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UNDERSTANDING OUR REACTION TO THE MACHINE Thoughts on smart white paper from the think on paper series of promotions from French paper.

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REM *********Start Menu********************************** MENUITEM=1, SYSTEM LOAD MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY VALLEY START UP INFORMATION LOAD SMART WHITE PAPER THE VALLEY

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HUMAN

EMOTION

FEAR

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FAMILIARITY

CREA000

T H E 1 0 1 1 1

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THE UNCANNY VALLEY

MOVMENT

MACHINE

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I

t is said that God created man in his own image, Likewise men strive to create in their own image until the day comes that man is able to create life.

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Despite all of it’s flaws, hum a n i t y h a s m a n a g e d 100 01100101 to adva n c e i t s e l f t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e s c i e n t i s t 10100 and engineers can cre a t e l i f e l i k e m a c h i n e 0001 01101110 known as r o b o t s . T h e s e m a c h i n e s p o s s e s s 01100100 abilities reneging form s i m p l e t a s k s s u c h a s 100 01110011 moving small object to more comp l e x t a s k s 1101001 01101110 such as defusing bom b s . E v e r y a d v a n c e m e n t 00 01101001 in robotics closes the gap b e t w e e n m a n , a n d 0101 01110010 robot just a bit mo r e . S o o n t h e d a y w i l l c o m e 0 01101001 when the appearance of a ma c h i n e w i l l b e 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 00100000 indistinguishab l e f o r m t h a t o f a h u m a n . T h e 0 01110011 question at hand i s , h o w w i l l h u m a n i t y a s a 0 01100101 whole react to these huma n l i k e m a c h i n e s . 1 0 1 1 0 0 01101001

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Smart White Programmed for maximum opacity, brightness of 98 (independent lab tested), and an ultra-smooth uncoated surface. It's not only brighter than you computer monitor, but after looking at your project on screen, Smart White will make the final printed project look better, by holding a better four-color process dot screen. With over 125 years of paper making behind us, our Smart White line has proven to be light years ahead of the competition. Unlik other, more generic white papers, Smart White pushes the envelope (as well as text and cover) to a whole new level.

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STUFFED ANIMAL

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Masahiro Mori Masahiro Mori (森 政弘; Mori Masahiro, born 1927) is a Japanese roboticist noted for his pioneering work on the emotional response of humans to non-human entities, as well as for his views on religion and robots. @ In 1970, Mori published “Bukimi No Tani” (English title: The Uncanny Valley) in Energy. The article forwarded the hypothesis that as robots become more humanlike, they appear more familiar until a point is reached at which subtle imperfections of appearance make them look eerie. The observation lead Mori to the belief that robot builders should not attempt to make their creations overly lifelike in appearance and motion. @ In 1974, Mori published The Buddha in the Robot: a Robot Engineer’s Thoughts on Science and Religion in which he discussed the metaphysical implications of robotics. In the book, he wrote “I believe robots have the buddha-nature within them--that is, the potential for attaining buddhahood”. @ In 1988, Mori founded the first nation-wide robot-building competition in Japan and has widely promoted robot competitions in the years since then. = Mori is currently president of the Mukta Research Institute, which he founded in Tokyo in order to promote his views on religion and robots. The institute also provides consultation on the use of automation and robotics in industry.

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The robot he word robot was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots), which premiered in 1921. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, but they are closer to the modern ideas of androids and clones, creatures who can be mistaken for humans. They can plainly think for themselves, though they seem happy to serve. At issue is whether the robots are being exploited and the consequences of their treatment.

INDUSTRIAL ROBOT

HUMANOID ROBOT

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THE UNCANNY VALLEY

X-AXIX = HUMAN LIKENESS

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What is Uncanny The Uncanny (Ger. Das Unheimliche -- literally, “un-home-ly”) is a Freudian concept of an instance where something can be familiar, yet foreign at the same time, resulting in a feeling of it being uncomfortably strange. @ Because the uncanny is familiar, yet strange, it often creates cognitive dissonance within the experiencing subject due to the paradoxical nature of being attracted to, yet repulsed by an object at the same time. This cognitive dissonance often leads to an outright rejection of the object, as one would rather reject than rationalize.

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PROSTHETIC HAND CORPSE

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The valley The uncanny valley is a hypothesis that when robots and other facsimiles of humans look and act almost like actual humans, it causes a response of revulsion among human observers. The “valley” in question is a dip in a proposed graph of the positivity of human reaction as a function of a robot’s lifelikeness. It was introduced by Japanese roboticist Masahiro Mori HEALTHY PERSON


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CREAT– ING THE CANON Understanding the our reaction to the machine

DATA BOOT DATA BOOT DATA BOOT

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HYPOTHESES THEORETICAL BASIS

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– EFFECTS OF MOVEMENT ESCAPE BY DESIGN

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INDUSTRIAL ROBOT ANDROID TRANSHUMANISM

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Hypothesis Mori’s hypothesis states that as a robot is made more humanlike in its appearance and motion, the emotional response from a human being to the robot will become increasingly positive and empathic, until a point is reached beyond which the response quickly becomes that of strong repulsion. However, as the appearance and motion continue to become less distinguishable from a human being, the emotional response becomes positive once more and approaches human-to-human empathy levels. @ This area of repulsive response aroused by a robot with appearance and motion between a “barely-human” and “fully human” entity is called the uncanny valley. The name captures the idea that a robot which is “almost human” will seem overly “strange” to a human being and thus will fail to evoke the empathetic response required for productive human-robot interaction.

What is empathy Empathy is the capacity to recognize or understand another’s state of mind or emotion. It is often characterized as the ability to “put oneself into another’s shoes”, or in some way experience the outlook or emotions of another being within oneself. Empathy does not necessarily imply compassion, or empathic concern because this capacity can be present in context of compassionate or cruel behavior.

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Interaction between humans and robots Human-robot interaction (HRI) is the study of interactions between people (users) and robots. HRI is multidisciplinary with contributions from the fields of human-computer interaction, artificial intelligence, robotics, natural language understanding, and social science (psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, and human factors). @ Robots are, or soon will be, used in such critical domains as search and rescue, military battle, mine and bomb detection, scientific exploration, law enforcement, entertainment, and hospital care. Such robots must coordinate their behaviors with the requirements and expectations of human team members; they are more than mere tools but rather quasi-team members whose tasks have to be integrated with those of humans. @ The basic goal of HRI is to develop principles and algorithms to allow more natural and effective communication and interaction between humans and robots. Research ranges from how humans will work with remote, tele-operated unmanned vehicles to peer-to-peer collaboration with anthropomorphic robots. Many in the field of HRI study how humans collaborate and interact and use those studies to motivate how robots should interact with humans. x-axis

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e823a5163a974b61278643c121cae856

552b7d33e13b4478d0d800709693e181

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9c6bf8ed4ad31847253e9b5eec24e264

f8bc3f3257a7da03cb135420a2903027

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3ae408125d5a501f36c8f75f876fe42e

HA2-384:

ced664e3a105e91d0e215e865d7e5a3d

9e320b73ad311f1f56e121609e89d336

HA2-256:

48bd3fbe 737d5589 d6e4a869 2dcab81b edfc9227

IPEMD-160:

HA1: 5aa5f039478e9ea0aeca31781e6381047e583656

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scpq18xPWMpU

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1$6rIgzPy7$twrImiEjtpmh3QBtucVeK/

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RYPT (form: $ MD5? $ SALT $ CRYPT):

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RC 8, ccitt, 16, 32 : 6e, 64c, 19db, 26e9d3ef

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AGOOD ROBOT DOING A JOB AT PRETENDING TO BE A HUMAN y-axis x-axis

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Humanoid Robot A Humanoid Robot is a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body. In general humanoid robots have a torso with a head, two arms and two legs, although some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots may also have a ‘face’, with ‘eyes’ and ‘mouth’. Androids are humanoid robots built to resemble a male human, and Gynoids are humanoid robots built to resemble a human female, however the term ‘Android’ is often used in reference to both sexes.

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Theoretical basis The phenomenon can be explained by the notion that, if an entity is sufficiently .. . . . non-humanlike, then the humanlike characteristics will tend to stand out and be noticed easily, generating empathy. On the other hand, if the entity is “almost human”, then the non-human characteristics will be the ones that stand out, leading to a feeling of “strangeness” in the human viewer. In other words, a robot stuck inside the uncanny valley is no longer being judged by the standards of a robot doing a good job at pretending to be human, but is instead being judged by the standards of a human doing a terrible job at acting like a normal person. @ Another possibility is that seriously ill individuals and corpses exhibit many visual anomalies similar to the ones seen in humanoid robots and so elicit the same alarm and revulsion. The reaction may become worse with robots since there is no overt reason for it to occur, whereas distaste for the sight of a corpse is a feeling easy to understand. It is sometimes regarded as possible that the “uncanny valley” effect evolved as a means of instinctively identifying and ostracizing humans that might prove breeding and long-term care detrimental to the group.


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FILES=65 Country=044,850,C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\country.sys

[MENU] REM *********Start Menu************************************* MENUITEM=1, SYSTEM LOAD MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY VALLEY VALLEY REM ***********OPTIONS************************************************* MENUCOLOR=15,0 MENUDEFAULT=2 ,4

[1] MD2: 5e8cf6f6d7e3a9eba2fe3519c0677dd7 MD4: 86b5a1fbc045e22210cacb0db27937a1 MD5: ddf3c04f66236bc1b162405e8982cfe0 CRC 8, ccitt, 16, 32 : 1, b5e4, bb2, 559f3071 CRYPT (form: $ MD5? $ SALT $ CRYPT): $1$7HiZIxV8$oPVAZZcnXLgViEOVvFAIr0 (form: SALT[2] CRYPT[11]): psNdqZtgCGKHY SHA1: fb0d72af13cfe1f64c2f53193c255cdb017f2f20

RIPEMD-160:

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Valley of familiarity There are mathematical functions of the form y =f(x) for which the value of y increases (or decreases) continuously with the value of x. For example, as the effort x increases, income y increases, or as a car’s accelerator is pressed, the car moves faster. This kind of relationship is ubiquitous and easily understood. In fact, it covers most phenomena, so we might think that this function can represent all relations. That is why people are usually upset when faced with some phenomenon it . . . .. . . . cannot represent. @ Climbing a mountain is an example of a function that does not increase continuously: a person’s altitude y does not always increase as the distance from the summit decreases owing to the intervening hills and valleys. I have noticed that, as robots appear more humanlike, our sense of their familiarity increases until we come to a

valley. I call this relation the “uncanny valley.”Recently there are many industrial robots, and as we know the robots do not have a face or legs, and just rotate or extend or contract their arms, and they bear no resemblance to human beings. Certainly the policy for designing these kinds of robots is based on functionality. From this standpoint, the robots must perform functions similar to those of human factory workers, but their appearance is not evaluated. If we plot these industrial robots on a graph of familiarity versus appearance, they lie near the origin (see Figure 1). So they bear little resemblance to a human being, and in general people do not find them to be familiar. But if the designer of a toy robot puts importance on a robot’s appearance rather than its function, the robot will have a somewhat humanlike appearance with a face, two arms, two legs, and a torso. This design lets children enjoy a sense of familiarity with the humanoid toy. So the toy robot is approaching the top of the first peak. 01100001 01101100 01101100 011110

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industrial robot An industrial robot is officially defined by ISO as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. The field of robotics may be more practically defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing (a top-level definition relying on the prior definition of robot). @ Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, ironing, assembly, pick and place, packaging and palletizing, product inspection, and testing, all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision.

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Valley of familiarity Of course, human beings themselves lie at the final goal of robotics, which is why we make an effort to build humanlike robots. For example, a robot’s arms may be composed of a metal cylinder with many bolts, but to achieve a more humanlike appearance, we paint over the metal in skin tones. These cosmetic efforts cause a resultant increase in our sense of the robot’s familiarity. Some readers may have felt sympathy for handicapped people they have seen who attach a prosthetic arm or leg to replace a missing limb. But recently prosthetic hands have improved greatly, and we cannot distinguish them from real hands at a glance. Some prosthetic hands attempt to simulate veins, muscles, tendons, finger nails, and finger prints, and their color resembles human pigmentation. So maybe the prosthetic arm has achieved a degree of human verisimilitude on par with false teeth. But this kind of prosthetic hand is too real and when we notice it is prosthetic, we have a sense of strangeness. So if we shake the hand, we are surprised by the lack of soft tissue and cold temperature. In this case, there is no longer a sense of familiarity. It is uncanny. In mathematical terms, strangeness can be represented by negative familiarity, so the prosthetic hand is at the bottom of the valley. So in this case, the appearance is quite human like, but the familiarity is negative. This is the uncanny valley. @ I don’t think a bunraku puppet is similar to human beings on close observation. Its realism in terms of size, skin, and so on, does not approach that of a prosthetic hand. But when we enjoy a puppet show in the theater, we are seated far from the puppets. Their absolute size is ignored, and their total appearance including eye and hand movements is close to that of human beings. So although the puppets’ body is not humanlike, we can feel that they are humanlike owing to their movement. And from this evidence I think their familiarity is very high. @ From the above maybe readers can understand the concept of the uncanny valley. So in the following I consider the relationship between movement and the uncanny valley.

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The artificial limb An artificial limb is a type of prosthesis that replaces a missing extremity, such as arms or legs. The type of artificial limb used is determined largely by the extent of an amputation or loss and location of the missing extremity. Artificial limbs may be needed for a variety of reasons, including disease, accidents, and congenital defects. A congenital defect can create the need for an artificial limb when a person is born with a missing or damaged limb. Industrial, vehicular, and war related accidents are the leading cause of amputations in developing areas, such as large portions of Africa. In more developed areas, such as North America and Europe, disease is the leading cause of amputations. Cancer, infection and circulatory disease are the leading diseases that may lead to amputation.

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Japanese bunraku puppet Bunraku, also known as NingyĹ? jĹ?ruri, is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater, founded in Osaka in 1684. Bunraku puppets range in size from two-and-a-half to four feet tall or more, depending on the age and gender of the character and the conventions of the specific puppet troupe. The puppets of the Osaka tradition tend to be somewhat smaller overall, while the puppets in the Awaji tradition are some of the largest as productions in that region tend to be held outdoors. @ The heads and hands of traditional puppets are carved by specialists, while the bodies and costumes are often constructed by puppeteers. The heads can be quite sophisticated mechanically. In plays with supernatural themes, a puppet may be constructed so that its face can quickly transform into that of a demon. Less complex heads may have eyes that move up and down, side to side or close, and noses, mouths, and eyebrows that move.

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[COMMON] ROOT=044,850,C:\UNCANNY\COMMAND\DATA.SYS [COMMON] [COMMON] FILES=45

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ROOT=044,850,C:\UNCANNY\COMMAND\DATA.SYS ROOT=044,850,C:\UNCANNY\COMMAND\DATA.SYS

ROOT=044,850,C:\UNCANNY\COMMAND\DATA.SYS [COMMON] REM *********START MENU************************************* FILES=45 [MENU] MENUITEM=1, DATA [MENU] LOAD [COMMON] [MENU]

REMROOT=044,850,C:\UNCANNY\COMMAND\DATA.SYS *********START MENU************************************* MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY VALLEY REM *********START MENU************************************* FILES=45 REM *********START MENU************************************* MENUITEM=1, DATA LOAD MENUITEM=1, DATA LOAD ROOT=044,850,C:\UNCANNY\COMMAND\DATA.SYS MENUITEM=1, DATA LOAD[MENU] MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY VALLEY REM ***********OPTIONS************************************************* MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY VALLEY [COMMON] MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY REM VALLEY *********START MENU************************************* MENUCOLOR=15,0 FILES=45 [MENU] [COMMON] DATA LOAD REMMENUITEM=1, ***********OPTIONS************************************************* MENUDEFAULT=2 ,4 REM ***********OPTIONS************************************************* ROOT=044,850,C:\UNCANNY\COMMAND\DATA.SYS REM *********START MENU************************************* FILES=45 REM ***********OPTIONS************************************************* MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY VALLEY MENUCOLOR=15,0 [1] MENUCOLOR=15,0 MENUITEM=1, DATA LOAD ROOT=044,850,C:\UNCANNY\COMMAND\DATA.SYS MENUCOLOR=15,0 MENUDEFAULT=2 ,4 MENUDEFAULT=2 ,4 MENUITEM=2,[MENU] THE UNCANNY VALLEY MENUDEFAULT=2 ,4 [1]REM ***********OPTIONS************************************************* [1] REM *********START MENU************************************* [MENU] [1] MENUCOLOR=15,0 MENUITEM=1, DATA LOAD REM ***********OPTIONS************************************************* REM *********START MENU************************************* MENUDEFAULT=2 ,4 MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY VALLEY MENUCOLOR=15,0 MENUITEM=1, DATA LOAD [1] MENUDEFAULT=2 ,4 MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY VALLEY [1]

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The effects of movement For creatures, including robots, movement is generally a sign of life. Adding movement changes the shape of the uncanny valley by exaggerating the peaks and valley. For the industrial robot, the impact of movement is relatively slight because we see it as just a machine. If it stops moving, it just stops working. But if programmed properly to generate humanlike movements, we can enjoy some sense of familiarity. Humanlike movement requires similarity of velocity and acceleration. Conversely, if we add movement to a prosthetic hand, which is at the bottom of the uncanny valley, our sensation of strangeness grows quite large. Some readers may know that recent technology has enabled prosthetic fingers to move automatically. A commercially available prosthetic hand made with the highest technique was developed in Vienna. To explain how it works, the intention to move the forearm, even if missing, produces current in the arm muscles that can be detected by an electromyogram. So the prosthetic hand detects the current by means of electrodes and amplifies the signal to activates a small motor in the prosthetic arm to move the fingers. This hand can move in a way that causes some healthy people to feel uneasy. If you shook a woman’s hand with this hand in a dark place, the woman must be shocked! @ Since these effects are apparent for just a prosthetic arm, the strangeness will be magnified if we build an entire robot. You can imagine going to a work place where there are many mannequins: if a mannequin started to move, you might be shocked. This is a kind of horror. @ In the World Expo held in Osaka, the robots displayed a more elaborate design. For example, one robot has 29 artificial muscles in the face to make humanlike facial expressions. According to the designer, laughing is a kind of sequence of face distortions, and the distortion speed is an important factor. If we cut the speed in half, laughing looks unnatural. This illustrates how slight variations in movement can cause a robot, puppet, or prosthetic hand to tumble down into the uncanny valley.

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Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the activation signal of muscles. EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph, to produce a record called an electromyogram. An electromyograph detects the electrical potential generated by muscle cells when these cells contract, and also when the cells are at rest.

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The machine A machine is any device that uses energy to perform some activity. In common usage, the meaning is that of a device having parts that perform or assist in performing any type of work. A simple machine is a device that transforms the direction or magnitude of a force without consuming any energy. The word “machine� is derived from the Latin machina.

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Escape by design We hope to design robots or prosthetic hands that will not fall into the uncanny valley. So I recommend designers take the first peak as the goal in building robots rather than the second. Although the second peak is higher, there is a far greater risk of falling into the uncanny valley. We predict that it is possible to produce a safe familiarity by a nonhumanlike design. So designers please consider this point. A good example is glasses. Glasses do not resemble the real eyeball, but this design is adequate and can make the eyes more charming. So we should follow this principle when we design prosthetic eyes. We can create an elegant prosthetic hand ? one that must be fashionable. Artist who makes statues of Buddhas created a model of a human hand that is made from wood. The fingers bend at their joints.

The hand has no finger print, and it assumes the natural color of wood. But we feel it is beautiful and there is no sense of the uncanny. Maybe wooden hand can serve as a reference for future design.

MD2: cc108304d211818fae20ee8ee5d4c179 MD4: c95141ad51fa8cb763c93f9bad7131b8 MD5: 8074cd0673fc72ff28cd177b56e2a1c5 CRC 8, ccitt, 16, 32 : 6e, 64c, 19db, 26e9d3ef CRYPT (form: $ MD5? $ SALT $ CRYPT): $1$6rIgzPy7$twrImiEjtpmh3QBtucVeK/ (form: SALT[2] CRYPT[11]): pscpq18xPWMpU SHA1: 5aa5f039478e9ea0aeca31781e6381047e583656 RIPEMD-160: 48bd3fbe 737d5589 d6e4a869 2dcab81b edfc9227 SHA2-256: 9e320b73ad311f1f56e121609e89d336 ced664e3a105e91d0e215e865d7e5a3d

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THERE IS A FAR GREATER RISK OF FALLING INTO THE UNCANNY VALLEY

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[MENU] REM *********Start Menu************************************* MENUITEM=1, SYSTEM LOAD MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY VALLEY INDUSTRIAL ROBOT ANDROID TRANSHUMANISM REM ***********OPTIONS************************************************* MENUCOLOR=15,0

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Industrial robot Some robots are programmed to faithfully carry out specific actions over and over again (repetitive actions) without variation and with a high degree of accuracy. These actions are determined by programmed routines that specify the direction, acceleration, velocity, deceleration, and distance of a series of coordinated motions. Axes The most commonly used robot configurations are articulated robots, SCARA robots and Cartesian coordinate robots, (aka gantry robots or x-y-z robots). In the context of general robotics, most types of robots would fall into the category of robotic arms (inherent in the use of the word manipulator in the above-mentioned ISO standard). Robots exhibit varying degrees of autonomy. applications Other robots are much more flexible as to the orientation of the object on which they are operating or even the task that has to be performed on the object itself, which the robot may even need to identify. For example, for more precise guidance, robots often contain machine vision sub-systems acting as their "eyes", linked to powerful computers or controllers. Artificial intelligence, or what passes for it, is becoming an increasingly important factor in the modern industrial robot.

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Industrial robot

An industrial robot is officially defined by ISO as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. The field of robotics may be more practically defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing (a top-level definition relying on the prior definition of robot). @ Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, ironing, assembly, pick and place, packaging and palletizing, product inspection, and testing, all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision. we know the robots do not have a face or legs, and just rotate or extend or contract their arms, and they bear no resemblance to human beings. Certainly the policy for designing these kinds of robots is based on functionality. From this standpoint, the robots must perform functions similar to those of human factory workers, but their appearance is not evaluated. If we plot these industrial robots on a graph of familiarity versus appearance, they lie near the origin (see Figure 1). So they bear little resemblance to a human being, and in general people do not find them to be familiar.

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MD2: cc108304d211818fae20ee8ee5d4c179 MD4: c95141ad51fa8cb763c93f9bad7131b8 MD5: 8074cd0673fc72ff28cd177b56e2a1c5 CRC 8, ccitt, 16, 32 : 6e, 64c, 19db, 26e9d3ef CRYPT (form: $ MD5? $ SALT $ CRYPT): (form: SALT[2] CRYPT[11]):

$1$6rIgzPy7$twrImiEjtpmh3QBtucVeK/ pscpq18xPWMpU SHA1: 5aa5f039478e9ea0aeca31781e6381047e583656 48bd3fbe 737d5589 d6e4a869 2dcab81b edfc9227

RIPEMD-160:

9e320b73ad311f1f56e121609e89d336

SHA2-256: ced664e3a105e91d0e215e865d7e5a3d 3ae408125d5a501f36c8f75f876fe42e

SHA2-384: f8bc3f3257a7da03cb135420a2903027 9c6bf8ed4ad31847253e9b5eec24e264 552b7d33e13b4478d0d800709693e181

SHA2-512: e823a5163a974b61278643c121cae856 8d5f5e49c8e65b375d40bd157ed55b65 d8c3854059143a582c40b8f2c7b62c3f MD2: cc108304d211818fae20ee8ee5d4c179 MD4: c95141ad51fa8cb763c93f9bad7131b8 MD5: 8074cd0673fc72ff28cd177b56e2a1c5 CRC 8, ccitt, 16, 32 : 6e, 64c, 19db, 26e9d3ef CRYPT (form: $ MD5? $ SALT $ CRYPT): (form: SALT[2] CRYPT[11]):

$1$6rIgzPy7$twrImiEjtpmh3QBtucVeK/ pscpq18xPWMpU SHA1: 5aa5f039478e9ea0aeca31781e6381047e583656 48bd3fbe 737d5589 d6e4a869 2dcab81b edfc9227

RIPEMD-160:

9e320b73ad311f1f56e121609e89d336

SHA2-256: ced664e3a105e91d0e215e865d7e5a3d 3ae408125d5a501f36c8f75f876fe42e

SHA2-384: f8bc3f3257a7da03cb135420a2903027 9c6bf8ed4ad31847253e9b5eec24e264 552b7d33e13b4478d0d800709693e181

SHA2-512: e823a5163a974b61278643c121cae856 8d5f5e49c8e65b375d40bd157ed55b65 d8c3854059143a582c40b8f2c7b62c3f MD2: cc108304d211818fae20ee8ee5d4c179 MD4: c95141ad51fa8cb763c93f9bad7131b8 MD5: 8074cd0673fc72ff28cd177b56e2a1c5 CRC 8, ccitt, 16, 32 : 6e, 64c, 19db, 26e9d3ef CRYPT (form: $ MD5? $ SALT $ CRYPT):

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The android Androids are a staple of science fiction. Authors have used the term android in more diverse ways than robot or cyborg. In some fictional works, the difference between a robot and android is only their appearance, with androids being made to look like humans on the outside but with robot-like internal mechanics. In other stories, authors have used the word “android” to mean a wholly organic, yet artificial, creation. Other fictional depictions of androids fall somewhere in between.

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Android An android is a robot designed to look and act human. Though the word derives from a gender-specific root, its usage in English is usually gender neutral; the female counterpart, gynoid, is generally used only when the female gender is a distinguishing trait of the robot. The term was first mentioned by St. Albertus Magnus in 1270 and was popularized by the French writer Villiers in his 1886 novel L’Ève future, although the term “android” appears in US patents as early as 1863 in reference to miniature humanlike toy automations. @ depending on how realist a Android is designed determines where it will fall on the graph. If the is not realistic it will come before we reach the uncanny valley. It may look as if it has emotions and other human characteristics, but will be unmistakably machine. @ on the other hand if the Android is too realistic in its design , there is a large chance it will fall in to the valley instead of overcoming it. Once the Android starts talking an a large about of human characteristics, we stop judging its on the standards of a machine, but the standards of a human, thus making any abnormalities stand out a lot.

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Jamais Cascio Jamais Cascio is a San Francisco Bay Area-based writer and ethical futurist. In the 1990s, Cascio worked for the futurist and scenario planning firm Global Business Network. In 2003, he co-founded the popular environmental website Worldchanging, where he was a primary contributor. @ At Worldchanging, he covered a broad variety of topics, from energy and climate change to global development, open source, and bio- and nanotechnologies. In early 2006, he left Worldchanging, and now blogs at Open The Future, a title based on his WorldChanging.com essay, ‘The Open Future’. @ He currently serves as the Global Futures Strategist for the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology, is a Fellow at the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, and is a Research Affiliate at the Institute for the Future. @ Cascio is also known as a speculative futurist, having written two books for the GURPS science fiction role-playing game series “Transhuman Space”, Broken Dreams (2002) and Toxic Memes (2003). @ Cascio’s work could be classified as techno-progressive. He speaks and writes frequently on the use of future studies as a tool for anticipating and managing environmental and technological crises.

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The posthuman and post-human A posthuman or post-human is, according to the transhumanist thinkers, a hypothetical future being “whose basic capacities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer unambiguously human by our current standards.” @ The difference between the posthuman and other hypothetical sophisticated non-humans is that a posthuman was once a human, either in its lifetime or in the lifetimes of some or all of its direct ancestors. As such, a prerequisite for a posthuman is a transhuman, the point at which the human being begins surpassing his or her own limitations, but is still recognisable as a human person or similar.

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IMPROVE THE ABILTTIES OF TH HUMAN BODY

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Transhumanism According to writer Jamais Cascio, a similar “uncanny valley” effect could show up when humans begin modifying themselves with transhuman enhancements (cf. body modification), which aim to improve the abilities of the human body beyond what would normally be possible, be it eyesight, muscle strength, or cognition. So long as these enhancements remain within a perceived norm of human behavior, a negative reaction is unlikely, but once individuals supplant normal human variety, revulsion can be expected. However, according to this theory, once such technologies gain further distance from human norms, “transhuman” individuals would cease to be judged on human levels and instead be regarded as separate entities altogether this point is what has been dubbed posthuman, and it is here that acceptance would rise once again out of the uncanny valley.

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[COMMON] FILES=65 Country=044,850,C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\country.sys

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[1] MD2: 5e8cf6f6d7e3a9eba2fe3519c0677dd7 MD4: 86b5a1fbc045e22210cacb0db27937a1 MD5: ddf3c04f66236bc1b162405e8982cfe0 CRC 8, ccitt, 16, 32 : 1, b5e4, bb2, 559f3071 CRYPT (form: $ MD5? $ SALT $ CRYPT): $1$7HiZIxV8$oPVAZZcnXLgViEOVvFAIr0 (form: SALT[2] CRYPT[11]):

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The significance of the uncanny In Figure 1, a healthy person is at the top of the second peak. And when we die, we fall into the trough of the uncanny valley. Our body becomes cold, our color changes, and movement ceases. Therefore, our impression of death can be explained by the movement from the second peak to the uncanny valley as shown by the dashed line in the figure. We might be happy this line is into the still valley of a corpse and that of not the living dead! I think this explains the mystery of the uncanny valley: Why do we humans have such a feeling of strangeness? Is this necessary? I have not yet considered it deeply, but it may be important to our self-preservation. @ We must complete the map of the uncanny valley to know what is human or to establish the design methodology for creating familiar devices.

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Our self-preservation Self preservation is part of an animal’s instinct that demands that the organism survives. Pain and fear are parts of this mechanism. Pain causes discomfort so that the organism is inclined to stop the pain. Fear causes the organism to seek safety and may cause a release of adrenaline which has the effect of increased strength and heightened senses such as hearing, smell, and sight.

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[COMMON] FILES=65 Country=044,850,C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND\country.sys

[MENU] REM *********Start Menu************************************* MENUITEM=1, SYSTEM LOAD MENUITEM=2, THE UNCANNY VALLEY INFORMATION BOOT PRODUCTION NOTES FRENCH PAPER COMPANY REM ***********OPTIONS************************************************* MENUCOLOR=15,0 MENUDEFAULT=2 ,4

[1] MD2: 5e8cf6f6d7e3a9eba2fe3519c0677dd7 MD4: 86b5a1fbc045e22210cacb0db27937a1 MD5: ddf3c04f66236bc1b162405e8982cfe0 CRC 8, ccitt, 16, 32 : 1, b5e4, bb2, 559f3071 CRYPT (form: $ MD5? $ SALT $ CRYPT): $1$7HiZIxV8$oPVAZZcnXLgViEOVvFAIr0 (form: SALT[2] CRYPT[11]): psNdqZtgCGKHY SHA1: fb0d72af13cfe1f64c2f53193c255cdb017f2f20

RIPEMD-160: d3e5ea83 7624ebe3 b349c122 73966f0e eb43363d

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(form: SALT[2] CRYPT[11]):

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pscpq18xPWMpU

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$1$6rIgzPy7$twrImiEjtpmh3QBtucVeK/

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CRYPT (form: $ MD5? $ SALT $ CRYPT):

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CRC 8, ccitt, 16, 32 : 6e, 64c, 19db, 26e9d3ef

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MD5: 8074cd0673fc72ff28cd177b56e2a1c5

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MD4: c95141ad51fa8cb763c93f9bad7131b8

MD2: cc108304d211818fae20ee8ee5d4c179

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d8c3854059143a582c40b8f2c7b62c3f

(form: SALT[2] CRYPT[11]):

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48bd3fbe 737d5589 d6e4a869 2dcab81b edfc9227

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SHA2-256:

..

RIPEMD-160:

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SHA1: 5aa5f039478e9ea0aeca31781e6381047e583656

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pscpq18xPWMpU

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$1$6rIgzPy7$twrImiEjtpmh3QBtucVeK/

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CRYPT (form: $ MD5? $ SALT $ CRYPT):

CRC 8, ccitt, 16, 32 : 6e, 64c, 19db, 26e9d3ef

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MD5: 8074cd0673fc72ff28cd177b56e2a1c5

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MD4: c95141ad51fa8cb763c93f9bad7131b8

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D2: cc108304d211818fae20ee8ee5d4c179

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8d5f5e49c8e65b375d40bd157ed55b65

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e823a5163a974b61278643c121cae856

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552b7d33e13b4478d0d800709693e181

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9c6bf8ed4ad31847253e9b5eec24e264

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SHA2-512:

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f8bc3f3257a7da03cb135420a2903027

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3ae408125d5a501f36c8f75f876fe42e

SHA2-384:

ced664e3a105e91d0e215e865d7e5a3d

9e320b73ad311f1f56e121609e89d336

SHA2-256:

48bd3fbe 737d5589 d6e4a869 2dcab81b edfc9227

RIPEMD-160:

SHA1: 5aa5f039478e9ea0aeca31781e6381047e583656

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Production notes Design Juancarlos Henriquez Copywriting Juancarlos Henriquez Printing Four color offset Binding Perfect bound

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page 018-019 Full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 036-037 full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 054-055 30& color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 001-002 Full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 020-021 Full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 038-039 full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 056-057 full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 004-005 Full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 022-023 Full bleed color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 040-041 20% color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 058-059 full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 006-007 Full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 024-025 Full bleed color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 042-043 20% color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 060-061 10% color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 008-009 Full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 026-027 Full bleed photo +color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 044-045 50% color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 060-061 full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 010-011 Full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 028-029 60% color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 046-047 50% color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 062-063 pms 2334 Four color process 100 lb

page 012-013 Full bleed color wash Four color process 100 lb

page 030-031 pms 3445 Four color process 100 lb

page 048-049 full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

page 014-015 pms 3324 Four color process 100 lb

page 032-033 full bleed wash pms 3445 Four color process 100 lb

page 050-051 photo + pms 4565 Four color process 100 lb

page 034-035 pms 3445 Four color process 100 lb

page 052-053 full bleed photo Four color process 100 lb

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Cover Full bleed Four color process 190 lb

page 016-017 Full bleed photo Paper Four color process Smart White by French Paper 100 lb 0,0 origin

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French Connect phone - 1-269-683-1100 email - french@qtm.net

Pop Ink phone - 1-269-687-0188 email - popink@qtm.net

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Speckletone Way back in 1955, we created Speckletone (the first ever recycled sheet with visible flecks and shives) to inspire designers. As it turns out, it's inspired a fair number of our competitors as well. Over the years, others have attempted to replicate French Speckletone's incredibly appealing good looks. But what they can't copy is the genuine character and sheer creativity that goes into making each sheet. That's why we suggest you stick with the original - French Speckletone. Because we believe there's a big difference between "integrity" and just plain gritty.

Parchtone Hard to believe that at one time, parchment was made out of...well, let's just say the vegetarians wouldn't exactly approve. But despite parchment's barbaric origin, its mottled look was pure elegance. Fortunately for designers and sheep alike, French invented the first 100% animal-free printable parchment paper in 1949. Now, we recognize that French is known for innovating - not imitating. But we felt justified in this case. Specify the original imitation parchment, and use it in good conscience.

Muscletone Weighing in at a hefty 140 lbs., new single-ply French Muscletone is so sturdy you could use it to build a house. But unlike laminated sheets, there's no glue to dissolve on press and no layers to peel, warp or crack during scoring. Which means that you can now fold, spindle, and staple without fear of mutilation. Heavyweight, Muscletone not only pummels laminated sheets on press, it beats them on price as well. Whether you use it to hold products of hold up walls, Muscletone will help build your business.

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Dur-O-Tone At French Paper, we work overtime to give designers and art directors alike an honest alternative to sheets of the overly-slick, middle-management varitey. That's why we based our Dur-O-Tone line on the kinds of everyday utilitarian papers that have made America great. The first authentic industrial papers developed specifically for printability, French Butcher, Newsprint, Packing, Primer and Blacktop not only deliver consistent results, they pull their own weight (no matter which weight you are using). Because like the nose-to-the-grindstone folks who use them, these papers don't punch out at five.

French Paper Company phone - 1-269-683-1100 email - french@qtm.net


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CREATING THE CANON An error has occurred. To continue: Turn page to return to book, or Press CTRL+ALT+DEL to restart the book. If you do this, you will lose any unsaved information in all open applications. Error: 0E : 016F : BFF9B54D4

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Creating the canon