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ACA D E M I C P O RT F O L I O MASTERS OF ARCHITECTURE 2015-2017

James Richard Street

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ACA D E M I C P O RT F O L I O MASTERS OF ARCHITECTURE 2015-2017

James Richard Street


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would firstly like to thank my beloved fiancée, Destiny, for the love, encouragement, belief in and grace for me throughout this process of the masters program and of being apart throughout its duration.  I also couldn’t have made it through without the unfailing support and love of my amazing parents. Thank you for always being there, unwaveringly encouraging me at every moment. Thanks to all my design/linked research Tutors from the University:  James Craig Nathaniel Coleman Kieran Connolly Kati Blom and David Mckenna

Metropolitan Imaginaries: Spectres of Utopia: Architecture by Default: Rituals and the Unconscious:

With special thanks to Kati Blom for the additional time that she made for me in order to fully understand and support my interests and personal developments throughout the thesis project. Most importantly, thank you to Jesus Christ, my Lord and Saviour, for the strength and grace as he’s called me and sustained me through this journey.

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CONTENTS

ARB CRITERIA MAPPING

6

THEMATIC APPROACHES

8

- CULTURAL CONTEXT

10

- METHODOLOGICAL APPLICATION

12

- CRITICAL EMBODIMENT

14

METROPOLITAN IMAGINARIES

16

- ’IMAGE AS POWER’ 40

SACRED ARCHITECTURE - TOOLS FOR THINKING ABOUT ARCHITECTURE SPECTRES OF UTOPIA AND MODERNITY

42

- BIJENKORF A RC H I T E C T U R E BY D E FAU LT

72

- LINKED RESEARCH ARCHITECTURE AND CONSTRUCTION:

78

PROCESS AND MANAGEMENT - PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION IN NEW YORK CITY T H E S I S : R I T UA L S A N D T H E U NCO N S C I O U S

80

- DEMOCRATIC INTERCHANGE CHARRETTE WEEKS

144

R E F L E C T I V E S U M M A RY

146

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ARB CRITERIA MAPPING

The Graduate Attributes for Part 2 GA2.1 The ability to generate complex design proposals showing understanding of current architectural issues, originality in the application of subject knowledge and, where appropriate, to test new hypotheses and speculations;

14, 18, 22, 28, 30, 38, 50, 52, 54, 59, 63, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 126, 128, 130, 136, 138

GA2.2 The ability to evaluate and apply a comprehensive range of visual, oral and written media to test, analyse, critically appraise and explain design proposals;

10, 12, 14, 28, 30, 32, 34, 52, 54, 56, 59, 63, 82, 84, 88, 116, 122, 126, 132, 146, 147, 148

GA2.3 The ability to evaluate materials, processes and techniques that apply to complex architectural designs and building construction, and to integrate these into practicable design proposals;

56, 59, 60, 63, 65, 66, 68, 70, 120, 122, 128, 130, 132, 138, 140

GA2.4 The critical understanding of how knowledge is advanced through research to produce clear, logically argued and original written work relating to architectural culture, theory and design;

14, 40, 73, 75, 77

GA2.5 The understanding of the context of the architect and the construction industry, including the architect’s role in the processes of procurement and building production, and under legislation;

73, 75, 77, 78

GA2.6 The problem solving skills, professional judgment, and ability to take the initiative and make appropriate decisions in complex and unpredictable circumstances; and

18, 144, 145

GA2.7 The ability to identify individual learning needs and understand the personal responsibility required to prepare for qualification as an architect.

10, 12, 14, 40, 73, 75, 77, 146, 147, 148

GC1 Ability to create architectural designs that satisfy both aesthetic and technical requirements. The graduate will have knowledge of: GC1.1 prepare and present building design projects of diverse scale, complexity, and type in a variety of contexts, using a range of media, and in response to a brief; GC1.2  understand the constructional and structural systems, the environmental strategies and the regulatory requirements that apply to the design and construction of a comprehensive design project; GC1.3  develop a conceptual and critical approach to architectural design that integrates and satisfies the aesthetic aspects of a building and the technical requirements of its construction and the needs of the user. GC2  Adequate knowledge of the histories and theories of architecture and the related arts, technologies and human sciences. The graduate will have knowledge of: GC2.1  the cultural, social and intellectual histories, theories and technologies that influence the design of buildings;

30, 52, 82, 88

50, 52, 63, 66, 68, 70, 78, 86, 120, 132, 138, 140

30, 32, 52, 59, 66, 88, 116, 122, 124, 128, 130, 132, 136, 138

44, 46, 48, 52, 96, 120, 128

GC2.2 the influence of history and theory on the spatial, social, and technological aspects of architecture;

22, 44, 46, 50, 52, 84, 120, 124, 126, 128

GC2.3 the application of appropriate theoretical concepts to studio design projects, demonstrating a reflective and critical approach.

10, 12, 14, 18, 22, 24, 40, 44, 46, 90, 92

GC3 Knowledge of the fine arts as an influence on the quality of architectural design. The graduate will have knowledge of: GC3.1  how the theories, practices and technologies of the arts influence architectural design; GC3.2  the creative application of the fine arts and the irrelevance and impact on architecture; GC3.3  the creative application of such work to studio design projects, in terms of their conceptualisation and representation. GC4 Adequate knowledge of urban design, planning and the skills involved in the planning process. The graduate will have knowledge of: GC4.1  theories of urban design and the planning of communities;

21, 24, 40, 56, 144, 145 21, 24, 40, 56, 144, 145 21, 22, 30, 32, 34, 40, 56, 144, 145

18

GC4.2 the influence of the design and development of cities, past and present on the contemporary built environment;

18, 73, 96, 126

GC4.3 current planning policy and development control legislation, including social, environmental and economic aspects, and the relevance of these to design development.

78

GC5 Understanding of the relationship between people and buildings, and between buildings and their environment, and the need to relate buildings and the spaces between them to human needs and scale. The graduate will have knowledge of: GC5.1  the needs and aspirations of building users;

6

54, 56, 59, 60, 65, 82, 96, 126, 128, 130


GC5.2 the impact of buildings on the environment, and the precepts of sustainable design;

50, 66, 84, 86, 118, 122, 124

GC5.3 the way in which buildings fit into their local context.

36, 52, 54, 56, 82, 84, 86, 88, 94, 116, 118, 124

GC6 Understanding of the profession of architecture and the role of the architect in society, in particular in preparing briefs that take account of social factors. The graduate will have knowledge of: GC6.1  the nature of professionalism and the duties and responsibilities of architects to clients, building users, constructors, co-professionals and the wider society;

40, 78

GC6.2 the role of the architect within the design team and construction industry, recognising the importance of current methods and trends in the construction of the built environment;

78

GC6.3 the potential impact of building projects on existing and proposed communities.

26, 36, 78

GC7 Understanding of the methods of investigation and preparation of the brief for a design project. The graduate will have an understanding of: GC7.1 the need to critically review precedents relevant to the function, organisation and technological strategy of design proposals; GC7.2  the need to appraise and prepare building briefs of diverse scales and types, to define client and user requirements and their appropriateness to site and context; GC7.3  the contributions of architects and co-professionals to the formulation of the brief, and the methods of investigation used in its preparation.

45, 47, 48, 50, 52, 84, 86, 120, 124, 126, 128

52, 54, 59, 60, 82, 84, 86, 88

78

GC8 Understanding of the structural design, constructional and engineering problems associated with building design. The graduate will have an understanding of: GC8.1  the investigation, critical appraisal and selection of alternative structural, constructional and material systems relevant to architectural design;

23, 59, 63, 65, 66, 68, 70, 120, 122, 126, 128, 130, 132, 138, 140,

GC8.2 strategies for building construction, and ability to integrate knowledge of structural principles and construction techniques;

23, 50, 59, 63, 65, 66, 68, 70, 120, 122, 126, 128, 130, 132, 138, 140,

GC8.3 the physical properties and characteristics of building materials, components and systems, and the environmental impact of specification choices.

23, 59, 63, 65, 66, 68, 70, 120, 122, 126, 128, 130, 132, 138, 140,

GC9 Adequate knowledge of physical problems and technologies and the function of buildings so as to provide them with internal conditions of comfort and protection against the climate. The graduate will have knowledge of: GC9.1  principles associated with designing optimum visual, thermal and acoustic environments;

66, 68, 70, 128, 130, 132, 138, 140

GC9.2 systems for environmental comfort realised within relevant precepts of sustainable design;

66, 68, 70, 86, 128, 130, 132, 138, 140

GC9.3 strategies for building services, and ability to integrate these in a design project.

66, 68, 70, 128, 130, 132, 138, 140

GC10 The necessary design skills to meet building users’ requirements within the constraints imposed by cost factors and building regulations. The graduate will have knowledge of: GC10.1 critically examine the financial factors implied in varying building types, constructional systems, and specification choices, and the impact of these on architectural design;

78

GC10.2 understand the cost control mechanisms which operate during the development of a project;

78

GC10.3 prepare designs that will meet building users’ requirements and comply with UK legislation, appropriate performance standards and health and safety requirements.

73, 75, 77

GC11 Adequate knowledge of the industries, organisations, regulations and procedures involved in translating design concepts into buildings and integrating plans into overall planning. The graduate will have knowledge of: GC11.1  the fundamental legal, professional and statutory responsibilities of the architect, and the organisations, regulations and procedures involved in the negotiation and approval of architectural designs, including land law, development control, building regulations and health and safety legislation;

78,

GC11.2 the professional inter-relationships of individuals and organisations involved in procuring and delivering architectural projects, and how these are defined through contractual and organisational structures;

73, 75, 77, 78,

GC11.3 the basic management theories and business principles related to running both an architect’s practice and architectural projects, recognising current and emerging trends in the construction industry.

78,

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THEMATIC APPROACHES Throughout the Masters course my approach to Architecture and individual project briefs has developed substantially and I’ve experienced an increasing interest in three key areas. These themes reflect a new way of approaching design and critiquing Architecture and the built environment that I previously didn’t follow. These three areas are as follows:

Cultural Context

The impact of a sociological context on decisions and reactions in design

Methodological Application

Development of a design approach using the translation of processes

Critical Embodiment

Architecture as a capsule of ideological values I will first unpack these themes that have emerged throughout the whole breath of the Masters course before demonstrating how the themes thread their way through each project.

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C U LT U R A L C O N T E X T The impact of a sociological context on decisions and reactions in design Across the two years I have begun to discover the value and need to understand the social, political and anthropological context in which buildings are designed for both specific settings within a certain moment in time. How a specific architect reacts to a brief from the client, alongside these other factors, contribute to why the final building is how it is. Taking into account these factors enables buildings to be read and more fully understood than would be possible through a more superficial reading of the building. My understanding of these factors began as we started to analyse Rotterdam’s present situation, through the studio ‘Metropolitan Imaginaries’, assessing how and why the built environment is as it is today. For this we read Patricia Van Ulzen’s book “Imagine a metropolis”, which provides a critique of the cultural development of the contemporary city that we see today. Intrigued by Foucault’s quote “Those who control the image have the power”, I began to develop a reading of the context of Rotterdam through the development of the city as an image of a metropolis rather than a true metropolitan environment.

Metropolitan Imaginaries - Image Production

By beginning to question why and how this perception of the ‘image’ of a metropolis developed, I began to formulate a critique of the image fabrication process that can lead to this impression. I started to understand how advertisements and the way that we portray the future developments in cities, contribute to our perception of how the space is used and generates false impressions of current affairs. This principle is not only applicable to Architecture but anything in contemporary systems. Truth here becomes relative to the information absorbed through images as opposed to the facts. In Rotterdam, for example, there are a limited number of people who actually live in the city centre despite its height and scale, which suggests a bustling metropolis. My critique of this cultural context became an image production factory, that printed the future skyline of Rotterdam through an advertising tower controlled by the developers. This gave the impression of the expansive growth in the metropolis, whilst actually being controlled by the people printing the images. This project allowed me to not only develop an understanding of reading today’s society and it’s formulation through the production of images, but provided for the first time an approach to begin researching and stepping out of my examinations to assess an environment more objectively. This approach was further developed by reading relevant literature around the period and researching a specific strand and it’s historical development up to that point in time. Again it was a culture of image production through a local advertising agency, Hard Werken that proved significant. Approaching a current contextual sphere provided a way of relating to the context whilst also learning to take a step beyond it. This provided me with tools in which to approach the historical situation in the studio Spectres of Utopia in Modernity.  For this studio I had to first develop a reading of the historical context, which was previously unfamiliar to me, before beginning to understand Breuer’s approach to his design of Bijenkorf. Assessing a historical context provided different challenges as I had to disassociate my current world view in order to immerse myself within the historical situation. Habermas in his book “Modern and

Leonidov - Palace of Culture

Hard Werken - Shop Front

Dudok’s Bijenkorf - 1935

GA2.2, GA2.7, GC2.3

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Postmodern Architecture” begins to define the period and social developments that led to this position. Understanding Breuer’s geographical relocation to America as he undertook these works, and how he transitioned there from the Bauhaus, changed the way that I began to understand this building in relation to the client, Bijenkorf department stores.

Le Corbusier, Museum, Ahmedabad, 1954

The aesthetic and constructional approaches and need for the programme began to make sense as I discovered the historical context, how the city centre had just been flattened in the Blitz. In the period of the 50s, when this building was on site, there was a very significant change across the world in terms of consumerism. The key development was of a growth in the belief of individualism which empowered a generation to freely shop the mass produced items of the post war era. This ability to shop freely became a symbol of freedom to the individual. A comparison of other Architects with different intents such as Le Corbusier, Saarinen and Kahn shows the development of programmes that included the growth of museums, airports and large public structures during the same period. Through developing an understanding of these experimental buildings, structures and programmes it allowed me to begin to critique how it is replicated in the built environment today. Feeding this new knowledge into our current cultural context allowed my critique on the replication of the image of buildings to expand. I understand more than ever how the impact of what’s come before has affected and altered the way the built environment is being formed today.

Bijenkorf Intervention Axo

The research undertaken in “Architecture by Default” provided a greater understanding to how the development of job roles and facilities management has also affected how Architecture is produced. There is a risk of replicating ‘default’ systems within buildings without critical assessment simply due to performance. This has changed the way Architecture is procured. BIM has also played a major role in furthering the default decision making process in Architecture, with pre-defined components simplifying the decisions. Spatial design today, as demonstrated in University structures, is driven by the need for flexibility. This leads to spaces, which are designed predominantly for financial motivations, having no specific use in mind and so enable anything to inhabit the space.

Herschel Building, Basil Spence, NCL, 1963

Understanding the influence of these factors alongside technological developments has helped me to understand why buildings are like they are today. This discovery now gives me the opportunity to engage in a new way of designing which either counters these influences or at least creates alternatives to them within the system. This reaction to the current conditions and of the establishment of contemporary Architecture formulated the design approach to my thesis reflecting historically on how progressional Architecture had reacted to a specific context. Understanding Aalto’s, Utzon’s and Kahn’s design intent helped me to see how cross-cultural references within an architecture, defining re-ritualised and specific spaces, begins to create an alternative to the cultural context through a design (Frampton’s Critical Regionalism). My thesis then draws on these precedents to understand spatial design, whilst applying the approach to a new contemporary context.

Aalto - Säynätsalo Town Hall, 1951

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METHODOLOGICAL APPLICATION Development of a design approach using the translation of processes My approach to design has developed as I have become more aware of the cultural context. Before the Masters my main reaction through the building was to the immediate physical context instead of the cultural context. Due to this change in the way I view the context, my design approach has changed and I now use different methodologies for creating designs. This is a change from a personal directive approach to beginning a process that determines an architecture as a result of following through a specific methodology. I believe that this new way of thinking about architecture is able to better reflect or counter the cultural context whilst also encompassing a criticality. This began in Metropolitan Imaginaries where, in creating our Manifesto for the urban strategy we investigated OMA’s Parc de la Villette masterplan approach. This approach changed my perspective to design, seeing how an implemented strategy generated a design through a process rather than through control and careful exaction of every element. We saw this process implemented throughout our studio forming an interesting masterplan with unprecedented interactions between the urban fragments of the masterplan strips.

Downtown Athletic Club

Production Line and client control interconnections

Furthering this approach in my individual strip design I implemented a methodological strategy of an image creating production line, which informed not only the programme, but the form and height and aesthetics of the building. This focus on a production line came by looking at Leonidov’s linear urban strategies of his “Palace of Culture”. Developing this strategy to align with the cultural context, I implemented a vertical production line through the vertical stacking of horizontal programs in the “Downtown Athletic Club” in New York, referenced by Koolhaas in Delirious New York. Using the methodology of a production line, cross referenced with the cultural context developed a design outcome that vertically stacked the creative input throughout the tower before printing the images down the facade.

Vertical Image Production Tower

OMA’s Parc de la Villette layering methodology

GA2.2, GA2.7, GC2.3

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The methodology that was applied through Spectres of Utopia was a simple execution of a complex idea, developed through the ‘Critical Embodiment’ theme. This methodology was defined by creating a grid structure than encompassed the whole building. This was due to Breuer’s very careful proportioning of his crafted elements for the project. I extrapolated the principle across the whole building, defining wall positioning, furniture design and window proportions as examples. This grid was determined through the examination of his ceiling plan which perfectly fit around the structural column grid. Using these set principles ensured elements related to each other through tactile and unconscious association. This methodology was supported through Frascari’s “Tell the tale Detail” which defines how geometry can be powerfully used to communicate a message through a building. Applying a methodology in an urban scale gave me a confidence of defining a process that could be applied to a detailed scale as well. This approach puts a methodological system in place to produce a result, making autonomous decisions as a way of supporting and re-iterating a purpose.

Bijenkorf Building Grid

Original Ceiling Grid layout

The principle of designing through this translation of a methodology was something that interested me in clearly defining spatial strategies that formulate coherent design at all scales. In my thesis project this design approach is the most closely followed. Using my own personal ritual of coffee making as a methodology I first extracted the key elements of the ritual. These elements considered included the quality of the coffee produced, the aesthetic mechanics of the process and the social interactions surrounding that specific method of production. I then translated these processes into different spatial types, making decisions concerning each space based on these categorisations of the rituals. This became a valid methodology as it reflected my reaction to the contemporary development of default spaces (cultural context), using these translated coffee rituals to define a design specific spacial atmospheres and geometries.

Furniture Design - Grid Methodology

Coffee Ritual Mapping

Taxonomy of translated coffee process components

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CRITICAL EMBODIMENT Architecture as a capsule of ideological values The Masters course has given me the opportunity to begin to question what I believe and where I situate myself within the sphere of Architecture and the built environment, confirming past interests through a more critical engagement. Beginning to engage in Architectural theory and through the development of understanding my cultural context I have begun to form my critical approach which can become embedded within the design itself. This journey first began in the ‘Tools for thinking about Architecture’ module, which gave me my first exposure into the readings of the theory of Architecture. I began to act on them through my essay on the role of Sacred Art within La Tourette. Although this essay, at the time, did not accurately articulate the learnings I had gained from this subject, it allowed to me understand for the first time that our ethics and critical views towards the world around us can become expressed through Architecture.

Le Corbusier, La Tourette

I have discovered that Architecture can not only reflect the age and societal values that it is created within but can begin to promote the designers personal agendas and beliefs. I believe this can be the case through the unconscious connection with a building, how the spaces are formed together and what materials are chosen, each displaying it’s own logic. In my essay I was trying to suggest that Le Corbusier, although creating a spiritual dwelling for Monks, actually furthered his own personal beliefs in deity and the role of the human as opposed to the Christian perspective of which Couturier commissioned it for. He did this through the materials, arrangement, hierarchy, focus, colours and location of the project. This personal belief system which was expressed in the spatial hierarchy of the building embodies something aside from the Christian faith further reflecting Le Corbusier’s beliefs in the enlightened man. Through the reading of Ruskin’s ‘Seven Lamps of Architecture’ I saw, and reflected, on the way that a Christian ethos, and a world view that aligns with the bible, can be enacted out through the values and creative intent of Architecture in the world. This resonated with me as it reflects my own belief system and the way in which I view the world as a Christian, enabling me for the first time to see how the way I design Architecture can have an impact on the belief systems of others by embodying them within the design. Throughout this period I was also undertaking the Metropolitan Imaginaries design project. The cultural context I perceived of this project also helped develop my own critical approach to the reading of architecture today. As we live in an image based society, it made me reflect on how the buildings I design begin to encompass a replication of the image of a place, and whether this is how I want to design as an Architect. Do I want to unconsciously replicate the images that we face of the projection of a place, and therefore embody these projections in future architecture? Or is there a way of creating an image of a building that reads aside from the current context, that can promote a differing and alternative message to the cultural replication?  These questions were forming as I undertook the Spectres of Utopia project, focusing on Breuer’s Bijenkorf building and the formulation of a new department store with a new social

Seven Lamps of Architecture, Ruskin

Image Production Tower City Identity

Image of Future Newcastle, projecting images

GA2.1, GA2.2, GA2.4, GA2.7, GC2.3

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Breuer’s Bijenkorf - Palazzo Facade

Utopic Detail

agenda. This development of a critique also allowed me to try and understand the world view and critical beliefs that each Architect embodies through their projects. This project enabled me the opportunity of trying to restore the Utopic moment within Breuer’s project across the whole building. I had to first uncover the cultural context for this Utopic moment before inspecting the Bijenkorf. I believe Breuer was trying to create a palazzo style department store emphasising the individual crafting of each part, reflecting his view of society, as opposed to the factory style mass production which surrounded them at the time. By restoring Breuer’s critical view throughout the building it gave me an opportunity to design critically, carefully articulating each component as a reflection of the exposed utopic moment, showing how a critique and personal value can be the driver for the design. Utopia, or ‘no-place’, was a new area of thought for me to encompass about the creation of a new social providence. As Bloch says, “Imagining a Utopia with people without Architecture to shelter them all is impossible.” Here was a theory that encompassed a complete belief system, furthering each individuals promotion of what they deem it to be. This concept allowed me to expand my mind in challenging the current contextual situation and developing an alternative social agenda. With my own personal belief system in Christianity, the concept of defining a renewed social agenda became a key way of viewing the world. Through my thesis project I have been able to begin to design out of the formation of a critical view that encompasses a social agenda as well as allowing these ideas to filter through each scale of the architecture. The renewed social agenda that supports my thesis stems from a belief that everyone is equal as a human, and that there needs to be a renewed social agenda to begin to counter and form an alternative to the inequality presented in today’s society. These beliefs embody my Christian world view, as well as beginning to reflect on how the built environment that surrounds us gives us a projected image of universality instead of individualism. My project here, through the readings of Freud, Bourdieu and Kristeva, aims to the creates a negation (Freud) within the unconscious in order to evoke a critical questioning that leads to what Kristeva defines as an ‘Intimate Revolt’, a return to questioning that has been lost through the development of modernity. This negation can happen due to the unconscious resonance with the built environment (Bollas) and the way that our personal critical approach displays itself in design.

Habitus Translation

The unconscious plays a key role in how we read and interact with the built environment. Bourdieu’s theory of Habitus explains our unconscious replication from everything we’ve learnt. The built environment therefore affects the way that belief systems are formed, meaning that the belief systems we create an architecture with can have an impact on the way others are shaped. My thesis project therefore aimed to embody my beliefs of a democratic society, which according to the Open Society theory, democracy should provide each individual the opportunity to critically engage with their surroundings. My thesis became an experiment of creating an architecture of meaning through critically enacting my belief systems through the design.

Thesis Democratic components

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M E T RO P O L I TA N I M AG I NA R I E S ‘IMAGE AS POWER’

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IMAGINE A METROPOLIS “WHEN EVERYTHING PROVES AN ILLUSION, ILLUSION IS THE THING THAT REMAINS.” What is the image of Rotterdam? For decades, Rotterdam’s city marketers have pondered over This question in an attempt to construct the ‘ideal’ big city. As a consequence, Rotterdam has had a number of grand titles attached to it, such as; world port city, modern city, resilient city, cosmopolitan city – the list goes on. Each of these ‘promotional’ titles is often accompanied by an image. It is this combination of words and images which has led to the widespread perception of Rotterdam as a metropolitan city. We were tasked with critically interrogating and re-imagining the metropolitan attributes that make up Rotterdam’s image. As a group we were to take individual fragments of the metropolitan image and create a masterplan that would pull together the image of the imaginary city. We began this process by analysing the current city and the proposed and historic masterplan’s for the planning of the city. We discovered that due to the pushing to become a major world city, the future masterplan’s included floating cities within the old port basins in the Katendrect region, specifically focusing in the Maashaven basin. As we began reading about the past masterplan’s and masterplan design, as a group we became really interested in the process of social condensing as studied by Leonidov and Koolhaas through his Parc de Villette proposal. The idea of a social condenser of the city of Rotterdam seemed to be incredibly appropriate in portraying the fragmentation of metropolitan attributes in order to create this illusion and image of what the city was about. The Parc de Villette really helped us to develop our thinking about how these fragments could begin to be laid out, creating strip like regions of which to maximise the programmatic overlap throughout the site, enhancing the relationship between the fragments. As with the Parc de Villette there would be various layers to the masterplan process which would be built up and re-evaluated as the project progressed.

Other masterplan’s, including specifically Rossi’s proposal for the Kop Van Zuid region in 1982, have helped to inform the layout and orientation of the masterplan proposal, as is laid out in our Manifesto.

Parc de la Villette, OMA

Rossi, AIR, 1982

GA2.1, GA2.6, GC2.3. GC4.1, GC4.2,

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MANIFESTO

1. Identification

CREATING AN URBAN STRATEGY Upon studying social condensers as a group, we put together a manifesto to surmise our ideas and create clear guidelines throughout the project, defining the process of developing the masterplan as well as our individual fragments to be integrated.

These guidelines were created to bring unity across the various programs and allowing them to be integrated and adjusted to the overall masterplan, which brought about a continual process of reevaluation throughout the duration of the project.

This initial approach design through the use of an urban strategy and manifesto developed the beginning of my learning how to apply a methodological approach to formulating an Architectural design.

2. Condensation

Extracting individual fragments of Rotterdam the generic metropolis.

3. Island Condition

4. Position

5. Strip Grid Strategy i

Compressing the metropolitan fragments into a dense urban scale.

6. Orientation

Establishing a boundary to create a self contained metropolis detached from the existing urban context.

Creating a destination to be travelled to, providing a continuation of the metropolitan skyline.

7. Connection

8. Allocation

Maximising programmatic congestion through linear programmes, perpendicular connections to adjacent strips.

9. Articulation

ii

iii

iv

v

Creating a programmatic statement against the natural grain of the urban fabric.

Creating a programmatic statement against the natural grain of the urban fabric.

Distributing metropolitan fragments to create novel boundary conditions through conflicting programme.

Establishing individual programmatic languages to inform expansion and compression of boundary.

10. Relationship

11. Re-Articulation

12. Voids

13. Unification

vi

vii

viii

ix

Creating interactions to exploit harmonies and conflicts between programmes.

Refining programmatic languages in relation to the creation of interactions between programmes.

Defining negative spaces to explore the juxtaposition between urban realm and programmatic intensity.

Distributing varying programmatic and urban interventions across the site to create site cohesion.

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FRAGMENT CRITICAL APPROACH

“THOSE WHO CONTROL THE IMAGE HAVE THE POWER ” FOUCAULT Upon reading Patricia Van Ulzen’s book “Imagine a metropolis” about Rotterdam, a key theme that really embodied what I could see throughout Rotterdam, was the idea of creating the image of the metropolis. A metropolis being defined as a city with high-rise, traffic, city-lights and in Rotterdam’s case a world renowned port. The quote from Foucault across the page really encapsulates the idea that the perception of a place (metropolis) is not controlled necessarily by the government or authoritative powers but by those who control the images. In Rotterdam this means the view that the city is a vibrant, full and lively place with a huge population due to the vast array of skyscrapers and regeneration work taking place everywhere you look. The reality is quite opposite, it being a rather empty city with hardly anyone living in the central district creating the illusion of a busy city at certain times of the day, but not living up to the criteria as a Metropolis. Many movies and images surrounding Rotterdam give the impression of a world city, this generic metropolis. In my fragment I shall develop the idea of creating images to keep up the illusion of the generic metropolis, surrounding the idea that the image itself has the power to make the change. After we created the framework for the Manifesto for our masterplan, we divided the plots up between the group members. We allocated contrasting fragments to adjacent strips in order to create more interesting borders and collisions as Leonidov talks about in his social condenser in creating ‘unprecedented events’ in the voids.

Fragment allocation within masterplan positioning

The development of an Urban fragment and reading of the city developed an understanding of the cultural context that surrounding the growth of the metropolis. This theme then began to define the critical embodiment displayed through the outcome of the design. 20


HARD WERKEN DESIGN AGENCY

Hard Werken were a design agency based in Rotterdam from the mid 1970’s to the early 1990’s. Their key philosophy was to create unique design that stretched the borders of creativity, designing with no rules. This then allowed them to create dynamic and shocking advertisements, initially in the form of a magazine promoting the creative classes. These images became the face of a changing city, promoting Rotterdam as a ‘vibrant’ metropolitan city.

designers, and believed that their radical approach to design would elevate them. As one of the fellow directors, Rick Vermeulen, stated;

“I don’t think anything designed should

be considered as Art. It’s not about the experimentation with form. There is always a client. ”

Their approach to design collaboration came from a multitude of creative backgrounds that had brought the partnership together initially, from set-design to print-making, photography to painting. These generically broad creative spheres helped form the basis for changing the advertising industry across the Netherlands. The Rotterdam Film Festival posters were particularly iconic in their period of practice.

Designing purely an image factory for the future city of Rotterdam doesn’t reflect the city as a metropolis, the client is essential in creating the future image of the city. To expand on this fragment from within the city means understanding the relationship between a design agency and the clientele. Using the basis of how Hard Werken operated in creating their images and how the client plays a crucial role in the process in the production and distribution of them. Therefore creating a design agency to portray the image of the future metropolis controlled by the developers who actually build it.

Upon communication with William Kars, the ex-director of Hard Werken, I was able to learn that the agency set out to be a leading design agency not just a art collaboration. The company wanted to make money through their skill-sets as

GC3.1, GC3.2, GC3.3

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PRODUCTION LINE LEONIDOV & DOWNTOWN ATHLETIC CLUB

In order to create images to represent the future metropolis, a production line is required to gain a physical image at the end. The idea of a production line across the site came from analysing Leonidov’s theories of the social condenser and horizontal congestion. The Palace of Culture design was created to introduce a new way of forming social habits, developing creativity amongst the members and feeding propaganda to the masses. He divided the segments of function into zone for encouraging dynamic co-existence of activities. I will use this theory to feed into the way I subdivide spaces and create a liner PALACE OF CULTURE LEONIDOV

First attempt at the creation of a Leonidov style linear development for image production

The development of a production line, forming the individual methodological approach came from the understanding of the cultural history and associations of the development of a production line, looking beyond the location of Rotterdam to understand the cultural context and development of this process. This began a development of a critical appraisal that could be fed into a critique of society and how spaces are formed and where they have come from. GA2.1, GC2.2, GC2.3, GC3.3

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IMAGE PRODUCTION VERTICAL STACKING

movement across the program. In contrast to this I read up on the idea of a vertical social condenser as discussed by Koolhaas, specifically looking at the Downtown Athletic Club in New York. Rem talks about the stacking of a linear program vertically to create a social condenser within a single building itself. This radical suggestion of a new way of forming a building changes the way we can view a linear journey, or in this case a production line. The Downtown Athletic club seems to be appropriate for Rotterdam as a whole striving to be ‘Manhattan on the Maas’, pushing towards the image of a Metropolis by building skyscrapers to give the illusion of a developing ‘world’ city. For this reason I will develop my production line of images, that have power to change the city, within a vertical framework relating to the theory of the Downtown Athletic Club. DOWNTOWN ATHLETIC CLUB STARRETT & VAN VLECK

GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3

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INPUT CREATIVE DESIGN PROCESS

The creative design input process began with analysing the generic advertising agency approach in correlation with the client interaction required throughout the procuring process of a final product.

Client Interaction with Agency

Creative Process

Prepare Brief

Initial Meeting with Client

The agency activities within this theory didn’t take into consideration the actual creative thought process just the actions required. I integrated the generic creative process and associated the stages alongside the activity to begin to understand how a design agency would begin the process of creating a design piece for a client. This process also highlights the physical meeting points between the client and design agency. Upon this research it highlight the final cut off point with the client before a whole new output process of production begins independently to client involvement.

Agency Activity

Agency review client brief and research

Problem Identification

Strategy Presentation

Creative Brief written

Deliberate Thinking / Mindscribing Heuristics

Review Creative Brief Agency Brief Creative Teams Development of Creative ideas

Illuminate Internal Review / WIP meeting

Upon analysing these processes and creating a table showing the steps to production, I translated the steps into a diagram to begin to spatialise each of the steps. Each row then created a space with a unique function relating to either the agency activity, the creative process or the client interaction highlighted in red. Some of the activities and creative processes could be resolved into one space, others had to be kept independently. To begin to understand how these could be translated into a building and layout, I began mapping the connections required between each space. This diagram to the far right helps to display an understanding of the hierarchy within the production line.

Initial Ideas Presentation

Develop Creative Ideas

Adaption / Evaluate + Verify

Revised Creative Routes

Consult Stakeholders Pre-testing + Focus Groups Adjustments / Final Decision

Sign off Production Production Begins

GC2.3, GC3.1, GC3.2

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Implement / Execute


Generic creative spaces

By investigating contemporary methods of image production in comparison to the contextual methods of Hard Werken I was able to apply the theory of the process as the methodology of the design, learning to allow the formulation of spatial arrangement to happen as they need to. 25


OUTPUT FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

There are many developments planned to be erected around the city of Rotterdam, including many more tower blocks to add to the metropolitan goal. These developments are taking place in all areas across the city. The output of the advertising tower would seek to serve the future developments across Rotterdam, being the first place that people could see the new scale and image of the city being erected. The print process of the tower would begin at the top so as the client confirms the product it could immediately begin printing down the site of the building. Along with full scale prints to create hoardings around the site, bill board size banners could also be printed orientating towards the site in hand so that the clients could see their image in the context of where it would be built. These could then be cut and rolled at the base of the tower or the periphery’s of the strip before being exported to the site. Not only could current client view their work being printed, but additional theatre areas could be used for potential clients. These my be client wishing to invest within the city, or even clients wishing to develop their own urban waterfronts in other cities, to sit and view the image of the future metropolis taking shape and how that comes about. In this plan I have mapped out the locations of future developments happening within the immediate context to the Maashaven basin, more developments are planned for the greater context of Rotterdam. What this then shows is the general location of the areas of Rotterdam which are more developable which are mainly to the North of the Maashaven basin and the floating masterplan. These development site locations then begin to inform the orientation of the viewing areas and client meeting rooms within the building itself. This provides the opportunity for the clients to view their development area as they discuss the advertisement for it. A lot of the development is taking place within the Kop Van Zuid district with the Wilhelminapier being a key focus of what the future of Rotterdam is striving towards.

GC6.3

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27


INPUT / OUTPUT A VERTICAL PRODUCTION LINE A specific input is required in order to create a production line to output an image to portray the future metropolis. Due to the way Hard Werken created their images for the city using a variety of creative design processes, I will use a creative design process to create a program of spaces for the input. As the client is the predominant part of the design process I will therefore study the design process alongside the client interaction and the points of the process where the parties overlap. Print is still and essential part of future developments, and developers are using various mediums of print in order to best market the future city. Large scale prints cover the building site giving an impression of the building being erected behind. Bill-boards and hoarding become play a major role in portraying the future image in the city, giving an impression of the metropolis and it’s future. The building will therefore output the future image of the city by printing the future development advertisements down the facade to then be exported and used on the site itself. These images printed down the facade will constantly be changing, broadcasting the future image of the city of Rotterdam. The power of these images give the public a perception of the developing metropolis holding up the facade of this expanding “world” city. Meeting Meeting

This then creates a vertical production line exporting the images out across the site and distributed to development sites across the city.

PrintingPrinting plates plates prepared prepared

Paper Paper insertedinserted

Printing Printing

This section illustrates the input and output throughout the tower defining the spatial arrangements throughout the structure of the downtown athletic club framework.

QualityQuality controlcontrol

Cut Cut

Cut Cut

Assembly Assembly

Re-roll Re-roll

QualityQuality controlcontrol

Distribute Distribute

The input is divided into spaces and stacked vertically throughout the structure of the tower creating a hierarchy of process, which is divided by the output printing process breaking the spaces and providing platforms of which to view the future image with the backdrop of the city.

Distribute Distribute

The highest point within the tower is the final client meeting room providing the best views within the tower of the surrounding metropolis and how their images will affect it, before the printing begins. The paper defines the form of the building and can constantly be changing depending on the printing of the next building. The printing continues to cascade into the surrounding defining the landscape before being cut and distributed by local transport at the periphery’s of the site.

Agency Activity Agency Activity

We can begin to see here how the critical embodiment of the critique on image production and the projection of a future metropolis begins to be enacted out through the methodological approach of creating a vertical production line. The programme being defined by the inter-connective image production theories.

PaperPaper Production Production

Digital Production Digital Production

Production Granted Production Granted

Paper Paper inserted at baseatofbase building inserted of building

Meeting Meeting

PrintedPrinted plates plates primedprimed Problem Identification Problem Identification

Printing Plates Plates Checked Printing Checked

PrintingPrinting plates plates prepared prepared

Paper Paper insertedinserted

Printing BeginsBegins Printing

GA2.1, GA2.2,

Deliberate Thinking / Mindscribing Deliberate Thinking / Mindscribing

Client Client Viewing area area Viewing

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Printing Printing

Heuristics Heuristics Paper Paper Cut Cut

Assembly of documents Assembly of documents

Illuminate Illuminate

QualityQuality controlcontrol

Cut Cut

Cut Cut

Assembly Assembly


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PROGRAMMATIC INTERACTION This axonometric is able to highlight the interactions between the input and the output and how they sit on the site and interact with the neighbouring massing. The framework of the Downtown Athletic Club creates a structure for which the programmatic elements can sit in and wrap around. This eludes to the desire to be seen as part of the Manhattan skyline, drawing focus to the paper printing the new image of the city. You can begin to see here how the meeting rooms are angled at future development sites around the city, and how they juxtapose the rigidity within the frame. This reflects the client interactions and the design agency remains in control despite being commissioned by the client. Again the paper begins to dictate the surrounding landscape defining the boulevard and drawing people towards the tower. This diagrammatic plan helps to illustrate the central core of the tower and how the paper begins to shape the environment around it before being exported from the peripheries to the surrounding city. The high-rise building is the main focus of the strip with public movement and access via the boulevard. Paper will begin to shape the way people move along the boulevard and are drawn into the building. The site itself is shaped by the reaction and adjustments of the neighbouring strips defining entrances and arrival points. A channel has been carved out on the east of the site to allow for supply access by boat, also allowing for boats to move and dock around the neighbouring strip. As with the south side of the boulevard the landscape of the edge reacts with the neighbours creating voids of water and allowing for public park access. These steps to re-integrate the strip back into the masterplan follow the proposed manifesto from the beginning of the group stage. GA2.1, GA2.2, GC1.1, GC1.3, GC3.3

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31


MECHANICS DEFINING SPACES The paper throughout the building begins to define the spaces in and around the input program. This then creates circulation spaces throughout the building where the input and output can be viewed as you move through the structure. The different stages of the program throughout the vertical production line begin to juxtapose each other, with initial research facilities being situated next to cutting and final processing of the images. This image draws attention to those void spaces created between the contrasting programs, and allows for interested spaces to be defined. Viewing platforms are situated and can be moved and orientated in order to view the images being printed in the context of the development site.

Hard Werken board meeting with clients GA2.2, GC1.3, GC3.3

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THEATRE VIEWING THE IMAGE As the images are being printed the client and future clients are able to view them as they make their way down the building. This output becomes a marketing beacon to the city as a whole, being able to promote the image of the future city before the building work even begins. Different scales of images can be printed down the building, from bill-board scale items that can be viewed in adaptable theatres to whole façades. In these theatre areas, clients can present works to business partners with the city in the backdrop, as well as promoting the potential for generic metropolis’ in other cities. The images themselves will be designed using the same process that Hard Werken used in order to create highly graphical and eye-catching images. Part of Hard Werken’s strategy was to use ambiguous imagery with missing elements so that people had to delve deeper to understanding the product. In this case the imagery produced can create a new illusion of the future metropolis, this generic city, keeping up the facade of Rotterdam as a bustling metropolis.

GA2.2, GC3.3

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35


CITY VIEW HEIGHT COMPARISON Bringing together the strips you can see how the masterplan continues the skyline to the South of the Maas river. The masterplan creates a lot of height in comparison to the context, but this is not unusual to Rotterdam as a whole, and this island condition masterplan is a social condenser of what Rotterdam strives to be. The situation within the dyke lends itself well to the history of the Netherlands creating their own islands and carving out the land and adding it as they see fit. This floating masterplan therefore becomes a future city and will remain despite the Netherlands inevitably flooding in the future. Wilhelminapier is a prime example of the generic city Rotterdam longs to become, nick-named ‘Manhattan on the Maas’ covered in starchitect designed towers it is a beacon to move Rotterdam closer to becoming a ‘world’ city. The height of my tower reflects the skyline height of Wilhelminapier as this is the densest high-rise within the city, taking an equivalent height to De Rotterdam itself. De Rotterdam is the epitome of a building designed as an image to create the future city and promote Rotterdam as a bustling generic metropolis. Even Koolhaas himself knows that the building is merely a facade and the size doesn’t reflect the need for expanded accommodation within the city. My advertisement tower seeks to continue this illusion that Rotterdam continually needs to grow and become this expansive metropolitan environment.

GC5.3, GC6.3

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The tower itself becomes a projection of the image production of Rotterdam itself critiquing the built environment through it’s very scale and positioning as a perceived extension of Wilhelminapier. This project and scale of urban interaction began to allow me to critique the scale of the built environment, questioning the need and purpose of the use of space in cities, 37


STRIP ARTICULATION Here we see the completion of the strategic urban resolution after all the stages were completed in our manifesto. Putting all the strips together showed the unprecedented interactions in each of our urban fragment strips, becoming a social condenser of our critical approach to Rotterdam as a metropolis. GA2.1,

38


Brining the urban strategy together helped me to understand the importance of process and methodology throughout design, defining strict principles that give freedom for creativity within the boundaries. By defining a system and methodology it allows the channelling of critical embodiment reinforcing the intertwining themes. 39


SACRED ARCHITECTURE TOOLS FOR THINKING ABOUT ARCHITECTURE

HOW CAN LA TOURETTE BE VIEWED IN LIGHT OF RUSKIN AND COUTURIER’S DIFFERING OPINIONS ON SACRED ART? Introduction

“ In this essay I wish to look at Sainte-Marie-

de-la-Tourette, Le Corbusier’s last completed work in Europe commissioned by Dominican Friar Couturier, and explore to what extent it can be viewed as a Sacred Art. To identify what a Sacred Art is we will look at Ruskin and Couturier’s writings, both as Christian Art critic’s, to determine their definitions and principles in viewing church buildings as a Sacred Art. From there I will endeavour to analyse Le Corbusier’s approach and beliefs in the process of designing this purpose-built silent monastery for the Catholic Church. I wish to discover whether La Tourette can truly be viewed as a Sacred Art or purely an Architecture designed for Sacred use, assessing it against Ruskin and Couturier’s difference of opinions approaching the topic of Sacred Art. ”

COUTURIER AND LE CORBUSIER

SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE, RUSKIN

This essay gave me the opportunity to begin to explore a topic that really interested me, how spaces can be created to reflect a set of belief systems and ideologies. Having not been to La Tourette personally, in reflection this subject was hard to create a clear argument. However it opened my critical perspective towards critical embodiment, and the distinct possibility of defining spaces that reflect beliefs that people can begin to resonate with. This articulation of critical embodiment has developed in reflection on this essay and interest, reflecting a growing theme through my work over the 2 years of how I can begin to embody my belief systems within the built environment, and can it truly have an affect on the people that interact with it. I believe this essay revealed to me the very nature that it can be embodied, the monastery becoming a world heritage site shortly after being built adds to the argument that to some extent there is spiritual aspect to the embodiment of Corbusier’s beliefs within this modern monastery. GA2.4, GA2.7, GC3.1, GC3.2, GC6.1

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"A truly sacred edifice is not a secular one made sacred in its very substance, made so by the quality of its forms” Couturier

Through the exploration of Ruskin’s Seven Lamps of Architecture and Couturier’s views on Sacred Art, I began to formulate the premise of a sacred art in the form of Architecture. Ruskin believed that Architecture became the beginning of all the arts, reinforcing the importance of embodying a critical perspective within the creating of the built environment as it is able to impact and influence all art forms and interactions with life in it’s very being. The cultural context of Ruskin differed massively to the age that Corbusier was designing within, but this doesn’t discredit his views on the definition of Sacred Art in my opinion, as his Christian world view shaped his actions and theories of Architecture. Le Corbusier doesn’t hold these same views meaning through his belief and being born in the enlightened age. The essay became a journey investigating how buildings become defined as embodiments of the belief system they are designed within, reflecting on Corbusier’s own social agendas in comparison to the brief of a silent monastery. The investigation didn’t seek to discredit the Architecture of La Tourette as a renowned work of Corbusier’s but to understand the definition of how different spaces can be created within specific social, political and critical perspective on the world, and how in this creation people can be affected by these views through interaction with the built environment. I came to the conclusion that La Tourette although defined as a Sacred Architecture, and used for Sacred purposes becomes a spiritual atmosphere for the advancement of Le Corbusier’s Utopian agendas, as supposed to a building that encompasses all the beliefs of Christianity in it’s essence. The building still remains and aligns with certain aspects of Christian beliefs and structures but cannot be claimed to be a pure Sacred Art promoting Christian beliefs. In reflection to Corbusier’s design for Ville Radieuse in 1924, we see a social agenda that can begin to be reflected in the social structures found within La Tourette.

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SPECTRES OF UTOPIA AND MODERNITY BIJENKORF

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SPECTRES OF UTOPIA AND MODERNITY

Within our project brief we are trying to identify the ghost of modernity within a selected host building in Rotterdam, and trying to capture the selected detail within this building that identifies this ghost of modernism, but also whether it captures this idea of a spectre of Utopia. We began by getting to grips with the idea of modernity and Utopia through a number of readings, before applying the way we understand the thinking at the time to the way we read our host building. The identification of the detail then began to inform the way we choose to intervene in our host buildings. Another way of identifying the details in our buildings will be to understand not only the included aspects of the ghost of modernity in Utopia, but also the crisis of it, seeing where they fall short. The idea of Utopia has been largely misinterpreted and associated with failed architecture over the years, but the word Utopia itself literally means a “good-place” or a “no-place”. So we have to begin with understanding that as soon as the concept of an Architectural Utopia becomes a reality, it instantly falls short of the essence of Utopia, which can never fully be achieved in the physical. We read the theory of Utopia here in the light of the thinking of Modernity at the time, only then can we begin to see what the moments in our building are, and try to understand why the Architect designed it in that way from the beginning. This understanding of the Architect is also informed by what others were doing at the time, in Rotterdam and around the world, focusing on other connected Architects and building types at the time. From capturing this detail and having had explored the background of the Architect we can begin to decide how to best use this Ghost in the host building to re-inform the design, beginning to fully capture the essence of the detail throughout the whole building.

Habermas here begins to define what we mean by the term modern, being used in three different ways. Modernism is the output during this period that we are looking at, where all unnecessary design was stripped away to a bare aesthetic of functionalism. Functionalism being that the material does what it should be doing and isn’t fake. Modernity, coming from the French Enlightenment, is the ideal perfection and the idea of infinite knowledge and the advancement towards social and moral improvements, lifting the inspiration from classical antiquity. This is where Corbusier was inspired by in his proposal of Ville Radieuse (The Radiant City). It is here that we begin to see the line where Modernity and Modernism begin to collide with the concept of Utopia. Utopia is the alternative to the system. It is a method, not a result as it is literally a “noplace”, thereby informing my methodological development. The driving behind Utopia is a renewed society, a social creation. It is about recuperating the social and political dimensions of architecture. The idea of home and hope are intertwined with Utopia, as Bloch says “Imagining a Utopia with people without Architecture to shelter them all is impossible.” When beginning the project we have to understand what it was to be building and designing in a period where this was all new thought, not from our perspective as post-modernism beings. How does the building that we are going to study counter the existing culture? How does it fit within the modernism movement? And do any of these developments begin to align with a social and political change that could elude to some Utopian thinking?

This studio really stretched my critical embodiment and understanding of the cultural context of specific buildings, architecture and locations. By having to grasp the concepts of Utopia and understanding the cultural standing of modernity through this, I was forced to explore how these concepts and theories could be enacted out in the built environment, before learning to apply my own beliefs to a design. GC2.1, GC2.2, GC2.3

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LE CORBUSIER Ville Radieuse (The Radiant City) 1924


BIJENKORF MARCEL BREUER I chose to focus on and examine the Bijenkorf building in the heart of Rotterdam, designed by Marcel Breuer, completed in 1957. The building was originally designed by Dudok and opened as a department store in 1930, but was largely destroyed in the 1940 bombing raids of World War II.

and SOM throughout this period, had a simplicity of multiplied elements across a site, using the mass production at the time to create an efficient space. This was a freedom and a logic expressed through modernism, developing a mass culture enacted through this building.

Breuer was asked by the department store, Bijenkorf, to design a new store for them. The latter building had a largely different approach to design due to the cultural context it was designed into, post-war, and the critical development of modernity at the time.

Marcel Breuer, born in 1902, studied at the Bauhaus under the supervision of Walter Gropius, where he became a furniture designer. Quickly becoming a Master, he was influenced by the like of Klee and Kandinsky, modernist artists who progressed into expressionism. As we see through Breuer’s works, these influences affect the way he designs his work, from the repeated patterns and shapes throughout his works.

The original Dudok building was a distinctly modernist building with clean lines and lots of light. With Breuer’s design we see a closed box with a standard grid structure and hanging facade, typical of contemporary department store designs. This was the beginning of a new form of shopping experience, reflecting the developing mass culture that was growing at the time out of the post-war attitudes of manufacturing and production. This was a maximising of space and efficiency of the process of shopping, with large open plan adaptable spaces with free moving display stands. It also shows a change in the thinking from an outward looking urban building to an insular closed building, perhaps indicating a defensive strategy in post-war Rotterdam, as hinted at in a speech Breuer wrote around the time. This was a line of thinking I followed for a while, but believe the design was motivated by something more than just a defensive nature. The way that he designed this building reflects thinking at the time, a striving for space and freedom that, as Utopian thought expresses, went against the design process at the time where every part of the building was very contrived for a certain purpose. However this adaptable space, much like the new high-rise skyscrapers developed by Mies

This background propelled him from furniture design into Architecture, teaching at the Bauhaus before moving to London briefly and then on to a teaching post at Harvard University in America. Walter Gropius was the one who sought to bring him into America and together they designed a series of modernist housing schemes. He then moved to New York having split from working with Gropius to establish his own practice from where he designed his better known works. Breuer is highly regarded as one of the greats of the modernist period, bringing a simplicity to the form of his works, with key identifiers throughout each piece, relating to his days spent as a carpenter. His perhaps most famous work is the Whitney Museum in New York City (1966), actually relating to the design of the Bijenkorf in Rotterdam with a further developed interior, using similar exterior facade panels. Breuer designed two other buildings within the Netherlands around that time, an office block and the American Embassy in The Hague. Neither of which were as successful as the department store.

Dudok - Bijenkorf, 1930-1940

Breuer - Bijenkorf, 1957-present

Breuer, Whitney Museum 1966

GC7.1

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T H E M O D E R N D E PA R T M E N T S T O R E The Sullivan “Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building” built in 1902 is one of the first Department stores of the time to be designed to a completely open grid of concrete columns we a separate facade system for free movement of space and internal design. This change was due to the ever changing modernisation of production and the ideal change to modernism in wanting more space and freedom to choose yourself. This was the first in the change of the serviced department store of history where the employees would choose your products for you.

“Modernism represents a great seductive force, promoting the dominance of the principle of unrestrained self-realisation, the demand for authentic self-experience, the subjectivism of the overstimulated sensibility and the release of hedonistic motivations...”

Habermas: Modernity - An Unfinished Project

Dudok’s Bijenkorf of 1930, shows another advancement into the modernist period, but here focusing on light, simplicity and experience. Here modernism is enacted through the long rectangular windows and outward looking nature. So where perhaps the Sullivan is focusing more on the experience of shopping becoming more modern, here the Dudok is about the building design itself affecting the shopping experience.

“It did not seem ideal for a big store to look out into the open.” Dudok

When it comes to Breuer’s Bijenkorf design in 1957, we see another advancement in the shopping experience, here developing such an internal process of shopping and selfexperience and choice that the facade begins to be covered up as there is no need for natural lighting when it can be mechanically lit to create the ideal shopping experience at all times. The floor plan is so free that all the units are free standing and can be re-adapted at all times. This shows a massive progression in the cultural and social thinkings at the time, linking to the Enlightenment thinking on self promotion, freeing up the shop floor from clerks and allowing people mass consumerism like never seen before. This style of Department store has become a normality in present times, but this change had a massive impact on society. Breuer created a logic to heights of units, so that no unit exceeded the 1400mm mark so that people can see clearly from one end of the shopping centre to the other, instantly making them feel like they had the ability to go and choose whatever they wanted, the freedom to shop and buy in a modern world.

The cultural context of the department store and therefore the built up of a modern consumerism through capitalism, became a vital way of reading the development of today’s context, helping to situate myself critically in my thesis. GC2.1, GC2.2, GC2.3

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A MODERNIST CONTEXT MODERNISATION - Industrial and scientific progress - Reorganisation and rationalisation of production + administration - Emergence of a mass market MODERNISM - Cultural, aesthetic response to such developments MODERNITY - Is the project (since 18th Century enlightenment) “to develop objective science, universal morality and law and autonomous art according to inner logic.” Habermas - “Modern and Postmodern Architecture” Le Corbusier, 1952-68 Musée, Chandigarh, India

Le Corbusier, 1957-59 Musée National d’Art Occidental, Tokyo, Japan

By studying what was going on at the time in terms of modern Architectural development we can see the influences and ties that affected his design. Breuer was extremely influenced by what was going on around him at the time, especially after moving to America and seeing a change in the Architectural focus of the cities to the anti-urban. Architects at the time were developing in the modernist international style, developing alongside the mass production across the world, that has informed the built environment we know today. New programmes and uses of spaces were developing as transport connections grew across the world in the light of the world war advances in technology. All these factors were changing the construction methods and thought processes behind the spaces. Le Corbusier is a pure modernist architect, his buildings throughout the period were undergoing similar structural and facade design patterns as Breuer. These buildings were influences and advancing new social dimensions as they impacted different cultures.

Louis Kahn, 1957-59 Yale centre for British Art

Kahn was another modernist architect based in America. His approach to architecture was not so readily received as the urban nature of his projects rejected the anti-urban place making of American cities. His designs followed strict grids and used concrete structures to create open plan spaces. His buildings at the time reflected similar design patterns to Breuer but the briefs formed a different approach to use. The context at the time, especially the affect of the war on American architecture and technology clashed with the European heritage of Breuer’s place making, limiting his view of the inclusion of a social dimension to the Bijenkorf, his first major public project of this scale. Previously his skills of furniture making had been presented in bespoke housing design, whereas a department store was at a different scale to anything he was used to. Designing for a de-contextualised Rotterdam centre after the war, rejected the social aims that could have been implemented, designing an inward looking store that reflected the cultural context of internalised self-actualisation.

This has affected the way I view my own work and context, drawing me to question the background and built environment I am surrounded myself within rather than accepting it as the most appropriate solution. This has helped me to question my cultural context and develop the criticality to embody within my designs. GC7.1

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“ THE DETAIL TELLS THE TALE” Tell-the-Tale Detail - Frascari

Upon reading the Frascari and analysing the Breuer building, I came to the conclusion that in this particular building, the whole facade was the tell the tale detail. It was what caught me attention as soon as I began studying this building, that there was more though to this design than just a series of floors with a facade. A simple and intricate logic has been used through the design to fit together these beautiful travertine patterns on two of the four façades, lining up perfectly with rectangles on the long façades. This reflects the mass consumerism and mass production at the time, as each type of facade panel were all exactly the same size. The building as a whole gives off the impression of an image of efficiency, despite hexagon panels not being the most efficient production shape. It promotes the idea of every small part working together in unison to create the whole, therefore also reflecting the culture of the time in terms of factory production. As Van Rooy, a critic at the same talks about, there was un-obstructive control over the play of the mass and nonmass within the facade, carefully carving away at the almost impenetrable facade at certain parts. The defensive nature of the facade was something I thought could have been the Utopic moment, but upon more careful study I don’t believe that was the primary motivation of Breuer’s at all. This being his largest building ever designed to date, I believe the combination of living in America and their anti-urban aims mixed with the control or the brief and the thinking of freedom and space at the time led Breuer to focus on only the design for the moments that he could, leaving the interior to the freedom that the culture was demanding at the time. His true love lies in the details, being a cabinet maker and furniture designer by trade. As Van Rooy goes on to say in his commentary, the specular of the facade at night with the backlit slit windows gives an impression of the light within, very much like Doge’s Palace in Venice. This I believe captures the essence of Breuer’s “Utopic” moment within the building, the facade not necessarily trying to hide the function within, but carefully reveal it when necessary. To me what doesn’t align in the design of the overall building is the distinct difference between the facade and the interior structure.

Looking at the production of Scarpa’s work inspired my methodological development through the use of drawings. This process of layering drawings at different scales and associating plans, sections and sections together has helped to inform a way of processing an idea through drawing. Scarpa’s details also become a key precedent when defining and design bespoke and specific details that embody a greater belief. GC2.1, GC2.2, GC2.3, GC7.1

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FAC T O RY A N D PA L A Z Z O “We might argue that Kahn dispels the hierarchies of the palazzo by linking it to the anonymous grid of the factory. Kahn, we conclude gets the best of both types: the palazzo democratized and the factory individualised”

STRANGE DETAILS - Kahn’s Yale Centre of British Art

Upon reading the “Strange Details” extract on Kahn, it has convinced me that this is what Breuer was trying to achieve through the Bijenkorf facade design, despite it being an “ideal department store” at the time. His inspiration of the Palazzo style facade is combined with the industrial nature of production and using the mass produced panels at the time to draw the factory to be something more. His facade becomes, like a Palazzo, a display to the public, almost like a scaled up cabinet design, somewhere to display and view the fashion that the Bijenkorf have to offer. This aligns with the research on the change of the shopping industry and how stores are now becoming an experience destination rather than an efficient purchasing method.

department store into more of a display case for fashion, as opposed to just a consumerist freedom of self-indulgence. So I began by overlaying the plans and sections of Kahn’s building as well as Doge’s Palace onto the grid of the Bijenkorf to see how to begin creating a how Palazzo feel whilst using and retaining the grid, drawing the two elements together. Scaling both the plan to fit the grid and begin to define how I could puncture courtyards and create movement and define internal spaces across the empty open floor plan. From this point I have developed strategy of how to start puncturing holes through the existing structure whilst retaining its structural integrity. It also allowed me to begin designing around the existing structure to emphasis the existing grid by offsetting and creating corridors around the columns drawing them more into the main body of the architectural experience.

There is such an inherent logic to the design of the facade that if applied across the whole building design could individualise the factory aesthetic throughout the internal space. This is what I believe Breuer was trying to achieve at the time, against the will of the time and the brief, still within the realms of a modernist design.

Kahn’s Yale Centre for British Art has allowed me to begin thinking about ascent through different chambers and how to draw people through the building and into the subdivided spaces. The use of different height voids throughout the building at creating further courtyards throughout the building has helped me to develop a way of creating different height spaces of more value, adding a level of complexity to the plans and sections with greater lines of sight.

I used this phrase and concept as the key starting point to launch the intervention, trying to individualise the factory aesthetic and large open spaces, in keeping with the original facade. For this reason I am choosing not to design the original facade, as this I believe to be the key detail, the tell-the-tale detail, and a reflection of his longings at the time to create a public building much like a Palazzo, whilst designing in a modern way, stripping back the unnecessary detail.

The Doge’s Palace overlaid created a large central courtyard with a thin body of building between it and the exterior, lining up colonnades around the existing columns, which is a feature I have used in my intervention. The overall structure of the Italian Palaces, dividing the open public floors from the private chambers above has helped me to develop a vertical layering system to subdivide the program over the floors.

Kahn’s Yale Centre for British Art is a successful example of how the Palazzo style meets the factory, creating a space full of logic and rhythm to the detailing, trying to build in an urban strategy. His way of creating an individual gallery space within the factory grid is especially useful in my re-defining of the present

1:500 Model

1:500 Model (Facade Removed)

GA2.1, GC1.2, GC2.1, GC2.2, GC5.2, GC7.1, GC8.2,

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DOGE’S PALACE UPPER FLOOR OVERLAY

KAHN’S YALE CENTRE FOR BRITISH ART UPPER FLOOR OVERLAY

DOGE’S PALACE GROUND FLOOR OVERLAY

KAHN’S YALE CENTRE FOR BRITISH ART GROUND FLOOR OVERLAY

DOGE’S PALACE SECTIONAL OVERLAY

KAHN’S YALE CENTRE FOR BRITISH ART SECTIONAL OVERLAY

This overlaying of significant precedents interweaves the cultural context, aiming to revive the utopic detail which displays a critical embodiment, using a methodological approach to the design. Here my key themes come together to create this intervention.

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BUILDING CONDITIONING The Bijenkorf is located in the heart of Rotterdam. It is situated on the Coolsingel, a major road through the centre lined with tram lines and right on the midpoint between the Lijnbahn pedestrianised street and the Beursplein shopping street and underpass. This makes it the perfect location to revitalise the urban nature of a department store experience, creating a destination experience between these locations. The change of the shopping experience will highlight the store as an urban centre amidst the chain stores surrounding the area, in an area which attracts the most footfall in the day. It will encourage a new community to form in the centre of the old city as the future city expands south of the river. As most people leave the city centre at the moment, this will encourage new social activity and agendas. Here we can see how the influences of Kahn’s Yale Centre for British Art and Doge’s Palace become key drivers in restoring the utopic aspect through the design, carving out areas of the structural grid and inserting partitions through the floors in order to restore the intimacy and public intrigue throughout the structure. This generates new uses for the spaces, punctured by key new circulation around the central courtyard. GA2.1, GA2.2, GC1.1, GC1.2, GC1.3, GC2.1, GC2.2, GC5.3, GC7.1, GC7.2

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Doge’s Palace Courtyard

Kahn’s Yale centre for British Art Internal Courtyard


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PROGRAMMATIC INTENT

1:250 Section

A study in the US showed the 85% of US customers want to buy from places that benefit their well-being and learning. There has been a shift in people wanting to re-find the community and authentic products that benefit them more than just a consumer product. The digital market in the recent years has led to efficiency without the community.

By re-instating the utopic intent, I believe that redefining the existing program is the most appropriate use for the building. This aims to fulfil Breuer’s original social position in consumerism across the whole building in contemporary society, one where the act of shopping and consumption is once again in a period of change. Today we can see the continuation of a modernist society still striving for enlightenment and today we still see the mass consumerism from this period, still enacted through the design of our day-to-day stores, giving us the complete freedom of choice and self-promotion, with a general disregard to the greater society and urban community. Studies are beginning to show that there is a change in the shopping experience in the last few years, with many more users ordering online, and there has in more recent years been a change in the social standings of consumers.

This has changed the way I have viewed the Breuer department store, now giving it a hope that Breuer’s original design intent could actually be fully enacted through a new way of experiencing the store. Bijenkorf is a department store which hosts a series of high end fashion brands. In my building intervention I am going to create an experiential department store, one where you can’t buy products but are able to immerse yourself within the fashion industry and experience the

A new Samsung store in New York hosts a new way of shopping without selling a single product, the store becomes a strategy of creating community in a city without public space. A theatre at the heart of the store broadcasts product releases and streams from across the world. By integrating this contemporary way of shopping with Breuer’s intent on displaying products, the Bijenkorf becomes restored to it’s utopic nature in contemporary society. GA2.1, GA2.2, GC5.1, GC5.3, GC7.2

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new products and styles. Many people can’t afford the products that Bijenkorf actually sell, but as with Samsung, people already have their own preferred stores and like to learn the new and latest fashion designs from the high end fashion stores and then try and recreate it for a smaller price from other shops. This will bring a community feel back into the department store, creating an almost art gallery exhibition of the latest fashions, becoming a community centre for experience and learning in the heart of the city of Rotterdam.

The building becomes arranged in a hierarchical order from the most open and public floor at the ground entrance, to the more private fashion show areas and exhibition spaces at the top of the building. This gives a promotion to the public integration and accessibility at the ground floor filtering to the more curated areas. This new style of department store becomes an experiment to this new way of integrating consumption and technology into the built environment, a new way of creating democratised space in a commercial city.

As with Samsung and other department stores I will re-integrate food and drink venues into the fabric, opening up the Ground Floor from its very insular nature to one of part of the city scape. The idea of a theatre space that can be use to launch products and stream events could work within a department store offering a space for fashion to be presented as well as other presentation forms in the city.

This section shows the changing nature of the floors as the scale of the spaces changes with the positioning of the new voids. These carved out spaces become centres of activity across different levels, aligning to the geometric structure that Breuer applied to the design.

Using the historic references of Kahn and the way he dealt with a strict grid structure carving out voids for natural light to penetrate, centring the activity and movement around these open areas.

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RE-URBANISATION As already mentioned this was Breuer’s largest building built to date, most of his experience with small residential housing and bespoke pieces. Moving to America meant that he lost the cultural surrounding of urban designed buildings, with American culture being distinctly anti-urban. By opening the ground floor back up the public I aim to integrate the historic urban themes from his early experiences of Europe, drawing on influences from his time at the Bauhaus to influence the plan layout. These paintings by Paul Klee and Kandinsky reflect his approach and influences whilst studying furniture design at the school in the 20s. He studied and taught alongside these fellows and developing his design in accordance with theirs. Drawing on these influences, also reflects the forms used by Kahn in his buildings. This openness and design strategy begins to encompass the social aims of renewing the utopic aspect of the building, designing a space for the people to gain identity within as supposed to becoming internalised.

Klee, 1928

Klee, 1937

Kandinsky, 1937

As I intervene in the Bijenkorf, I aim to restore the European roots through which Breuer was used to, and re-integrate the Palazzo style ground floor into the larger city context. This is done through offsetting the structural grid to create openings and wide colonnaded corridors to encourage a thoroughfare through the courtyard space. This whole ground floor is open, removing the need for doors as you enter the under the existing facade. A large landscaped courtyard next to an adaptable covered market hall encourages people to stay and enjoy the new Palazzo style courtyard, with views up and into the building showing the layering of functions as you rise through the building. Small shops create an ambiance and encourage you to penetrate the ground floor walls, making you feel like you can use the space as you feel free to. Void studies and Nolli plans are another methodological approach used to understand the accessible areas of the building. Here these historical references are used to begin to understand how successful public/private space can be formed. GA2.2, GA2.3, GC3.1, GC3.2, GC3.3, GC5.1, GC5.3

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1:500 Ground Floor Plan

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P RO G R A M M AT I C L AY E R I N G

FOURTH FLOOR

Catwalk Viewing, Roof Terrace, Private Restaurant, Private Bar, Fashion Gallery Balcony, Individual Fashion Display areas

THIRD FLOOR

Catwalk, Model Studios/Preparation Area, Bar, Fashion Community area, Gallery, Partitioned Fashion Display areas

SECOND FLOOR

FIRST FLOOR

GROUND FLOOR

Gallery Viewing of Theatre, Social Media space, Online Shopping distribution centre, Public Study Centre, Independent Coffee Shop/Restaurant, Rent-able open plan office space, Rent-able Private Office Space

Gallery Viewing of Theatre, Community Room, Ballroom/Conference Centre, High Street Restaurants, Chain Bar

Theatre/Presentation Space, Courtyard, Adaptable Market space/ Foodhall, Cloak Room, Small selected High Street stores, Coffee Shops

Upon studying the structure of Italian Palazzo’s, to individualise the Factory aspect of the existing interior, I have layered the building due to function, with a more open public Ground Floor through to a more closed off Private Fourth Floor. This layering of Community through to Individual is also reflected through the new courtyard facade detailing, and internal material distribution. The intervention breaks down the open plan form between the existing columns, whilst retaining the grid dimensions, emphasising the original structure.

Alongside the actual design breaking down as we rise through the building, we begin to see a materiality change as the layers progress from public to more private, going from the more basic design to the more intricate nature of curating an exhibition space, also echoed through the facade design. These tactile materials offer a reflection of the design intent on each floor, the materials becoming less familiar and accessible as you ascend through the building.

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1:200 Courtyard Facade Elevation

Through the design of the new internal courtyard facade we can begin to see the intervention principles enacted out through the facade design. We can begin to see how the open and more rigid style facade on the lower floors reflects the open permeable nature of the Ground floor of a Palazzo. As we rise through the building we begin to see the facade close off with less window coverage, and less rigidity to the order. This follows the internal floor plans and how the internal walls subdivide the spaces, from large formed spaces, to more free malleable spaces at the top.

Here we can see the collision of the Palazzo and the Factory, all the windows lining up on the grid that covers the entire building forming a logic to the window positioning even as the form begins to break down. The structural elements in the facade can be eluded to as it breaks down, still highlighting the existing structural concrete columns. The framing of these columns in certain places reminds you of the greater structural grid, or factory style anonymous grid that dictates the building.

OMA’s new intervention of a Palazzo in Venice, shows a clear strategy at revitalising a public interface to the city through a new shopping centre. This parallel of program becomes a precedent at renewing the movement and using the internal courtyard as a movement tool. My new internal facade open the program to reflect the internal use through the facade gradient. GA2.1, GA2.2, GA2.3, GC1.3, GC5.1, GC7.2, GC8.1, GC8.2

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FIRST FLOOR PLAN

1:1000

The first floor is very much still part of the public realm, with large openings controlled through sliding doors to create a larger connection to open colonnades. The wooden louvres provide extra shading and the materials used have familiarity to the simplicity of them, making it feel like you are allowed to move through that space.

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

The Ground floor being the simplest of all the layers, making it really accessible from all angles with an open wooden columned colonnade around the entire courtyard. This is to encourage ease of movement throughout the urban realm, creating a feeling of security in the relatable materials and high ceilings. It is left with a higher opening that entering under the existing facade to create a distinct difference in the Palazzo style courtyard. 1:1000

ORIGINAL STRUCTURAL GRID

To begin to define spaces and create an inherent logic to my decisions throughout the building, I developed a grid configuration from Breuer’s original ceiling plan, which was planned carefully between the structural grid. Using this geometry, I hope to provide signification to the elements throughout my building. It will also provide repeated component sizes across the design to simplify the building process. 1:1000

GA2.3, GC5.1, GC7.2

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This methodological approach defined the way I interacted at all scales and sizes throughout the building, giving a succinct logic and relation between the geometry in order to increase the unconscious reading and associations of the building.


FOURTH FLOOR PLAN

Completely breaking away from the overarching grid whilst still eluding to the grid lines from lower down in the building. Highest quality material finish to reflect the high quality fashion items and more private nature.

1:1000

THIRD FLOOR PLAN

This floor has the beginnings or truly breaking down the more rigid nature of the facade, much like the interior as it start progressing into the exhibition areas for the fashion. This level is the start of the change to brass panels over wood echoing the more private smarter nature of the internal. 1:1000

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

This floor is the bridge between the public and private areas. It still retains its large openings and on grid mullions, whilst beginning to off-centre the controllable window opening, and break down the repeated nature of the panels and louvres. The material palette reflects the collision between public and private. 1:1000

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STAIR TAXONOMY

KEY STAIR

CENTRAL STAIR

CORNER STAIR

This key stair case is situated at the main junction of the building, between the two voids on the Ground floor, and can be seen from every entrance.

The central stair case is situated right off the main courtyard, but can only be seen when you have entered the building from the far side of the courtyard.

This is the most practical of the staircase typologies, with an integrated lift system in the core. Situated in the two public corners of the building.

It is the only element in the building at a 45o angle, reemphasising the grid by working in opposition to it. It has the most experiential journey up through the building, inside it’s concrete core with delicate wooden accents and railings.

This staircase allows easy access to food venues and a short-cut up to the top floors.

This staircase still provides an experiential approach through the building, organised to align with the existing windows in the facade. The also act as fire escapes with direct access on to the main streets.

With integrated controllable louvres in the roof-light, it acts as a stack ventilation system servicing all floors, to encourage natural ventilation.

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“VISUAL SENSATIONS GUIDED BY TACTILE SENSATIONS ARE THE GENERATOR OF GEOMETRICAL PROPOSITIONS.”

Tell-the-Tale Detail - Frascari

1:4 Handrail Cross-section + material palette

1:4 Handrail Cross-section + material palette

1:4 Handrail Cross-section + material palette

KEY STAIR

CENTRAL STAIR

CORNER STAIR

This handrail design reflects the principle of the Key Stair, working against the grid, re-emphasising it at the same time. This square wooden hand rail is turned at a 45o angle, and is wrapped in a single strip of brass and pinned back to the wooden frame. This will provide a warm atmosphere in the stair case as the light is absorbed from the dynamic opening above giving a warmth to the touch of the wooden handrail.

As with the central staircase, this handrail is hidden within the structural wall, but when you find it, it provides a smooth ascent up to each floor with the concrete handle embedded. The shadows cast in the day from the reveal will guide you up the staircase, and by night the reverse will happen, as the LED lights illuminate the embedded handrail, again guiding your path. This reflects the way the existing facade changes from dark punctures in the day to a beacon of light in the evening.

This cold metal handrail is bent out of a single sheet of brass and embedded within a concrete frame. The blunt design reflects the more practical approach to the corner stair cores, with a functional LED strip lighting embedded in the metal handrail which illuminates the stairs, carefully designed for the fire escape route to the exterior. The concealed lighting echoes the concealed details of the façades.

The vertical ascent through the building become key points in the design as they begin to puncture through the rigid grid, creating links and routes between the public and private areas of the building. The hierarchy of the position and design changes the way the stairs are positioned and interacted with. The materials and design of these elements become crucial at defining their purpose. These elements display a critical embodiment at the outcome of a methodological approach. GA2.1, GA2.2, GA2.3, GC1.2, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3

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GEOMETRICAL DETAILS I have used the grid structure as a methodology to design all aspects of the detailing, proportionally crafting each scale of the detailing to reflect back on the ‘tell the tale’ detail, the facade panels. This has creating careful geometries that reflect the internal nature of detailing of the facade. The exhibition space becomes a clear example of the logic laid out through the grid structure. The 1400mm height line links back to the height of the units Breuer originally used throughout the entire building. Here that line reflects the ghost of the building marked with subtle material changes and heights across the floors.

This mock exhibition area for the fourth floor shows how a curated fashion display could look, using the grid to define the dimensions of different furniture, this study shows watch and jewellery cases to compliment the suspended outfit in the centre of the room.

1:100 Fourth Floor Mock Exhibition Area

This mock exhibition area for the third floor shows how a designers collection could be displayed together as a whole in a slightly larger exhibition area. The dictated grid heights provide easy access to experience the product, display boxes set in to the walls frame key items, whilst other hang on crafted railings.

1:100 Third Floor Mock Exhibition Area

The design of these internal spaces is inspired and links back to the crafted furniture that Breuer designed specifically for this department store. This was part of the Utopic detailing that Breuer displayed his Critical embodiment in the midst of the specific modern cultural context. This gave me the opportunity to enact a critical perspective through a design, using Breuer’s methodology and social view as a way of exploring design. 64


1:25 Furniture Design

This chair begins to sum up the logic of grid used relating to heights and widths used throughout the entire building, carefully bringing together materials to mirror the detailing. This becomes my projection of a specific Breuer chair designed through the lens of this renewal project. The choice of wood, brass and leather reflect the accessibility and crafted element of this department store.

Arm Chair, 1922

Breuer’s chair designs from his time in the Bauhaus have become icons of design from the 20s and 30s. His detailing and careful crafting of building parts fitted his ethos and training. This level of attention to detail is something I believe he wanted to apply to the whole design of the Bijenkorf, developing my critical approach to reading cultural contexts . GA2.3, GC3.1, GC3.2, GC3.3, GC5.1, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3

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INTEGRATED SECTION This integrated section begins to show how all the scales of thinking come together, from the urban scale right through to the detailed design. We can see how the new internal courtyard facade design reflects the nature of the layering of the floors and functions and the progressive closure as you rise through the building until you reach the top floor exhibition spaces. The natural lighting strategy begins to show a narrative of the layering and how each level would feel to be experienced. This is also supported by the natural ventilation strategy, reflecting the greater public interaction on the bottom two floors with greater permeation of air. The section helps to elude to peoples activities and interactions throughout the different levels of the buildings showing the developing nature across the floors. It begins to reflect the changing strategy of public to private use across the floors as mirrored in the courtyard facade elevation. The detailing strategy also begins to reflect this endeavour throughout the building. I have extrapolated Breuer’s design intent in the concealed facade detail, to create internalised details that give an impression of simplicity and seamlessness whilst being complicated. Something that OMA reflect in their detail design as well.

1:200 Integrated Section

Using OMA’s renovation of a Venetian Palazzo into a department store as a precedent, I situate the detailing and programmatic endeavour into a current cultural context. Contemporary ventilation, heating and lighting strategies are integrated into the building design to create a functioning public building.

GA2.3, GC1.2, GC1.3, GC5.2, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3, GC9.1, GC9.2, GC9.3

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Lighting Strategy Diagram

Heating Strategy Diagram

The lighting strategy will mainly be used at night when the internal lighting levels get too low, but lighting may be used within exhibition spaces throughout the day to regulate the light levels for the product.

The heating system throughout the building will be maintained and regulated from a central plant room on the Ground floor with ease of access to the back of the building. As illustrated in the image below I will suspend carefully designed vents from the ceiling in alignment with the mechanical lighting systems. Much like the Kahn precedent below I intend to use this system to highlight the structural grid between the columns, blowing air down from above.

I have chosen to use a suspended lighting system to create a distance between the exposed concrete ceilings without using a suspended ceiling. This will give the impression of a lower ceiling level whilst still retaining and emphasising the existing structure. The contrasting use of up-lighting and spot-light techniques will be used across the building to emphasise key spaces and routes.

Louis Kahn Yale Centre for British Art Vents

Tunto Design LED Pendant Module Lamp

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Securing the thermal barriers around the existing facade by re-insulating the internal walls. Inserting new windows to improve the thermal and ventilation barriers whilst keeping the original opening detailing of hidden frames.

GA2.3, GC1.2, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3, GC9.1, GC9.2, GC9.3

1:25 EXISTING WALL DETAIL 68


1:25 COURTYARD ROOF AND WALL DETAIL 69


GA2.3, GC1.2, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3, GC9.1, GC9.2, GC9.3

1:25 SKYLIGHT DETAIL 70


1:25 LOWER COURTYARD WALL DETAIL 71


A RC H I T E C T U R E BY D E FAU LT FAC I L I T I E S M A NAG E M E N T A N D B I M LINKED RESEARCH The Architecture by Default linked research project focused on defining this new concept of a ‘Default’ state within Architecture. We used this research period to examine the growth and development of our definition of Default Architecture.

From here we focused on the build up of these standardised and managed spaces through the documentation beginning to build up a material log and count to understand the multiplication of default elements applied to these buildings of varying ages and designs.

We believe that this non-choice process in Architecture can be traced back to the growth of two key areas, facilities management and the development of specifications. This new state of automatic selection can be found across all managed building types, enforced by planning laws and building regulations. Our observation was that through the development of management structures the default nature of architecture was becoming more replicable and more widely applied. For this reason we focused our attention on Newcastle University as a case study for this process, beginning to analyse the process of space making and management in order to understand how and why a “Default” state could be applied to the built environment.

This research project didn’t become a critique of the process but an unearthing of the nature of the control within the management of our built environment and how that was affecting our spaces and how it will continue to do so. The integration of BIM into the future of facilities management became a key focus of mine, drawing attention to this new integrative process through conversation with the Estates Department. An essay on this subject revealed the growing connection between facilities management, BIM and the development of ‘Default’ space, which could impact the future of the built environment making ‘Architecture by Default’ a predominant method of creating the built environment taking the control out of the Architect’s hands and into the efficient running of a facilities management agency.

Our investigative research led us to the Estates Department and their documentation which manages, controls and implements the design and make-up of each space across the campus. They have responsibility for managing every aspect of the Universities property, reporting back to national governing bodies that record space efficiency. For this reason they have developed processes reflected in managerial structures and documentation on material application and requesting processes. Over the year we began to uncover these processes, looking at three key buildings from different ages in the campus’ development beginning to piece together the impact of the changes.

This research into the campus revealed structures and processes that feed back into the nature of “Default” Architecture in every typology not just through Universities, although Universities are one of the more controlled environments meaning that they are developing as Default spaces faster than other controlled environments.

This project greatly increased my critical understanding of the built environment in our cultural context today. It allowed me to continue my process of questioning the society we live in, how and why it was formed, and the implications it has on the built environment today. This cultural context and development of my critical embodiment fed into my Thesis project, helping me to channel this critique on the built environment today beginning to form an alternative way of thinking and social agenda through the design. 72


Architecture by Default aims to explore the intersections between two concepts; architecture and default. The project endeavours to identify and represent a range of architectural spaces, strategies, systems and theories that can be categorised as, or directly related to, ‘architecture by default’.

While many of the established definitions above may seem familiar, the one thing that is not apparent here is how the idea of default can be applied to the field of architecture; its spaces, strategies, systems and theories. That is exactly what this research project aims to explore. Default can be recognised as a condition which prevails in the absence of intervention. Architecture on the other hand can be seen on many levels to be very obvious and deliberate physical intervention. However the production of a modern building is a complex process, with a huge number of choices and decisions needed to successfully construct a speculative project. It is these choices and decisions that this project argues are susceptible to falling into a ‘default’ like setting; where standard procedures and minimum expectations overtake deliberate and intentional actions.

architecture // ar·chi·tec·ture | [ˈɑr kɪˌtɛk tʃər] // noun 1. the profession of designing buildings, open areas, communities, and other artificial constructions and environments, usually with some regard to aesthetic effect. Architecture often includes design or selection of furnishings and decorations, supervision of construction work, and the examination, restoration, or remodelling of existing buildings.

An ‘Architecture by Default’

2. the character or style of a building. 3. the action or process of building; construction.

Architecture by Default // ar·chi·tec·ture by de·fault | [ˈɑr kɪˌtɛk tʃər baɪ di-ˈfȯlt, dē-; ˈdē-ˌfȯlt]

4. buildings collectively. 5. a fundamental underlying design of computer hardware software, or both.

A selection made usually automatically or without active consideration due to lack of a viable alternative.

6. the structure of anything. [http://www.dictionary.com/browse/architecture:]

A selection automatically used by a computer program in the absence of a choice made by the user. Actions or protocols effected without thought. The thing that pushes architecture towards its most conceptual limit. The project of levelling down, eliminating boundaries.

default // de·fault | [di-ˈfȯlt, dē-; ˈdē-ˌfȯlt] // noun¶

Presents sameness in a world where nothing is the same. Manifestation of inaction, negligence and failure to choose, a baseline that serves as a measure of the least effort possible.

7. failure to act; inaction or neglect

At one point it had to be designed: it is born of deliberate choices and often shaped by forces unrelated to form.

8. failure to meet financial obligations 9. Law. failure to perform an act or obligation legally required, especially to appear in court or to plead at a time assigned

The merit of not looking as if it had been designed by somebody in particular. Undesigned.

10.Sports. Failure to arrive in time for, participate in, or complete a scheduled match.

Predefined internal decisions made in lieu of external decisions or actions. Pragmatic solutions – an averaging out of a given problem designed to provide a workable result when no decision can be made.

11.lack; want; absence 12.Computers. A value that a program or operating system assumes, or a course of action that a program or operating system will take, when the user or programmer specifies no overriding value or action.

Reflections of cultural and economic forces active in society. An option that will obtain if the chooser does nothing. Nothing is the same but everything looks the same in big numbers; everything is nasty, everything is irrelevant, most of it is waste.

[http://www.dictionary.com/browse/default:]

Lower cost, corporate profits, and predictability is the name of the game.

Extract of definitions

After defining the term “Architecture by Default” through relevant readings on the related subject, we turned our attention to perceived default spaces and institutions that controlled them. We focused on Universities as a key example of managed spaces, using our own University as a case study for this development.

36. 33. 22.

31.

Analysing the existing campus enabled us to understand the range of buildings under the management, varying in scale age and intention. This revealed the extreme conditioning each building has undertaken to achieve a campus where each space becomes in-distinguishable from the next.

13.

34.

30.

29.

12.

7. 23.

8.

6.

32.

Great North Museum

9.

27.

28.

25.

11.

2. 14. 18.

3.

Northern Stage

4.

20.

35. 21.

5.

10. 24.

19.

15.

1.

16.

17.

26.

Map of University controlled teaching facilities

GA2.4, GA2.5, GA2.7, GC4.2, GC10.3, GC11.2

73


Herschel Building

MANAGED TEACHING SPACES ACROSS THE CAMPUS

Built: 1962

Hosts: Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials / Mathematics and Statistics / Physics

We focused on the Universities bookable teaching spaces to manage the number of spaces we began to review, as well as having readily available data on the management of these spaces. These spaces become the most used, and most carefully managed spaces across the campus, meaning that they become the fulfilment of managed spaces with default characteristics.

Room Type

Quantity

Total Capacity

Lecture Theatre

4

Teaching Room

4

Teaching Computing Cluster

1

966 270 172 1408

Lecture Theatre

Herschel Building

Built: 1962

Hosts: Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials / Mathematics and Statistics / Physics

Teaching Rooms Room Type

Quantity

Lecture Theatre

4

Teaching Room

4

Teaching Computing Cluster

1

King George VI Building

Built: 1939

Total Capacity

Hosts: Education, Communication and Language Sciences

966 270

Computer Cluster

172

Room Type

Quantity

444

13

Teaching Room

382

1

Teaching Computing Cluster

Lecture Theatre

Total Capacity

4

Lecture Theatre

1408

88 914

Teaching Rooms

Teaching Rooms

King George VI Building

1

Built: 1939

Hosts: Education, Communication and Language Sciences

Lecture Theatre

Computer Cluster Room Type

Quantity

Total Capacity

4

Lecture Theatre

444

13

Teaching Room

382

1

Teaching Computing Cluster

Computer Cluster

88

Hosts: Newcastle University Business School

914

Meeting Room

1

Teaching Rooms

Business School

Built: 2011

Room Type

Lecture Theatre Teaching Room Teaching Computing Cluster

Lecture Theatre

Quantity

Total Capacity

4

572

21 3

872

1

111 1555

Computer Cluster

Teaching Rooms

Business School

Built: 2011

Hosts: Newcastle University Business School

Meeting Room

Room Type

Lecture Theatre Teaching Room Teaching Computing Cluster

Quantity

Total Capacity

4

572

21

872

3

1

111 1555

Teaching Rooms Lecture Theatres

1

Computer Clusters

Building Study extracts of teaching spaces

Lecture Theatres

1

74


pe

eaching omputing luster

BUILDING CONDITIONING EXPLORATION

We identified three buildings across the campus built in different ages in order to compare the development and conditioning of default space within them today compared to their initial spatial management and intention. Through the diagrams we see a clear change in spatial structure and layouts, changing how the buildings are designed and managed today, whilst still resulting in comparable spatial and specified characteristics.

Herschel building structural grid

Structural Diagram

Structural Diagram

Structural Diagram

Modernist Grid, refining the functionality and efficiency of a building layout. Everything at strict right angles for modulation and standardisation of panelling. This was still completed in a strictly architectural manner.

Maximum width of grid possible, filling the whole potential site. Large widths to increase flexibility of space within. Further standardisation is seen in the grid standards but also within the facade panels that hang off the frame.

Herschel building circulation positioning

Business School building circulation positioning

Core Diagram

Core Diagram

Cores were removed from the main spaces, to free up the floor plans to maximise usable area. The technique works well here, using one as a bridging method between the different wings.

Moving of all cores to the centre to allow for no obtrusions within the work spaces. All services and lifts including for future proofing of ownership. Concrete core provides structure and fire safety. Toilets on every floor are built into the core system refining and streamlining the system.

King George VI building circulation positioning Core Diagram Due to when the building was first built, refined cores hadn’t been fully executed, meaning the stairwells don’t appear to have a great logic other wise working with the architecture. Later integration of certain lifts may have changed the original plans.

Herschel building original space programming

King George VI building current space programming

Business School flexible space programming option 1

Original Spatial Diagram

Spatial Option Diagram 1

Original floor plans lined up perfectly with all the window mullions giving the overall plan a level of refinement and sophistication despite the standardised grid and panels.

Due to the nature of the build, all internal wall are non structural creating a negotiable office interior. It can quickly and cheaply be refurbished. Further standardisation is included here.

Herschel building current space programming

Business School flexible space programming option 2

Spatial Diagram Capacity

88

143

ered Lecture heatre

133

ered Lecture heatre

64

There is a complexity to the spatial Building arrangement, meaning that postHerschel occupancy changes are limited. Despite Building this, due to the positioning of the window it means whilst renovating you THE CARPET TILE have a little bit of flexibility as the4676 internal changes won’t detrimentally affect the facade. Fire escapes have THE altered SUSPENDED CEILING also the way the space works,4676

carving a path through potential rooms to the exit. 238 THE CHAIR

THE ADJUSTABLE CHAIR

142

Room

Floor

HERB.1.FULL PC 17 CLUSTER.PC (172)

Type

Current Spatial Building Diagram

Capacity

1

Teaching Computing Cluster

17 HERB.G CA

0G

Tiered Lecture Theatre

360

HERB.G LT1

0G

Tiered Lecture Theatre

248

THE CHAIR

HERB.G LT2

0G

Tiered Lecture Theatre

179

THE ADJUSTABLE CHAIR

172

ered Lecture heatre

104

THE TABLET CHAIR

90

HERB.G LT3

0G

Tiered Lecture Theatre

179

THE TABLET CHAIR

30

THE PERSONAL COMPUTER

88

HERB.4.TR1

4

Standard Teaching Room in rows (less flexible)

32

THE PERSONAL COMPUTER

oardroom tyle Seminar oom

40

THE COMPUTER DESK

88

HERB.4.TR2

4

Standard Teaching Room in rows (less flexible)

56

THE COMPUTER DESK

Standard Teaching Room in rows (less flexible)

56

Collaborative Teaching Room

126

THE LECTURE THEATRE SEATING

1408

THE PROJECTOR + SCREEN

40

30

oardroom tyle Seminar oom

30

oardroom tyle Seminar oom

30

oardroom tyle Seminar oom

20

oardroom tyle Seminar oom

18

ollaborative earning Room Tables)

24

ollaborative earning Room Tables)

30

ollaborative earning Room Tablet Chairs)

30

ollaborative earning Room Tablet Chairs)

30

ollaborative earning Room Tablet Chairs)

30 914

THE DOOR + VISION PANEL THE LECTURE THEATRE SEATING THE PROJECTOR + SCREEN THE RECYCLING BINS THE TABLE THE COLLABORATIVE TABLE THE TEACHING DESK + EQUIPMENT THE TRUNKING THE WHITEBOARD

King George VI whole building teaching space component record

28 444

HERB.4.TR4

1 HERB. 1.Herschel Learning Lab

17

9 17 N/A 17

1

Teaching Computing Cluster

24 104

4

Tiered Lecture Theatre

1

Tiered Lecture Theatre Tiered Lecture Theatre

Tiered Lecture Theatre Standard Teaching Room in rows (less flexible) Standard Teaching Room in rows (less flexible) Standard Teaching Room in rows (less flexible) Collaborative Teaching Room

Room

Floor

A more recent adaptation of the plans. The gridded mullions andNUBS columns become an inconvenience within the School spaceNUBS.1.01.PC as Business 6218 TILE it isTHE tooCARPET strict. Therefore partition walls no longer line up as intended, ignoring the original grid for the NUBS.3.03.PC 6218 THE SUSPENDED CEILING creation of the optimised area.

tandard eaching Room rows (flexible rniture)

oardroom tyle Seminar oom

Business School building structural grid

The diagram shows simple structural lines through the building, highlighting the self supporting red brick facade walls. It shows a slight integration of technology development using a steel whilst remaining a more traditional plan.

ered Lecture heatre

oardroom tyle Seminar oom

King George VI building structural grid

144 NUBS.4.03.PC 298

NUBS.1.03

0

THE TABLE

THE TRUNKING THE WHITEBOARD

THE SUSPENDED CEILING

Teaching Computing Cluster

26

Tiered Lecture Theatre

212

30

18

8118

30

18

THE CHAIR

872

3

62

THE ADJUSTABLE CHAIR

111

120

THE TABLET CHAIR

Tiered Lecture Theatre

120

THE PERSONAL COMPUTER

111

NUBS.4.08

Level 4

Tiered Lecture Theatre

120

THE COMPUTER DESK

111

Level 5

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

36

THE DOOR + VISION PANEL

Level 5

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

40

THE LECTURE THEATRE SEATING

172

15

966 NUBS.3.13

8

NUBS.1.11

13 72

3

THE PROJECTOR + SCREEN

Level 3

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

Level 1

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

59

Standard 2 Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

30

Level 1

21

1

60

THE RECYCLING BINS

THE TABLE

THE COLLABORATIVE TABLE

Level 1

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

Level 1

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

Level 2

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

60

Level 2

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

59

Level 2

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

45

NUBS.2.05

Level 2

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

30

NUBS.2.08

Level 2

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

30

Level 2

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

30

NUBS.3.06

Level 3

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

59

NUBS.3.15

Level 3

Standard Teaching Room in rows (flexible furniture)

45

8 NUBS.1.14

N/A NUBS.2.10

8

NUBS.2.14

NUBS.2.13

75

1

25

Tiered Lecture Theatre

NUBS.2.03

Herschel whole building teaching space component record

Level 1

60

Teaching Computing 8 Cluster

Level 3

NUBS.1.13

THE TEACHING DESK + EQUIPMENT

23

Level 4

Teaching Computing 8 Cluster

Level 2

NUBS.1.04

THE COLLABORATIVE TABLE

23

Another potential option of floor plans. In the future the floors could be split into separate businesses providing 8118 THE CARPET TILE access to all spaces through a central core.vv

NUBS.3.07 172

NUBS.5.14

THE RECYCLING BINS

Level 3

Spatial Option Diagram 2

Capacity

NUBS.2.04

NUBS.5.12

THE DOOR + VISION PANEL

Level 1

Type

30

THE TEACHING DESK + EQUIPMENT 20

THE TRUNKING

THE WHITEBOARD

0

35

572

2

25

32

436

6

0

25

N/A

25

Business School whole building teaching space component record

GA2.4, GA2.5, GA2.7, GC10.3, GC11.2


STANDARDISED ROOM DESIGNS AND QUANTITIES Across the University within the different building types and for different subjects and standard room allowance of area is catered per student to maximise efficiency of space usage and material allocation. This is aimed to increase the efficiency and longevity of the materials in order to achieve certain spatial efficiencies with governing boards. This study below uses Revit (BIM) in order to plan and map components, all taken from the Standard Estates department specification guide,of in order to combine our research and understand the Room Table Quantities efficiency of applying materials and quantities to spatial conditions through a management program.

Standard Academic Office

Standard Teaching Room

Collaborative Learning Room

(24 capacity)

Tiered Lecture Theatre

(36 capacity)

(150 capacity)

(1 capacity)

25 25

9 sqm/person

2.25 sqm/person

2.75 sqm/person

1 sqm/person

= 9 sqm

= 54 sqm

= 99 sqm

= 150 sqm

Carpet Tiles Suspended Ceiling Tiles 1 Adjustable Chair 1 Personal Computer 1 Computer Desk 1 Door + Vision Panel 11m Cable Trunking 1 Whiteboard 2 Light fittings 1 Vent

150 Carpet Tiles 150 Suspended Ceiling Tiles 24 Chairs 1 Door + Vision Panel 1 Projector and Screen 1 Recycling Bins 12 Tables 1 Teaching Desk + Equipment 29m Cable Trunking 1 Whiteboard 12 Light fittings 4 Vents

275 275 36 2 1 2 6 1 37m 1 16 6

Carpet Tiles Suspended Ceiling Tiles Adjustable Chairs Doors + Vision Panels Projector and Screen Recycling Bins Collaborative Tables Teaching Desk + Equipment Cable Trunking Whiteboard Light fittings Vents

Standardised Room spatial allowance and component allocation

76

416.6 416.6 2 150 1 2 1 8m 2 32 14

Carpet Tiles Suspended Ceiling Tiles Doors + Vision Panels Lecture Theatre Seats Projector and Screen Recycling Bins Teaching Desk + Equipment Cable Trunking Whiteboards Light fittings Vents


STANDARDISED COMPONENT APPLICATION We examined each standardised and managed room type in order to expand and unearth the number of standardised components and extent of the controlled management within a default space and system. We did this by identifying each standardised and managed component applied through the Estates department from the specifications and seeing how the facilities management role across the University affected the multiplication of standardised items. The info graphic shows the repeated number of specified items for this Standard teaching room (capacity: 24 occupants) alone. We then multiplied the number of components across the number of teaching rooms to provide evidence for the managed environments, alluding to the development and control of an “Architecture by Default�

Standard Teaching Room (24 capacity)

2.25 sqm/person = 54 sqm

Standard Teaching Room (24 capacity)

2.25 sqm/person = 54 sqm (150)

(24)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(150)

(12)

(1)

(29m)

(1)

At the outcome of this project it changed my opinion of institutions, design and management causing me to react against developers and management control of the built environment as it made me aware of how little control and freedom there is within contemporary Architecture. This gave me a critical edge in reacting against the multiplication of applied components to question why each part was applied within a design rather than applying a default option. GA2.4, GA2.5, GA2.7, GC10.3, GC11.2

77


ARCHITECTURE & CONSTRUCTION: PROCESS AND MANAGEMENT PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION IN NEW YORK CITY Through the Architecture & Construction assignment it made me reflect on the realities of planning a building in New York, the site of my thesis project. This made me once again reflect on how I would need to assemble a design team in order to make the project happen, the Architect becoming the lead designer and influencer for the other contractors on behalf of the client. This would give a level of intricate control to the Architect but also enable him to maintain 110106227 6 / 13 his relations with other consultants improving the level of quality of the finished product. Role

Task

Project Manager

Represent the client, managing the project schedule, appointing consultants, H&S.

Architect and Lead Designer

Complete all design work, Manage and coordinate with consultants to reach Stage goals, feed back to the project manager.

Civil and Structural Engineer

Consult on structural design and produce studies and alternative options for traffic planning.

M&E Engineer

Consult on Mechanical and Electrical design to strive towards a passive solution.

Lighting/Daylighting Engineer

Consult on lighting solutions to maximise natural lighting and minimise use of electrical solutions.

110106227 Landscape Architect

7 / 12

Integrating of building planning into City Hall Park.

Cost Consultant

A quantity Surveyor to manage the cost of the overall design and construction process.

Environmental Surveyor

To assess and monitor the impact to the immediate environment and implications of design.

Archeologist

To assess the ground conditions of the site before excavation to reduce time delays.

Planning Advisor

To advise on planning process in relation to zoning laws, to communicate with NYC planning authorities and Mayor’s office.

Specific Project Issues

Design team matrix NYC Planning Zones and Approval

This exposed to the intricacies city planning cities, Passing the me building throughofplanning will be inone of the more complex issues that the proposal faces. New Due to the traditional contract, a contractor wouldn’t be appointed until Stage 4, Technical Design. particular the specific zoning laws that are applied to Manhattan. York, asdifficulty already stated, has adonestrict zoning planning law process. The city is split into zones dictating the My with thethatproject sure that the Issues first could arise between various studies need to be was bymaking consultants for the site ground conditions, environmental factors and traffic coordinationaligned which could affect thethe timescale for eachstrategy Stage, therefore programme of the building with overall for top of these zoning regulations, there are special purpose future use of existing and new build proposals. On affecting the cost and managing profit for the Architect. that specific planning region. Each area of the city is divided into districts that exist overlay theand zoning boundaries. The City Hall park site is situated in the Special Lower a coding system whichin allocates theof usage Floor Area Ratio the proposed building is assigned per plot area. This dictates the Manhattan District due to it being the City’s oldest central business district, and seeks to conserve and scale of the building. promote the historic map lines within builds. Commercial District Floor Area Ratio Allocation C6 W 4A

RIVER

OR TH

VESE Y

MURRAY

PL. TERR .

ST .

ZONING MAP

THE NEW YORK CITY PLANNING COMMISSION

M

HEAD

R C

ST.

BULK

AVE.

R, C

END

M DER S RY

AL.

A -2 C6

WASHI NGT

JOS . WARDP.

ON

SO UTH

DE SQ L UR . PA Y RK

160

S T.

IS

-3 C5

MO RR

ST .

-6 C4

. PROL

M1-4

600

0

600

1200

1800 FEET

C1-1

C1-2

C1-3

C1-4

C1-5

C2-1

C2-2

C2-3

C2-4

NOTE: Where no dimensions for zoning district boundaries appear on the zoning maps, such dimensions are determined in Article VII, Chapter 6 (Location of District Boundaries) of the Zoning Resolution.

NYC Zoning Map, Special Lower Manhattan District Zone

C2-5

12c 12d

16a

16c

Copyrighted by the City of New York

12b

c

12a 12b

ZONING MAP

MAP KEY

NOTE: Zoning information as shown on this map is subject to change. For the most up-to-date zoning information for this map, visit the Zoning section of the Department of City Planning website: www.nyc.gov/planning or contact the Zoning Information Desk at (212) 720-3291.

Special Lower Manhattan District Zone NYC Department of City Planning Zoning

The bordering zoning districts along Broadway and Park Row, the two street frontages to the park at present, are in zones C5-3 and C5-5. These zones represent Commercial district zoning C5 which is a central commercial area with continuous retail frontage for offices and retail establishments that serve the 78 surrounding metropolitan area. Each zoning then has a specific Floor Area Ratio (FAR). Due to the scale of

GA2.5, GC1.2, GC4.3, GC6.1, GC6.2, GC6.3, GC7.3, GC10.1, GC10.2, GC11.1, GC11.2, GC11.3


Du an

41

27

4

Re ad

eS

eS

tre

et

42

63

tre et

tte Stre et

88

40

2

ay dw

am

be rs S

tre

23

21 et

29

New York County Court House (Tweed Courthouse)

Ce

ntr eS

tre

et

Br oa

Ch

Lafaye

30 4

African Burial Ground and the Commons

City Hall

City Hall Park

Park

Row

ÂŽ St

re e

eet

Ca

a

be

l

rs re

Br oa

St

dw ay

na

et

m et

Historic District Boundaries

t

Stre

Ch

The site proposal is part of a current park land, but on the historic foot-print of the city post-office and courthouse giving grounds to restore this historic plan. To add to complications the site also falls on a prospective African Burial Ground from the ancient inhabitants and birth of New York, which has halted past projects and could greatly effect the schedule if remains were to be found.

Br oa dw ay

al

Br oa dw ay

Ca n

West Str

African Burial Ground and the Commons Historic District Manhattan Designated February 25, 1991

FD

R

i ve Dr

Landmark Preservation Boundary line of African Burial Ground

The construction of the building itself would be problematic with the under-croft of New York not being fully accounted for. The falls over existing subway lines, planning to integrate a new subway station into the corner of the park, opening up a greater access for the public. This new intervention would be difficult due

to the foundation piling that could affect the subway system, meaning that this would have to take place at specific times of day, mainly at night, in order to avoid disturbance. This could greatly affect the time schedule of the whole building process, which would have a knock on affect on the cost.

79


80


R I T UA L S A N D T H E U N C O N S C I O U S DEMOCRATIC INTERCHANGE

81


Context Section through City Hall park

MANHATTAN INTERCHANGE My thesis project aims to create a new transport interchange at the heart of downtown Manhattan, New York City. This composite building aims to generate unprecedented interactions as people overlap their unconscious journeys throughout the city, using the transitional nature of a subway station to re-integrate democratic interactions into the urban fabric. Its position in City Hall park begins to engage with City Hall, the mayors office, and St Paul’s Chapel, a democratic church from the birth of America. This key position just a block away from the World Trade centres, the 9/11 memorial, and the Manhattan entrance to the Brooklyn bridge becomes a key location for those travelling through downtown Manhattan. The building becomes a collection of structures engaging the four surrounding subway lines along the park boundaries, reviving the use of the park as a public resting place amidst the unconscious journeys. This intervention then becomes a catalyst and generator of interactions to begin to re-urbanise and democratise downtown Manhattan.

The thesis project begins to introduce the cultural context that I have been understanding throughout the Masters project, reacting to the reproduction of Default buildings and image of society portrayed through a metropolis.

1:5000 LOCATION PLAN AND KEY BUILDINGS

GA2.2, GC1.1, GC5.1. GC5.3, GC7.2

82


83


TRANSITIONAL ENGAGEMENT

The financial district in southern Manhattan was once the birthing place of the United States of America, a city for democratic birth. It is now a commercial district of New York, that despite the large number of tourists, marginalises the population of New York.

Subway interchanges become the perfect component in building a public catalyst and node within a city. Each day thousands of locals and tourists use this public transport system to travel throughout the city. It is used by people of all backgrounds and social standings becoming a truly democratic exchange within the city.

There are other transport inter-junctions in downtown Manhattan but these support the commercial district being encroached by new shopping malls. My proposal doesn’t take away from the importance of these spaces but provides an additional and carefully places interchange between overlapping subway lines at the important intersection of the Brooklyn bridge and Broadway. The new station, like Grand Central, becomes a transitional space for the city, building links between City Hall and St Paul’s Chapel, which leads beyond to the World Trade centres, 9/11 Memorial and further down Broadway to Wall Street. This building aims to generate new public interactions and waiting areas allowing for unprecedented generation of activities to revitalise the public sphere throughout the wider building.

These ‘non-places’ as Harvey talks about become places for the people, for those who are marginalised to stay within the city in a place that’s for them. It doesn’t just become a place for marginalised but a broad cross-section of the population to begin to interact if their paths overlap. Grand Central station in mid-town becomes a prime example of a transitional space at the heart of the city, breathing a moving with the people. It becomes an interchange but also a key point of meeting, gathering, resting and eating in a bustling city. This node of transition between the larger journeys in people’s lives is something I want to stimulate in downtown Manhattan.

1958 Dulles Airport, Saarinen

This interest in transitional and public spaces has grown through the Spectres of Utopia studio, reflecting on the changing cultural context and growth of transport connections in the developing modern world. The technological development through the world wars changed the connections across the world, developing the international style. This development can be traced to the growth of facilities management and therefore the growth of a ‘Default’ architecture. 1:2000 Transitional Intersection Section

GA2.1, GA2.2, GC2.2, GC5.1, GC5.2, GC5.3, GC7.1, GC7.2

84


St Paul’s Chapel

City Hall

85


I N T E R AC T I V E L AY E R I N G

The building engages with two levels of intersecting subway lines around the site. These new proposed platforms draw people up under the centre of the structure into a new public hall. This in turn feeds into the newly organised park and also street access propelling people down Broadway into the heart of the commercial district. The plan at ground and sub-ground level gives the public a choice of how they use the space, choosing to wait and linger or quickly transition through the space. This leaves the ground floor plane quite open, creating a new language at the ground floor level of the city, one of perforation and accessibility. Circulation and voids then allow for people to easily drop into the waiting space with access to the platforms, or more carefully ascend into the space that hover above. These collection of spaces allow for different levels of engagement and cataclysmic democratic interactions.

Su

bw ay li

ne

(2

&3)

Hea

t Tr an sfer

usi ng

ho t

su bw ay

air

Stale air output through lightwell in stairwell s

ed air inhal ell Fresh lightw through excahnge into heat

Vertical ascension through the building becomes key to the interactive movements between the layers, allowing for unprecedented overlaps. By using key stairwells that double up as heat exchange and ventilation ducts, it knits the building into the movement and breathing of the city fabric, using local heat networks to power the building.

Vertical Connection and Integration of subway lines Environmental Strategy Contextualised Heat Transfer System

This links to the methodological approach purposed by Kahn in his projects, specifically the Yale centre for British Art researched for Spectres of Utopia, where he isolates and offsets key stairwells and ventilation voids in order to coordinate and link the layers of his programme. GA2.1, GC1.2, GC5.2, GC5.3, GC7.1, GC7.2, GC9.2

86


Third Floor ASCENSION TRANSITION

Second Floor VERTICAL JOURNEY

First Floor DEMOCRATIC OVERLAPPING

Ground Floor PUBLIC INTERFACE

Basement Level 1 TRANSITION + CONGREGATION

Basement Level 2 + connection to lower subway SUBWAY INTERCHANGE

exploded axonometric of subway interface 87


CO N T E X T UA L CO N N E C T I O N S

The structure sits in contrast to the surrounding scale of the existing building, but has a comparative scale to the key historic buildings I have already mention, the City Hall and St Paul’s Chapel. The very nature of this architectural move sets the interchange out as a alternative social development to the context, re-appropriating this parkland and integrating it into the greater urban fabric of the city. This will help establish and generate new journeys and connections between key images in the built environment. These images can begin to form new rituals, habits and unconscious journeys and interactions.

ASSOCIATIVE IMAGE JOURNEY AROUND COFFEE RITUALS

The development of my methodological approach to Architecture began through the investigation into rituals and the unconscious, especially how unconscious journeys are formed throughout cities (Bollas). This building becomes and important evocative image created for the resonance of unconscious journeys through New York city. This use of images within society also forms a link to my Metropolitan Imaginaries project and the interest in an image based society. Here images can affect the movement and rituals created by an individual, positively forming their lives. GA2.1, GA2.2, GC1.1, GC1.3, GC5.3, GC7.2

88


89


CONNECTIVE JOURNEYS

The mapping of my ritual of coffee became the start of a methodological process through the thesis using the ritual of coffee as a catalyst for design and interaction. This process combined the critical embodiment and methodological application, using this process of coffee as a tool to embed the theoretical grounding of reaction to the society and built environment around us. Using Kristeva’s theories of “Intimate Revolt” and Bollas’ Unconscious journeys I began to create a reading and reaction to the cultural context of loss of questioning due to the development of modernity and post-modernity, coupled with the unconsciously replication of actions and journeys through Bourdieu’s theory of Habitus. GA2.1, GC2.3

90


RITUALISED JOURNEY MAPPING The interest in the unconscious journeys through cities began by mapping the unconscious journeys that I take in-between the nodes of my rituals. The ritual here become the making and drinking of coffee, enacted in different ways at different times of the day. This rituals began to shape the way that I moved unconsciously through the city of Newcastle changing my view and approach to the city.

of expression and development of my true self. These moments became moments of questioning that weren’t about the unconscious replication of the projected image of society but of becoming true to myself aside from these projected images. Kristeva would call these moments “Intimate Revolts”, or a return to questioning that has been lost in society. These moments, I discovered, occur at these conscious interactions in our unconscious journeys through the city. The craft coffee shop then became a facilitator of this critical personal development, the program and environment I was within became a catalyst for this development. These moments in the transitional spaces and journeys are the interactions I aim to provide through my intervention, creating a generator of unprecedented events through a subway interchange.

This mapping exercise didn’t just become about understanding how my coffee ritual shapes my life, but how the rituals we form as individuals are affected, influenced and shaped by the society and built environment we are situated within. At the nodes of my ritual became moments of unprecedented democratic interactions, a reflection of the process of drinking coffee and the social interactions that came with it. It was at these moments within the city and my unconscious daily rituals that I began to find relief, freedom 91


UNCONSCIOUS ASSOCIATIONS This development into the build up of Unconscious journeys made me reflect and analyse how and why I move through the city, helping me to understand and question how others interact with the built environment as well. Christopher Bollas in “Architecture and the Unconscious” talks about how we can unconsciously built up journeys through the built environment due to resonances with Architecture. These resonances can be developed through being around architect as it develops, but we can also associate with evocative objects within society. These objects are generally buildings, monuments and objects that tell a story of react differently to the surroundings, or have a personal impact on our lives. The creation of these object to orientate ourselves around cities therefore becomes vital. How and why we create these objects also affects the way we interact with them. By beginning to question the process of my journeys between places I began to built up a visual journey from memory that helped me analyse different interactions that affect and influence my journeys. My journeys between the rituals were formed by institutions, spatial memories of living, emotional memories and visual cues that challenged or supported by cultural context and outlook. Only in the stopping and questioning of these moments were these positive and negative attributes recovered. The nodes and interactions of our journeys build up a fuller picture of who we are. This made me question the role of how the creation of a new building could influence, impact and challenge individuals journeys, encouraging the creation and formulation of new rituals around an evocative image. The resonance with a building that tells a differing story to the projection of a cultural context, could begin to allow new interactions brining those nodes of democratic interchange and unprecedented ‘intimate revolts’.

Bollas’ Unconscious Journey through Central Park

Bollas’ unconscious journeys through New York gave me a new tool to unlocking and questioning the cultural context around me, and how my life is affected and formed around the built environment. This gave me a new approach to critical embodiment, that a building that be used to influence and form new rituals and uses if we began to resonate with it, or it became an unconscious evocative object. GA2.1, GC2.3

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ASSOCIATIVE IMAGE JOURNEY

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CONGREGATION POINT

Parks are already examples of democratic interchanges, being free and open spaces for activities and lives to form their rituals around. They become evocative images of association, as can be seen from Bollas’ journeys. By reinstating this park as a public space, a congregation point for the city, it can begin to allow the stimulation of new democratic activities. The park at present is overground and largely closed off from public use with all the grass areas fenced off and security barriers high around City hall itself. Surrounding the new subway station with open space for public use, it once again take back it’s urban prominence allowing for new activities to emerge.

Hyde Park corner and other democratic, free arenas become example of my critical embodiment of programme, reacting against the perceived freedom in society, providing spaces of catalyst for the developing of critical thought, as my process has undergone.

Speakers Corner in Hyde Park is renown for it’s openness and acceptance of promoting individual opinions for free discussion. The social structures have been developed around this space to allow freedom of speech, development of critical thinking and open discussion in true democratic fashion. New York doesn’t at current, have a space to revive this freedom in the centre of downtown Manhattan. This in turn allows the possibility of a democratic node of personal development along and around the unconscious journeys of the city. This provides a space of intimate revolt, a questioning of one’s beliefs. This form of questioning of the unconscious replication of action, begins to form a negation, bringing to light the Habitus allowing the unconscious build up of self to be questioned and have freedom to change. The built environment and the social structures that form within it and by it can have the opportunity to facilitate unprecedented critical change.

MAPPING OF JOURNEYS FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENT BUILDING TO CITY HALL PARK AND MAYOR’S OFFICE

HABITUS The impact of our unconscious build up on our replicable actions GA2.1, GC5.3

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DEMOCRATIC NODES COFFEE-HOUSE DEVELOPMENT

My interest in the ritual of coffee gave me reason to question the growth and consumption of coffee in Britain, questioning why it has come about as it has today? The coffee-house first developed in Britain in the 1650’s from the Ottoman Empire, bringing with it an alternative societal aim of a new typology of democratic space and interaction. Coffee-houses were places of equal thought and shard critical beliefs. Once you had entered there were rules in place were promoted equality for all within, allowing people to freely express themselves, or as we’ve already mentioned becoming moments of ‘Intimate Revolt’ similar to what I have experienced through my own process. Due to the democratic nature of the social interactions it became a catalyst space of ideas, businesses, political views and the arts. They became congregational centres across London and other cities in Britain, informing a new era of societal growth as the ideas were fed back into society. As Britain colonised America, this new societal advancement of interactions was taken with them. As with London new spheres and connections were grown in the coffee-house networks. Out of the Tontine Coffee-house developed the New York Stock exchange as we know it today. Political systems and connections were developed through other coffee-houses before the birth of the United states of America occurred in 1789 as George Washington was inaugurated on Wall Street. Coffee-houses weren’t solely responsible for the birth of the nation but the democratic node of social interaction enabled new connections and unconscious overlapping in people’s journeys to facilitate the individual and collective development of a nation.

The cultural context here became a key factor at understanding how and why the coffee-houses began to facilitate and host the interactions between differing people in society. Here this programmatic use became a focus of my critical embodiment through the project, using the methodology to create these use spaces. The social interactions in the coffee-house also allowed me to expand my view of what makes up a ritual, looking at how the social interactions that surround the processing of the coffee also impact the outcome. GC2.1, GC4.2, GC5.1

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CITY HALL PARK (SITE LOCATION)

ST PAUL’S CHAPEL

FIRST PRESIDENTIAL RESIDENCE FEDERAL HALL (FIRST INAUGURATION) TONTINE COFFEE-HOUSE (NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE)

1797 MAP OF NEW YORK CITY AND KEY LOCATIONS

TONTINE COFFEE-HOUSE AND COFFEE SLIP Birthplace of New York Stock Exchange

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R I T UA L COMPONENTS I began to break down the process of my coffee rituals to begin to understand why the ritual was important to me and what parts built up this extended ritualistic journey through the cities. These 5 spaces began to inform the rituals that build up my journey through the city. By analysing these different processes and layout I began to filter the important aspects of the ritual, understanding why these places formed part of the larger society journey.

H O M E R I T UA L Cafetiere used with pre-ground beans. Experimenting with different beans to create the best coffee.

I began to expand the methodological process by expanding the larger unconscious and journeys in order to break it into components. 98

ST U DY R I T UA L Cafetiere used with pre-ground beans. Repeated station to create the same affect at home and whilst working.


O C C C R A F T R I T UA L Purchasing the locally roasted beans, interacting with the vocational Barista and watching them craft a perfect flat white.

C L O S E R I T UA L This coffee ritual has been formed around the accessibility of finding the closest venue that serves craft coffee.

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M Y C R A F T R I T UA L Using the locally roasted beans, I grind my own coffee at my friends house to experiment producing my own crafted flat white (espresso).


M E T H O D O L O G I CA L R I T UA L COFFEE RITUAL

I soon discovered that what made these nodes of rituals an ‘intimate revolt’ was not just the physical process of making a coffee or how I used the space, but a combination of three parts.

Quality of the produce

The finished outcome of the coffee wasn’t one of making it for consumption but of crafting the flavours to get the best quality, here like with the built environment it becomes a reflection of identity and value. It was about reflecting the flavours of the coffee through that certain way of making and consciously engaging with the process. There was a change in the way I made coffee when I questioned it, to try and create the best quality of craft coffee rather than the replication of the image of efficiency.

Aesthetics Mechanics of making

The mechanism of the actual process became fascinating in itself, and how the final product became a reflection of the process it has to undertake to produce that certain quality of coffee. The outcome is defined by the aesthetic translation of process. The materials, pressure, heat, amount of coffee, time of brew become in some ways a mechanical science of production, but can only be exacted with the right type of coffee, linking to the quality.

Social Interactions

A main area that defined my location choices of the ritual were the differing social interactions that take place alongside the process. This became a massive factor for me, as it changed the routes I took through the city as I created my ritual around specific social atmospheres. These atmospheres I was striving to find again reflected the specific type of coffee that I was crafting or purchasing, linking back to the democratic interactions that took place in the coffee-houses. For example the one on one process of interacting with a barista as he makes a flat white, reflects the intensive process of interaction with the espresso machine, becoming a social condenser of the coffee process.

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SPACIAL MAPPING OF COFFEE RITUAL

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R I T UA L T R A N S L AT I O N DEFINING A DESIGN PROCESS

As these three elements built up the coffee ritual, defining the journeys through the city and becoming nodes of intimate revolt, I aimed to recreate these interactions in my intervention, creating a space to facilitate the intimate revolts of individuals in New York City around this transport interchange. The unpacking of the rituals began to embody the social aims I was trying to create, through a congregational park and subway interchange to allow these overlapping of journeys at the nodes. The new building could be designed out of the translation of the processes that built up the nodes of my journeys. The methodological approach to design became a development on previous projects across the masters developing an approach to solving a problem through a process of translation. This became a valid approach as the space define didn’t define the ritual for me, but the ritual occurred due to the social interactions, aesthetics of production and quality of the outcome. By creating specific spaces through the translation of coffee processes and their social surrounding, it encourages and promotes specific uses without defining the program, defining a series of places around the subway interchange to facilitate different nodes of intimate revolt.

Coffee quality and production

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DETAILED COFFEE RITUAL

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NINE CRAFT PROCESSES Taking 9 accessible craft production processes, I have unpacked the ritual of making coffee through these various processes as a methodology for creating new democratic spaces. These 9 methods have been chosen as they all incorporate different outcomes of the coffee through a different aesthetic production process. The temperature, differing pressure, time, materials, mechanical aspects all contribute to defining and isolating a specific set of conditions for each coffee process. I began the process of uncovering these aspects but understanding the mechanical qualities of each process through the method of drawing. Drawing here became a translation method not just of the physical and mechanical attributes but the coffee quality and social conditions too. The coffees are categorised into the strength outcome from strongest in the top left to lightest in the bottom right.

The drawing here became a translation tool that incorporated the social and quality outcome aspects of the coffee production methods. This became a methodology for how to process the coffee processes into spacial designs, drawing on aspects of setting up methodological rules I have gathered from past projects. 104


COFFEE COMPONENTS

Espresso

Drip

Syphon

Moka Pot

Cold Brew

Pourover

Aeropress

Cafetiere

Chemex

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COMPONENT EXPLORATION

To fully understand the processes of the coffee, I explored the machine that create the processes to understand how the mechanical parts come together to ritualise the process. This investigation has given me an understanding of process behind the mechanics, giving a reflection of the interaction of coffee and water combining to the process of people coming together in a democratic meeting.

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I also began to understand the aesthetic qualities of the processes, understanding the nature of the material used and how that becomes a reflector of the coffee quality. The initial studies focused on the literal translation and materials in order to further extrapolate the process of translation.

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CONCEPT COMPOSITIONS

Concept Plan

Concept Section

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Concept Axo

Using the coffee drawing I generated a series of concept drawing to begin overlapping the different coffee processes in order to generate unprecedented interactions and spatial forms that reflected the processes, not just literally but to begin to translate the social qualities within through the forms. These geometrical forms began to create interesting chambers of interaction that could be used in some essence to define building plans, sections and overlapping zones. The overlaying method here was developed through Spectres of Utopia when overlaying the Kahn Yale Centre for British Art and Doge’s palace onto the grid structure. This method of using these shapes to generate spatial interaction became a key translation process. 109


MECHANICAL PROCESSES

Selection of mechanical exploration models - informing spatial and logistical developments

I further investigated the process of the coffee processes by translating some parts of the mechanical build up of the processes into artefacts highlighting a single system of process in each one. The single system of processes here became about the water flow and it’s specific interaction with the ground coffee at the precise moment. These routes could then be used to create a ritualised entrance sequence into the key spaces of each component, re-ritualising the spatial design for unprecedented democratic interactions. These processes can be fed into the sectional and spatial design of a building in order to use this methodological approach in translating the contributing factors into a design.

Drip Coffee Water Flow Mechanism

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The next step in the methodological translation process in creating the architectural spaces was to begin to incorporate all the learnings of the varying processes. This step brought together the material, mechanical and geometrical translations of the spaces. In some cases the shapes have been used as I believe their geometries reflects the very nature of the atmospheric qualities. These interesting shapes in themselves not being predominantly square but more chambers become ways of expressing the social inclusion in a space instead of less inclusive box designs where corners are easier to hide within. These shapes also begin to counter the built environment and default nature of spaces that surround the site in Manhattan, being formed around the grid. This begins to contradict the very fabric which in turn could create evocative images to increase a resonance throughout the unconscious journeys. At this stage these methodological diagrams weren’t just translations of a coffee process but refining the key characteristics of each process. These key terms became the driver of the spatial designs and qualities, this drawing method working to refine the principles of these conditions.

This next translation process begins to draw together the critical embodiment and methodological application of the process in defining spaces for journeys and rituals to begin to be formed in and around. 112


DIAGRAMMATIC PROCESSES

Espresso / Intensity

Drip / Absorption

Syphon / Suspension

Moka Pot / Exchange

Cold Brew / Rest

Pourover / Seclusion

Aeropress / Isolation

Cafetiere / Inclusion

Chemex / Linger

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TRANSLATION

FORMATION OF A COMPOSITE

Brining the diagrammatic processes, shapes and mechanical exploration together, I began to generate an overlapping of spaces and processes to begin to define a composite building. Bringing all these types of coffee processes together to form overlapping process creates a richness of differential experiences for different process to take place within. These spaces then begin in themselves to form unprecedented intersections much like the people who will begin to inhabit them as part of their unconscious journeys. Drawing all these parts together and beginning to form the beginnings of the building was in itself like bringing the Metropolitan Imaginaries master-plan together, curating and cross pollinating each fragment to begin to overlap and dissect each other. This process of beginning to see how the scale and size of these elements overlapped the site and surrounding grid of New York began to bring together the thematic approaches. The methodology of translating the coffee was combining with the cultural context to embody my critique of society. GA2.1,

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BUILDING COMPOSITION Using the coffee process translations, the spaces around the subway station began to form to create a composite building that reacted to the local context as well as standing aside from the New York grid structure. The building becomes a social bridge between the transitory nature of downtown Manhattan, giving the opportunity to rest and move freely through the building. The differing aesthetics of the components throughout the building begin to become a condenser of the city as a whole. This formation of a packaged city allows for different activities to take place within the different scale spaces. The components reflect the coffee processes which in turn provide new environments that can be used for different activities, as the city unconsciously fills them

Comparative links to the concept axonometric in form and integration of elements.

This condensing of different parts of the whole city becomes a reflection of Metropolitan Imaginaries and the fragments that made up the master-plan. Here the social strategy becomes more embedded within the overall city culture, countering it and reviving a social environment. The components become a comparison to the strip, critiquing that project in itself through nature of it’s isolation and anti-urban agendas. GA2.1, GA2.2, GC1.3, GC5.3

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PUBLIC PERFORATION The Ground Floor Plan acts as the gateway between the surrounding city fabric, the subway station and the building formed around it. The symmetrical geometric forms are brought together in an asymmetrical manner to create unique and varied journeys through the site, reflecting the use and condensing of the changing nature of the city beyond the site boundaries. The volumes above ground level are suspended on columns in order to allow free movement and creation of unconscious journeys through the site. This creates a distinction between the downward movement through the voids that draw you down into the subway, at each moment revealing the structures and interactions above you. Vertical circulation punctures through the ground forming connection between the under-croft and structures above. Walkways provide overlapping connections at different levels to overlap the different journeys created through the component translation. These walkways begin to reflect how the subways counter the surrounding grid carving their paths and making new non-linear connections throughout the city.

Site entrance and connection to St Paul’s Chapel

Component Assemblage model with voids and connection to subways

GA2.1, GC5.2, GC5.3

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1:750 Site Plan


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MECHANICAL COMPOSITION As with the model made out of computer parts the components coming together begin to feel like a machine that fits and plugs into the extended city. As an overall composition it is intended to feel like a machine working together, formed by many parts that come together to form a complete machine, with each component playing it’s distinct part across the site. This overall strategy gives the feeling of a coffee machine in the midst of the towering city, as well linking to the technological futurist in the aesthetic. This is to give the perception of freedom and movement throughout the site, linking into different parts of the building and discovering new connections in the city at different speeds and scales as you move through the city.

Rogers -Bordeaux Law Courts

For this technological aspect I focus on the futurist designs of Richard Rogers who creates crafted technological details in order to move beyond the default nature of architectural replication. The precedents begin to situate the building design within a current sphere of technological development using bespoke steel structures to create a landscape that can be moved through. The Bordeaux Law Courts design is the most prevalent example showing volumes being suspended above the ground to allow people to move under the structure whilst retaining an intimate internal environment above. Rogers Airport examples from Madrid and Heathrow show the use of steel structures on a concrete base that enable flexible planning to withstand large distances and heavy structures. These mechanical components will begin to interact at the ground level creating a navigable open floor interacting with the parkland, whilst being careful to plan them around the subway lines below to create exact piling solutions for the structure.

Rogers - PA Technology Labs

Rogers - Madrid Airport

Assembled diagrammatic plan

The execution of a machine typology as a building whole can also be traced to the methodological development. The diagrammatic plan here shows the interconnecting coffee processes drawn together defining a new machine that plugs into the unconscious rhythms of New York, providing an alternative public arena for generating new overlays. GA2.1, GA2.3, GC1.2, GC2.1, GC2.2, GC7.1, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3,

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Rogers - Heathrow Terminal 5


Mechanical Component Model interacting with site

The integration of the components as part of a mechanical landscape brings together the methodological approach situating the building within the current technological context whilst still setting the building aside from the local contextual building designs, forming a new critical landscape. 121


Link to concept section through methodological development

SECTIONAL INTERACTIONS The section begins to explore the overlapping interactions caused throughout the composite building. It illustrates how the subway station becomes the heart of the building and the unconscious journeys stem around this transitional space. The mechanical nature of the building can be seen through the strong structural agenda, creating an open ground floor that varies across a split height site. This change in height adds to the hierarchy of public space, slowly drawing people to rest in the park or propelling them into downtown Manhattan. Clear journeys can be defined throughout the length of the building, giving the public the choice of their movement, above or below ground. The different component spaces can be seen to be occupied and used for different programs which provide different conditions to facilitate new democratic programmes emerging in this city condenser.

GA2.1, GA2.2, GA2.3, GC1.3, GC5.2, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3,

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The nature of this interchange links to the cultural context of the coffee-house as displayed in Hogarth’s etching of Tom King’s Coffee-house. This shows the different interactions that take place around this democratic programme, showing how different social backgrounds and programmes begin to appropriate these spaces. This becomes a cultural link to the critical embodiment of the project.

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The South Bank centre reflects the need for freedom within the public realm, suggesting a varied way of using the various structure along the river front. The democratic nature of a facility that acts as a catalyst for appropriating the space in different ways again links back to the historic coffee-house spaces and the social atmosphere that allowed unprecedented moments of intimate relief. My proposition provides a framework around the subway interchange to enable the stimulation of events to occur. This street view shows the open and public nature of the building and structure giving shelter and allowing people to wander in off the street front, all centring around the transitional interchange and unconscious movement of the greater city, becoming a new interactive node. GC1.3. GC2.2, GC5.2, GC5.3, GC7.1, GC8.3

South Bank Centre, London

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This related programme in London relates to the greater societal movement for pop-up spaces and the renewal of craft based products that can fill and be sold in these spaces. It provides an accessible space in a city to generate new culture aside from the ‘default’ institutions. 125


Each coffee process has been translated into a building form that begin to capture the essence of each contributing attribute of the rituals. Each building form has been created at different scales and sizes that reflect the outcome of the processes. These building form then becomes re-ritualised spaces due to the very methodology that has created them. The journey into each space reflects to some extent the internal process to create the coffee, therefore defining the social interactions through the process. This competent taxonomy can be related to Bernard Tschumi’ Bridge City design in Lausanne. He aimed to created bridges that reconnected areas of the city allowing them to become urban generators for future appropriation by the cities residents. These different bridges were each created with one key programme with the rest of the space designed for unprecedented use. This becomes the focus of these new spatial design for downtown Manhattan. The primary function becoming the centralised subway intersection and re-appropriating this within the park, with the taxonomical building elements forming an landscape and environment for use around them.

Tschumi - Bridge City, Lausanne GA2.1, GA2.2, GC2.2, GC4.1, GC4.2, GC5.1, GC7.1, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3

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COMPONENT TAXONOMY

Intensity

Absorption

Suspension

Exchange

Rest

Seclusion

Isolation

Inclusion

Linger

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R I T UA L I S E D ATMOSPHERES The overall building strategy is about a mechanical connection to the city, but to contrast this technological structure I aim to create specific atmospheres for each of the 9 spaces, translated from the coffee processes. These atmospheres become the last level of development for the methodological process, using the categories of the ritual to define a specific spatial attribute that reflects the quality of the process, the aesthetic mechanics of the process and the social agency. For this design, I look at Louis Kahn and how he creates a social agenda and spiritual atmosphere throughout his structures that in some ways appear to contradict the machine aesthetic but support the social catalyst translation from each coffee process. These specific atmospheric qualities that are reflected through the material application and detailing become generators of unprecedented activities for the future public use. In the translating of the coffee processes itself, the very space design becomes re-ritualised, contrasting the de-ritualised ‘default’ environment that surrounds in it New York. Kahn’s atmosphere’s are created through the careful use of materials, applying cross-cultural social references and using geometrical forms that begin to cross over and infiltrate spaces. The methodology that I have used to create my translated taxonomy of components uses all these attributes in to create symbolic, evocative image spaces that evoke varying atmospheres as they reflect the individual coffee processes. This translation process from the individual craft coffee processes, here fulfils it’s purpose in creating spaces, that aren’t literal translation of processes but integrating mechanical journeys, aesthetic conditions, conceptual qualities and social interactions. For Kahn, light becomes a material in itself, reflecting his spiritual dimension as to the atmosphere’s created in the building. Light became important in the translation process to carefully articulate openings and the structures they sat within.

The link to Kahn stems back to Spectres of Utopia where I focused on the cultural context of his work in relation to Breuer’s. Here we see a more geometrical project of his in the National Assembly building, Bangladesh. This links to the methodological approach to my work and reflecting on how to create a critical embodiment through atmosphere. GA2.1, GA2.3, GC1.3, GC2.1, GC2.2, GC5.1, GC7.1, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3, GC9.1, GC9.2, GC9.3

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Social Interaction

Social Interaction

Social Interaction

Ritualised Space

Ritualised Space

Ritualised Space

Espresso / Intensity

Moka Pot / Exchange

STRONG 129

Aeropress / Isolation


Social Interaction

Social Interaction

Social Interaction

RITUALISED PLAN 1:25

Ritualised Space

Ritualised Space

Drip / Absorption

Ritualised Space

Cold Brew / Rest

PLAN 1:500

AXO

Cafetiere / Inclusion

COLD BREW COMPONENT

PLAN 1:200

AXO

SECTION 1:200

MID-BODIED GA2.1, GA2.3, GC1.3, GC5.1 GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3, GC9.1, GC9.2, GC9.3

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CAFETIERE MOKA POT COMPONENT “I N C L U S I O N”


1:100

Social Interaction

Social Interaction

Social Interaction

Ritualised Space

Ritualised Space

Ritualised Space

Syphon / Suspension

Pourover / Seclusion RITUALISED SECTION 1:25

PLAN 1:100

AXO

LIGHT 131

Chemex / Linger


SPECIFIC ATMOSPHERE We see here a specific example of the Exchange space (Moka Pot) and how this space begins to become re-ritualised. The methodological translation process has resulted in a building with multiple stairwells ascending from the parkland area, with access from road level as well as internally. These stairwells allow you to access a series of chambers on your mechanised journey. Once entering these spaces, you open up a middle space which lets you interact with a person on a parallel journey through the building. These spaces then become centres of unprecedented interactions between members of the public, becoming catalysts for democratic interaction and potential nodes of ‘Intimate revolt’. The access from the subway station and the unconscious journeys that will begin to form around the building would allow the generation of new rituals and unconscious journeys becoming formed through these chambered spaces.

Coffee Ritual Mapping

This begins to reflect on my initial coffee ritual exploration. How a space can be used to facilitate the growth of rituals, and how those rituals begin to form unconscious journeys. This process has allowed me to personally reflect on the way I view the built environment, the methodological exploration allowing me to begin to process and experiment at creating a typology that begins to enact a critical embodiment of my view of the society today. Creating a series of spaces that allow for the unconscious overlapping of journeys to enable the growth of democratic interactions that could result in the formation of new critical thinking, ideas, and businesses. GA2.2, GA2.3, GC1.2, GC1.3, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3, GC9.1, GC9.2, GC9.3

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RITUALISED PLAN 1:50

COMPONENT SECTION

COMPONENT PLAN

M O K A P O T 133 COMPONENT “E X C H A N G E”

AXO


S P E C U L AT I V E S PAT I A L I N T E R AC T I O N S

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OV E R L A P P I NG MECHANISMS The individual component spaces then all come together to form a mechanism that sits within the city fabric, re-forming the public space and movements around downtown Manhattan. These overlapping spaces with links and mechanised journeys between them can begin to overlap individuals personalised ‘intimate revolts’ within the ritualised fabric surrounding the subway platforms. This allows for democratic interchanges across the landscaped building.

Linking back to the composition drawing I undertook at an earlier stage in the methodological process for the Thesis, we can begin to see how the forms and overlapping geometries relate to the chambers created through the overlapping drawings. GA2.1, GA2.2, GC1.3

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ATMOSPHERIC INTERCHANGE The layering of the components begins to create interesting overlapping of spaces and therefore journeys through the building. The subway interchange enters into a congregation space that sits directly under the absorption chamber above, channelling the light around the concrete bowl into the depths of the concourse. You are drawn from this space up under the light well and onto Broadway directing you into downtown Manhattan. This light-well also begins to serve the “Intensity� spaces above, creating private rooms with private lighting due to the directional personal openings into the light-well. These different spaces then begin to get connected to each other by walkways carefully suspended from the street level in order to allow public access and movement throughout the public space. The subway despite being the heart and central focus of the building then begins to serve the building with the unconscious journeys that build up through the space. The atmospheres created compliment each other but remain unique to their component, the building working together as a machine whilst retaining the more spiritual and social qualities of each element.

The technological aspect of the project here can be linked back to Rogers and Kahn and how these two opposites come together, beginning to integrate the methodological mechanisms associated with each component. GA2.1, GA2.3, GC1.2, GC1.3, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3, GC9.1, GC9.2, GC9.3

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DETAILED SECTION

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Intensity spatial component

GA2.3, GC1.2, GC8.1, GC8.2, GC8.3, GC9.1, GC9.2, GC9.3

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Subway Interchange

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The spaces in the park land reflects back to the democratic interchange of Grand Central Station and the inclusive nature of a subway station. The nodes of interaction made between journey begin to form new unconscious journeys through the city, supporting my critical embodiment from Bollas’ unconscious journeys through New York. 142


As with Hogarth’s etchings we can begin to see a level of unprecedented catalysts within the building fabric, allowing the future public of the city to occupy and use these spaces for their social encounters, drawing on reference again to South Bank and the pop-up nature of it’s installations. 143


Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Our Charrette was working with a video installation artist, Gareth Hudson, to produce a video mapping of a model that had been transformed in two different ways. In the group that I led from across the school we built a wooden structure which we first burnt, before rebuilding pyramids covered in coloured tissue paper made with spaghetti structures that we began to melt and run the colours. By filming these processes we then projected the final video through the affected model. This process of interaction and team work enabled us to explore abstract approaches to structure and the affect that certain conditions have on architecture, and the relevance of art in displaying these method. The video mapping opened me up to new technology and presentation methods I hadn’t previously encountered.

Final Presentation and video mapping

CHARRETTE WEEK 2015 GA2.6, GC3.1, GC3.2, GC3.3

144


Installation development

Emotive Experience

Tactile Emotions

We worked alongside artist Holly Hendry to experiment at creating emotive installations through the careful use of lighting. As the leader of a small group from across the school, we developed a concept of formulating a light box in the centre of a monochromatic room to amplify an emotive contrast. This light box had colour changing smooth undulating walls internally encouraging people to stay and rest in the space. The pale emotive colours were supported through the use of background music to sooth the atmosphere becoming a small haven amidst the exhibition at the end of this week long project. This project developed the use of materials, lighting and 1:1 installations as a means of encapsulating a concept, developing experiential strategies for lighting in building designs. Working with an artist enabled us to experiment and push the boundaries beyond the limits of just space making, which in turn reinforced it’s re-application into our projects throughout the year.

Installation preparation and lighting rigs

CHARRETTE WEEK 2016 GA2.6, GC3.1, GC3.2, GC3.3

145


R E F L E C T I V E S U M M A RY

Throughout the Masters I have started the journey of developing key themes of interest that work together as I continue into my future as an Architect. The themes, as explored throughout the portfolio are the ‘Cultural Context’ that we are situated within, the development of a ‘Methodological Application’ within the process of design, and a ‘Critical Embodiment’ of how my personal belief systems and aims become enacted out through the Architectural element. These themes, that reoccur throughout the Masters projects, are outlined on at the beginning of the Portfolio, summarising how each strand has developed through the projects. I will here discuss the synthesising of these strands and the influence they have had on my Architectural development. Through my increasing understanding of the importance of the historical developments that surround each project, I have begun to realise how the situation of a project within a certain period of time generates specific relevance and effect. The cultural context of each project begins to impact and situate each building in both it’s physical landscape, but more importantly generating a building that becomes situated in it’s sociological environment. The Masters has increased my belief that the design of buildings have significant implications on the way that people’s lives are formed, creating new interactions and encompassing belief systems through the motivations behind design. For Architecture to be read in the way it is intended to be, in order to reach it’s fullest potential and embody it’s critical position, I believe it has to be understood within the exact social, political and economic context it was designed within. Each of these societal elements has an effect on how people, at the time of a buildings conceived, would have read the building. By understanding the motivation for why a building was procured helps us to question whether it’s encompassing the culture at the time or reacting to it. This is what I have described as the ‘Cultural Context’.

HABITUS

HOGARTH - COFFEE-HOUSE

Through this desire to understand the meaning of buildings I have begun to question the society I am situated within today as a prospective Architect. It has become important to me to begin questioning the society that we live in today in order to begin developing our own beliefs and outlooks on life, rather than unconsciously replicating the built environment that we live within (Bourdieu, P. 1992). Across the two years, and throughout the three design projects, I have come to the conclusion that the society we live in today has lost its questioning of ‘why’ and instead focuses on ‘how’. I believe we need to revive a return of this questioning in which Kristeva describes as the “Intimate Revolt”, a critical engagement that begins to formulate new reactions and the development of identity within the individual (Kristeva, J. 2003). Here we begin to see how the ‘Cultural Context’ and the reading of society today has begun to inform my critical approach to design which I wish to capture within the Architecture, expressed as ‘Critical Embodiment’. This loss of questioning I believe is due to the development of modernity and post-modernity, and the role of truth and critical engagement in society. At the same time I have a growing interest in the re-integration of democratic spaces within our society today. The link developed through the Open Society’s theory that pure democracy promotes a critical engagement from each member of the society (Popper, K. 2011). The cultural context we are situated in today, particularly America, is one of vast inequality illustrated through the polarisation of income

NYC GOVERNMENT MAPPING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND INCOME INEQUALITY

WILKINSON & PICKETT, THE SPIRIT LEVEL (2009)

GA2.2, GA2.7

146


BIJENKORF, BREUER

and it’s effect on the health and social problems in an supposedly democratic society built on freedom for the individual (Tudor Jones II, P. 2015). This reversal of freedom within society is displayed through the increasingly marginalised ‘metropolitan’ cities. These cities have gradually been changing from public driven inclusive cities that values the diverse spectrum of people groups to a cleansed commercial and privatised environment (Sennett, R. 2013). The changing development and planning of commercial space has effected the inclusive natures within cities. The changing growth of consumption from the modernist period, once a beacon of freedom of individuality, (Spectres of Utopia, Growth of Department Stores), now negatively effects the inclusion of the marginalised within the once democratic use of public spaces (Harvey, D. 2006). The development of new social orders to begin challenging the divisive nature of the privatised built environment within cities has become a key interest of mine as an Architecture student. I began to question whether the role of an Architect could truly effect the way that people move, interact and find personal identity, ‘Intimate Revolt’, as they interacted with the built environment. Can Architecture truly begin to effect, challenge and form people’s lives? Through the questioning of the cultural context in society today, can new social orders begin to be enacted out through Architecture? These questions have been key concerns of mine throughout the Masters.

BIJENKORF FACADE, TELL-THE-TALE DETAIL

BREUER, ARM CHAIR

The Spectres of Utopia project allowed me to begin to formulate these answers through the motives of another Architect before questioning the effect through my own designs. The concept of Utopia, or ‘no-place’, being the development of an alternative social agenda for society, a theory that became relevant in my interest of social conditioning (Coleman, N. 2005). I endeavoured to uncover the Utopic moment and belief systems held by Marcel Breuer in his design of the Bijenkorf (Frascari, M. 1984). Researching his development from the Bauhaus and the influence of moving to America, whilst situating him through other Architectural developments at the time, I was able to uncover what I believed were his true intentions of the building design (Habermas, J. 1981). I believe he was trying to create a new view of the consumptive nature of shopping, to begin to frame each product as a work of art and draw attention to each work through the careful crafting of architectural elements as if it were a piece of his furniture. This positioning provided a stark cultural contrast from the mass productive nature of the internal grid of the building, which in turn reflected the American anti-urban agendas of the time (Cadwell, M. 2007). This confirmation of the impact of a cultural context and it’s effect on the reading of an Architect’s critical embodiment through his building, developed the question of how I could approach my own designs to begin to embody the developing social agendas. Could the process of designing, as with Breuer, begin to embody a critical belief? If so how can a process be formed in order to enact out an Architectural design without compromise to the cultural context that you’re aiming to counter? The Masters has enabled me to begin to experiment with the formulation of design approaches that begin to follow a methodology rather than just being driven by a concept. The use of a methodology, which was first revealed through the investigation of OMA’s Parc de la Villette urban design, can enable the fulfilment of a ‘critical embodiment’ by following a set process that translates

OMA, PARC DE LA VILLETTE

GA2.2, GA2.7

147


an idea. The framing of rigid parameters in a process can enable complete freedom of design within them, in turn stretching the limits of architectural theories by embodying the thoughts within a process that develops autonomously. We saw how this approach could be developed through our Metropolitan Imaginaries, using a methodological approach in the masterplan and design of my vertical production line tower (Ulzen, P. 2007). By creating the framework, a design can develop in response to a process which I define as ‘Methodological Application’. I therefore used a methodological approach as a vehicle for my Thesis project, creating an experimental design of democratic space for public use in Manhattan. By using a translation of different coffee processes (Blundell Jones, P. 2016), I was able to let the design develop translationally to embody this critical approach to the city. This resulted in the formation of a series of elements that formed a composite design around a subway interchange, reacting against the grid of the city, forming new chambers of cataclysmic interaction for the public of New York City. Therefore I believe my approach through the use of translational processes to create a methodology can start to embody a critical approach to the cultural context of a specific place and design. Louis Kahn, throughout the Masters, has become an inspiration in the way he reacted against the anti-urban surroundings of America, designing urban projects that embodied new social orders in their designs. His use of materials and geometric forms begin to show the careful integration of all design parts that form buildings with almost spiritual qualities. These qualities are formed by the harmonising of the building forms, social beliefs and building materials. I believe by learning how to read the cultural environment and how to incorporate my beliefs within a design has begun to formulate my approach to Architectural design, reflecting a similar thematic disposition to Kahn. By learning how to read the environment and how to embody my Christian beliefs within a design has begun to formulate my approach to Architectural design through the incorporation of my thematic approaches. These foundational beliefs have formed my views of the built environment and my reactions against the unconscious replication of ‘Default’ systems (Architecture by Default). I finish the Masters programme with the growing belief that Architecture can positively effect and shape people’s lives through the democratic advancement of public spaces into a marginalised society, using methodological approaches. The Masters programme has therefore re-ignited my interest in public engagement within architecture, and the need for questioning the growth of privatised and marginalised cities. It has inspired the re-integration of the marginal back into the fabric of the city, beginning to create the overlapping of unconscious journeys (Bollas, C. 2009), which in turn can begin to revive the true democracy of a city and development of spaces of ‘Intimate Revolt’.

RITUAL MAPPING

DIAGRAMMATIC OVERLAY

KAHN ATMOSPHERE

Blundell Jones, P. (2016). Architecture and ritual. 1st ed. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Bollas, C. (2009). The evocative object world. 1st ed. New York: Routledge. Bourdieu, P. and Nice, R. (1992). The logic of practice. 1st ed. Cambridge: Polity Press. Cadwell, M. (2007). Strange details. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Coleman, N. (2005). Utopias and architecture. 1st ed. Abingdon [England]: Routledge. Frascari, M. (1984). The tell-the-tale Detail. 1st ed. Habermas, J. and Ben-Habib, S. (1981). Modernity versus Postmodernity. New German Critique, (22), Kristeva, J. (2003). Intimate revolt. 1st ed. New York: Columbia University Press. Low, S. and Smith, N. (2006). The politics of public space. ‘The Political Economy of Public Space’ - David Harvey. 1st ed. New York: Routledge. Popper, K. (2011). The open society and its enemies. 1st ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Sennett, R. (2013). The Open City. 1st ed. Richard Sennett. Tudor Jones II, P. (2015). “Why we need to rethink Capitalism”. Ulzen, P., Brinkman, E. and Kirkpatrick, J. (2007). Imagine a metropolis. 1st ed. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. ‘INTIMATE REVOLTS’

GA2.2, GA2.7

148


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R E V O C K C A B

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James Street Masters of Architecture Portfolio  
James Street Masters of Architecture Portfolio  

Newcastle University 2015-2017

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