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John St Leger Submission -17 th May 2011

2nd Year GDNM S2

University projects: Self Directed Kinetic Typography Design Investigation

Self Directed

Olympic Info-Graphic

Brief and Justification Idea: Display Olympic results in an interesting manner through design. Why this important: Alows people to see trends within sports. For example: What sports are countries good at (Visual comparison)? How has Olympic sport developed over the years? Does the amount of money or the size of the population effect the number of medals that a country wins over time? Realisation: Reasearch: Info Graphics, Data, Data Visulisation, Sport and Semiotics. Experiment showing data through digital, analog and physical means. Digital: Application, Animation, Video, Web etc. Analog: Print, Poster, Book etc. Physical: Touch, Weight, Objects- Shape etc. Collect data needed for piece. Result: An interesting set of info graphics showing trends within Olympic sport. Who is it for: Anyone interested in the influence of finance on sport, Olympic sports and sport in general.

More Data Than Ever Before

With the huge amount of data available to us due to the ‘Information Revolution’ theres never been a better time to try and make sense of it all. “In 2000 75% of stored information was in an analogue format such as video cassettes, but that by 2007, 94% of it was digital” “The world’s data would be the equivalent of 13 layers of books over China” “The same information stored digitally on CDs would create a stack of discs that would reach beyond the moon, according to the researchers” “Other results from the global survey show that we broadcast around two zettabytes of data (a zettabyte is 1000 exabytes). That’s the equivalent of 175 newspapers per person, per day” “The study also pinpoints the arrival of the digital age as 2002, the first year worldwide digital storage capacity overtook analogue capacity”

Jon Stewart - 11th Feb 2011

Olympic Timeline

The order of past Olympic’s

The idea behind the graphic shown above is to show when the Winter and Summergames have tacken place in history. For example: The last time the winter and summer Olympics were held on the same year was 1992.

Project Revision

There are far too many sports in both the winter and summer games. To give you an idea: Im going to focus on summer Olympics.

“The London 2012 Olympic Games will feature 26 sports, which break down into 39 disciplines.�

We can assume that those 39 diciplines have a minimum of three medals gold, silver and bronze...



With out mentioning that each of those diciplines will have male and female teams, so the number could double. Leaving roughly...




To document

Initial Idea’s

A look at displaying the data Variables that could be shown: Sport Number of Medals Medal Type Country Population Net Worth (GDP) Gender Year Records Set

Idea 1 (Bar Chart) A bar chart could be adapted to show the data and could provide a good platform to compare countries.

Idea 2 (Scale / Chart)

Another idea is to use the idea portrayed below. I feel this could create a nice comparison if printed on a large poster or wall.

Dividing the circle adds numerous potential veriables. Divisions could represent sport or year. The number of segments could change to allow more sports or Olympic events.

Idea 3 (Platonic Shape)

Platonic shape - All sides the same. By using different platonic shapes you can add or remove data sets. The more data sets you wish to show the more faces the shape could have (see below)

Faces - Could equal sport or year. Shape or size - Could indicate population/ number of medals or net worth (GDP)

Construction test and example:

Drawing arrows on the shape allowed me to see in what directions I aught to apply graphics to its net.

Categorising Olympic sports

In order to visualise the vast amounts of data. Categorising similar sports looked like the sensible solution.

Categorising Olympic sports is more complex than I had thought. The above diagram shows my catogories in development.


Project Revision

After deciding to stick with the summer Olympics. To avoid confussion.

The plan: When looking into finding accurate records of all past Olympic results I discoved that they are only freely available in one place...


The only problem with that database is you have to use drop-down menus to find the results you want and can see a general over view. Also the results are not open source. Meaning I can’t get the data I need without noting it down by hand or copy and paste (alot of times.)

Progression To test my design and the theory behind the whole project I decided to test it using cycling stats. There are four categories of cycling and plenty of results to play with.

Collecting Olympic Cycling Data

Every medal won in Olympic cycling since 1976 noted down from the Olympic database.




Development (Hand Drawn) Scale / Chart - Data Test


In segments 1 and 4: Colour - Sport (Track cycling) Shade of colour - Medal type / Gold, Silver, Bronze

3 In segments 2 and 3: Colour - Sport (Track cycling) Size - Medal type / Gold, Silver, Bronze (Larger size - Gold Smaller size - Bronze etc.)

The diagram is designed to be read clockwise. In example: The segment labeled 2 would be a more recent games than number 4.


4 Test Data Displayed Great Britain Track Data 2008 - Example: Gold - 14 Silver - 3 19 Bronze - 2


Looking at Construction

After looking at drawing my idea digitally a number of issues arose. Each central circle has to be a different size to show GDP “an acurate size” and the units or bars around the edge of each circle have to obay the same units in order to keep each countries data visualy comparative. After some research I found that the best way to takle my problems, one being drawing acuracy, the other the lack of time was to use ‘code’. I knew that code was the best way of going about, drawing my diagrams, but had little knowledge and to be honest did not know where to start. Discussion with GTA’s: We decided that the best systems to use inrelation to my project were ‘Proccesing’ or a new plugin/app called ‘Scriptographer’ allowing a user to draw in Adobe Illustrator using javascript. As my intention was to output my graphic to print, I opted towards using the Scriptographer and Illustrator combo.

Further Project Revision

When looking into the data collected earlier there are a number of complications that arise: The soviet union (USSR) East and West Germany These factors complicate the diagram. (To allow a steady progression with the project I will only go back five Olympics to Barcelona in 1992. Avoiding the complications)


I drew two circles in illustrator using ‘scriptographer’. Changing the figures looking for acomparative size difference to display my test countries ‘France, Germany, Great Britain and Australia’. As you can see below the measurements turned out to be 100 and 200 diameters (see image).

This is the simple javascript I used to decide the size range to use in order to give the GDP some comparative value. The script tells illustrator to draw a circle to a sugested size. In this example the two circles below.

The Maths (Working out scale)

This shows the working, when asigning a relative measurementin order to show each countries GDP.

The left hand side is a measurement the right a GDP scale. The idea is to round each countries GDP up to its nearest 100,000 then to use the measurement on the left to build that countries circle. For example: Germany’s GDP is $3,305,898 this is rounded up to $3,400,000 and then read as a measurement ‘Germany’s measurement=196’.

Poster Key

Poster test - There will only be five olympics worth of data.

Barcelona 1992

Beijing 2008

Country GDP Atlanta 1996

Athens 2004

Sydney 2000

Initial Graphic Build

(Close ups - Non size camparative)

Poster to scale (Acurate Test)

Outcome The Idea for the piece as a whole is to document the entire Olympics, everysingle event and medal. This is an on going project. The poster is supposed to work allong side a book. The poster showing all of the countries data from a distance allowing a person to visually compare. Each country is numbered and can be found in a book so as to look closer at the numbers involved. (The book does not include GDP - size variable) It is because of this - I have added the complications avoided earlier, in the test poster. By using all the data collected all the way back to 1976 covering nine Olympics: The soviet union (USSR) East and West Germany Altogeather there are 43 countries that have won atleast one medal in cycling since the Montreal Olympics in 1976. Even if they did only ever win ‘one’ in all that time.

Book Contents

Making the Invisible,Visible Kinetic Type - Radio 2


10 - 20 second piece of kinetic typography for a BBC radio 2 programme. Making the invisible - sound / radio visible - kinetic / typography.

Initial Audio Choice After spending a huge amount of time studying the BBC Radio two guide and listening to the channel for an extended period. I found a piece of audio, I felt I could work with. My initial audio choice: An informal question and answer with Simon Mayo on Drivetime. Topic: Liam Gallaghers progress with his newest band Beady Eye. I felt that Liam Gallagher’s voice and conversation style made the interview interesting. The contrast between Liam and Simon Mayo could have made an interesting Kinetic type piece.

Initial Audio Scribe (What was said)

Yeah - without a doubt I mean - we read on a review where it said you know - It takes things from the past - But the attitudes bang up to date - N that’ll do me man. -Without a doubt - we - You know - Thats the kind of music we like - you know - How can you make future? - You know - We don’t know what the future holds - Do you know what I mean- I don’t understand - All this, like -We’ve got to go back - to the past - to go forward - You know what I mean - It just dipends how well you do it - You know what I mean - I think we do it well Liam Gallagher drawing from his rock n roll history. The conversation only just makes sense (Very informal)

Development I started by noting what the audio conotes and what the visual language for the piece could include: British Brit Pop Rock Drugs Lazy Tired

Storyboard I constructed the following storyline in order to show at a crit, with the intent develop the idea much further.

The whole animation is designed to be constructed around a timeline in 3D space. The camera moving to past and present when it fits with the audio.

Project Revision After the first meeting ‘crit’ we decided that my initial audio selection was not suitable. With the interview focusing on the band Beady Eye and not enough on the core host ‘Simon Mayo. Promoting the band more than the radio station. Outcome I came back from the crit without audio. Although I was encouraged to stick with advertising Simon Mayo’s Drivetime slot.

Simon Mayo - Interview Highlights (The Telegraph)

“There was a huge build-up, then they came on and sang Enjoy Yourself (It’s Later Than You Think) and I turned to my wife and said, ‘That’s precisely what the new programme is about, for listeners who know the years go by, as quickly as a wink.’ “ “It doesn’t seem 17 years ago that he spun his last disc on Radio 1’s breakfast slot, vacating arguably the biggest job in the audio stratosphere. He has spent the past nine years presenting a surprisingly thoughtful – and award-winning – news and talk show on 5 live” “Mayo arrives at Radio 2 amid controversy over its role.” Critics say the “banter” that passes for repartee on Radio 1 now infects Radio 2. Mayo seems aware of the problem and shudders at the mere mention of phone-ins.” “There is a tendency to chase younger listeners [something Radio 2 has been warned against]” “I think you can keep together the Radio 2 coalition that Terry built. An older listener might think ‘that’s a bit noisy’, but something quieter will be along in a minute.” “Now Mayo must face different fears, such as whether a man of 51 can get down with the kids musically.” “On 5, I did have music occasionally,” he says, “but rather than playing the latest Cheryl Cole it might have been Martha Wainwright performing her album of Edith Piaf songs live, which was wonderful.” He has grown cynical about the pop business: “When I presented awards at the Brits it felt so false, with no heart. I then went to the folk awards with supremely talented artists, everything the Brits aren’t.”

New Audio Choice When listening to, and studying Simon Mayo further I realised that there is an element to his show called confessions. Simon Mayo’s Confessions - Encourages listeners to send in confessions of their own. A select few are then read out on air. Afterwards the host ‘Simon Mayo‘ and others in the studio discuss wether the listener aught to be forgiven or not. I feel that this element of the Drivetime slot could support a strong piece of kinetic type and inturn advertise the show as a whole. Encouraging people to submit there confessions on the BBC radio 2 website.

New Audio Scribe I therefore walked right around the edge of the pool past the collection of floats and waterwings past the lengthy no petting sinage - which I stopped to peruse Past the base of the life guards look out chair Past the large stopwatch and pool side thermometer Gradually accuainting myself with these unfamiliar surroundings When I finaly reached him He greeted me - With thease words... Cliffhanger - Keeping people thinking about the programme.

Themes Already in Place The website appears to use a modern vector style of illustration. The content of the illustrations seems to draw from the past and present: Past - Vinyl, retro speedometer dials (Drivetime) and what looks to be a stove top kettle. Present - Mp3 player, microphone etc. The book central to the image could conote a number of things:



BBC Radio 2 Logo / Ident

Other Themes (Confession)

For me the idea of confession to gain forgivness is directly linked to Religion. But confession is also linked to Secrets ‘Left in the Dark’.

Style and Construction (web)

I origionaly started by building a composition that resembled the Illustrations on the web site.

After creating a rough storyboard I decided to test the first two scenes in the styled composition.

Style Test (Video screen shots)

Project Revision When working on the Simon Mayo Confessions audio. I felt that the audio and boards were ‘boreing’. Temporarily I changed my audio to a completly different programme: The Jason Byrne Show While looking at animating the audio exerpt from the new programme ‘The Jason Byrne Show .‘ I came up with a new Idea. Idea: Juxtapose the audio with the kinetic kype The ‘Jason Byrne’ audio clip started with: “My first ever job, I was...” and so... The new concept was to list peoples first jobs and animate them. Instead of what was being said in the audio clip.

- Crit When I mentioned this Idea in the crit, The new juxtapose idea seemed to be of interest (worth investigating further). The only thing we did not agree on was my choice to change audio. I was encouraged to go back to the Simon Mayo Confessions audio. As making something dull interesting is more impressive than finding exiting audio etc.

Project Development (Juxtaposed Narrative)


Proposed Visual

I therefore walked right around the edge of the pool

Im walking... “My feet heavy”

past the collection of floats and waterwings

The street filled with people.

past the lengthy no petting sinage

A figure struggles with a car door.

which I stop to peruse

I watch

Past the base of the life guards look out chair

Ever progressing towards the crossing.

Past the large stopwatch and pool side thermometer

The signal flashes green and sounds a tone.

Gradually accuainting myself with these unfamiliar surroundings

There’s a large pothole in the centre of the road.

When I finaly reached him

I hear a noise.

He greeted me - With thease words...

As I look up...

Test When this script was tested / animated alond side the audio - only parts semed to work...

Test Continued...

Narrative Problem Solving: The tested script differed to much from the audio. The last three captions were the most succesfull. I think this is due to them working along side the audio. This could also be because they have a more direct audio visual link. For example: I hear a loud noise - When I finally reach him - As I look up - He greeted me with these words. The sentance just about works in the vaugest manner I think thats the trick


(Alternative Animation for New Juxtaposed Narrative)

There is alot to go wrong with the juxtaposed narrative project. This idea is the back up plan.

Ideas Continued...

(Alternative Animation for New Juxtaposed Narrative) This idea still uses the juxtapose idea, but goes back to animating the audio dialogue along side it. Alot of the stories can be tacken from the confessions website. Only the narratives placed directly along side the audio dialogue need to fit together well (see diagram)

Further Project Development (Juxtaposed Narrative - New Script) Audio

Proposed Visual

I therefore walked right around the edge of the pool

Im walking...

past the collection of floats and waterwings

Towards a crowd

past the lengthy no petting sinage

A man holds a sign

which I stop to peruse

I look

Past the base of the life guards look out chair

He towers above me

Past the large stopwatch and pool side thermometer

The atmosphere cools

Gradually accuainting myself with these unfamiliar surroundings

Im in...

I hear a noise. When I finaly reached him As I look up... He greeted me - With thease words...

The new script worked far better when tested.

The Second Test (Screen Shots) The second video test, I built white on black. The style suited the confessions theme.

Project Revision

I felt some of the shots worked really well in the very first kinetic type experiment of this project. In example: The rectangle in 3D space, Origionaly representing a pool.

In the final edit of this project - I decided to use a similar style of composition to animate the a caption referencing a sign. ‘A man holds a sign’

Final Outcome

Style 1 - White on Black

Style 2 - Web theme

Design Investigation Information Graphics

Contact Report

Through my design investigation I learnt a number of things, through a number of different means. By the end of the project I managed find argument and reason through television debates web blogs and print publications. One of the more important artefacts brought to my attention by this brief was the Information Visualisation Manifesto written by Manuel Lima of which I knew nothing about. In his reasoning for the production of the manifesto on his ‘Visual Complexity’ blog. He suggests that any Information design that does not abide by every rule in the manifesto is therefore not Information Visualisation and thus should fall under another category, he then goes on to list possible categories, New Media Art, Computer Art, Algorithmic Art and Information art. I found that if you pair the idea of the manifesto with the ideas put forward in Edward R. Tuft’s book ‘The Visual Display of Quantitative Information’ in which Tuft talks about ‘the duck’ a piece of construction / design theory. The theory originates in architecture and relates to information design very well. The concept behind the theory is that when a graphic is taken over by decorative forms and looses the ‘form follows function’ ideal. It may be called a ‘duck’ in honour of a building called the big duck store, a building built to look exactly like a duck. Tuft quotes an early architect “You can decorate construction, but you can’t construct decoration.” Overall these ideas and a few others combine to create a pretty good overview of the field of Information graphics. Another aspect of my investigation was history. In the 1930‘s Otto Neurath developed Isotype a picture language aimed at breaking down class and cultural divides. The pictograms and visual signs were designed by Gerd Arntz and his style is still clearly seen as an influence to a huge amount of modern day Information design practitioners.

In the 1980’s engineering draftsman Harry Beck revolutionised city transport maps by concentrating on the relationships between stations instead of geographic location in London. The map added structure and logic to a relatively confusing system. The map has since been adapted and its theories used in a number of major city transport systems around the world. Maps are and are becoming an important part of Information design. Access to location based data is easier to get hold of than ever. You can see how Harry Beck’s design has influence modern transport systems and even unrelated Information design pieces. As another element of my design investigation I contacted numerous information design practitioners. I created a simple web site in order to display some relevant work and sent out emails. I received two replies. One from Columnfive and the other from Oliver Munday. Both of which are successful American designers. Along side this I found an interview with a designer called Michael Deal. Of all of this information the one answer I found really interesting was from Michael Deals interview on The question asked how Michael prepared his data for his umbro project. The answer was an answer, to which I could relate “I’m still experimenting with more automated means of handling and visualising data like this, so in the interest of time, it was important for me to just get it all into the more comfortable form of a spreadsheet for each game.” That answer made me feel a million times better about my own practice. I learnt a lot from the questions I asked and it was nice to hear some feedback on my own work from industry professionals. The project as a whole has encouraged me to get more involved. As a result of the project I have applied for a job at the David McCandless studio in London. I would never have applied before the project.

Definition (Information Graphics) Images/ Diagrams, used to display/ show, information/ data. The exerpt below from Edward R. Tuft’s ‘The Visual Display of Quantitive Information‘ could be viewed as a definition of data visualisation (One aspect of Information Graphics). Although the exerpt really just outlines some rules within the field (see below).

page 13- (Book: The Visual Display of Quantitative Information- Edward R. Tufte - 1983)

History When researching the history of Information Graphics. My confusion started with Isotype.

About Isotype ‘The International System of Typographic Picture Education was developed by the Viennese social scientist and philosopher Otto Neurath (18821945) as a method for visual statistics. Gerd Arntz was the designer tasked with making Isotype’s pictograms and visual signs.’ ‘Otto Neurath saw that the proletariat, which until then had been virtually illiterate, were emancipating, stimulated by socialism. For their advancement, they needed knowledge of the world around them.’ Socialist view point: ‘This knowledge should not be shrined in opaque scientific language, but directly illustrated in straightforward images and a clear structure, also for people who could not, or hardly, read. Another outspoken goal of this method of visual statistics was to overcome barriers of language and culture, and to be universally understood.’

Understanding For a population to develop, they need to be able to interpret/ understand the world around them. The approach of Isotype was to use a universal picture language. Many of the ‘proletariat’ (lower/ working class) citizens were illiterate. Isotype was designed as a simplified form of comunication, breaking down previous comunication barriers. Isotype opened my research up to Heiroglyphs and ultimatly started me questioning wether the advent of type was a feat of Information Graphics or not. - Otto Neurath

Chart Junk (Edward R. Tuft)

Artifact Ideas / Development Ultimatly I decided to approach making an artifact for this project through satire. I found aspects of the field confused and often sometimes taken far too seriously. The whole medium seems to cry out for a difinitive definition. Thus I felt that satire was a great way round up my expirience and the project as a whole. The first poster in the series quotes Edwart R. Tuft and looks at chart junk.

(Poster 1)

Practitioners The three major practitioners (most famous) are: David McCandless - Colours in Culture

Hans Rosling - Gapminder (see image)

and the aforementioned Edward R. Tuft. There are far more that could be named mind.

News Night Newsnight looks at ‘Information Graphics’ and how they could be effecting culture and politics. Touching on the origins of information design.

I found the programme irritating to watch, the program ultimatly resulted in a debate between two big names within data visualiation and design in general, David McCandless and Neville Brody. David Mc Candless

Nevile Brody

The pinnicle of the whole programme was probably Neville Brodys condecending remark: “Ohh thats very pretty David, I’d hang that on my wall”

Newsnight - 9th August 2010

Artifact (Next in the series) This poster hopes to highlight key points in David McCandless’s and Neville Brody’s debate - Creating a visual comparison (an over view)

(Poster 2)

Creative Reviews Response (Newsnight)

It turned out that I was not the only one who picked up on the ‘Bickering’ on Newsnight. The creative Reviews response (Highlights) “The sceptics, as represented last night by Brody, argue that what in fact data visualisation is doing is creating a lot of pretty pictures that do nothing more than please the eye. At one point in the discussion Brody dismisses one of McCandless’s pieces as something he might like to hang on his wall - the implication being that this is all it is good for.” “A beautiful geometric pattern may well be visually seductive, but is it any more successful in getting over the facts or arguing a case than bald, unadorned figures? Data visualisation’s adherents argue that a certain amount of visual flair is necessary in order not just to explain complex data but also to encourage engagement with it. The question is at what point does the pursuit of the latter undermine the former?”

The ‘Duck’ (Theory)

When reading Edward R. Tuft’s ‘The Visual Display of Quantitive Information.‘ I came accross the following piece of Information Graphic theory: “When a graphic is taken over by decorative forms or computer debris, when the data measures and structures become Design Elements, when the overall design purvays Graphical Style rather than quantitive information, then that graphic may be called a ‘duck’ in honor of the duck-form store, “Big Duck.” For this building the whole structure is decoration.” “You can decorate construction, but you can’t construct decoration.”

The above exerpt felt almost directly relevant to the argument / debate between Neville Brody and David McCandless on Newsnight. Adding further to the argument.

Jonathan Barnbrook Jonathan Barnbrook is a well respected Graphic Designer and recently released an Information Graphic book ‘The Little Book of Shocking Global Facts’ that adds to the newsnight debate further. The book since its release has come under some pretty harsh criticism. The Creative Review acted as the difinitive oppinion: One of Jonathan Barnbrooks offending diagrams as quoted by the Creative Review:

The Creative Review also quotes Information Designer, Andy Kirk’s response to the above diagram “possibly the worst graph I have ever seen” as stated on his visualising data site. “Information designers accused Barnbrook of ignoring the basic rules of the craft to produce visually arresting imagery that was confusing at best and deceptive at worst in the way that it interpreted data visually.”

Manuel Lima (Visual Complexity) While reading ‘Data Flow 2’ I found Manuel Lima’s ‘Information Visualization Manifesto’ and felt like I might have found the solution to the debate. (If thats possible). “after one of my lectures in August 2009, the idea of writing a manifesto came up and I quickly decided to write down a list of considerations or requirements, that rapidly took the shape of an Information Visualization Manifesto “...some will consider this insightful and try to follow these principles in their work. Others will still want to pursue their own flamboyant experiments and not abide to any of this. But in case the last option is chosen, the resulting outcome should start being categorized in a different way. And there are many designations that can easily encompass those projects, such as: New Media Art Computer Art, Algorithmic Art Information Art Even though a clear divide is necessary, it doesn’t mean that Information Visualization and Information Art cannot coexist. I would even argue they should, since they can learn a lot from each other and cross-pollinate ideas, methods and techniques. In most cases the same dataset can originate two parallel projects, respectively in Information Visualization and Information Art. However, it’s important to bear in mind that the context, audience and goals of each resulting project are intrinsically distinct.”

Artifact (Poster 3)

This is an Infographic based on a quote from Manuel Lima’s blog reguarding his manifesto. He states that any Information graphic that does not abide by his Information Visualisation Manifesto is therefore not Information Visulisation but one of the following: New Media Art, Computer Art, Algorithmic Art or Information Art. Idea - So if a straight line is Information Visualisation. Then anything that differs from that (i.e. Not a straight line) is either New Media Art, Computer Art, Algorithmic Art or Information Art. Where does the poster Infographic fit?

Industry Contact Throughout my design investigation I sent emails to different Information Graphics practitioners. Of those emails I recived two replys from Column Five and Oliver Munday. The Question - What do you need to ‘Make it’ stuckin my mind as the ultimate question for a design investigation. The answer according to my replys: Practitioner - Oliver Munday 3. What do you look for in a person to potentially work with? ------4. What skills do you feel are required to ‘make it’ in the information graphics world? A clear sense of typography and organization. It also helps to have a strong sense of graphic icons/ illustrations for assist with the information.

Practitioner - Column Five 1. What do you look for in a potential employee? In designers, we look for strong conceptual skills and depth/thought in their projects. We want curious minds. Style and skill set is secondary, and varies depending on our current needs. 2. What skills do you feel are required to ‘make it’ in the information graphics world? I believe this is similar to my response above. I also see that there is desire to uncover and show patterns and information that may not be obvious immediately, and construct a narrative around it visually.

Artifact (Poster 4) I was flicking through a small Infographic book ‘Visual Aid 2009.’ When I saw:

It was that diagram that gave me the Idea for poster 4. The adea that elements make up a planets, works with a designer aswell. See Next Page...

Artifact (Poster 4)

And thats the series so far.

John St Leger, GDNM, Y2, S2, Presentation Boards