602

sugar cane: 396; 397

towropes: 434; 435

sugar rnill: 396

tracery: 577

sugar: 397

tragacanth: 150

sulphurous: 82; 93; 95; 98; 111; 115; 120; 154-7;244;472;487;599;601; 614; 615

tramontana: 300; 310

summerhouse: 237-9

travertine: 484; 489

surveyors: 131; 139-1; 143; 251; 253; 623

trecenaria: 168

sweet chestnut: 474

crees: 467; 469-78; 496; 533

swimmers: 597

trefoil: 101

swirl-back: 316; 317; 328; 343; 344; 346-8; 351; 357; 362; 363;367;

trestles: 184; 185; 190; 253

transfer mili: 351; 360; 362

Triassic: 103

syphon: 219

tricenaria: 167 trigonometer: 142

T

trochite: 116 trolley: 590'

tale: 498

trombas: 163

tallow: 152; 156; 159; 601

trompas: 165; 166; 168

tanks: 173; 176; 177;205;206;226;227; 287;288;290;294;302-7;332;333;339; 343;344;347;350;407;411

trusses: 259; 443; 449; 451; 452 tunnels: 136; 174; 175; 195-8; 200-3; 219; 220;256

taona: 317; 352

Turkey oak: 471; 475

taps: 238; 290; 293; 304-7

turpentine: 92; 156; 157; 615

tartar: 154; 161

tympanum wheel: 464; 515

temperador: 317

tympanum: 390; 409; 412-4; 461; 510

temple: 644 tenter: 347

u

tests: 82; 105; 107-9; 111; 120; 123; 128

:

tetradoron: 503

underground: 82; 206

theologians: 86

undershot vertical mili: 320; 322; 330; 357-6

thermae: 288; 303; 307; 309

underwater illumination: 589

thermal springs: 583

urination: 114; 310

threshing-floors: 405

urine: 310

:

682

il

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;l'\ Jt.;A~ELO

TURRIAl'O


Index of Subjects

V

waterwheels: 318; 323; 335; 336; 338; 343; 344; 347-50; 357; 358; 360; 363-8; 399; 409;414;476;605

vapours: 108; 109;300;563 varnish: 152; 153; 157

waves: 285; 551 -8; 560; 566-8; 571-5; 579; 594;596;599; 602

vaults: 526; 569; 572; 573

wax: 152-8;264;425 -7;472;522;613

veins: 86-90; 93; 95; 96; 102; 114; 120; 130; 174; 176; 195;256;301;486;490;498

weight-level: 138 weight: 541; 542

verdigris: 152; 155; 156; 299

weights: 541

verditer: 155; 156

weirs: 171; 220; 232; 234; 259; 261; 263-9; 272; 273; 276-83; 286

vermilion: 155; 156; 303; 506 vertical milis: 316; 317; 321; 357

vertical wheels: 316-8; 328; 351; 372; 386; 394;398;399

wells: 83; 86;88; 90; 97; 99; 100; 120; 125; 128; 131;229;239;255;256;287; 290;291;293;294;296;298;302;304; 408;415;417;419;420;538;541;563; 627; 628

vicenaria: 168

wells, book of: 220

vine: 478

western Europe: 316

vinegar: 125; 296

whales: 497

vinestocks: 478

wbeels:318;320;323

vintena: 166

white lead: 152-4; 156

vertical waterwheel: 328; 372; 398

vicriol: 92; 111; 115; 120; 405; 406; 408; 615

white pine: 472; 473

vixigaria: 117

white poplar: 471

voussoirs: 510; 543

whitewash: 152-4; 292 whiting: 155; 156

w

whole swirl: 344; 363 wild olive: 449; 473-5

walnut: 202; 471; 473-6

wild pine: 473; 474

warehouses: 556; 558; 561; 563; 569

wild vines: 101

washing wool: 313; 400; 420

wild willow: 1O1

water mili: 321; 355; 315; 317; 375; 635

willows:217;471;475;476

waterbridges: 231; 234

water of the heavens: 86

wincbes:241;246;248;250;462;464; 510;536;548;597;598;607;610; 613; 617; 618; 620

water wheel: 341; 627

winds:351;353;354;425;562

water-clocks: 623; 625; 626

windlass: 377; 457; 535; 548

water-leve!: 138

windmills: 353; 354; 389

water-tank: 627

winds:354;562;564

waterwheel paddle: 348

wineskins: 441; 598

waters: 88; 90; 96; 97

683

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;J\ JUA~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

woad: 155; 156

y

wooden bridges: 255; 433; 443-7; 456; 469;545;547;591;595

yew: 471

wooden butts: 440

z

wooden mallets: 263 wooden pipes: 476

zaffer: 506

wooden shovel: 500

zonae: 303

wool-washer: 400

zoomorphic fossils: 484

wool: 313

zoroardia: 293

woolcombers: 165

684

Y:UNDACIĂ&#x201C;J\ JUA~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


INDEX OF PERSONS

fUNDACIÓJ\ Jt.:A~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


fUNDACIÓ1\ Jt..;A;-.!ELO TURR!Al\0


A

Austria, Juan de: 77 Avitzur: 317

Abacco, Antonio dall': 542 Abraham: 99

B

Aemilius: 100 Africa: 81

Baker: 124

Agrícola Georgius: 81; 82; 86; 91; 96-98; 111; 114; 116-8; 119; 402; 405; 407; 417;

Baldi: 435 Barbaro: 417

Alberti Leon Battísta: 100-2; 105; 112; 122; 124; 147; 163; 173; 174; 175; 179; 180;211;214;220;259;287;288;296; 297;300;315;433;443;447;467;468; 472;475-7;483;486;489;491; 492;494; 496;497;500;502;503;509;524;542; 551;561;588;589;599; 623

Bartoli: 100; 147; 467; 469; 489; 542; 561;

599 Bauer: 81 Bedel: 174 Belidor: 322 Berenice: 299

Alberti' collection: 484

Besson, Jacques: 82; 220; 459; 462

Alberti's chapter: 287

Biringuccio, Vannoccio: 389; 391; 402; 405; 407

Albertian passage: 483 Alexander the Great: 115

Brahe, Tycho: 374

Anaxagoras of Clazomenae: 85

Boyer: 457; 462

Antiochus: 299

Brueghel: 355; 398

Antipater: 115

e

Apianus: 143; 227 Apollo: 644 Apollonides: 300

Caesar, Julius: 443; 447; 478; 488; 509; 560

Apollonius: 300; 301

Cardano: 383

Aragon, Hernando de: 492

Cataneo, Pietro: 542

Archimedes: 131; 390; 417; 623

Cato: 467: 469; 471; 472; 473; 475; 476; 485;491

Aristotle: 82; 83; 85; 87; 88; 96; 108; 319; 435;477

Caus' Salomon de: 220 Celsus: 112; 122

Artemis: 644 687

fUNDACIÓJ\ Jt.;A~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

Fulvio, Andrea: 289; 303; 308

CenninoCennini: 150; 158 Cícero: 496

G

Claudius: 84; 174; 560 Coleridge: 93

Galen: 302

Columella: 101; 134, 204; 467; 469; 470

Galileo: 231; 303

Ctesibius: 420; 463

Garda Diego: 150; 259; 260; 579

Charles V: 579

Gemma Frisius: 143 Giorgio, Francesco di: 315; 354; 548; 552; 587

D

Glick: 623

Daniels & Daniels: 396

Gomez de Mora, Juan: 79; 171; 313; 431;

Darius: 490

549

Diana: 644

Granger, F.: 103

Diana, temple of: 476 Diocletian: 288; 308

H

Diodorus, king: 490; 496 Diodorus Siculus: 496

Hadrian: 211; 560

Domenichi: 302

Hannibal: 478

Durantino, Lutio: 417

Hanno the Carthaginian: 84

Dürer: 288

Herodotus: 211; 299; 496; 497 Hesiod: 469

E

Hippocrates: 113 Holanda, Francisco da: 589; 590 ·

Ecclesiastes: 86

Hoover, H. C. &

Empedocles: 95

L. H: 115; 402

Hunter: 391

Enoch: 506 Epigenius: 296

I

Errard, J ean: 131

Isidore: 469

F

Israel: 100

Ferdinand, king: 492

J

Ferdinand of Aragon, King: 221 'Flavius': 100

Jacob: 99

Francisco, King: 492

Josephus: 100; 112; 125;296

Fraustadt & Prescher: 113; 117

Junta, Thomas: 288

Frontinus, Julius: 100; 131; 149; 163; 166; 167; 168; 173 688

fUNDACIÓJ\ Jl:A:--IELO TURRIAJ\0


Index of Persons

L

Paulus: 100 Pausanias: 97

Laban: 99

Peckham: 395

Leon Battista, Alberti: 163

Persia, lcing of: 299

Lobato, Francisco: 316; 352; 354; 355; 362

Philip II. 79; 171; 313; 316; 579

Lot: 99

Picheroni: 443 Platter, Thomas: 462

M

Maggi, Hieronimo: 542; 543

Pliny: 91; 93; 95; 97; 98; 100; 111; 118; 119; 124; 149; 150; 152; 156; 157; 163; 166;204;288;296;297;299;302;467; 469; 470; 472; 473; 475; 478; 483-5; 490-2; 497; 503; 504; 507

Marcellus: 117

Plucarch: 100

MartĂ­n V: 492

Polybius: 299

Mauro, Lucio: 308

Pomponius Mela: 496; 497

Milo Brocchus: 117

Portoghesi: 467

Montaigne, Michel de: 219

Prado y Tovar, Diego de: 459

Morgan: 147

Ptolemy, Claudius: 84

Moses: 100; 125;296

Ptolemy Philadelphus, king: 84

Multhauf: 402

Pythagoras: 417; 516

N

Pythagoreans: 353; 355; 377; 383; 389; 409;417;462;510

Nabonabit: 211

Q

Marchi, Francesco: 588

Napoleon III: 447 Quixote, Don: 354

Nebuchadnezzar: 211 Nero: 488

R

Nicrotrixes, King: 212 Nitrocris: 211

Ramelli: 353; 461; 510

Noah: 506

Rebecca: 99

o

Reti:362

Orlandi: 100; 122; 163

Rufus Ephesus: 302

Rotrilo: 354

Ryff: 138

p Palissy: 82 Palladio: 443; 543 689

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;J\ Jt..;A~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

S

u

Samson: 287; 291

Ufano, Diego: 433

Scamozzí: 3 77; 459

V

Seneca: 82; 85; 88 Serlio, Sebastian: 289; 303; 308; 542 Severus: 308

Valckenborgh: 389

Shakespeare: 383

Valle, Battista della: 589; 623

¡

Sixtus V, Pope: 174

Varro: 467; 469; 469; 477

1'

Smith: 260;

Vegetius: 469; 470; 578; 587; 588; 597

Smith, N. F.: 483

Vignola, Barrozzi da: 542

Solinus: 124; 297

Vigueras Gonzalez: 551; 579

Strabo: 91; 300; 472; 478

Vinci, Leonardo da: 174; 315; 383; 548; 589

1• 1:

Strada: 355

Vitruvius: 97; 103; 105; 111; 116; 117; 127; 131; 138; 143; 147; 149; 156; 158; 163; 166-8; 173; 174; 180; 204; 219; 220; 227;241;259;287;288;310;377;390: 409;412;415;417;420;443;462;467 -9; 475;476;481;483;484;494;495;497; 500;503;509;542;551;573;594; 623; 624; 644

Stradanus: 389; 397; 398

T Taccola: 417; 587 Tacitus: 100; 487; 488 Targone, Pompeo: 357

w

Tartaglia, Niccoló: 142; 587-9; 623 Tatius: 100

Wilson: 317

Theophanes: 300

Wulff: 362

Theophilus: 96; 97; 158;301;467; 469; 472-5; 477; 490

z

Theophrastus: 108 Titus: 308

Zonca:357;391;398;589;590

Trajan: 443; 560; 599 Tun:iano,Juanelo: 79; 171; 175; 313; 431; 549

1

1

1

690

fUNDACIÓl\ Jt:A~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


INDEX OF PLACES

fUNDACIร“1\ Jt..;A;-.ยกELQ TURRIAl\0


o

07:

,-:o-

-rn;;¡.. :>r()

;;;:¿o

S~~

-i ...... '"'l

0"-

N

'l)

-··

•Leciñena

• Cariñena

Epila•

Map o/ North-East Spain. Ruth E. Pollington

eTeruel

• Cañadavellida

•Aicañiz

ta Muel~ • Puebla de Aborton

Zaragoza~

Gallocantae

Calatayud •

Arandae

r

t


A

Aqua Augusta: 167

Aedui: 492

Arabia: 97; 118; 149; 174; 189; 236; 259; 287;298;318;397;409;479;483;484; 488;489;490;493;496;497;623

Aegean: 204 Africa: 84; 181; 221

Aragon: 149; 173; 175; 190; 200; 220; 287; 318;468

Agrigento: 118

Ara: 479

Alban: 487

Aranda:489

Albanum: 488

Arco: 298

Albogenera: 97

Arethusa: 93

Alcantara: 509

Aretine: 503

Alcañiz: 236

Arga:479

Alcazar: 175

Ariana: 478

Almagro: 354

Ariccia, lake of: 599

Alpes Maritimes: 116

Ariccia: 599

Alph: 93

Armenia, mountains of: 300

Alpheus: 93

Amo: 174

Alps: 116,479

Arsion: 97

Alquezar: 489

Asia: 302; 496; 504

Alsace: 288

Assus: 490

Amberg: 118

Arhens, city of: 562

Americas: 510; 551

Aclanric islands: 397

Anatolia: 490

Aclantic:479;551;588

Anca: 479; 480

Augsburg: 417

Andalusia: 220; 397

Augusta: 167

Annwerp:433;457

Austria: 116

Apennines: 479; 489 Appia: 167 Apollo, temple of : 644 Aqua Appiana: 167 693

fUNDACIÓJ\ Jt.;A).IELO

TURRIAJ\0


The Twenty-One Books of Engíneering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

B

Canaan: 174 Cañada Vellida: 489

Babylon, tower of: 506

Cantabrian mountains: 321

Babylonia: 118, 211; 496

<;arago~a:

93

(e/.

Zaragoza)

Baia: 583

Cardona: 118

Baiae: 583

Carmona, pipes of: 189

Barbary: 503; 579

Carmona: 189

Barbegal: 342

Cartagena: 402;551

Barcelona: 118; 366; 489; 551

Carthage: 118; 119; 478; 496

Basilicata: 489

Cary: 496

Bath: 288

Carystos: 472

Battaglia: 212; 220

Cassandria: 490

Bavaria: 118

Castile: 101; 496

Baya, port of: 583; 585 Belchite: 489

Catalonia: 101; 118; 189; 318; 394; 489; 493

Black Sea: 555

Caucasus: 300

Bohemia: 97

Caucuci: 94

Bolsena: 487

Cilera: 116

Borysthenes: 299

Cilicia: 97

Brenta: 589; 590

Cinca: 479

Brescia: 117

Cismone: 443

Britain: 260; 551

Civitavecchia: 560

Budini: 496

Collatine Way: 100

Bulgaria: 391

Constantinople: 555

Burgos: 504

Crocano: 119 Curia: 117

e

Curmeroe: 119 Cyprus: 497; 498

Ca' Fusina: 590

Cyzicus: 490

Cabriel: 479

Chad: 84

Caesarea: 551

Chalcedon: 118

Calabria: 119

Chiana: 490

Calatayud: 487

China: 321; 397

Calento: 504

Choaspes river: 299

Callet: 503; 504

Chur (Curia): 116

Camonica: 117 Campos, Terra de: 496 694 ¡, 1

fUJ\DACIÓJ\ Jl.iA)IELO TURRJAJ\0


Index of Places

D

Euripos: 555

Danube: 433; 443

Europe:241;288; 315;316; 318;321; 322; 383;415;551

Daroca: 174

F

Demonnesus: 118; 119 Dnieper: 299

Flanders: 354 Dorfa: 94

Florence: 490; 509

Dover: 551

Fonz:489

Dutch: 260

France:82; 181;260;299;354;491;492;

551;558 1

E

Friesland: 94; 433 Further Spain: 503

East India, cypress of: 474 East Indies: 476; 496

G

eastem Europe: 391 eastern Spain: 483

Gabinium: 488

Ebro river: 214; 285; 288; 299; 408; 479; 579

Gallego: 479; 480

Eduy: 492

Gallocanta: 489

Egypt, king of: 299; 302; 472; 496

Gaul: 289

Egypt: 211;472;473;476

Gelnica: 97

El Coronil: 504

Genoa: 488

Elbogen: 97

Germany: 84; 94; 97; 111; 113; 288; 299; 354;443;589;607

Elche: 260

Golnitz: 97

England: 288; 551; 589

Grande, river: 97

Ephesus: 644

Greek: 82;86; 118;288;303;307;474; 478;496;503;562

Epila: 489 Escorial: 316; 322; 362

Grisons: 116

Esmolico: 97

Guadalaviar: 479

Espiga: 490

Guadalquivir: 285; 374; 510; 543

Equator: 81

Guastalla: 435

Esquiline: 308

Guinea: 84

Ethiopia: 91

Gulf of Valencia: 479

Etna, Mount: 96 Etruscan: 487

H

Euboea: 474; 555 Euleus river: 299

Halle: 113

Euphrates: 211; 212

Heda: 119 695

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;J\ JliA)IELO TURRJAJ\0


T 1

The Twenty-One Books of Engíneering and Machines of Juanelo Turríano

Hellespont: 84

Lake Fucíno: 174

Himalayas: 321

Lake Garda: 478

Himera: 96; 97

Lake Nerni: 588; 599

Hispania Tarraconensís: 288

Lake Píe de Lobo: 489 Languedoc: 462

I

Lilttes: 462 Le Havre: 551

Iceland: 119

Le Marmore: 489

India: 478 Indlan Ocean: 496; 543

Lecíñena: 489

(e/

East Indies)

Lencína: 489

Indles: 543

Libya: 84

Inn (Üeno): 116

Liparí: 96; 97

Ionían: 86; 93; 552

Loire: 492

Isabena: 479; 480

Loket: 97

Israel: 100; 296; 551

Lupartus: 298

Istrian: 488; 489

Lycia: 95

Italian Alps: 118

Lyncestes, river: 114

Italy: 91; 92; 111; 118; 119; 149; 166; 174; 181;210;212;220;260;288;299;354; 355;357;372;383;391;398;402;459; 478;480;483;484;487;489;490;493;

M

495-7;508;510;524;552;562;589

Macedonia: 490 Madrid: 488; 489

J

Malaga: 551 Malta: 152; 157; 158; 492; 493

Jucar: 479

Mantua: 435 Marche: 117

K

Marmara, Sea of: 118; 490; 555 Marmerica: 97

Karkhedon: 118

Martín, river: 299

Karun: 299

Masa: 504

Kerkha: 299

Masitolus: 84

Khalkedon: 118

Massa: 504 Mavronero: 97

L

Maxilua: 503 La Ampolla: 579

Mazarron: 402

La Rochelle: 558

Mediterranean: 81; 397; 551; 555

Laguna di Retia: 118

Medulli: 116; 117 696

1"

.[il -

fL1\DACIÓ1\ .n..;A:'IlELO TURRIAJ\0


Index of Places

o

Mellan earth: 204 Melos, island of: 204

Oenus: 117

Mecida: 189

Olympus Mount: 100

Mesopotamia: 91; 211

Ostia, port of: 552; 560; 583

Miastolus: 84 Middle East: 91; 256; 315; 321; 415

p

Mijares: 479; 480 Mississippi: 124

Pacific: 588

Moab: 100; 126;296

Padua:212;589

Modenese: 117; 118; 503

Pamplona: 478-80

Monguy:489

París: 498

Montesa: 489

Peloponnese: 93

Montjuic: 489

Pergamene: 504

Monviedro: 189

Persia: 174; 299

Monzon:489;493

Persian kings: 299

Moors:220;288;484;502;503

Perugia: 98

Morea: 93

Phansia: 118; 119

Moslems: 288

Pie di Luco: 489

Mountains of the Moon: 85

Piombino: 478

Muela: 489

Piraeus, harbour of: 562

Munychia: 562

Plombieres-les-Bains: 288

Murano: 588

Po:299;435 Pobla da Abortón: 489

N

Poggio Reale: 221 Poland: 408

Naples: 91; 117; 490; 496 Negroponte: 474; 555

Polita: 119

(e/ Euboea)

Pompeii: 119

Nera, river: 489

Pont du Gard: 181

Nervi:496

Ponte Sant'Angelo: 211

Netherlands: 357; 588

Pon tus: 97; 298

Neuri: 496

Ponvin: 478

New World: 77

Poo river: 299

Niger: 84

Populonia: 478

Nile: 81; 84;85; 91;297;299;302

Portuguese: 84

Norium: 116

Pozzuoli: 91; 490 Pratolino: 220 697

f~DACIÓJ\ JCA~ELO

TURRIAKO


The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

Propontic: 555

Sassoferrato: 117; 118

Pyrenees: 479

Sassuolo: 118 Saxony:81; 94 Scottish: 317

R

Scheldt: 433 Recia, lago de: 599

Schraplau: 113

Retia, lagoon of: 119

Schula: 91

Rhaetia: 116; 117

Sebari: 489

Rhine: 443; 447

Seeburg: 113

Rhodes: 119

Segovia: 189

Rialto: 509

Segre: 479

Riccia: 599

Seguntine: 503

Rieti: 118

Seine: 433

Rivagorza: 493

Sele: 489

Roca: 489

Serapelo: 113 (e/ Schraplau)

Roda: 493

Seville earth: 406

Roman aqueduct: 181; 189

Seville: 189;285;374;504;510;543

Roman Empire: 163

Shoals of Tortosa: 596

Roman engineers: 212; 357

Sicily. 93; 96; 97; 118; 397

Roman: 100; 116; 134; 149; 180; 189;288; 297;342;487;504;509

Sidines: 91

Rome: 100; 117; 167; 174; 183; 2 11; 288; 299;302;303;308;443 ;487;488;492; 493; 496; 551

Silari: 489

Rouen:433

Sinvao lake: 302

Sierra Leone: 84

Sinderra: 116; 117

Slovakia: 97

S

Smolnik: 97 Spain, eastern: 330; 397; 241

Sadava: 189

Spain:77; 79; 175; 181; 189; 214; 220; 221; 249;260;288;299;316;321;354;398; 402;467;476;497;502;502;504;506; 509;510;551;577;588

Sagundo aqueduct: 189 Saguntum:478 Sahara: 81

Spaniards: 260

Samian: 503 Samos: 174

Spanish: 120; 149; 175;220;260;287; 299;357;362;479;483;503

Sannauslake:302

St. Lawrence: 124

Saragossa: 487 -9; 492

(e/. Zaragoza)

Statones: 487

Sardinia: 496

Styx: 97; 115

Sarno: 117; 119

Sundertal: 116 698

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;J\ Jt.;A).IELO TURRIAJ\0


Index of Places

Susa: 299

Tuscan: 174; 175;495

Sweden: 91

Tuscany: 117; 478; 487

Swit.zerland: 116; 288

Tyrol: i16

Syracuse: 93

u

Syria: 174; 497 Syria, king of: 299; 498

Ukraine: 496 USA: 317

T

Utica: 476; 478 T agliacozzo: 117

V

Tagus: 175;299;479;509;588 Tarragona aqueducts: 189

Valcarnonica: 116

Tarragona: 189; 552; 560

Valencia: 189; 318

Tela: 84

VenetianLagoon:590

Temavus: 93

Venetians: 488; 589

Terra di Lavoro: 119

Venice: 288; 302; 308; 509; 589; 590

Terracina: 560

Verona: 492; 493

Teruel: 174; 189; 489

Vesuvius: 119

Thala: 84

Villa d'Este: 220

Thebes: 497; 498

Villa Lante: 220

Thessaly: 115

Vistula: 433

Tiber: 183 Tibesti: 84

w

Tigris: 91 Toledo: 175; 588

West !odies: 318

Tolfa: 402

Wieliczka: 408

Tolosa: 489; 492

z

Torre de las Arcas: 299 Tortosa: 285; 579 Troad: 490

Zaragoza: 236

Troy: 478

Zea:561

Tunisia: 478

Zillertal: 116

Turkey: 97; 298

699

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;l'\ JCA).IELO TURRJAJ\0


fUNDACIÓl\ Jt.:A)IELO TURRJAJ\0


CONTENTS

fUNDACIÓl'\ Jt.:A~ELO

TURRIAI\0


-

fill\DACIÓJ\ JUA)IELO TURRJAl\0


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..................................................................................... ....

11

PRESENTATION ... .................. .................................................................................

13

PROLOGUE ...............................................................................................................

15

Pedro Laín Entrago PREFACE OF THE TRANSLATOR ..... ............... ................ ..................................

17

Alex Keller REFLECTIONS ON VEINTIÚN LIBROS DE LOS INGENIOS Y MÁQUINAS

19

José Antonio García Diego

CODEX ................................................................................................................................

25

Report of Benito Bails on the Joanelo Turriano

FIRST PART........................................................................................................................

31

Description of the Codex

SECOND PART..................................................................................................................

43

History of the Codex

TIIIRD PART .....................................................................................................................

53

The Atribution The terms of the problem ........................ .................................................. Signs of identity .. .. .... ......... ..... ... ..... .. .... .... .... .. .. .... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .... The Turriano Hypothesis .......................................................................... The Hypothesis of a collaboration of Giovanni Francesco Sitoni......... The Pedro Juan de Lastanosa Hypothesis ...............................................

53 54 62 65 67

FOURTH PART .................................................................................................................

71

An Epilogue for today [703]

flfl\ DACIÓJ\ JCA)IELO TURRIAl\0


The Thenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano .

THE TWENTY-ONE BOOKS OF ENGINEERING AND MACHINES OF JUANELO TURRIANO ...... ..................... .......... ..... .... ......... ..... ..... .... ..... .... .... ..... .......

75

FIRST VOLUME

FIRST BOOK ...................................................................................................................... Incroduction ............................... ............................................................................ Of the qualities of waters, and their properties, and their generation, or origin ... The effects of water, and of things which are formed inside the earth ...... ........ Of the grossness of waters ................................... .................................................. Of the signs for finding water which is concealed within the earth .... ...... ......... The signs for finding water, and which of them are most reliable ......................

79 81 83 91 98 98 101

SECOND BOOK................................................................................................................. Introduction ........................................................................................................... The search for water ........................................................................................ Of the tests to be roade to find water ... ........ .... .. .. .. ... .. ... ..... .... ..... ... .. .... ... .... .. .. .. ..

105 105

TH1RD BOOK ..................................................................................................................... lntroduction ........................................................................................................... Tests for quality and purity ............................ ................................................. Tests for purity ...... .... ...... .... ..... ..... .... ..... .... ..... .... ..... .... ..... .... .... ..... .... ..... ... ...... How can we know if water be good or not ..........................................................

111

FOURTH BOOK ................................................................................................................ Introduction ........................................................................................................... T apping the source .... ... .. ... .. ... .. ... ...... .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... .... .. ... ... . .. . Levelling instruments .. ...... .... ..... .... ..... ..... .... ..... .... .... ..... .... ..... .... .... ..... .... ..... ... Of levels and their shapes ......................................................................................

127

FIFTH BOOK ..................................................................................................................... Introduction ........................................................................................................... On pipes: a continuation of book four ........................................................... Adhesives and sealants ................................................. .................................... Of cements of different kinds which is the fifth book .. .... ... .. .... .... ... .. ... .. ... ...... ... Book which ceaches how to make lead pipes, or fistulae and trompas of metal. It is from the fourth book ......................................................................................

149 149

105 106

111 111 111 113

127 127 127 128

149 150 151 166

SECOND VOLUME

SIXTH BOOK ..................................................................................................................... Introduction ....................................................... ..... .................. ..... .... ....... .. ........... On conveying water, and aqueducts ............................................................... Book of tunnels ..... ..... .. ..... ..... .... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .... ..... .... ..... .... ..... .... ..... .... ..... On conveying water in various ways and on aqueducts ............................................

171 173 173 174 176

704

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Contents

SEVENTH BOOK ............................................................................................................. . lntroduction .......................................................................................................... . Passing one stream under another ............................................................... .. T o convey one stream under another ................................................................ ..

219 219 219

EIGHTH BOOK .............................................................................................................. .. Introduction ......................................................................................................... .. Of the differences in the conveying of springs .................................................. .

. 241

NINTH BOOK .................................................................................................................. . Introduction .......................................................................................................... . Book of weirs ................................................................................................. .. Which treats of various kínds of weírs .............................................................. ..

259 259 259 261

TENTH BOOK .................................................................................................................. . lntroduction ......................................................................................................... .. Book of tanks and cisterns ............................................................................. . Baths ................................................................................................................ . Of tanks and cisterns, and how to make them .................................................. .

287 287 287 288 290

222 241 241

THIRD VOLUME ELEVENTH BOOK........................................................................................................... lntroduction .. ..... ...... .. ..... ..... ...... ... .... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...... ..... ..... ..... .... ..... ..... .... ..... ..... Book of milis .. .... ..... .... ..... ..... ..... .... ..... ...... .... ...... ..... ..... ..... .... ..... ..... .... .... ...... .. Book of milis. Notes on terminology ............................................................. The eleventh book deals with various kínds of milis .... .... ..... ..... ..... .... .... ...... ... .

315 315 315 317 318

TWELFfH BOOK ............................................................................................................. lntroduction .............................. ............................................................................. The belting machine .. ... .. .. .. .... ..... .... .. .. .. .... .... ... .. ... .. ..... .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. .. .... .. .. ... .. .. ..

383 383 383

THIRTEENTH BOOK ...................................................................................................... lntroduction ........................................................................................................... Water in industry ............................................................................................. Book of milis, Fulling milis, oil milis and various types of device of the same fashion, to draw water, to make alum and saltpetre and to wash wool and doth

389 389 389 391

FOURTH VOLUME FOURTEENTH BOOK ..................................................................................................... lntroduction ........................................................................................................... Book of pontoon bridges .. ...... .... .... .. .. .. .... .... .... .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .... .. ..... .... .... The book of boats used instead of bridges to cross rivers: and of bridges .... ..

433

FIFfEENTH BOOK.......................................................................................................... Introductíon .. ......................... ................................................................................ Book of wooden bridges ................................................................ ............ ..... Bridges of wood alon ............................................................................................

443

433 43 3 434 443 443 445

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The Thenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

SIXTEENTH BOOK ..........................................................................................................

467

Introduction .. ........ ... ...... ...... ....... ...... ... ..... .... ... .. ... .. ..... ..... ...... ... .... .... ..... .... ..... ...... Book of Trees and Timber ............................................................................... On timber and stones, and how they are cut and hewn, and how lime plaster and different kinds of bricks are made .......................... ......... ......... ......... ............

467

On the methods to be used for preserving wood after it has been cut............... Of trees: a summary ...............................................................................................

471 477

SEVENTEENTH BOOK ...................................................................................................

483

Introduction ..... ..... ................. ......... ....................................................................... Book of stones and other building materials .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Chapter on stones in general, and at what time they should be hewn at the quarry, and at what season they should be worked, and which are the most easily breakable and which the hardest .. .... .... .. .. .. .... .... .. .. .. .. .. .... .... .... .. .. .. .... .... ....

483 483

467 469

485

On the qualities of stones, and the method of making tiles and other earthenware decorations for buildings .... .... .... .. .. .. .... .... .... .. .. .. .. .. .... .... ...... .. .. .... ... What type of stone is best for making mortar ...................................................... At what season earth should be dug for making bricks, and at what season bricks should be worked and baked .....................................................................

501

EIGHTEENTH BOOK ......................................................................... .............................

509

Introduction ........................................................ ................................................... Stone bridges .................................................................................................... Book on how to make the piers of stone bridges in diverse ways .. .... ... .. .. ..... .. .. .

509

487 491

509

511

FIFTH VOLUME

NINETEENTH BOOK ......................................................................................................

551

Introduction ........................................................................................................... Harbours ........................................................................................................... Book of constructions in the sea: and how they are to be built and fifted out in various ways .......................................................................................................

551

TWENTIETH BOOK ........................................................................................................

587

Introduction ................................... ........................................................................ Working under water....................................................................................... Diving ......................................... ......... .............................................................. Design of Ships ................................................................................................. Dredgers ..................................... ..... ........ .. ....................................................... Salvage ................................................................ .............................................. Underwater lliumination ..................... ... ....... ... ............................... .. .............. Canal Locks ..................... .. ............................................................................... Slipway .......... ........................................ ...... ......... ..... .............. ......... ......... ........ To make defences for harbours, so that fleets cannot enter here .......................

587 587 587 588 588 589 589 589 590 591

551 553

. 706

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Contents

TWENTY-FIRST BOOK ...................................................................................................

623

lntroduction .................................................... ........... ..... ........... ................ ............ Which deals with the division of waters, of islands and other matters of water

623 625

TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES USED IN THE 'TWENTY-ONE BOOKS' .......................................................................................................................

653

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS ClTED OR USED IN TEXT AND COMMENTARY

657

INDEX OF SUBJECTS .............. ..... ............... ..... ...... ..... ...... ..... ..... ..... ...... ..... ............

665

INDEX OF PERSONS ........ .............................. .......... ...... ..... ..... ..... ...... ..... ........... ....

685

INDEX OF PLACES ..................................................................................................

691

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fUNDACIÓ1\ Jt.:A:'IIELO TURRIAI\0


The prínting of thís book was concluded on January 28th, 1998. the fourth anníversary of the death of José Antonio García-Diego, who was the founder of the Fundación Juanelo Turriano.

English purchasable edition o/ 500 copies, numbered /rom 1 to 500 Copy no

45

fUNDACIÓ"I\ JuA:-IELO TURRJAl\0


fUNDACIÓl\ JuA)IELO TURRIAl\0


fl.JNDACIÓJ'\ Jt.:A~ELO

TURRIAJ\0


21_BOOKS_ENGINEERING_MACHINES_EnglishTranslation_Bibliography  
21_BOOKS_ENGINEERING_MACHINES_EnglishTranslation_Bibliography  

The twenty one books of engineering and machines of Juanelo Turriano, english translation - Bibliography