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ISSN: 0976-3759

Volume X

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

Issue 07

ISSN: 0976-3759

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013


ISSN: 0976-3759

Volume X

Issue 07

ISSN: 0976-3759

Journal of School SocialPrice Work Rs 20.00 A National School Social Work monthly dedicated to networking of parents and teachers.

Volume X Issue 7

December 2013

Page

C ont e nt s Editorial Dr Laxmi 02 Parenting Styles Retold Deepti Redhu and Asmita 03 Social Work Perspective of Parenting Style Sasikala S and Dr Florance Shalini J 07 Social Work Intervention forAcademic Excellence John Packiaraj M 11 Attitude of Student-Teachers towards Teaching Profession Pachiyappan P and Dr Ushalaya Raj D 15 Parental Choice in Selecting Schools for Their Wards Dr Ramakrishnan N 21 Parenting Styles: Research Openings Dr Suman K Murthy 27

Focus: Parenting Challenges Hony Special Editor: Dr Laxmi, MSW, Ph.D Assistant Professor, DOS in Social Work, Pooja Bhagavath Memorial Mahajana P.G. Centre, Mysore, Karnataka, India Journal of School Social Work,

Mobile: 98406 02325

8 (New 14), Sridevi Colony, Seventh Avenue, Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600083

jssw.india@ gmail.com

Note: Views expressed by the contributors are not necessarily the official view of the Journal.

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

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Volume X Editorial Parenting: A Pleasant Challenge Parents play an important role in to respond to each negative the development of children. experience as though it were the end Parenting is a very big challenge in of the world. Managing such children modern times, but, a pleasant one and making them emotionally strong anytime. Every child is unique and individuals is an uphill task. Positive different. So, parenting approaches enforcement from the parents is very should also be unique. Parents face much required for the children and several challenges like economic, parents have to spend a lot of time social, psychological, academic and with their children. Examination is not health, of their own and concerning only for the children, it is also for the their wards. parents. The economic need of the present Health is an important component day children is quite high and they are of child development. Provision of demanding. Most of the parents find nutritious food is crucial to improve the it very difficult to say ‘no’ to their health of the children. Making the children. Many times parents are children to eat homemade and responsible for such situations nutritious food by itself is a great because they fulfill their needs before challenge for the modern parents. they ask for it. Children are very fussy about eating In the social front, joint families are which can lead to malnourishment dwindling in number and nuclear and health problems. families are growing resulting in less The forces of modernization have opportunity for children to interact with a significant impact on shaping the others and to understand the rational development of children. importance of relationships. This Education of girls is very much deficit leads to adjustment problems. essential for the sustainable Majority of the parents come across development of the society. Though with children’s adjustment problems modern parents are very keen to after they enrol them to schools. provide education for their girl children Now-a-days children are very sensitive they are very much worried about their and such children can be highly security. Every day is a challenge for achieving. But, they are also the parents of girl child. Despite all exhausting for some parents. odds, modern parents do make their Emotionally sensitive children seem children healthy citizens of the society. 02 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

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Parenting Styles Retold Deepti Redhu* Asmita** *Deepti Redhu, Assistant Professor, Mata Harki Devi College of Education for Women, Odhan, Sirsa, Haryana, India -125 077. deepti.nain@gmail.com **Asmita, Assistant Professor, SLIET (Deemed University), Longowal, Sangrur, Punjab, India -148 106. it.asmita@gmail.com

Introduction: development of a child’s autonomy Parenting is the process of within reasonable limits. There is a promoting and supporting the give-and-take atmosphere involved in physical, emotional, social, and parent-child communication and both intellectual development of a child control and support are balanced. from infancy to adulthood. Parenting Authoritarian parenting: is important in order to help children These parents are very rigid, strict. grow into confident, well-adjusted and and place high demands on the child, perfect individuals. Parenting refers to but are not responsive to the child. In the aspects of raising a child besides this style of parenting, children are the biological relationship. State and expected to follow the strict rules society can take a role as well as the established by the parents. Failure to biological parents and immediate follow such rules usually results in family. Parenting does not follow any punishment. Punishment is most single path and does not treat all often used to promote future children as chips of the same block. obedience. This type of parenting is Each child is different from another seen more often in working class child and so, every child is to be families than in middle and upper-class treated differently. It means there are families. Children raised through many parenting styles. authoritarian style are less cheerful, Authoritative parenting: more moody and also demonstrate This style combines a medium passive hostility and anti-social traits. level demands on the child and a Permissive parenting: medium level responsiveness from the Permissive parents, sometimes parents who believe in positive referred to as indulgent parents, have reinforcement and infrequent use of very few demands to make of their punishment. They are more aware of children. This style of parenting is a child’s feelings, abilities, aptitude and more popular in middle-class families capabilities and support the than in working-class families. In these Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013 03


Volume X family settings, a child’s freedom and These children tend to lack self-control, autonomy are overvalued and parents have low self-esteem and are less tend to believe and depend mostly competent than their peers. on reasoning and explanation. There Now the question arises that which are minimum expectations from child is the perfect style of parenting, there so punishment or explicit rules in this is no single style rather it depends on style of parenting are less. Children the nature, attitude, aptitude etc. of of permissive parents are generally the child and economic, social, happy but sometimes show low levels geographical environment of the of self-control and self-reliance family but the research shows that because they lack structure at home. authoritative parenting style is more Permissive parents are generally beneficial than the too-hard nurturing and communicative with authoritarian style or the too-soft their children, often taking on the permissive style. status of a friend more than that of a Pointers to parenting: parent. Parenting is empowering children Uninvolved parenting: to do something that you did not even An uninvolved or neglectful dare to think in your life. Given below parenting style is when parents are are some tips to effective parenting: often emotionally absent and Give unfettered love: Love does sometimes even physically absent. not mean providing all material An uninvolved parenting style is comforts. Love is warmth and characterized by few demands, low security. Give unconditional love. responsiveness and little  It’s time to learn, not teach: communication. There is often a large When a child comes, unknowingly gap between parents and children with we laugh, play, sing, crawl under this parenting style. Children with little the sofa, and do all those things or no communication with their own that we normally don’t do. So it is parents tended to be the victims of time to learn about life along with another child’s deviant behaviour and teaching them. may be involved in some deviance Use action, not words: Due to themselves. Children of uninvolved parent’s complaints and endless parents suffer in social competence, ‘do this and do that’ children academic performance, psychosocial become “parent deaf!” An action development and problem behaviour. speaks louder than words. 04 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

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Issue 07 Provide the best atmosphere to children. They sense a supportive and loving atmosphere as well as anxiety-ridden state of affairs.  Form a friendly relationship: Parents should avoid being a boss be friendly at home. Make yourself-truly attractive: A child is attracted and influenced by many things. If parents are joyous, intelligent, and wonderful, he would not seek company anywhere else.  Use genuine encounter moments (GEMS): Child’s selfesteem is greatly influenced by the quality of time parents spend with him and not the amount of time. Parents often pretend to listen or ignore child’s attempts to communicate with them. If parents don’t give to child GEMS throughout the day, he will often start to misbehave. Use action, not words: Due to parent’s daily orders, complaints and endless ‘do this and do that’ children become “parent deaf!” An action speaks louder than words. Let them take decision to feel powerful: Ways to help them feel powerful are to ask their advice, to give them choices, to let them to help adults in different tasks. Use natural consequences: If parents interfere when they don’t

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need to, they rob from the children of the chance to learn from the consequences of their actions. Use logical consequences: Often the consequences are too far in the future to practically use a natural consequence. When that is the case, logical consequences are effective. A consequence for the child must be logically related to the behaviour in order for it to work. Withdraw from conflict: If the child tests through a temper tantrum or being angry or speaking disrespectfully, it is best to leave the room or tell the child you will be in the next room if he wants to “Try again.” Do not leave in anger or defeat, be patient during that time. Be watchful: Be Consistent in keeping your eyes on the activities of the child and on his/ her company. Nurture your child’s self-esteem: Children start developing their sense of self as babies when they see themselves through parent’s eyes. Parent’s tone of voice, body language and every expression is absorbed by child. Consequently, praising the child for his accomplishment, however small; letting him to do things for himself will make him feel capable and

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*Dr Florance Shalini J, Assistant Professor, PG and Research Department of Social Work, Bishop Heber College, Trichy. ISSN: 0976-3759

independent. By contrast, belittling your child or comparing him unfavourably with another will make him feel worthless. Catch your child being good: The more effective approach is to catch the child doing something right, and praise to the skies. “You completed your homework without being asked-that’s marvellous!” or ”You were polishing your shoes very skilfully!” These statements will do more to encourage good behaviour over the long run than repeated scolding and being harsh. Conclusion: There is no universally ‘perfect and best’ style of parenting, if you are

Volume X genuinely interested in giving your children a perfect and good upbringing accept that different children need different levels of attention, expression of love, and toughness. Suppose gardener is working in a coconut garden and you ask him, “How much water per plant?” he answers “At least 50 litres per plant.” When you go home, if you give 50 litres to your rose plant, it will die. So, you must be careful that what kind of plant you have at your home and what it needs. “To the world you are one person, But to your child you are the World!” Make their world beautiful and fill it with love!

References: Dr Vatsyayan (1982): Child Psychology and Child Guidance. Meerut: Kedarnath Co. Mishra, R.C. (2005): Early Childhood Care and Education. New Delhi: A P H Publishing Corporation. Sharma, R.N. (1999): Raising Children with Difficulties, Meerut: Rastogi Publication. Garry Chapman, Ross Campbell (1995): The five Love languages of Children, Country? Northfield publishing, ISBN: 1881273652.. Aldort, Naomi (2006): Raising Our Children, Raising Ourselves; Country? Books Publisher Networks, ISBN- 1887542329. Bruehl, Mariah: Playful Learning, Country? Publisher? ISBN-9781590308196. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parenting. http://www.fcs.okstate.edu/parenting/issues/communicating.htm. http://www.eklavya.org/parenting. Elsen, Jane (1986): Positive Discipline, Country? Ballantine Books, ISBN0345487672.

Focus for Jan 2014: Balanced Diet. HSE: Dr Venkateswarlu V, Dept. of Sociology and Social Work, Acharya Nagarjuna University, AP 06 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

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Social Work Perspective of Parenting Style Sasikala S* Florance Shalini J** * Sasikala S, Ph.D Scholar (JRF), PG and Research Department of Social Work, Bishop Heber College *Dr Florance Shalini J, Assistant Professor, PG and Research Department of Social Work, Bishop Heber College

Introduction: Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child apart from the biological relationship. It is derived from the Latin verb: to bring forth, develop or educate. The parents play a great role in the socialization, emotional development, disciplining, academic achievement and cognitive development of the children. The attitudes a child learns during the first five to seven years of his life become almost permanent. If parents want a child to be obedient, kind, honest, faithful, unselfish, patient and God fearing, they should make these characteristics the conscious objective of their early teaching. Heredity does not equip a child with character, and parents cannot expect character to appear magically unless they have done their home work early. Parenting style and its impact: A parenting style is the overall emotional climate in the home. Parenting style is associated with different child outcomes. Diana Baumrind identified  three  main

parenting styles in early child development: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive. These parenting styles were later expanded to four, including an uninvolved style. Children of authoritative parents: Authoritative parents rely on positive reinforcement and infrequent use of punishment. They listen to their children, encourage independence, allow children to express opinions, and enforce fair and consistent discipline. Children raised by authoritative parents tend to be more capable, happy and successful. They tend to have good emotional control and regulation, develop good social skills and they are self-confident about their abilities to learn new skills. Research shows that this style is more beneficial than authoritarian or permissive styles. Children also learn to manage their own emotions and learn to understand others as well. Authoritarian parents’ children: Authoritarian parents are very rigid and strict. Their children tend to be irritable, fearful, moody, often have

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Volume X lower self-esteem, have difficulty in is necessary to minimize the costs in social situation and vulnerable to time and effort of interaction with the stressors. Children who live under child. Children of uninvolved parents extremely authoritarian control where suffer from in competence, problem discipline is severe are often behaviour, poor academic and quarrelsome, disobedient, psychosocial development. They tend troublemakers at school, nervous and to exhibit more delinquency during quick tempered. Because of constant adolescence and often emotionally domination, the child never learns to withdrawn. They feel fear, anxiety or make decisions on his own. Deep stress due to the lack of family feeling of bitterness may later blossom support. into open hostility. Of all the types, authoritative Children of permissive parents: parenting styles tend to result in Permissive parents used to be children who are happy, capable and excessively lax and inconsistent successful (Maccoby, 1992). discipline. Here the youngster is in Positive vs. negative comments: control, and the parents bend to the Parents are frequently unaware of wishes of the child. Children raised the effect of their words and actions, by permissive parent develop yet it all either builds or destroys child’s uncontrolled, non compliant and self-worth. The institute of Family aggressive behaviour, lack self- Relation reports the results of a survey discipline. The child does not respect on negative and positive comments parents, other persons, or the property to children. The survey reveals that. of others, have poor social skills. ten negative comments were made Eventually he may exhibit more for every positive comment. In other emotional problems than does a child words, 90% of their total raised under authoritarian rule. communication was negative. The Researchers also suggest that same study revealed that each permissive parenting is linked to other negative comment had a damaging risky behaviours such as drug use and effect on a child’s self-mage. other forms of misconduct. Protection or preparation: Uninvolved parents: Most of the parents want to protect Uninvolved parents were indifferent their child from every hurt of life rather to or actively neglected their children than preparing them to accept the and were motivated to do whatever inevitable hurts and nobly rise above 08 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013 ISSN: 0976-3759

Issue 07 them. They can teach the child how to cope with false values and grow emotionally through problems. Media: A majority of parents consider cartoons relatively innocuous, but closer examination reveals that cartoons often deceptively portray violence as fun. Continued viewing of violence may retard a child’s awareness of the consequences of violence in real life and may teach a greater acceptance of aggression as a proper solution to conflict. There is no way to banish all mass media, but have to develop self-control and parental control so that TV, video games,DVDs, Internet and facebook do not constitute a steady daily diet. Obedience through commands: When a child causes his parents a problem, there are several options to consider. Most frequently, parents take command and make the child do what they want by threats or enforced obedience. This kind of action implies that the child is not capable of initiating good behaviour on his own. Developing self-control: Initially, misbehaviour and consequent punishment make the child learn not to repeat that behaviour in the presence of adults. Making them feel guilty, fearful and anxious is not needed. The child has to develop self-

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control to choose thoughtfully the act he wishes to accomplish. Unless a child develops self-control, he/she will be constantly yielding to the wishes of others. Since such child lacks the ability to decide for himself, his choices will be almost entirely impulsive or dependent on what his peer group urges. Need for sex education: Regarding sex education, parents are confused, and they are unsure of what to tell their child. But knowing the truth is less disturbing than not knowing the facts and wondering what they are. During the transitional ages, particularly in early adolescence, a child may have trouble accepting his or her sexual identity. Sex experimentation comes most frequently from the child who is uninformed. Several research studies have shown that the typical sex offender usually comes from a home where he has received little or no sex education. ‘Parenting skills’ training: Today parents need a change in handling their children rather than the methods used by our ancestors. Children do grow up faster these days and they also mature sexually three years earlier than the past generation. Hence, there is a growing need for training the parents in parentcraft.

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Children are deprived of the warmth, love, softness, experience and wisdom of the older generation owing to the lack of support from the extended family. Parents require help to develop techniques that will work for them in their home with their children. Therefore these need to be acquired and that is called as ‘skills’. The parental skill programme focuses on training the parents on skills which are appropriate on the different life stages, needs of the children and these programmes are conducted in hospitals, schools and community centres to prevent the behavioural and emotional problems of children. Role of professionals: Epidemiological studies indicate that family risk factors such as poor parenting, family conflict, and marriage breakdown, strongly influence children’s development. The risk factors in parental handling constitute the rationale for the involvement of social work

Volume X professional in this area. Conclusion: The social workers play a vital role and involve in parental support through engaging in parenting skills programme, family life education, family therapy and parent management training for the parents of different age group or based on the different needs of parents. They work along with other mental health professionals like psychologist, child psychiatrist, and working as a counsellor in schools, hospitals and community centers. When it is difficult for all the needy parents to avail parental skill training, the social workers should reach the unreached through community programmes and awareness programmes. Theyshould also involve in research activity focusing on the strengthening the parent-child relationship at different life stages to make the future generation become healthy.

References: Elizabeth. B Hurlock (2001): Developmental Psychology— A Life Span Approach, Tata Mcgraw- Hill publication: New Delhi.  Kendra Cherry (2011): The Four Styles of Parenting. http://psychology.about.com/ b/2011/12/23/four-parenting-styles.htm Nancy Ven Pelt (2009): Train up a Child, revised update, published by the Stanborough Press Ltd, Grantham, Lincolnshire Sekar. K et al (2007): Handbook of Psychiatric Social Work’ NIMHANS Publication, Bangalore, p; 70-74

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Social Work Intervention for Academic Excellence John Packiaraj M* * John Packiaraj M, MSW, MPhil, Project Manager, Thiruvallur Integrated Child Development Project, Help A Child of India.

Introduction: Parenting is all about nurturing children at home and making them respond appropriately to social situations they face elsewhere. While school offers opportunities to obtain information, master new skills and sharpen old ones; to participate in sports, arts and other activities to explore vocational choices and to socialize with friends, family gives all inputs to make things happen at school. School widens intellectual and social horizons. But, family prepares one for it and parenting has a vital role to play in motivating the child to consider experience-at-school as an opportunity. Need for taking board exam: The results of board examinations decide the career and educational ladder they wish to climb. Their entire life appears to hinge on this single factor. Academic marks thelps them to get admission in college. The right college is very important for future advancements and career options. Every adolescent follows his own pace of development. His growth is gradual. Parents tend to consider the

problems of an adolescent from their point of view which is seldom right. Understanding the adolescent’s problem as he perceives it paves the way for quicker adjustment and social work principles of accepting the person as he is helps us find the right mix of understanding and direction or confrontation, if need be. Changes in adolescence: Adolescents are more conscious of their rights. Desire for being treated at par with an adult arises. They tend to participate in varied social activities more intensely and frequently. The changes in the body paves way for fear of criticism and censure, embarrassment due to uneven co-ordination of hands, feet and nose. For boys their voice becoming hoarse causes concern. Outbursts of temper occur due to waves of desperation and frustration. The twelfth standard period is naturally a stressful time for adolescents. Two faces of a coin: Schools and parents give equal pressure to the students in academic and social spheres. Schools expect improvement in grades and Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013 11


Volume X parents expect social nicities ignoring to board exam as perceived by the developmental struggle of growing parents and students. A group of up. Parents are the primary source of twenty five parents was selected and information as they observe the after a general discussion to focus adolescents who are living with them their attention on the subject matter, and notice first the behavioural they were split into five groups of five change in them even as it unfolds. each and the summary of their Hence the social work intervention discussions was taken into account. starts at home. A home visit will reveal Parents were encouraged to voice out a lot more than several sessions of the prevalent problems with respect interview. to board exams. School counsellors Parental acceptance: and Principals were also interviewed Thergoenkar and Wadda (2007) for complaints commonly seen by studied 207 eleventh standard them. students and their mothers and have The common factors: observed that parental warmth has The following were seen as the been found to reduce the threat stressors in the family due to the implied in evaluative experiences. critical condition of the students taking There is a strong emphasis on the board examinations: importance of acceptance of parents Irritability. by the child. According to Stagner Looking for things misplaced. (2007) acceptance leads to Priority in matters of abulution. identification, which in turn gives the Skipping breakfast. child relief from feelings of Long hours of sleep deprivation helplessness as well as a sense of at night leading to sleepiness in the strength. Rejection of parents may morning and after lunch. represent a situation of conflict and of Heavy schedule of tuitions. insecure detachment. It may make Frequent spot tests at school. the child come to a wrong conclusion Sibling rivalry when the younger that the situation is threatening and child demands equal attention. insecure even when it is warm and relaxation extending beyond limit comfortable. leading to argument over TV time. A discussion in groups of five:  Skipping meals to watch There are several issues involved favourite programmes. in the generation of stress factor due Clash of siblings in sharing TV. 12 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013 ISSN: 0976-3759

Issue 07 Views of adolescents’ parents: Everybody agreed that the parentchild relationship becomes very much strained and reaches a flash point almost everyday. Students complain that they work like bulls non-stop without any entertainment, relaxation of socializing. Middle class families find the expenditure more for the students’ education and tuition. Parents also feel strongly about the three different types of question papers set for the same examination. The cut-off range for college admission is unfair to the students, especially the rural ones. They felt that it was not fair to the slow learners or the average student. Some schools do not cover the eleventh standard portions at all. May be the most important lessons are taught. CCE pattern in the CBSE is still not assimilated completely. Counsellor’s point of view: School counsellors have received the following complaints from parents regarding children’s behaviour: Open rebellion and talking rudly. Wasting time  Spending long hours at the computer/ TV. Not replying questions regarding their movements between school and home or tuition centre and home.

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Such behaviour is common during adolescence stage. However, counsellors also received complaints from children: Parents repeatedly forced them to study without any rest.  Prevent friends from coming home.  Force career choice on them. Demanding high performance. Not addressing their emotional needs. These issues can be easily sorted out if there is a healthy non-arguing dialogue among the parents and students, felt the parents. Counsellors also opined that there is a strong need to create an awareness among parents as well as students as to how to deal with the above issues by establishing channels of communication and marking territories. Parenting skills: Sibling rivalry can be averted by discussions with the younger ones.  Timely meals and healthy alternatives for regular meals such as nuts and fruits to take care of the health needs.  Helping the student to concentrate by avoiding needless noise at home.  Any incentive should be in commensurate with the task.

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Parents should take care of their own health concerns. Both parents should share the responsibility of providing facilities for the student. Remind students gently about the tasks ahead and time available rather than nagging and commanding.  Students can try relaxation techniques to calm their body and mind.  Encourage students to use positive self-affirmations. Help children to plan a study plan and follow it diligently. Bring student’s attention back to task at hand to make the best use of time available. Memory enhancing techniques can be taught.. Breathing exercise and short family games of scrabble can be played for relaxation.  The students have to be

Volume X encouraged to keep the communication channel open. Seek professional help at the earliest. Conclusions: Examinations always cause anxiety. The amount of preparation, expectations, sleepless nights, long hours of continued strain cause a great amount of stress in children and also the entire family. If the younger siblings are encouraged to discuss the kind of problems they face because of the entire attention of the family being focussed on the exam-going child, their rivalry and jealous feelings can be adequately addressed and removed. Students can also be encouraged to relax at appropriate time so that their tension gets a diversion and they feel connected to the family. Parents who handle the situation deftly stand to benefit immensely when the child passes with flying colours!

References: Chaube (2003): Developmental Psychology .Hyderabad: Neelkamal Publications Jersild A T, Brook J S & Brook D W (1978): The Psychology of Adolescence. New York: Macmillan Papalia D E, Olds S W and Feldman. R. D (2004): Human Development (9th Ed.) New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Thergoenkar and Wadda (2007): Relationship between Test Anxiety and Parenting Style:  JIACAM. (JAN2007)

The articles for January 2014 should reach us on or before 25th Dec 2013. Focus: BALANCED DIET. A soft copy by email, a CD containing article and declaration that it is original can be posted. 14 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

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Attitude of Student-Teachers towards Teaching Profession

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Pachiyappan P* Ushalaya Raj D** *Pachiyappan P, Ph D Research Scholar, Department of Education, Institute of Advanced Study in Education, Saidapet, Chennai – 15. **Dr (Mrs) Ushalaya Raj D, Associate Professor and Head, Department of Education, Institute of Advanced Study in Education, Saidapet, Chennai-15.

Introduction: “A teacher can never truly teach, unless he is still learning himself. A Lamp can never light another lamp, unless it continues to burn its own flame” ~Rabindranath Tagore The teacher is the most important component in the educational system. A teacher’s role is crucial in educational institution. Quality of education is directly linked with quality of teacher. Teaching profession involves dedication. It can be seen as a part of a learned behaviour or attitude associated with the professional behaviour of teachers. Nobility of teaching profession: Teachers are the sculptors who shape the young ones into individuals of potential and worthy character. Professionalism is a combination of serious commitment to the task at hand, competence and a measure of self-directedness with a high concern for exclusive self-interest. ‘Teaching is often said to be the noblest profession

among all the professions’ teachers should realize that the work they are doing is the noblest. The functionary who renders this service to enable the individual to be his best self is doing the greatest good and hence the noblest work. Teacher’s attitudes: Attitude can be defined as an organization of beliefs, habits and motives associated with a particular object. “An attitude is a readiness to respond in such a way that behaviour is given a certain direction.” According to Whittaker “An attitude is a predisposition or readiness to respond in a predetermined manner to relevant stimuli”. According to Sorenson, “An attitude is a particular feeling about something. It therefore involves a tendency to behave in a certain way in situations which involve that something, whether person, idea or object. It is partially rational and partially emotional and is acquired not inherent, in an individual”. Student-

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Volume X teachers will be the future teachers and Teacher Attitude of B.Ed. and if their disposition is bored, it would Trainees”, used tools like TAI-Ahuwalia also influence children’s living socially and Baroda General Teaching and morally upright. Good teachers Competence Scale. The major are models of social and moral findings of this study were that there leadership which not only influence was no significant difference between their students but also generate force the attitude of teacher trainees before for all-round growth of country. and after exposure to technique of Review of related literature : teaching. Parvati S.Ghanti & Nayar (1977) studied about the Jagadesh (2009) conducted a study teacher attitude of Mysore city on attitude of secondary school constructing a standardized tool. On teachers’ towards their teaching the administration of the test, the profession. In this study the attitude scores of 100 teachers identified by towards teaching profession of their Headmasters and colleagues as secondary school teachers is highly having very good professional favourable. The teachers working in attitudes were compared with those secondary schools do not differ of 100 teachers identified as having significantly in their attitude towards poor professional attitude. Bhandarkar teaching profession with respect to (1980) studied about the polytechnic gender and type of school. teachers’ attitude towards teaching Amirtha Gowri and Mariammal profession and its correlates. The (2011) conducted a study on college study revealed that the attitude teachers’ attitudes towards teaching towards the teaching profession was and job satisfaction .The study reveals not significantly related to the that the college teachers had qualifications of the teachers. The favourable attitude towards teaching. trained teacher mean attitude score The level of attitude towards differed was significantly higher than the mean significantly so far as the job attitude of the untrained teachers. The satisfaction of teachers of aided job mobility and family problems were colleges and self-financing colleges not significantly related to teachers’ was concerned. Selvaraj Gnanaguru attitude towards the teaching (2008) conducted a study on profession. A project financed by underachievement of B.Ed., students NCERT titled, “Effect of Microteaching in relation to their home environment and General Teaching Competence and attitude towards teaching. The 16 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

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Issue 07 study reveals that the underachievers have satisfactory home environment and unfavourable attitude towards teaching. There is a no significant relationship found between the underachievers’ home environment and their attitude towards teaching. Male and female students differ significantly in their home environment and attitude towards teaching but not in their achievement score and intelligence score. Objectives of the study: To find out the government and private college student-teachers’ attitude towards teaching profession. To find out the attitude of male and female student-teachers of government colleges towards teaching profession. To find out the attitude of male and female student-teachers of private colleges towards teaching profession. To find out the Tamil and English medium student-teachers attitude towards teaching profession. Hypotheses of the study: There is no significant difference in government and private college student-teachers’ attitude towards teaching profession. There is no significant difference in male and female government college student-teachers’ attitude towards teaching profession.

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There is no significant difference in male and female private college student-teachers’ attitude towards teaching profession. There is no significant difference in Tamil and English medium studentteachers’ attitude towards teaching profession. Methodology: Survey method was adopted to collect the relevant data for the present study. Randomly selected 125 student-teachers in and around Chennai were considered as the sample. Out of them 71 studentteachers were from Government B.Ed., College and 54 were from Private B.Ed., College. Tools used: 1. Personal data sheet developed by the investigator. 2. Attitude towards Teaching Profession Scale (2008) developed and standardized by A.Selvaraj Gnanaguru. This scale consists of 48 items with five choices (strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree). The maximum score for this scale is 240 and the minimum score is 48. The reliability of the tool was found to be 0.77 by split-half method and 0.65 in testretest method. To analyze the data Mean, Standard deviation, t-test have been computed which are tabulated.

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Volume X Table: 1 Mean, S.D and’t’ value of Government and Private College StudentTeachers’ Attitude towards Teaching Profession Organizational Sector N Mean S.D. ‘t’ value LOS Government 71 182.90 30.242 0.218 NS Private 54 183.50 28.658

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Table: 2 Mean, S.D. and ‘t’ value of Attitude towards Teaching Profession of Male and Female Government College Student-Teachers Gender N Mean S.D. ‘t’ value LOS Male 33 184.39 30.121 0.385 NS Female 38 181.61 30.691 Table: 3 Mean, S.D. and ‘t’ value of Attitude towards Teaching Profession of Male and Female Private College Student-Teachers Gender N Mean S.D. ‘t’ value LOS Male 24 184.29 27.503 0.180 NS Female 30 182.87 30.002 Table: 4 Mean, S.D. and ‘t’ value of Tamil and English Medium StudentTeachers’ Attitude towards Teaching Profession Medium of N Mean S.D. ‘t’ value LOS Instruction Tamil 85 183.16 30.586 0.003 NS English 40 183.15 27.257 Analysis and interpretation: B.Ed., college student-teachers The obtained statistics for attitude exhibited no significant difference. The towards teaching profession of data was analyzed using the‘t’- test government and private college from the table 1. It is clear that there student-teachers have been given in is no significant difference between the table 1. Here the government B.Ed., government and private college college student-teachers and private student-teachers in their attitude. In 18 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

Issue 07 this study the government and private college student-teachers showed similar attitude towards the teaching profession. From table 2 it is inferred that the government college male and female student-teachers exhibited no significant difference. It is clear that there is no significant difference between male and female government college student-teachers in their attitude towards teaching profession. So the null hypothesis was accepted. In this study the male and female student-teacher’s from Government College have shown similar attitude towards teaching profession. From table 3 it is inferred that the private college male and female student-teachers exhibited no significant difference. It is clear that there is no significant difference between male and female private college student-teachers in their attitude towards teaching profession. So the null hypothesis was accepted. In this study the male and female student-teacher’s from private college have shown similar attitude towards teaching profession. From table 4 it is inferred that the Tamil and English medium studentteachers exhibited no significant difference. It is clear that there is no

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significant difference between Tamil and English medium student-teachers in their attitude towards teaching profession. So the null hypothesis was accepted. In this study the Tamil and English medium student-teacher’s showed similar attitude towards teaching profession. Major findings of the study:  The government and private college student-teachers do not differ significantly in their attitude towards teaching profession.  Government college male and female student-teacher’s do not differ significantly in their attitude towards teaching profession.  Private college male and female student-teacher’s do not differ significantly in their attitude towards teaching profession.  In general male and female student-teachers do not differ significantly in their attitude towards teaching profession.  Attitude of student-teachers towards teaching profession is highly favourable. Educational implications: The teacher who has a positive attitude towards their teaching profession can only bring the desirable changes in the learning behaviour of the children. The teacher should

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always use their classroom environment as a well-organized structure for attitude development. Conclusion: A teacher is always a student; a seeker of knowledge. A teacher is not merely a teacher but he is a more effective demonstrator through his personal life of values, attitude, outlook, behaviour and performance. The teachers should being desirable and essential changes in their method of instruction for developing favourable

Volume X attitude towards teaching. They should also learn how to change their own behaviour according to the needs of the situations. The quality education should be given to the teacher trainees by appointing qualified teacher educators. If all the facilities are good, automatically the attitude towards the teaching profession will be favourable to the student-teachers. So, those whom are involved in this profession must follow the value system with sanctity and devotion.

References: Amirtha Gowri.P and Mariammal. K (2011). College Teachers’ Attitudes towards Teaching and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Community Guidance & Research, Vol.28 (1) PP.99-106. Bhatt, D.J. (1993). Job Satisfaction of College Teachers. Indian Journal of Behavior, Vol.17 (4): 5-13. Bhandarkar, B.G (1980). A study on polytechnic teachers’ attitude towards teaching profession and its correlates. Abstract: 1126, III Survey Report, Govt.Polytechnic, Jalgaon. Gnanadevan.R (2010). Teachers’ Professional Ethics for Sustainable Future. Edutracks: A Monthly Scanner of Trends in Education, Vol.9 (9). Parvati S.Ghanti and Jagadesh (2009). Attitude of Secondary School Teachers’ Towards their Teaching Profession. Edutracks: A Monthly Scanner of Trends in Education, Vol.9 (3). Prasad Babu.B. & Raju.T.J.M.S (2013). Attitude of Student Teachers towards their Profession. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, Vol. 2(1). Selvaraj, Gnanaguru. A and Suresh Kumar.M (2008). Underachievement of B.Ed students in Relation to their Home Environment and Attitude towards Teaching. Edutracks, Vol.7 (12). Nayar, P.R. (1977). Mysore Teachers’ Attitude Scale, Abstract: 708, III Survey Report, Dept. of Edu, Mysore University. Niyaz Ahmad (2011). Attitude of Student Teachers towards Teaching in relation to Academic Achievement. All India Khilafat Committee College of Education, Mumbai. Shashi Prabha Sharma (2003). Teacher Education: Principles, Theories & Practices. New Delhi, Kanishka Publishers.

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Parental Choice in Selecting Schools for Their Wards Ramakrishnan N* *Dr Ramakrishnan N, Professor, Department of Educational Technology, Tamil Nadu Teachers’ Education University, Chennai-600 005

Introduction: Stakeholders with similar interests, Quality of education is the measure claims, or right can be classified as or excellence of its delivery. It is belonging to the same group: assessed against accepted standards students and their parents, employees of merit for education delivery and of education organization, prospective against the interests/ needs of employers and so on. students and stakeholders. Defining Need for the study: education quality as excellence Education in the beginning was means delivery of ever-improving teacher-cantered. Then, it was value to students and stakeholders, student- centered. Now it is concerned contributing to improved education with human development. People quality. It is the level of excellence of who are concerned with human education delivery – excellence in development in larger perspective are modes of teaching, organizing society and its Government. The activities and experiences so that educated society alone progresses effective learning takes place. well in the competitive world. The Definitions: parents are the elders in society. They Education quality is defined as are concerned about their children’s students’ and stakeholders’ educational status, employability, and satisfaction. This definition is derived potentialities to become a successful from Juran’s (1995) definition of quality person in life, business, career and “It is customer satisfaction”. In sports. Parents’ awareness about education, students and stakeholders various factors related to school which are regarded as the customers. They determine their children’s success has are the key beneficiaries of rapidly been increasing. educational services. Students are Schooling beyond schools: those who are enrolled for a higher Due to knowledge explosion, it has education course. The term been stressed that schools should give “stakeholder,” includes all groups that more opportunities for tapping up the are affected by an education talents of young children. Gone are organizations actions and success. the days when people looked at Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013 21


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schools only for knowledge development. Now it is a multi theatre of honing up skills in music, dance, drama and other cultural activities. It is a place to develop sports and games. It is a place to groom moral aspects of life, art of living, meditation and yoga. It is a place to learn the societal concepts of cooperativeness, collective bargaining and democratic ways of life. It is a place where social awakening, like illiteracy, dowry deaths, female infanticide, AIDS awareness and environmental cleanliness have to be taught to students. In total, it is a multiplex of human capabilities. The growing number of

Volume X educational institutions especially Matriculation Higher Secondary Schools in our country have thrown open many choices for parents. These matriculation schools vie with each other to give quality education through different modes of instruction, ample infrastructure, many avenues for multifarious development in children, moral instruction, conveyance facilities, swimming pools and even horse riding. In this situation parents are provided with more choices. So, the present study had been undertaken to find out the preferences of parents when they admit students into Matriculation Higher Secondary Schools.

Table No. 1 Terms and Definitions Terms Definition Parental preferences Factors in schools identified and considered important by parents Matriculation Self-financing English Medium schools of Tamil Nadu Higher secondary Plus 2 level in 10+2+3 System of education in India Madurai A major city of Tamil Nadu Objectives of the study: 2.To find out the differences in The study had been designed with choice in terms of educational the following objectives: status of parents. 1.To find out the priority of factors Hypotheses: in the choice of matriculation higher The following are the null secondary school hypotheses formulated for the present 22 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

Issue 07 study: 1. There is no parental choice in selecting matriculation higher secondary schools in Madurai. 2. There is no significant difference in parental choice in terms of educational status of parents. Scope of the study: ďƒ The study was confined only to the parental choice in selecting Matriculation Higher Secondary Schools in Madurai. ďƒ The study was conducted with parents of students who are studying 11th and 12th standards in various matriculation higher secondary schools in Madurai. ďƒ The study was confined only with urban students. The findings of the study will reveal the choice of parents in selecting matriculation higher secondary schools for their sons and daughters in Madurai. It cannot be over generalized and considered as an overall reflection of parents in all the urban centres. However, it may indicate the perceptual change in preferences of parents in urban centres for the selection of matriculation higher secondary school. Procedure in brief: The present investigation has been basically designed as a normative study with survey as the technique of

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research employed. A set of factors as indicative preferences of parents was developed after having gone through the literature available, discussions held with parents, teachers and principals of various matriculation higher secondary schools in Madurai. A check list cum questionnaire as a tool to the study of the parental preferences of matriculation higher secondary schools in Madurai was used. Validity and reliability of the tool was tested. The tool was served with stratified representative sample of 1000 parents from around 30 matriculation higher secondary schools in Madurai with a fair representation given to the variables like educational qualifications and economic status. Filled in check-list cum questionnaires were collected from 450 parents. They were included in the final analysis. Percentage analysis was done for various factors identified in the study. Tests of significance of differences were employed for the comparison of different educational status of parents and for different economic status of parents to the factors identified in the study. Meaningful conclusions were drawn in terms of the objectives of the study and suitable suggestions worked out.

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Volume X Analysis and interpretation: ranking of the factors which influence The detailed analysis and parents’ preferences of matriculation interpretation of data and discussion higher secondary schools in Madurai of results are as follows. The average are given in Table 2. Table No. 2 Average Ranking of Parents’ Preferences to Factors in Matriculation Higher Secondary Schools Sl.No. Factors Ranking Order 1 Academic factors 3.93 1 2 Infrastructure factors 4.64 3 3 Administrative and Personal Relation factors 5.59 7 4 Co-curricular activities factors 5.18 6 5 Extra- curricular activities factors 5.72 8 6 Moral values and discipline factors 4.23 2 7 Convenience and conveyance factors 5.02 5 8 Fee structure 4.84 4 Table No. 3 Parents’ Responses To Academic Factors Vs. Educational Qualifications Wise Sl. No Educational N Mean S.D. ‘t ‘ LoS Qualifications 1 Illiterates 80 2.25 0.70 1.4652 N.S. Literates 230 2.09 0.73 2 Illiterates 80 2.25 0.70 1.2927 N.S. Graduates 140 2.10 0.66 3 Literates 230 2.09 0.73 0.1126 N.S. Graduates 140 2.10 0.66  Academic It is evident from the above Table  Moral values and discipline no. 2 that the following is the order of  Infrastructure factors according to the average of  Fee structure ranking by parents, which influence  Convenience and transport the parents’ preferences of  Co-curricular activities matriculation higher secondary schools  Administrative and Personal in Madurai. Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013 24

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Issue 07 relations factors  Extra- curricular activities The details of statistical measures and tests of significance of difference between the mean responses of parents to academic factors in terms of educational qualifications (illiterates, literates and graduates) are given in Table 3 in the previous page. It is evident from Table 3 that no significant differences exist among illiterate parents, literate parents and parents with graduation in their mean responses to academic factors. So the null hypothesis is accepted. It can be inferred from the above table that the illiterate parents, literate parents and parents with graduation have no differences in their preferences of schools to academic factors. Ranking: The following is the order of factors according to the average of ranking by parents which influence the parents’

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preferences of matriculation higher secondary schools of Madurai. In the ranking of factors by parents they have given foremost importance to Academic factors. Secondly, Moral values and Discipline factors is given importance. Thirdly, Infrastructure factors are given importance. Fifthly, Convenience and conveyance factors are given importance. Sixthly, Cocurricular Activities is given importance. Administrative and personal relations factors and Extra-curricular activities factors found 7th and 8th place in the order of importance given by parents. Conclusions: So, academic, moral/ discipline factors and Infrastructures should be given prime importance by private schools, as these will ensure better learning atmosphere. These are the educational implications of the present study. Parents have to take it as a challenge to get these for their wards.

Rerences: Alexander, W.M., (1971) The High School: Today and Tomorrow, New York Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc., Best, J.W., (1977) Research in Education, New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India. Grewal, P.S., (1990) Method of Statistical Analysis, New Delhi, Sterling Publishers Private Limited. Buch, M.N., (1991) Fourth Survey of Research in Education, New Delhi, NCERT. Hans, Raja, Bhartia, (1978) A Text Book of Educational Psychology, Madras, Macmillan India Ltd., Kochher, K.S., (1981) Pivotal Issues in Indian Education, New Delhi, Sterling Publishers Private Ltd., Pillai, R.S.N. (1994) Statistics, New Delhi, S. Chand and Company Ltd., Rai, B.C. (1973) Theory of Education, Lucknow, Prakasan Kerdra,

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Volume X

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26 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

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Parenting Styles: Research Openings Suman K Murthy* *Dr Suman K Murthy, Associate Professor, Dept. of Social Work, Pooja Bhagavat Memorial Mahajana Post Graduate Centre, KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysore 570016

Introduction: The nurturing environment at home, brings out the hidden talents of the child to bloom into a positive personality. On the other hand, negative atmosphere, lack of encouragement, deprivations and criticisms can form obstacles to the development of the child’s potentials. Parenting styles refer to a group of behaviours exhibited by the parents in the upbringing of their children. Researchers distinguish between parenting patterns and parenting styles. Parenting pattern Vs. style: Parenting patterns, according to researchers, is the specific behaviours exhibited by the parents while they socialize with their children. The parenting style is referred to the emotional climate, parental responsiveness and demands. There is a vast body of literature and research on impact of parenting styles in the development of the children. During the early 1960s, psychologist Diana Baumrind conducted a study on more than 100 preschool-age children (Baumrind, 1967). Using naturalistic observation,

parental interviews and other research methods, she identified three important dimensions. The fourth dimension was added later based on the following parameters: Disciplinary strategies Warmth and nurturance Communication styles Expectations of maturity and control Authoritarian parenting : In this style of parenting, children are expected to follow the strict rules established by the parents. Failure to follow such rules usually results in punishment. Authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules. If asked to explain, the parent might simply reply, “Because I said so.” These parents have high demands, but are not responsive to their children. According to Baumrind, these parents “are obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation” (1991). Authoritarian parenting styles generally lead to children who are obedient and proficient, but they rank lower in happiness, social competence and self-esteem.

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Volume X Authoritative parenting: demanding. They are nontraditional Like authoritarian parents, those and lenient, do not require mature with an authoritative parenting style behavior, allow considerable selfestablish rules and guidelines that their regulation, and avoid confrontation” children are expected to follow. (1991). Permissive parents are However, this parenting style is much generally nurturing and more democratic. Authoritative communicative with their children, parents are responsive to their children often taking on the status of a friend and willing to listen to questions. When more than that of a parent. Permissive children fail to meet the expectations, parenting often results in children who these parents are more nurturing and rank low in happiness and selfforgiving rather than punishing. regulation. These children are more Baumrind suggests that these parents likely to experience problems with “monitor and impart clear standards authority and tend to perform poorly for their children’s conduct. They are in school. assertive, but not intrusive and Uninvolved parenting: restrictive. Their disciplinary methods An uninvolved parenting style is are supportive, rather than punitive. characterized by few demands, low They want their children to be responsiveness and little assertive as well as socially communication. While these parents responsible, and self-regulated as well fulfill the child’s basic needs, they are as cooperative” (1991). Authoritative generally detached from their child’s parenting styles tend to result in life. In extreme cases, these parents children who are happy, capable and may even reject or neglect the needs successful (Maccoby, 1992). of their children. Uninvolved parenting Permissive parenting: styles rank lowest across all life Permissive parents, sometimes domains. These children tend to lack referred to as indulgent parents, have self-control, have low self-esteem and very few demands to make of their are less competent than their peers children. These parents rarely (Kendra, 2013). discipline their children because they Ideal parenting style: have relatively low expectations of Kopko (2007) in a review on the maturity and self-control. According to parenting styles and adolescents Baumrind, permissive parents “are highlights that the authoritative more responsive than they are parenting style has been considered 28 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

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Issue 07 as an ideal parenting style which balances demands with freedom as it provides a balance between affection and support and an appropriate degree of parental control in managing adolescent behaviour. The review further comments that different parenting styles are adopted in different cultures. Further in the same family, siblings may receive different parental styles which is an area not researched by the researchers. Internal factors: The parenting styles depend on various parental internal factors such as mood and lack of sleep, as well as external factors such as stress and job responsibilities. Individual child characteristics also play an important role in parenting styles. The review notes by Kopko notes that, the researchers cannot devise experiments in which one group of teens is assigned to a set of parents who will solely parent in an authoritative manner and another group of teens is assigned to parents who will solely parent in an authoritarian manner. The role of heredity: Further, nature versus nurture debate also at some points in time mutually undermines or exaggerates the role of heredity and environment

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which complicates the role of parenting in the upbringing of the children. Three dimensions of parenting: Barber and Olsen (2005) have identified three dimensions of parenting that appear to characterize parental influence across multiple cultural samples, both in industrialized and non-industrialized countries. Parental support, which refers to varied behaviours with ‘affective, nurturing or companionate’ qualities, is especially relevant to the older child and adolescent’s degree of social initiative. Psychological control refers to parents’ actions that attempt to change the child’s thoughts or feelings, ignores or dismisses the child’s views and withdraws love or affection; such parental behaviour has been associated with the development of depressive symptoms later in a child’s life. Finally, behavioural control refers to parents’ monitoring and knowledge of children’s activities and is relevant to the extent of the child’s anti-social behaviour. Studies about Indian style: The research studies have pointed out that parenting is culture-specific, family-specific as well as parentspecific. When one looks at the studies related to parenting styles of Indian subcontinent, indigenous studies on

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Volume X parenting styles are not many. A and normativeness of each style. The number of studies in the context of study found that Indian college migrant Indian’s parenting styles at students considered the parent different countries have been seen. demonstrating permissive parenting to All such studies have always kept the be more effective and helpful than US parenting styles module presented by college students. In contrast, US Baumrind, (1967) as the baseline for college students considered the classification. The universal parents demonstrating authoritative applicability of these findings has, and authoritarian parenting to be more however, been called into question in effective, helpful, and caring than recent years. Correlations have Indian college students. consistently been found for white Tools of the trade: North American middle-class families With regard to tools for measuring and sometimes for minority ethnic the parenting styles, a number of North Americans (Steinberg et al., questionnaires have been prepared 1992) with regard to Baumrind’s based on the description of parenting proposed parenting styles. However, styles given by Baumrind, such as social class, gender and ethnicity have The Parenting Styles and Dimensions all been found to produce outcomes Questionnaire (PSDQ) by Robinson, that run counter to these patterns Mandelco, Olsen and Hart, (1995). A (Phoenix and Husain, 2007). number of case vignettes have also Perception of students: been designed to find out the Barnhart et al (2013) compared parenting styles of the respondents perception of parenting styles among based on the three parental styles. college students in India and America. Indian approach to parenting: The study examined perceptions of Research openings of Indian parenting style as a function of approach to life stages and child participant’s culture, participant’s rearing are related to the Ashramas gender, and parent gender in college of Brahmacharya, Grihastha, students in India and the United Vanaprastha and Sanyasa in which States. Using a new vignette-based the individuals were supposed to fulfill self-report measure that characterizes the four purusharthas of Life namely each of Baumrind’s three parenting Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. styles, participants rated perceptions The childhood denoted as Balya was of effectiveness, helpfulness, caring, from birth till the fifth year of age and/ 30 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013

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Issue 07 or further till the child was initiated into Brahmacharya ashrama through the Upanayana ceremony. Fomal and vocational education: In the olden days, those who did not go to Gurukulas for formal learning/ training learnt the trade of their ancestors by apprenticing themselves with parents or relatives of the joint family household. The transmission of values, ethics and culture was through the oral tradition of narrating stories, enacting the mythological stories, folk music and other art forms. The children were considered equivalent to God due to their innocence. Hence physical punishment was not prescribed, rather they were given full freedom to explore their surroundings without any hindrance. The education of girl child was not generally in formal settings and the girls were taught essentials of running the household chores from early ages by being with the womenfolk of the family. Western influence: Due to introduction of Western education, the Indian approach to parenting styles, transmission of knowledge and the above mentioned activities by the parents and elders have undergone a change. Women are now given an opportunity to undergo formal education which was a taboo in the olden days. The

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changing role of women as home maker as well as wage earner has changed a number of roles that the women undertake in parenting. Thus there is a need to focus research on the child rearing and parenting styles in the past to record the traditional parenting styles of Indian culture. Further, the current parenting styles adopted by the Indian parents needs to be addressed. With the modern education, there is a lot of change in the educational process of the children. Now the focus has been on formal education starting with pre nursery/ non formal schooling. Thus the amount of time spent by the children in the company of parents and family has lessened. In this context, the influence of parenting styles on children needs to be examined. Conclusion: The role of TV in entertainment has gradually eroded the oral transmission/ narrative styles. The impact of this change in parenting style needs to be examined. Research studies focusing on the gender-specific parenting styles, needs to be undertaken in the Indian context. The parenting styles of rural/ urban and educated/ uneducated parents’ needs are to be explored. Indigenous studies on emerging parenting styles in the 31 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK December 2013


Volume X Journal of School Social Work English Monthly ISSN: 0976-3759 Registered with Registrar of Newspapers for India under No: TNENG/2004/14389 Postal Registration: TN/ CC (S) DN / 47 / 12-14 Licensed to post under: TN/PMG (CCR) / WPP - 663 / 12-14 Date of publication: 3rd Day of the Month The field of parenting styles throws context of the above mentioned factors need to be taken up for a lot of opportunities for research understanding various parenting styles which can update the parents on the in the Indian context. Such studies can best parenting practices. It can also throw light on the best parenting styles help in training the ‘yet to be’ parents which can bring out the potentials of to develop positive parenting style to provide the best for their children. children.

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Issue 07

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References: Barber B, Stolz H and Olsen J (2005): Parental Support, Psychological Control and Behavioural Control: Assessing Relevance across Time, Culture and Method, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 70, No. 4. Barnhart M. Caitlin., Raval V. Vaishali., Ashwin Jansari and Raval Pratiksha H. (2013): Perceptions of Parenting Style among College Students in India and the United States. Journal of Child and Family Studies. Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 684693. Baumrind D (1967): Child-Care Practices Anteceding Three Patterns of Preschool Behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88. Baumrind, D. (1991): Effective Parenting during the Early Adolescent Transition. In P.A. Cowan and E. M. Hetherington (Eds.), Advances in Family Research (Vol. 2). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Chao R and Tseng V (2002): Parenting of Asians. In M. H. Bornstein (Series Ed.), Handbook of Parenting: Vol. 4 Social Conditions and Applied Parenting (2nd ed., pp. 59-93). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kendra Cherry.(2013): Parenting Styles- The Four Styles of Parenting. http:// psychology.about.com/ od/ developmental psychology/a/parenting-style.htm cited on 18.11 2013

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