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Volume X

Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014

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Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK Jnauary 2014


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Volume X

Issue 08

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Journal of School SocialPrice Work Rs 20.00 A National School Social Work monthly dedicated to networking of parents and teachers.

Volume X Issue 8

January 2014

Page

C ont e nt s Editorial Dr Venkateswarlu V Balanced Diet- A Way To Maintain A Healthy Life Dr Malarvizhi S Balanced Diet and Health Dr Shaly Joseph Dietary Concerns of Working Mothers in Delhi for Their Overweight Children Digvijoy Phukan Eating Disorders of Adolescents Beula Francis Professional Ethics of the Teacher Krishnakumar Pandian S and Kosalai Raman S Stress Management and Adolescents Pachaiyappan P and Dr Ushalaya Raj D

02 03 06 09 15 22 25

Focus: Balanced Diet Hony Special Editor: Dr Venkateswarlu V Asst. Professor Dept. of Sociology and Social Work Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, A.P

Focus for February 2014: MEDIA AND CHILDREN Journal of School Social Work,

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Volume X Editorial Diet for Balanced Future! “Your food will be your medicine,” components and not because of total said Hippocrates. A diet consisting of lack of food. Too much of one several food groups that provides all component can do as much harm to the required nutrients in proper amount the body as too little. is a balanced diet. Composition of Deficiency diseases occur when balanced diet is the end result of the there is a lack of a specific nutrient, Recommended Daily Allowances although some diet related disorder is (RDAs). A balanced diet means a result of eating in excess. “If Man getting the right types and amounts learns to eat what his body needs and of foods and drinks to supply nutrition to avoid what his system rejects, then and energy for maintaining body cells, there won’t be any necessity for any tissues, and organs, and for supporting medicine,” proclaimed Thiruvalluvar normal growth and development. the Tamil sage poet. One of the joys of parenthood is Recent research shows that to watch the child grow. Throughout balanced diet makes a child healthier childhood and adolescence, it is and prevents disease, it makes him important that daily meals should emotionally more stable and improves include variety of foods. The principles children’s cognitive abilities and school of the food guide Pyramid apply to performance. No single food group is child’s diet as well as adults, although more important than the other. As portions and number of servings per growing children go through day may vary. As soon as child remarkable physical changes of all completes the second year of life his kinds, food intake becomes a critical diet can be similar to that of adults. aspect for their growth and After the age of two, it is development. An adequate diet recommended that diet should be provides sufficient energy for the moderately low in fat. Diets high in performance of metabolic work, fat may contribute to heart diseases, although the energy food is in an obesity and other health problems unspecified form. A balanced diet later in life. provides all dietary requirements in the Malnutrition results from an correct proportions without much unbalanced diet, which can be due fanfare. Balanced diet can build a to an excess of some dietary healthy individual and through him a components to the exclusion of other healthy Nation. Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014 02

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Balanced Diet- A Way To Maintain A Healthy Life Malarvizhi S* *Dr Malarvizhi S, Vice Principal, College of Nursing, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry

Introduction: It’s important to make sure that our diet is well balanced in order to achieve good health, and avoid long term diseases and illnesses. As our lives become more busy, this can become more difficult, however. The author attempts to help the reader understand the components of a balanced diet, its importance and to apply the information in everyday life. Definition: Balanced diet is a diet that consists of adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy growth and activity. It includes fats, carbohydrates, proteins and vitamins. Principles of balanced diet: It should meet the energy intake from protein – 10-15% of energy intake, fats- 15-30% of energy intake and carbohydrate from the remaining. Determining factors: Based on region, economic status, religion, customs, culture, taboos, taste and habits of the people the pattern of balanced diet may vary. Energy requirement is defined as that level of energy intake in relation to expenditure which is least likely to

result in obesity, heart disease or prolong active life. It is Individualized because it depends on daily activities like walking, dressing and sitting. It depends on the kind of occupation that demands light, moderate or heavy work. Reference standards: Reference man: Aged 20-30 years, weighs 60kg, free from diseases and physically fit for active work for 8 hours, 8 hours of sleep, 4-6 hours of sitting or other routine works and two hours spent in walking, recreation or in household activities. Reference woman: Aged 20-30 years weighs 50kg, free from diseases and physically fit for active work for 8 hours work, 8 hours sleep, 4-6 hours sitting or other routine works and 2 hours spent in walking, recreation or in household activities. Energy requirements: Man: 45 cal / kg weight/per day Woman: 40 cal / kg weight/per day Reference Man- per day Light work – 2425 cal Moderate work – 2875 cal Heavy work – 3800 cal

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Volume X Reference Woman- per day categories of persons:  Light work – 1875 cal  Reference Man- 8.3 %  Moderate work – 2225 cal  Reference Woman- 9.1%  Heavy work – 2925 cal  Pregnant woman- 10% Energy- vulnerable group:  Lactating mother-11%  Pregnant woman daily  If PE is less than 4 % unable to requirement + 300 cal per day satisfy the protein requirement  Lactating mother (0-6 months)  Recommended- 15-20% of daily requirement + 550 cal per day total calorie intake  Lactating mother(7-12months) Protein intake daily requirement + 400 cal per day Intake is expressed in terms of  Children rapid growth period Grams per Kg body weight needs 100-120 cal per day and  ICMR recommends 1 gram later on 80-90 cal per day per Kg body weight for adults  Puberty requirement is same  Infants – 2 Gms per kg body as adults weight (first 6months)  Adults generally 2% decline of  1. 5 - 1.8 Gms per kg body resting metabolism for each decade weight till 10 years for adults  Adolescents- 1.2 to 1.4 gms per  After 40 years reduce by 5% kg body weight for each decade till 60 years  During pregnancy- additional 14  After 60 years reduce 10% for gms per day each decade  During lactation – 25 gms per Proteins: day ( 0-6 months ) Main function of proteins is growth Fats and repair, so it’s needed for hair and Fat is good if consumed in small nail growth, repair of nerve cells, amount as it transports fat-soluble muscle growth and repair and healing vitamins (A, D, E and K) around the injuries. body and it also supplies essential PQ= Efrom PX100 TEI fatty acids. PQ=Protein quality  During infancy – fat constitutes Efrom P=Energy from protein 50% of total energy intake TEI=Total energy intake  Adults – fat constitutes 20% of Ratio of protein calorie to the total total energy intake energy calories required for various  50% should be EFA from Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014 04

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Issue 08 vegetable oils  Requirement of EFA ranges from 3-6% of energy intake in young children  Recommended as equal proportion of visible and invisible fats in the diet for all age groups. Fat intake: Different groups require different intake which can be expressed as percentage of total energy intake and as percentage of fat enegy intake. A normal man/ woman requires 20 gms per day per Kg of body weight which is 9% of total energy and 3% of TFA. Pregnant women require 30 gms per day which is 12.5 % of total energy and 4.5 % of TFA. Lactating mothers require 45 gms per day which is 17.5 % of total energy and 5 . 7 % of TFA. Children require 22 to 25 gms per day per Kg of body weight which is 15 % of total enrgy and 3% of TFA. Carbohydrate: In India, 90% of energy intake is mainly from carbohydrates but it

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should be only 50-70% of total energy intake. Ways to maintain a healthy life:  Health doesn’t mean being skinny.  Avoid taking food in front of the TV as you would lose count.  Differentiate between hunger and thirst. Avoid eating due to boredom.  Combine a balanced diet with exercise and it will increase the health benefits of your good diet.  Find out how many calories you should be eating every day so you are aware of whether you are over or under eating. Conclusion: Balanced diet consists of the combination of five major food groups which are the proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats and minerals. The food groups should be taken in portions in a meal so as to attain a balanced diet. The ultimate aim of taking balanced diet is to safeguard the body from nutritional deficiencies.

References: Srilakshmi (2009): Nutrition Science, 3rd Edition, New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. Indrani (2005): Nursing Manual of Nutrition and Therapeutic Diet, New Delhi: Jaypee. Shubhangini Joshi (2005): Nutrition and Dietetics, 2nd Edition, New Delhi:Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Company Limited John and Jenifer (2007): Essentials of Nutrition and Dietetics for Nursing. New Delhi: B I Publications Pvt Ltd.

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Balanced Diet and Health

Volume X

Shaly Joseph* *Dr Shaly Joseph, HOD, HRM Dept, YCSSW, Jaskat Wadi, Maharashtra-415002

Introduction: and mental function. Changes in Health of children depends on the diet are a viable strategy for food they eat. A healthy and balanced enhancing the cognitive abilities diet is essential for the proper growth and protecting the brain from of the child. If not, they may be damage. affected by various diseases mainly Dietary deficiency of omega-3 due to the lack of immunity. It affects fatty acids in humans has been their performance in studies and other associated with increased risk of day-to-today activities and even their several mental disorders, including mental health. Health is the wealth attention-deficit disorder, dyslexia, of an individual. A balanced diet dementia, depression, bipolar means getting the right type and disorder and schizophrenia. amount of foods and drinks to supply  An unbalanced diet can cause nutrition and energy for maintaining problems in growth and body cells, tissues and organs, and development along with for supporting normal growth and maintenance of body tissues and development. We get many essential functioning of brain and nervous nutrients from fruits, vegetables and system. grains. A diet which has a high level  A recent study from the of protein puts a huge strain on the University of Granada in Spain kidneys. Eating large amounts of fat found that diet affects the child’s and protein from animal sources behaviour and intelligence. increases the risk of heart disease and  Diet and nutrition of the mother cancer. This article is based on a before the birth of the child as well research study on dietary habits of as in the child’s initial years, children of the age group 6-12 years. enhances wellbeing, mental Importance of a balanced diet: performance and brain  Food is like a pharmaceutical development. compound that affects the brain  Researchers evaluated that B (Fernando Gómez-Pinilla). Diet, vitamins, breast milk and folic acid exercise and sleep have the positively affect the cognitive, potential to alter our brain health emotional, and behavioural Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014 06

Issue 08 development of children from birth to the age nine years.  The researchers found that folic acid can reduce the likelihood of behavioural problems during early childhood. They also found that consumption of oily fish had a positive effect in enhancing performance in children and improving their reading ability.  Researchers found that good nutrition can have a positive effect on mental performance in children. Methodology: Data was collected from mothers of school going children in one of the English medium schools in Satara district in Maharashtra. Accident sampling method was used. 50 mothers were interviewed for collecting data. Tool of data collection was interview schedule. Findings of the study:  Majority of children do not like to eat vegetables.  Most of the children eat food sitting in front of the TV and spend more than an hour to have major meals.  Majority of children like to eat packed fried items.  Majority of children drink readymade canned juices.  Most of the children like bakery products which include sweets.

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 Children are attracted to food items advertised in medias.  Consumption quantity of homemade fresh food is less.  Children refuse to drink milk. Suggestions:  A balanced diet is necessary for healthy growth of the child.  Parents should educate children regarding importance of a healthy diet and harmful effect of junk food.  Parents can prepare food in different tastes and present attractively.  Schools should not allow junk food in the tiffin box.  Programme should be conducted to sensitize the children regarding health risk attached with an unbalanced diet.  Seasonal items should be included in the diet abundantly.  Low cost nutritious food can be prepared.  Children can be encouraged to participate in preparation of food to eat self-made food.  Eat at least three meals a day  Eat foods from each of the food groups at every meal. Ingredients of a balanced diet: Carbohydrates contained in whole grain breads and cereals for added fiber, foods that are low in fat and sugars, avoiding calories and fat to

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foods in this group by not adding spreads or toppings high in fat will constitute a balanced diet. Fruits  Fruits and 100% fruit juices provide vitamin A and C and potassium. They are also low in fat and sodium.  Eat fresh whole fruits and avoid canned fruit in heavy syrups and sweetened fruit juices.  Citrus fruits, melons, and berries are high in vitamin C. Vegetables:  Vegetables supply vitamins, including vitamin A and C, and minerals, such as iron and magnesium, and fiber. They are low in fat. Eat a variety of vegetables to get different nutrients that they supply, including dark green leafy vegetables, deep yellow vegetables, starchy vegetables (potatoes, corn peas), legumes and other vegetables (lettuce, tomatoes, onions, green beans) Meat, poultry, fish and eggs:  Foods in this group provide protein, and vitamins and minerals, including B vitamins, iron and zinc.

Volume X  Least fat foods include lean meat, poultry without skin, fish, dry beans and peas. Prepare meat in low fat ways, by broiling, roasting, or boiling rather than frying.  Nuts, seeds and egg yolks which are high in cholesterol,have to be taken in moderation. Fats, oils and sweets: Unsaturated fats, which are found in olive, peanut, and canola oils, or polyunsaturated fats in sunflower, corn, soybean and cottonseed oils are better than the saturated fats in poultry and meats. Limit saturated fats to not more than 10% of daily calories. White sugar, brown sugar, corn syrup, honey and molasses and foods like candy, soft drinks, jams, and jellies supply a large amount of calories, with little nutritional value. Conclusion: A well balanced diet improves the physical and mental health of the children and contributes for lifelong benefits. It enhances the performance of the children in studies, sports and all daily activities. It becomes a basic lifestyle for today’s child and to the next generation’s adult.

References: Ogden J and Wardle J (1990): Cognitive and Emotional Response to Food http://www. nytimes. com/health/guides/nutrition/balanced-diet/overview. Referred on 12th December 2013 http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Healthy_Referred on 10th December 2013

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Dietary Concerns of Working Mothers in Delhi for Their Overweight Children Digvijoy Phukan* *Digvijoy Phukan, Assistant Professor (Ad-hoc), Department of Social Work, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110007

Introduction: ‘I wish I could prepare each meal for my children and keep a closer watch on what they eat’. This statement expressed by almost every respondent highlights the concern of the working mothers for the diet of their obese children. It also brought to the fore that in spite of their constant worry for their children, being in regular employment they were unable to ensure that their children were taking a nutritious and balanced diet. Origin of the study: This study stems from two developments which have taken place in recent years. First, in cities like Delhi and even in smaller towns of the country, it has become essential for both the parents to engage in economically productive work away from home to ensure a decent life for their family. As mothers have been assigned by custom to take care of nutrition of their children, they have to manage their work and the care of their children. Second, childhood obesity has emerged as one of the most serious public health challenges of the twenty-first century (Singh,

2013). Statistics on obesity: According to WHO (2012) globally an estimated 170 million children (aged less than 18 years) are overweight and this could lead to serious health consequences. WHO (2013) defines overweight as BMI (body mass index) greater than or equal to 25 and obesity as BMI greater than or equal to 30. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in 5-19 years is defined according to the WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. It has been reported that the overall prevalence of overweight/ obesity in urban children in New Delhi has shown an increase from 16% in 2002 to about 24% in 2006-2007 (Bhardwaj et. al., 2008): Kaur et. al. (2008) have reported in their study on children in the age group of 5-18 years belonging to low, middle and high income group in Delhi that there is a higher prevalence of overweight and obese children in the HIG as compared to the MIG and the LIG for all age groups. Review of literature: The dependence of the quality of

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Volume X children’s diets and their physical 2. To comprehend the perception health on the work of their mother of the working mothers regarding outside the home has been underlined their children’s obesity. by Crepinsek and Burstein (2004): 3. To identify the challenges faced Maternal employment plays a by them in caring for the diet of significant role in the increasing their children. prevalence of childhood obesity 4. To suggest possible ways in (Brown, Broom, Nicholson and which a school social workers can Bittman, 2010): There is also an assist the women to strike a increase in BMI of a child associated balance between their work and with an increase in the total time a care of the children. mother is employed (Morrissey, Research methodology: Dunifon and Kalil; 2011): Using time The study was carried out in the use data, Cawley and Liu (2012) have general medicine ward of a suggested plausible mechanisms for government hospital in Delhi. A the association between maternal descriptive research design was employment and childhood obesity. selected as the study intends to Ziol-Guest, Dunifon and Kalil (2013) describe the various factors have further showed that the number concerning working women and their of hours that highly-educated mothers overweight or obese children. The work over her child’s lifetime is universe of the study included all positively and statistically significantly working mothers with overweight or associated with her child’s BMI. While obese children in Delhi. Purposive a significant body of literature indicates sampling technique was used for the a close linkage between maternal selection of the respondents. A employment and childhood obesity, sample of fifty women with nonthis study attempts to explore the view medical, lifestyle induced overweight point of the working mothers as they or obese children between 8-12 years strive to balance their work and take of age and who were in full time regular care of the nutritional requirements of employment in Delhi at least since the their obese children. birth of their child were selected as Objectives of the study: respondents. A semi-structured 1. To understand the socio- interview schedule with both closed economic profile of the working and open ended questions was mothers. prepared to interview the Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014 10

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Issue 08 respondents. Verbal consent of the respondents was taken before initiating the process of data collection. The respondents were assured that the information collected shall be kept confidential. The quantitative data was analysed using SPSS 16.0. The qualitative information obtained from the interviews was assigned codes and analysed accordingly. Research findings: Profile of the respondents: The majority of the respondents (62%) were in the age group of 35-45 years. 30% of the respondents fell in the age group of 25-35 years and a small minority of the respondents were between 45-55 years. The mean age of the children of the respondents was 9.9 years. The overweight or obese child in 80% of the cases was a boy and in the rest (20%), a girl. Majority of the children (86% ) of the respondents went to a private school. While 68% of the respondents had two children, 24% and 8% of the respondents had one and three or more than three children respectively. Among the respondents 54% were graduates, 26% had completed their post-graduation and 20% had professional or technical education. 72% of the respondents fell in the income bracket of Rs. 7-9 lakh per month. 22% , 4% and 6% of the

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respondents stated that their income was in the range of Rs. 5-7 lakh per month, Rs. 3-5 lakh per month and more than Rs. 9 lakh per month. Among the respondents 36% were residents of Delhi since birth, 18% had initially migrated to Delhi to pursue higher education or to seek better employment opportunities. Only 8% stayed back in Delhi after marriage. The rest moved to Delhi after their marriage (24%) or relocated here with their husband (14%). It has to be pointed out that in all the cases either the respondents or her husband was also suffering from a lifestyle related disease and in 70% cases both the respondent and her husband were under medication for a lifestyle related disease. Perceptions of obesity: All the respondents were aware that their child was overweight. Majority of the respondents (88%) were also aware of the fact that childhood obesity was a serious public health concern. However, only 26% of the respondents knew the concept of BMI for defining obesity. Interestingly, only 14% of the respondents took the increasing weight of their child seriously on their own after reading about it in print media articles. The rest 86% of the respondents only understood the

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Volume X gravity of the matter when others consumption of foods high in fat, (doctors = 52% or relative or friend = saturated fat, salt and sugar which 34%) pointed it out to them. included junk food was a major factor Consequences of obesity: behind the increase in weight of the All the mothers admitted that they child. The analysis of the qualitative were offended when relatives and responses revealed the complex friends repeated told them about their linkage of factors which were child’s weight. Several respondents responsible for the state of the child’s stated that they avoided social health. The respondents admitted that functions as they were fed up of many a times due to the early discussing childhood obesity with their morning rush they could not prepare relatives and friends. Most the tiffin of the child and had to either respondents were certain that their stuff her child’s lunch box with salt or child was teased on account of being sugar rich packaged food, or give overweight and they held the opinion money to eat outside. Similarly, home that this reduced the self-esteem of cooked dinner was many a times the child. The reduced self-esteem in replaced by food ordered from outside most cases prevented the child from as both the parents had to meet their mingling with other children of her/his office deadlines. Respondents also age and in participating in outdoor admitted that many a times a visit to activities which further reduced the a junk food stall was also promised to physical activity. The mothers also child to make up for the lack of time cited incidents when the school spent with the kids. During the teacher had made fun of the kid for interview, it was found that families being overweight. All the respondents during the financial year end, when were aware of the implications of the load of office work is at its peak being overweight and were very keen relied entirely on food ordered from to reduce the weight of their child. outside. All the respondents availed Causes of childhood obesity: the services of a housemaid and few All the respondents felt that their respondents stated that when the child working status was a major factor was alone, the housemaid ordered behind the condition of the child, yet food from outside to avoid the trouble all of them said that they will have to of cooking. 92% respondents were of continue with their work. The the opinion that repeated television respondents pointed out that the advertisements of unhealthy food Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014 12

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Issue 08 items made the children crave for those food items. The consumption of unhealthy food in most cases was coupled with lack of exercise and a complete sedentary life. Almost all respondents noted that their child was glued to the television or computer. Many respondents admitted that they dissuaded their children from outdoor activities as they will not be around to look after them. With rising cases of kidnap and other child-related crimes the mothers said that they felt safer when their child was at home watching television rather than playing outside. Challenges in tacking obesity: All the respondents were married and stayed with their husbands who were also involved in productive labour. They stated that the entire onus of caring for the nutrition of the child was on them and that their husbands were reluctant to share household responsibilities which made their task of caring for the child even tougher. 86% of the respondents lived in a nuclear family and these respondents felt that in such a family, the child was more prone to such lifestyle related disease and 44% of the respondents had asked their parent-in-laws to stay with them. All the respondents were trying to dissuade the child from eating food

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products which increase obesity and were encouraging the child’s involvement in physical activities. Several respondents wanted stricter laws against sale and promotion of unhealthy food products. Respondents also wanted it to be made mandatory by law for all packaged food producers to provide detailed nutrient information of their products. They also were in support of removal of junk food and soft drinks from the school canteens. Role of a school social worker: The findings of the study have revealed that childhood obesity is a result of the complex interplay of various socio-economic factors. In addition to the child, it also impacts the physical and mental health of the working mother. The school social worker can play a central role for the promotion of awareness among students and their parents regarding a healthy lifestyle. S/he would assess students regularly for signs of lifestyle diseases to ensure detection at an early stage. In fact, even in the private schools due credit was not given to the health of the child. This points to the need for appointing school social workers in all the schools. The social worker upon the detection of any case of obese child will design a clientspecific intervention plan for the

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reduction of BMI. The plan should take into consideration the employment status of the parents and involve them in efforts aimed at bringing about lifestyle changes in the child. It should also provide regular counselling to boost the self-esteem of the child. For families with working mothers, the social worker should make a detailed time-use plan of the family and if needed also arrange separate counselling sessions for the

Volume X mother. Stress management plan and networking with psychologists can be provided. Schools through their social workers can encourage attempt to create community-based intervention plan to tackle childhood obesity. An integrated neighbourhood plan involving the able-bodied elderly and the children will address needs of both groups in the situation when both parents have no option but to work for a living.

References: Bhardwaj S.et al (2008): Childhood Obesity in Asian Indians: A Burgeoning Cause of Insulin Resistance, Diabetes and Sub-Clinical Inflammation. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1, 172-175. Brown J E.et al. (2010): Do Working Mothers Raise Couch Potato Kids? Maternal Employment and Children’s Lifestyle Behaviours and Weight in Early Childhood. Social Science & Medicine, 70(11), 1816-1824. Cawley J. and Liu F.(2012): Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity: A Search for Mechanisms in Time Use Data. Economics & Human Biology, 10(4), 352-564. Crepinsek M K. and Burstein N R (2004): Maternal Employment and Children’s Nutrition. Economic Research Service. Retrieved December 14, 2013, from http:/ /webarchives.cdlib.org/sw1s17tt5t/http://ers.usda.gov/Publications/EFAN04006/ Kaur S et al (2008): Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity amongst School Children in Delhi, India. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 17(4), 592596. Morrissey T W et al (2011): Maternal Employment, Work Schedules, and Children’s Body Mass Index. Child Development, 82(1), 66-81. Singh, R. (2013): Childhood obesity: An Epidemic in Waiting? International Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 3(1), 2-7. WHO. (2012): Population-based Approaches to Childhood Obesity Prevention. Geneva: WHO. WHO. (2013, December 14): BMI Classification. Retrieved December 2013, 14, from http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html Ziol-Guest, K. M., Dunifon, R. E., & Kalil, A. (2013): Parental Employment and Children’s Body Weight: Mothers, Others, and Mechanisms. Social Science & Medicine, 95, 52-59.

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Eating Disorders of Adolescents Beula Francis* *BeulaFrancis, MA(SW), BEd, MPhil, NET, Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work, Stella Maris College-Chennai-86

Introduction: fact, it is during the spurt in growth “Health is Wealth”. Eating healthily, during adolescence that malnutrition being active and feeling good with a can be remedied, a fact little positive outlook are the key ingredients recognized even today. Studies have of a healthy lifestyle. People have to shown that with the onset of eat the right kind of food in right menstruation, girls are vulnerable to quantity and exercise daily to stay anaemia, leading to adverse outcome healthy physically and also during pregnancies. The main nutrition emotionally. Most of the athletes do problems affecting adolescent not have lung or heart problems, populations worldwide include under because of their diet and exercise. nutrition in terms of stunted growth Healthy eating habits should start from and thinness, catch-up growth, iron childhood and preferably at home. deficiency and anaemia, iodine The health of children and adolescents deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, is of major concern. Holistic health is calcium deficiency, shortage of intake the need of the hour. of minerals and other micronutrients. Nutrition: These problems become more acute Nutrition is a significant indicator of with early marriage and pregnancy. the overall well-being and These problems, if not addressed, development of the adolescent. This lead to perpetuation of ill health and is explained by the fact that it is during stunted growth across generations. this period that adolescents gain up Adequate nutrition is particularly critical to more than 20% of their adult weight for adolescents as it is a primary and 50% of their adult skeletal mass. determinant of the age-specific Most of the current programmes of mortality rates. In addition to the Government are focused on pregnant traditional categories of children and women and lactating mothers or pre- adults, the design of the National school children. Adolescent nutrition Nutrition Profile 1998 includes ‘School has not been given the attention it age children’ and ‘Adolescents’. deserves except for a limited nutrition Average intake of nutrients was also programme for adolescent girls. In classified according to age and sex. Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK Jnauary 2014 15


Volume X A major measure of nutritional or nutritional intake as compared to boys, health status is the average intake of and that a large number of adolescents energy and protein and also iron are undernourished and the problem against the recommended daily is more among girls than boys, allowance (RDA): The protein intake primarily due to deep-rooted gender of all groups is adequate but the age discrimination. Girls need 10 percent groups below 15 years fall short in more iron as a result of menstrual energy intake. It is plausible that the blood loss, but their consumption is short falls create more vulnerabilities much less. The most visible among adolescent girls due to greater manifestation of nutritional deficiency demands for better nutrition (for is the high prevalence of anaemia and example in relation to early stunting among adolescent girls. pregnancies, there is a high Studies suggest that as many as 55 vulnerability of adolescent mothers to percent of adolescent girls may suffer anaemia and other reproductive health from anaemia which is preventable problems): The nutritional status of with the consumption of iron tablets girls is of particular concern to policy and nutrition supplements. Many makers as it has inter-generational government and NGO programmes effects. Low socio-economic status are now addressing this problem. compounds the problem of under Health of adolescents: nutrition, with consequent effects on Adolescents are often thought of height and weight. In addition, under as a healthy group. The health of nutrition reduces the reproductive, adolescents has an intergenerational physical, and mental capacities of effect. Babies born to adolescent girls, and continues to result in low parents have a higher risk of being birth weights and foetal loss. A underweight and of dying early. They sizeable proportion of late adolescent are also likely to suffer from any social girls is acutely malnourished and economic disadvantages faced by (measured in terms of Mean Body their parents. There are compelling Mass), fail to meet calorie economic arguments for addressing requirements and are short-statured. the health of adolescents. Improving This will increase the risk of difficulty the health of school-going adolescents in childbirth. Studies have shown that increases their enrolment and in Bangladesh and India, females retention in school, their cognitive receive 88 percent of the required achievements, and leads to greater Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014 16

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Issue 08 productivity. There is also a need to safeguard investments in child survival, and in the education of children who lived to become adolescents. Children and adolescents have important needs as they grow and develop into adults. Virtually all governments have confirmed their right to have these needs fulfilled, with the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Gender based changes: The World Health Organization has defined health as “a state of complete, physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. During the middle adolescence boys gain the advantage, which they continue to maintain. The girls who reach menarche earliest also attain their maximum height earliest. Girls who reach menarche later attain their maximum height later, yet boys often become taller than the girls. Before puberty girls are usually lighter than the boys, and during early puberty, girls tend to become heavier than the boys. Adequate and nutritious food is required during the adolescent period. Anaemia is most common amongst adolescents. Intake of food rich in iron can help to combat anaemia. Adolescent girls may starve

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to keep themselves slim, or may overeat due to psychological problems like lack of companionship, love, affection and inadequate personality. Approaching adolescents: WHO is committed to promoting strategies for adolescent health and recognizes the importance of adolescents for the future health and development of countries. WHO’s definition of those adolescents between the age of 10-19 years, is the definition that was adopted at the South Asia conference on adolescents in 1998, and followed by most other UN Organisations. WHO’s support for adolescents is integrated into all its programmes on health, with a special emphasis in the reproductive health and women, health and development programme (which includes the Safe Motherhood Initiative), the Tobacco Free Initiative (adolescents are specific targets of cessation efforts) and the HIV/AIDS programme. Globally, the focus on adolescents can be traced back to the 1980s, with the Fourth World Health Assembly in 1987 selecting “Health of Youth” as the subject for discussions at the Forty Second World Health Programme, and approving the commencement of an Adolescent Health Programme in1990. At the Forty Second World Health Assembly, the importance of

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Volume X youth as a critical element for the encompass the ingestion of non-foods health of future generations and that (pica). The most commonly known the health of youth depends on their eating disorders are anorexia nervosa own actions, choices and behaviour and bulimia nervosa. The most was recognised. The Assembly widely and rapidly spreading eating passed a resolution in 1989 to highlight disorder is compulsive overeating or adolescent issues and asked member binge eating disorder. These are the states to develop socially and culturally three most common eating disorders. acceptable programmes to meet All three can cause severe, immediate adolescent health needs. and long-term health issues and can Mental health problems: cause even death. The future of our country depends Cultural norms: on the mental health and strength of Eating disorders such as anorexia, our young people. However, many bulimia, and binge eating disorder are children have mental health problems characterized by extreme emotions, that interfere with normal development attitudes and behaviours surrounding and functioning. A healthy balanced weight and food issues, and a diet and exercise is needed for disconnected understanding of one’s physical and mental growth. body. It is commonly understood that Overeating or starving to maintain eating disorders can be attributed to body weight and get into shape is very the pressure society puts on women common amongst adolescents which to be thin, and men to be ‘bulked up’. can lead to eating disorders. This can lead to pressure on women Eating disorders: to be ‘picture perfect’. Eating disorders An eating disorder is a complex prevail when these unattainable goals compulsion to eat, or not to eat, in a and cultural standards become way disturbing physical and mental internalized and necessary for survival health. Often the symptoms can and success. seem as extreme, or as extensions The role of media: of culturally acceptable behaviour and Researchers who study eatingpreoccupations. The eating may be disordered’s thoughts and behaviours excessive or limited, may include suggest that the media, advertising, normal eating punctuated with women’s magazines in particular and episodes of purging, may include the rise of the diet industry that cycles of binging and purging, or may commercializes the body, may play a Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014 18

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Issue 08 ISSN: 0976-3759 role in triggering these practices. Anorexics are commonly Interestingly, as women’s perfectionists, driven to succeed; yet empowerment has increased, so has they set unattainable standards of the prevalence of eating disorders, performance for themselves. since thinness has become a Bulimia nervosa: necessity for the modern woman, Bulimia nervosa is characterized representing beauty, self-control, by the recurrent episodes of binge achievement and success. Thinness eating (eating large quantities of food has also become an answer to the over short periods of time) followed modern woman’s dilemma, where by attempts to compensate for the women are torn between conflicting excessive caloric intake by such and contradicting roles - you can do purging behaviours as self-induced anything and be anything, but must vomiting, laxative abuse, severe also be beautiful. Thinness for the restrictive dieting or fasting, or new women, combines qualities of excessive exercise. Bulimics often self-control, competition and success have “binge food,“ the food they with qualities required from the typically consume during binges. conflicting traditional woman’s image Some have described their binge of attractiveness, weakness and episodes as a physical high they feel, helplessness. numbing out, going into auto-pilot, Anorexia nervosa: losing all control and immediate The American Psychiatric comfort. The reasoning or triggers Association defines anorexia nervosa behind a binge may serve different as the presence of an abnormally low purposes for different people. This body weight (15% below normal body binge episode leads the individual to weight for age and height), the intense feel guilty, ashamed, embarrassed, fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, and as a complete failure. Bulimics disturbance and preoccupation with try to regain control of themselves and body weight and shape, and the situation by purging the food – amenorrhea (the absence of three making up for their mistake. This consecutive menstrual cycles). leads to feeling famished and empty Anorexia can be life-threatening as again, and therefore, another victims commonly refuse to eat and uncontrollable binge, followed by drastically lose weight which causes feeling powerless, and the vicious the lack of nutrients in their body. binge/ purge cycle continues. Bulimics Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK Jnauary 2014 19


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have extreme eating and exercising habits, instead of demonstrating moderation. This compulsive behaviour is often echoed in similar destructive behaviour such as sexual promiscuity, pathological lying, and shoplifting. Some bulimics not only struggle with the eating disorder, but other harmful behaviours as well. A study by the author on eating practices amongst 150 adolescents (both gender) studying in Corporation School in relation to psycho-social problems revealed that a majority of the female respondents 42% who were between 40-45 Kgs had eating problems such as dieting or not eating

when hungry, and a majority of male respondents 69. 4% who were above 55 Kgs had unhealthy eating practices such as binge eating and preoccupation with food. Result and analysis: The analysis indicates the relationship between weight and eating practices of the respondents. A majority of the female respondents 42% who were between 40-45kgs had eating problems, such as dieting or not eating when hungry and a majority of male respondents 69. 4% who are above 55kgs had unhealthy eating practices such as preoccupation with food, or binge eating.

Table 1: Mean Score and T-test of Eating Practices

Std. df t Sex N Mean Deviation Female 75 5.7333 4.98466 Male 75 6.6200 4.58953 -1.005 148

Sig (2tailed)

Bulimia or food pre-occupation Score

Female 75 4.3867 3.75569 -1.035 148 Male 75 4.9867 3.33083

.302

Oral Control subscale Score

Female 75 5.2933 3.27882 Male 75 5.6667 3.10333

-.716 148

.475

Total Eating Attitude Female 75 15.4133 10.05269 -1.165 148 Male 75 17.1733 8.38011 Test Score

.246

Domains Dieting subscale Score

.316

Higher score indicates more problem.

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Issue 08 Table 1 shows that the female respondents have less eating problems, as they have lower mean scores, but the male respondents have a higher mean score in all the three domains of eating practices, which indicates that they have problems in all the three domains. There is no statistically significant difference in the eating practices between female and male respondents. Conclusion: India will soon join the list of diabetic countries by 2015. The health of children and adolescents is of a major concern, and to harness the energy of the youth, there are various programmes. The National Service Scheme always targets towards achieving ‘Healthy Youth for Healthy India”. When we look into the Indian diet, (idly, sambar or meals) it is always a balanced one. Junk foods, fast-food, sedentary lifestyle contribute to obesity and associated

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diseases. Instead of just eating grains such as rice and wheat, eat what our ancestors ate. Millets-the wonder grain, “Smaller the grains, larger the benefit”, such as ragi, jowar, bajra, sorghum, foxtail millet, pearl millet and other millets, found in India, are packed with nutrients and very good for our body. Include fresh fruits and salads to keep healthy. Substitute soft drinks with hot or cold milk, buttermilk, tender coconut, fresh juice and vegetable soups. Look for organically grown products. Avoid eating outside, look out for heart healthy products. Most of the parents go for work to make both ends meet. So do not have time to prepare a balanced diet and so buy food outside. The physical harm of not eating correctly and not exercising are problems with weight which leads to health problems such as heart attacks, blood pressure and blood clots. Many health problems can be addressed by having a balanced diet.

References: Bhatia. K. S. 1976-Health, A text book for Secondary Schools-CBSE,New Delhi: Frank Bros Co. www. wikihow. com/Keep-Healthy ý www. who. int/dietphysicalactivity/ý thisibelieve. org/essay/99356/ý www. betterhealth. vic. gov. au/.. . /ten_tips_to_stay_mentally_healthy?.. www. nhlbi. nih. gov/health/public/heart/obesity/wecan/…/calreqtips. pdfý

Please note the change in the address for correspondence and subscription. ~Ed. Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK Jnauary 2014 21


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Professional Ethics of the Teacher Krishnakumar Pandian S* Kosalai Raman S** *Krishnakumar Pandian S, Assistant Professor in Biological Science, Mohamed

Sathak Dasthagir Teacher Training Institute (B. Ed), Ramanathapuram - 623503 **Kosalai Raman S, Assistant Professor in Physical Science Mohamed Sathak Dasthagir Teacher Training Institute (B. Ed), Ramanathapuram - 623503

Introduction: A teacher who merely repeats the lesson to his students can only add load to their mind. The main purpose of education is to create skills, grasp knowledge and spread awareness about our glorious national heritage. The values enshrined in our constitution lay stress on attaining basic scientific outlook and commitment to the ideals of patriotism, democracy, secularism, socialism and peace. Education should strive for academic excellence and progress of the arts and sciences in conformity with our national needs and priorities. Definitions: The term “teacher” covers all school teachers, whether in Government/Government aided schools, on fulltime or part-time basis, at the elementary or secondary levels and holding even administrative and supervisory positions. The Code of Professional Ethics for teachers provides a framework of principles to guide them in discharging their

obligation towards students, parents, colleagues and community. Increased awareness of the ethical principles governing the teaching profession is essential to ensure ‘professionalism’ among teachers. Need for ethics in teaching:  To have a greater impact in moulding the next generation To work as a friend, philosopher and guide to the students.  To reduce the imbalance between past, present and future To enjoy respect and status in the society To commensurate ethical and cultural values in India To link new developments with cultural heritage To have a clearer role vision and mission  To create a paradigm shift in the perception of teachers  To stem the erosion in the values, responsibilities and commitment in this profession To reap rewarding opportunities from other sectors

**Kosalai Raman S, Corresponding author

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Issue 08 Four norms to govern teaching: Honesty is the very first norm for excellence in teaching. Honest teacher means who always teaches what is true/ factual and never cheats the students by telling a lie or avoiding what he does not know. Promise-keeping requires the teacher to fulfill the “promises” made at the beginning of the semester. Syllabi, assignments, grading principles, and class and office hour schedules involve promises made to students. This also helps in bringing excellence in teaching profession. Teachers ought to encourage mutual respect among students. Additionally, teacher ought to show respect and common courtesy for students both during interpersonal interactions and in responding promptly to students’ need for guidance and feedback. Respect again plays a vital role in bringing excellence in teaching profession.  Recognizing the inherent subjectivity involved in grading, teachers ought to ensure that their grading practices are as objective as possible by creating and adhering to unambiguous criteria, which is also very much essential for excellence in teaching.

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The ethical standards:  The ethical standard of care includes compassion, acceptance, interest, empathy and insight for developing students’ potential. Intrinsic to the ethical standard of respect are trust and fair mindedness. In their professional practice, they should respect spiritual and cultural values, social justice, confidentiality, freedom and democracy.  The ethical standard of trust embodies fairness, openness and honesty. Honesty, reliability and moral action are embodied in the ethical standard of integrity. Promoting ethical standards:  Encourage teachers to be professionally competent and ethically conscious.  Seminars, symposia and workshops with illustrations of unethical behaviours of live examples and their profound effects on society can be conducted to invite suggestions or strategies to be followed to resolve them. Interaction of secondary school teachers with mentoring experience with the primary school teachers will make them professionally sound.

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Ethics consultancy offices should be set up as a part of Internal Quality Assessment in each institution.  A senior member of the institution can head the grievance redressal cell regarding ethical problems.  Awards and recognitions can be instituted for teachers to maintain ‘no flaw’ throughout the year.  Workshops and orientation programmes on importance of work ethics should be conducted for teachers in collaboration of well established spiritual centres.  Help teachers to identify the distinction between facts and values through live examples of day-to-day functioning of institution. Bring down individual relativism and sort out issues of superiority

Volume X and inferiority through mutual dialogue. Reduce prejudice with patience and perseverance. In this regard, the heads of the institutions should be visionary leaders of future. Conclusion: Teaching creates all other professions. Teachers should develop appropriate ethics among themselves so that the same values can be passed on to students. Teachers are not only guides and guardians but also surrogate parents in schools. The image of and respect for teaching as a profession has to be revitalised by increasing public awareness on the value of teachers in society. Efforts in the right direction will project teaching as an attractive profession by giving teachers the needed support and assistance.

References: Keith-Spiegel P (2002): The Ethics of Teaching: A Casebook. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Markie P J 1950 (1994): A Professor’s Duties: Ethical Issues in College Teaching. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield. Colnerud G (2006): Teacher Ethics as a Research Problem: Syntheses Achieved and New Issues. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 12, 3, pp. 365-385. Estrela M T and Marques J (2008): Vers une formation éthico-déontologique des enseignants. Paper presented at the Paris International Conference on Education, Economy and Society (18 July): Hansen D T (2001): Teaching as a Moral Activity. In V. Richardson, Handbook of Research on Teaching. Washingon: American Educational Research Association, pp. 826-857.

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Stress Management and Adolescents Pachaiyappan P* Ushalaya Raj D** *Pachaiyappan P, Ph D Research Scholar, Department of Education, Institute of Advanced Study in Education, Saidapet, Chennai – 15. **Dr Ushalaya Raj D, Associate Professor and Head, Department of Education, Institute of Advanced Study in Education (IASE), Saidapet, Chennai 600015.

Introduction: Adolescence is the most crucial and significant period of an individual’s life. It is the period of rapid revolutionary changes in the individual’s physical, mental, moral, spiritual, sexual and social outlook. . It is a period of anxieties and worries. It is the period of ambitions. It is the period of conflicts and complexity. The term ‘stress’ was first coined in 1822 by the French Mathematician Augustine Cauchy. He defined stress as a pressure per unit area. Stress is an invisible disease. It probably affects all of us at some time in our lives. So no one can escape from it. Stress is generally accepted as the twentieth century disease. Stress in individuals is defined as any interference that disturbs a person’s healthy mental and physical well-being. Distress and eustress: Hons Selye, Canadian Endocrinologist who is the “Father of modern stress research” defined it as the “non-specific” response of the body to any specific condition which

makes it up. He found that stress is physiological, psychological and environmental demands. When confronted with stressors, the body creates extra energy and stress occurs, because our bodies do not use up all of the extra energy that has been created. Distress and eustress: Selye used the term distress and eustress and made the distinction between them. Distress is harmful and destructive. It is a bad or negative stress. However, eustress is desirable and productive. An interesting challenge and existing opportunity or a rewarding vocation may produce eustress or ‘good’ stress. Without eustress life would hardly be worth living. It acts as a source of motivation to do work, whereas distress threatens the physical and mental well being of the person. Sources of stress for teens: School demands and frustrations  Chronic illness or severe problems in the family Negative thoughts and feelings

**Dr Ushalaya Raj D, Corresponding author

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Volume X about themselves by an increased susceptibility to Death of a loved one infections. Changes in their bodies Reasons for stress in family: Moving or changing schools  History of depression and/or Problems with friends and /or suicide in the family. peers at school  Death or serious loss in the Taking on too many activities or family. having too high expectations Alcoholism or drug use in the  Unsafe living environment / family. neighbourhood Learning disabilities or mental/ Family financial problems physical disabilities. Separation or divorce of parents.  Sexual or physical abuse Types of stress: patterns in the family. There are different kinds of  Absent or divorced parents; symptoms of stress, which generally inadequate bonding in adoptive affect various organs of our body families . which can easily be felt with a keen  Chronic illness in oneself or intelligence and observation. Following family are the systems and organs which feel Family conflict; poor parent/child the effect of stress: relationships.. Brain stress is indicated by fatigue, Family or individual history of aches, pain, depression, anxiety psychiatric disorders such as eating and disturbed sleep. disorders, schizophrenia, manicGastrointestinal stress is indicated depressive disorder, conduct by ulcers, cramp, and diarrhoea. disorders, delinquency. Glandular system stress is Stress and its impact on school: indicated by malfunctioning of the The effects of stress in a student’s thyroid gland. life can have serious impacts on their Cardiovascular system stress is ability to perform, progress, or indicated by an erratic heartbeat, succeed in school. Needham, high blood pressure, heart attack Crosnoeand Muller (2004) reported and stroke. that emotional stress predicated future Skin stress is indicated by class failure and other school problems like rashes and itching. problems. In addition, adolescents Immune system stress is indicated have reported that school is the Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014 26

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Issue 08 number one cause of stress in their lives. While earning good grades can potentially increase a student’s selfesteem and sense of adequacy; earning failing grades or grades that do not meet expectations (of students themselves, caregivers, or teachers) and being compared by grades can create emotional distress among students (Owens, Shippee, and Hensel, 2008). Dewa and Lin reported that stress can negatively affect adult’s work performance. Similarly, Needham et al (2004) report that stress has the negative effect on adolescents’ school performance as school can be considered as workspot for adolescents. Stages of stress:  The Alarm Reaction – Positive Phase: A certain amount of stress or stimulation is essential to our health and performance. This is the positive phase of stress.  Adaptation or Resistance – Negative Phase: Where stress continues to increase ‘distress’ beings, health and performance decrease. This corresponds to the negative phase of stress. Once we pass the peak of our stress curve, both health and performance decline. Recognition of stress: We all have different threshold to

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stress, and the kinetics at the curve, differ from one individual to another depending on bodily bio- Chemical makeup. Phase 1 – Positive phase: results in Enthusiasm Optimism Positive Outlook Physical stamina Mental alertness Optimal personal relationships High productivity and creativity. Phase 2- Negative phase: prone to Fatigue Irritability Lack of concentration Depression Pessimism Adolescents’ coping skill: Adolescents cope with stress in different ways, there are general patterns in their coping behaviours. There are two major ways to cope with stress. One way is problem solving. This involves trying to deal with the problem by changing the situation or getting rid of the problem. Another way of handling stress is managing emotions. This involves handling the thoughts and feelings caused by the problem. Chandra and Batada (2006) reported the following strategies are

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Volume X helpful to adolescents in coping with example, break a large task into stress: smaller, more attainable tasks  Social support from family and  Become aware of stressors and friends. emotional and physical reactions  Avoidance of problems.  Reduce the intensity of your  Distracted self from the problem emotional reactions to stress. (active strategies).  Learn to feel good about doing  Journal feelings and prevention. a competent or a good enough job Gender differences in coping: rather than demanding perfection Boys were more likely than girls  Learn to moderate physical to use active strategies, such as reactions to stress playing sports, to deal with their stress.  Work according to strength Conversely, girls were more likely to  Take a break from stressful seek out support from family or friends situations. Activities like listening to to cope. Only the girls in the study music, talking to a friend, drawing, reported that they made attempts to writing, or spending time with a pet avoid problems before they could can reduce stress occur.  Build a network of friends who Techniques to reduce stress: help to cope in a positive way.  Exercise and eat regularly Strategies for managing stress:  Avoid excess caffeine intake  Resist working long hours or which can increase feelings of accepting overtime anxiety and agitation  Volunteer for flextime or other  Avoid illegal drugs, alcohol and alternative work schedules tobacco  Identify the people who cause  Learn relaxation exercises ( stress sand avoid them abdominal breathing and muscle  Maintain a healthy diet relaxation techniques)  Obtain regular exercise  Develop assertiveness training  Avoid procrastination skills  Set reasonable goals for  Rehearse and practice situation yourself. which cause stress. One example  Develop a simple method is taking a speech class if talking in organizing things and adhere to it front of a class makes you anxious  Step back from stress and  Learn practical coping skills. For decide whether you need to fight Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014 28

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Issue 08 every battle.  Consult with a trusted friend before becoming involved in new activities. Stress management techniques: There are many stress busting techniques available which have proven track records. Some of them are enumerated hereunder: Deep muscle relaxation: It is a technique to control tension. It involves relaxing muscles from head to toe. There are several rapid relaxation techniques that one may use. For example, one may quickly and simultaneously tense all his/ her muscle and then rapidly release the tension. Another exercise involves taking in six slow deep breaths and imaging the tension flowing out of the body with every exhalation.  The third technique involves giving instructions to one self. One may say to oneself ‘be calm and be relaxed’. One may also say to himself/herself, ‘I’m getting worried, I must relax now’. Progressive relaxation: This technique of relaxation is very effective to minimize anxiety and tension. Progressive relaxation is systematic relaxation from top to toe. Initially, an individual suffering from

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anxiety and tension is required to relax for 10 minutes a day. Eventually, one is required to sit down, close the eyes, and relax as much as possible. Then, the instruction is to imagine the weakest stimulus that provokes anxiety. Thereafter he / she is required to imagine a situation which causes higher level of anxiety, and is required to relax for longer period. This technique has been found to be very effective in coping with anxiety and tension. Meditation: Meditation has been used for centuries to counter the effects of stress. Hundred of worried and tense people lost their tension within a short time of starting the practice of meditation. Meditation is a boon for physical as well as for mental health. It restores peace to an individual. Some benefits of meditation:  It is good for our mind and soul.  It controls the mind to perform the desired tasks.  It gives peace and happiness.  Our mind becomes balanced.  20 minutes of meditation is equivalent to 5 hours sleep.  Meditation eradicates evil thoughts and purifies our soul. Stress inoculation training: This technique helps individuals to cope with stress by developing

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Volume X tolerance for it. It is based on the bio-feedback, by which individuals premise that stress tolerance is under medical guidance learn from achieved by exposing individuals to instrumental feedback to influence graded stressors so that they learn to symptoms of stress such as increased tolerate the experiences. This heart rate and severe headache. technique has been very successfully Earlier, it was thought that people applied to students with phobias, could not control their involuntary chronic pain and test anxiety. To relax nervous system, which in turn controls and change the anxiety, the stress internal process like heart beat, O2 inoculation technique is rehearsed consumption, stomach acid flow and mentally and then used in actual brain waves. If people can exercise stressful situation. In this way, the some control over these internal learner comes to control anxiety in the processes, bio feedback may help in face of stressful activities without reducing undesirable effects of stress. letting them overwhelm him or her. Other stress release efforts include Sharing with others: laughing, crying, writing, massage, When under stress due to some SMS, exercise programmes problems, contact sympathetic counselling services and self-help friends who are attentive listeners. books. Even if they’re not in a position to offer Conclusion: any advice, they can still help by Increasing level of stress in our making you talk. They may provide society is a matter of serious concern. moral support and encouragement to The increasing stress is responsible solve the problems. Sharing problems for rapidly mounting suicide in their with close friends reduces stress. technological haven. Stress is no Creativity therapy: longer an exclusively adult Creativity therapy is the use of phenomenon. Students in schools are drawing, painting, writing, sculpting or also victims of tension. Elementary playing music as form of stress relief school learners may not probably and also as a way of dealing with understand what stress and tension emotion or psychological problems. are and how the stress of mind affects Creativity therapy is an excellent way them. But secondary and senior to relieve stress. secondary school learners do Bio-feedback: experience anxiety and tension when A different approach with stress is they encounter or anticipate untoward Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK January 2014 30

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Issue 08 situations in life. In fact, one of the most stressful states of life cycle occurs during the period of adolescence. Therefore, teachers need to guide their students to cope with stress emanating from different situation in their life. Better skills, good relations with peers and teachers will help the students in solving the problem of

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stress. Relaxation techniques, coping strategies, yoga and meditation, better study habits, good life skills and appropriate aspirations may also help in reducing the stress levels of adolescents. School social work services, guidance and counselling will help our younger generation to reduce their stress level and lead a healthy life.

References: Aggarwal, J.C.(2009): Essentials of Educational Psychology. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Ajit,Singh (2005): Strategies for Better Teaching. New Delhi: Arish Publishers and Distributors. Dandapani, S. (February 2003): Stress and Mental Health. Hyderabad: Edutracks. Das, J.P. (2004): Text Book of Psychology.Canada: University of Alberla Edunton. Eve, Adamson (2002): Stress Management. U.S.A: Adams Media. Jerrold, S. Green berg (2006): Comprehensive Stress Management. NewYork: McGraw – Hill Publishers. Olpin and Hesson (2010): Stress Management for life. Yolanda: Cossio. Ramana, Bhatia (August, 2001): Stress Management for Students. Journal of Indian Education. Timmisetti Brahmaiah (2009): Stress of Student Teachers. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Your Attention Please Focus for February 2014: MEDIA AND CHILDREN Contributors are requested to send evidence based or field based research articles on or before 25th January 2014 to facilitate double blind peer review. Please note that the address for correspondence and subscription is changed. The soft copy of articles in CD and two copies of printed articles together with the declaration are to be sent by courier or post to: Shri Aranga Narayanan, (94449 49806) C/O Shri Manivannan, 10/4, Rajagopal Veedhi, Kadapperi, Tambaram, Chennai 6000045 Mail ID: jssw.india@gmail.com Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK Jnauary 2014

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Volume X Journal of School Social Work English Monthly ISSN: 0976-3759 Registered with Registrar of Newspapers for India under No: TNENG/2004/14389 Postal Registration: TN/ CC (S) DN / 47 / 12-14 Licensed to post under: TN/PMG (CCR) / WPP - 663 / 12-14 Date of publication: 3rd Day of the Month

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Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK Jnauary 2014

Hse venkateswarlu jan 2014 jssw  

This issue special edited by Dr V Venkateswarlu focuses on BALANCED DIET, need for food regulation, obesity, media influence on eating habit...

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