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第 1 课汉字练习 Supplementary material for characters from IC Lesson 1 Prepared by Carolyn (Kunshan) Lee & Junghong Li

一.象形字。 (Pictograph) 人(person; people)

“人”字象一人分开两腿、正面站立的形状。 象形是汉字的造字方法之一。象形造字法就是画出事物的形状,笔画随着 事物的形状而屈折变化。 (Picture’s “Person” standing on his two legs. Pictograph is one of the way’s Chinese character were made. Pictography define drawing out the object the shape into the words, strokes change flowing the shape of the subject.)

二.第一人称和第二人称。 (The first person and the second person) 我(I; me) 你(you)

三.请给汉语拼音配上相应的汉字。(Please write the Chinese character for the following Pinyin.)

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四 . 声 旁 带 义 的 形 声 字 。( phonogram character with meaningful sound particle) 姓(surname)

形声是汉字的造字方法之一。形声字由两部分组成:形旁和声旁。形旁一 般提示这个字的意义范围,声旁一般提示这个字的读音。但随着汉字语音的演 变,形声字的读音和声旁的读音大多已经很不相同了。如“姓”(xing)和 “生” (sheng) 。 声旁带义是形声字中比较特殊的一种。如“姓”,声旁“生”不但可以提示 “姓”的读音,而且有示源的作用。古代传说中圣母感天受孕、无婚而生子, 称“天子” 。所以,从“女”的“姓”就成了家族的源头。 (Phonogram is one of the way’s Chinese character were made. Two parts make phonogram: shape particle and sound particle. Shape particle gives hint to the range of its meanings; sound particle gives hint to the range of its pronunciation. Along with evolution of the characters, the pronunciation of phonogram is very deferent with sound particle. For example the words “xing” and “sheng”. Sound particle with meaning is special type of the phonographic. For example “xing”, sound particle “sheng”, not only gives hint “xing”s pronunciation, and also shows the source. In the ancient fairytale, the holy-mother conceived by god, as signal mother, named god’s child. So, the female surname became the source of family name.) 问题: 1. “请” 、 “问”是两个形声字,请说说它们的形旁和声旁各是什么。 ( The words “ 请 ” and “ 问 ” are two phonograms, please indicate their shape particle and sound particle. ) 2.请从这一课找出两个表示姓的汉字。 2


( Please find out two words that represent “xing” from this lesson.) 五.会意字。( Knowing words)

名(name) “名”字由“夕”和“口”两个部件组成。 “夕”表示时间很晚, “口”表 示用口呼叫。 会意字是汉字的造字方法之一。会意字一般由两个或两个以上的象形字联 合起来,组成一个具有新义的新字。 ( Word “ 名 ” consist of “ 夕 ” and “ 口 ” two parts. “ 夕 ” means time very late, “口”means calling by mouth. Knowing words is one of the way’s Chinese character were made. Knowing words usually consist of two or more than two Pictograph that makes a word with new meanings.)

六.表示疑问的汉字。 (The character for questions) 吗(QP) 呢(QP) 问题: 选择正确的一个填写在横线上。(Choose the correct one fill on the horizontal)

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*每课一个部首。 (One radical each lesson

口:(mouth)

部首“口”是嘴巴的象形。嘴巴主要有两种功能:吃饭和说话。所以,以 “口”作部首的字意义或者跟吃饭有关,或者跟说话有关。 部首可以在汉字的任意位置。如: 1.部首在左边:口+马=吗 2.部首在里边:口+门=问 3.部首在下边:口+夕=名 ( Radical “ 口 ” is the shape of the mouth. Mouth has two functions: eating and speaking. So, the word with “ 口 ” as radical means something related either eating or speaking. Radical can be at any part of Chinese character. 1.Redical at left side: 口+马=吗 2.Redical at inside: 口+门=问 3.Redical at underneath: 口+夕=名)

* 部 首 辨 析 : 大 “ 囗 ” 和 小 “ 口 ”。( Radical Differentiation) 囗:(enclose)

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部首“囗”读作 wei,与“口”(kou)是截然不同的两个部首。从形体来 看,“囗”比“口”的框架要大。“囗”作部首时多表示一个地区的边界线或某 一个封闭的范围之内。如“国”(country) 。 ( The radical “ 囗 ” is pronounced as “wei”, it is different from the radical “口”。 Physically, “囗” is bigger than“口”。When “ 囗 ” act as a radical, it usually represents the border of a district or an enclosed area. For example, the word “国” 。 )

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《第 2 课 家庭》 (Lesson 2 Family) 一.量词。(Quantifiers) 1.张(M) 2.个(M) 问题:选择正确的一个填写在横线上。 (Choose the correct character to fill in the blank.) 一___人;两___老师;三____学生;四____朋友;五____照片; 六____中国人; 七____美国人。 二.第三人称。(Third-person) 他(he) 她(she) 问题:选择正确的一个写在横线上。 (Choose the correct character to fill in the blank)

(图片上有四个人:两个人面对面聊天,一人指着远处一个女老师和一个男 学生说:“____是一个老师,____是一个学生。”) 三.近指和远指。(Near and far indication) 这(this) 那(that)

(图片:两人对面聊天,一人指着身边的另一个男孩子和远处的一个女孩子 1


说:“ ___ 是小李,____是小张。”) 四.家族树。(Family Tree) 请在家族树中填空。(Please fill in the blanks in the family tree)

(图片:家族树中“爸爸”处有拼音提示, “妈妈”处空;下方“我”处写 汉字,“哥哥”、“姐姐”、“弟弟”、“妹妹”处有拼音提示。) ____ (baba)…… _____

______

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_____

______

五.性别。(Sex) 男(male) 女(female)

(图片 1:男人在田里劳动) (图片 2:女人垂手听命于男人) “男”是一个会意字,田+力=男。 “女”是一个象形字,象女子垂手听命, 委婉顺从的形象。古代男女分工明确,男人负责在田里劳动出力,女子负责室内 家务。 选择填空。(The character“男”denotes a meaning.田 and 力 forms 男。 女 is a pictorial character, showing a tactful and submissive look. In the ancient times, the tasks of men and women are very different. Men are in charge of cultivating land and growing crops, while the women are in charge of household tasks. Please fill in the blanks below.) 2


(图片:一个男孩子和一个女孩子。人物下方标注: ___孩子、 ___孩子。) 六.职业。(Occupation) 在横线上写汉字,在括号中写拼音。(Write a character on the blank, and write its pinyin on in the bracket.)

(图片 1:律师在法院辩论,图片旁标注: 律 ( lv )师。)

(图片 2:医生在救治病人,图 片旁标注: 医 ( yi )生。) 七.为部首写出适当的汉字(可以是这一课的,也可以是第一课的)。(Write a character with the radical. The character can be from previous lessons.) 1.子 3


2.弓 3.艹 4.氵 5.灬 6.阝 7.讠 8.女

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八.综合练习。(Combined Exercise)

(四张图片连在一起: 第一张图片中,两人一起看照片,客人指着照片问: “ 这 是谁?”主人指 着照片对另一人介绍:“ 这 是我的爸爸,他是一个 英文老师 (yingwen laoshi)。” “ 这 是我的妈妈, 她 第二张图片中,客人再问: “她是 谁 ?”主人回答: 是一个 医生 (yisheng)。” 在第三张图片主人继续介绍: “这个 女 孩子是我的姐姐, 她 是一个律师 (lvshi),这个 男 孩子是我的 弟弟 (didi), 他 的名字叫小友, 他 是 一个小学生。” 在第四张图片中,客人说: “我 没有 (meiyou)姐姐。我 有 (you)一个 弟弟,他 也 是一个小学生。”)

*每课一个部首。 (One Radical a Lesson) 宀:(house) 4


(图片:一个蒙古包的样子。) “宀”是房屋外形的摹写,以“宀”作部首的字意义多与房屋有关。 (The radical“宀”pictures the shape of a house. Hence the words that uses “宀”are usually related to the house.)

* 汉字小游戏:看图猜字。 (Character Game: Guess from the picture)

(图片:一个大房子内有小猪崽活动。)

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《第 3 课 时间》 (Lesson 3

Date and Time)

一.意义引申。(Meaning Connotation) 大(big)

“大”是一个正面站立人形的摹写,取“天大地大人也大”的意思,本来 是大人(成年人)的意思,可以引申表示一般事物或抽象事物的“大”。 (“大”is shows the shape of a person standing facing the front, taking the meaning of “The sky and earth is huge and so are people. It originally has the meaning of adult and can represent the huge size of physical or abstract objects. ) 问题:(Question:) “大”的反义词是什么?(What is the antonym of“大”) 二.时间。(Time) 日(day) 星期(week) 月(month) 年(year)

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今 是 2005 7 10 ,是小高的生日。 (Today is 7-10-2005, Xiao Gao’s birthday.)

问题: 你的生日呢?(When is your birthday?) 三.合体汉字的部件拆分。(Analysis of the components of compact characters) 汉字分独体字和合体字两种。合体字一般由两个或两个以上的部件组成。部 件在组合成汉字时有一定的层次,不一定多个部件都在同一个层面。按照组合成 汉字时层面的不同,部件可以分别被称作“一级部件”、“二级部件”……等。 (There are two types of characters: simple characters and compact characters. Compact characters usually is assembled by two or more parts. There are different levels/layers in assembling characters, not all parts are in the same layer. Depending on the difference in layering, the parts can be distinguished by 1st level, 2nd level part, etc. ) 如“谢”字的部件拆分:(An example of the breakdown of the word“谢”) 讠 谢 身 射 寸 一级部件 二级部件 (1st level) (2nd level)

问题: 请拆分汉字“多”、“们”、“明”、“因”、“识”。 (Please analyze the above characters) 四.汉字的笔画。(Character Strokes) 笔画是汉字书写的基本单位。最基本的笔画包括: (The stroke the fundamental unit of Characters. The most basic ones include:) 1.横 heng(一) 2.竖 shu (丨) 3.撇 pie (丿) 4.捺 na (乀) 2


5.点 dian(丶) 问题: 请给下边两个汉字加上一个笔画,变成新的汉字,把汉字写在横线上,把拼 音写在括号里。(Please add a stroke to the following characters to create a new character and write them on the blank line, including the Pinyin in the parentheses.) 大 ( ) 了 ( ) 日 ( ) 口 ( ) 五.请找出下列汉字的部首,写在括号中。 (Please write the radical of the following characters in the respective parentheses) 1.饭( ) 2.可( ) 3.样( ) 4.刻( ) 5.钟( ) 6.星( ) 7.因( ) 8.认( )

*每课一个部首。(One radical for each lesson.) 月:(moon)

“月”是一弯新月的象形。因为月亮的由缺变圆有一定的规律,所以以“月” 作部首的字多与时间或周期有关。如“期”: (“月” is in the shape of a sickle-shaped moon. Because there is a set pattern to the change in the shape of the moon from sickle to round, words with “月”as radicals usually has some association with time period, as in “期”.) (形声字)期=(声旁)其+(部首)月 (Phonetic Characters) 期 = (Phonetic Component) 其+ (Radical) 月 其实,部首“夕”是“月”的变形,摹写暮色中月亮半见的样子。 (Actually, the radical“夕”is a transformation of the radical“月”.)

*部首的变形: “心”和“忄”。 (The transformation of radicals) 心、忄:(heart)

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“心”作部首时可以在汉字的下边,也可以在汉字的左边。在下边时一般写 作“心”,如“怎”;在左边时一般写作“忄”,如“忙”。这种变形是为了部件之 间组合位置的和谐。 (“心” as a radical can be written below the character or on the left side. When written below it is usually written as“心” ,for example in“怎”;when written in the left side it is usually written as“忄”,such as in“忙”) 想一想:学过的汉字中,有哪些字以“心”作为部首?哪些写作“心”?哪 些写作“忄”?(Think back to the characters you have learned, which words have the “心”radical? Of those, which are written as“心” and which are written as “忄” ?)

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《第 4 课 爱好》 (Lesson 4

Hobbies)

一.指事字。(Ideograms) 末:(end)

指事是汉字的造字方法之一。指事字是在象形字的基础上加上指事符号来表 意。“末”由象形字“木”和指事符号“一”组成,指树梢部分。 (Some Chinese characters are made from pictorial representations of the morpheme represented. For example, the character “末” came from the pictogram “木” and diagrammatic symbol “一”, meaning the end of a branch.) 猜一猜: “本”是一个指事字,猜一猜它是什么意思?请用英文回答并画图表示。 (The word “本” is also an ideogram. Take a guess, what is its meaning? Please answer using English and pictures.)

二.会意字。(Radical-Radical Compounds) 看:(to watch; to look) (图片:一人手搭在眼睛上方向远处张望) “看”由两个部件“手”和“目”组成,手搭在眼睛上方是为了看远处看得 更加清楚。 会意字是汉字的造字方法之一。会意字一般由两个或两个以上的象形字联合 起来,组成一个具有新义的新字。 想一想: 在第一课我们已经学过了会意字“名”。你能不能解释“名”的字形构意? (The character “看” is formed by two elements: “手” and “目”. Placing the hand (手) on the eyes (目) allows one to see farther away.)

三.简体字和繁体字。(Simplified and Traditional Characters)


书:(book)

“书”的繁体字是“書”,笔画繁多。 “书”是把“書”的草书形式加以楷书 化以后的效果。 草书楷化是汉字简化的方法之一。简化以后的汉字称为简体字。 (The traditional character of “书” is “書”, with many extra strokes. “书” came from adding regular script to the draft script of “書”. Regularized-draft script is also a way some Chinese characters are formed. They become the simplified characters.) 问题: 请把下列繁体字的简体字写在括号里。(For the traditional characters below, please write their simplified version in the bracket provided.) 聽( ) 還( ) 幾( ) 樂( ) 歲( ) 國( ) 鐘( ) 醫( ) 歡( ) 四.动词。(Verbs) 有的单个汉字可以独立用作动词,并且可以跟名词一起组成动宾词组。如: 动词“吃”+名词“饭”=动宾词组“吃饭”。 (Some standalone characters can be used as verbs. When placed with a noun, they form a verb-noun. For example, the verb eat “吃” + noun “饭” meal = verb-noun “吃饭” eat meal) 问题: 请在横线上填写合适的动词,与后面的名词组成动宾词组。 (Please write a verb on the line to form a verb-noun.) 球 舞 歌 书 音乐 电视 电影 五.同义替换。(Synonym Exchange) 有的词意义相同或相近,在一定环境下(*不是所有的时候)可以互相替换。 (Some words have similar meanings, sometimes (*not always) they can be interchanged.) 想一想: “周一”还可以怎么说?(What’s another word for Monday “周一”?)


六.别字。(Wrong Application of Words) 由于汉字之间字形相近或读音相同、相近而误用此作彼的现象称作写别字。 (Among Chinese words and characters, many have similar form, pronunciation, and meaning. Wrong application of characters is a common mistake.) 问题: 请圈出下列词语中的别字,并把正确的汉字写在括号里。 (Please circle the wrong character below and write the correction in the bracket.) 时侯 shihou( ) 在见 zaijian( ) 七.多音字。(Polyphonic Characters) 汉字“觉”有两个读音:jue 和 jiao。读音不同,意思也不同。(The character “觉” have two pronunciations: “jue” and “jiao”, each with different meanings.) 问题: 请把“觉”字在词语中的读音写在括号里。 (Please write the pronunciation of the “觉” in the bracket below.) 睡觉( ) 觉( )得

*每课一个部首。 (One Radical Each Lesson) 目(eye)

部首“目”是一只眼睛的象形,尤其突出了两个瞳仁。以“目”作部首的字 意义一般与眼睛的动作有关。如“睡”意思是眼睛闭上休息。 (The radical “目” is the pictogram of an eye, emphasizing on the pupils. The characters that use “目” as radical are usually related to the eyes. For example, the character “睡” means to close one’s eyes to rest.)

*手和足:“扌”和“⻊” 。(Hand and Foot) “扌”是“手”的变形。当“手”在汉字的左边作部首时一般写作“扌”。 以“扌”作部首的字意义一般与手的动作有关。如“打”。 “⻊”是“足”的变形。当“足”在汉字的左边作部首时一般写作“⻊”。 以“⻊”作部首的字意义一般与足的动作有关。如“踢”(ti)。 ( “扌” is a transfiguration of “手”, used when “手” is the left-radical of a


character. Characters involving the radical “扌” are usually related to the hand. For example, “打” means to hit. “⻊” is a transfiguration of “足”, used when “足” is the left-radical of a character. Characters involving the radical “足” are usually related to the foot. For example, “踢” means to kick. ) 智力小测验 (Mini-IQ Test): 请在横线上填写适当的汉字(“打”or“踢”): (Please write either “打” or “踢” in the lines provided.) 篮球 lanqiu (Basketball) 网球 wangqiu (Tennis) 足球 zuqiu (Soccer) 橄榄球 ganlanqiu (Football/Rugby) 课文中还有什么字的部首是“扌”或“⻊”,请写在下面。 (Please write the words involving“扌”and“⻊”from our text.) 扌: ⻊:


《第 5 课 看朋友》 (Lesson 5 Visiting Friends) 一.形近部首辨析。(Radicals of Similar Shape) 艹(grass) ⺮(bamboo)

问题: 读拼音写汉字。(Write the characters according to the pinyin) 1.suàn ( ) 2.yīng ( ) 3.chá ( ) 二.形近字。(Characters of similar shape) 有的汉字字形非常相似,只有很小的差别,很容易混淆。这样的汉字称作形 近字。形近字虽然字形相近,但它们各自有不同的读音和意义,不能互相替换。 (Some Chinese characters look very similar in shape. They are easy to confuse. Although they may look similar in shape, but each have a very different meaning and pronunciation. They can not be interchanged.) 问题: 请在横线上写出下列汉字的拼音,并且给它们分别组一个词,写在括号里。 (Please write the pinyin for each of the characters below. Form a word with the character, and write it in the bracket.) ) 找 __( ( ) 我 ( ) 介 ( ) 个 上____( ) ( ) 下 ) 工 ____ ( ___( ) 王 ) 亮 ___ ( __ ( ) 高


三.假借用字法。(Under-character useage) “假借”是使用汉字的一种方法。假借法的出现大致有两种原因: 1.由于汉语的不断发展,出现了越来越多的新词语。可是有的意义很难造 字,同时无限地造字也会大幅度增加汉字的数量,为汉字的学习和掌握带来困难。 于是,就利用已经有的读音相同或相近的汉字来表示新出现的意义,这符合语言 简省率的要求。如“我”,本来是兵器的象形,被借用来表示抽象的第一人称代 词。 这种假借法是没有本字的假借法。 2.古代教育初期,纸张还没有发明,在器物上刻写汉字耗费时力、在布帛 上写字成本又很昂贵的时候,知识的传承大多依靠口耳相传。听者在根据声音记 录的时候,有时情急之下会有意或无意地选择一个声音相同或相近的汉字来代 表。以后的传抄者又以讹传讹,渐渐积非成是。如“进来”的“来”本字应该是 “麦”,部首是“攵”,表示一种行为动作。而汉字“来”本来是麦子的象形,却 被借用来表示“进来”的“来”。 这种假借法是有本字的假借法。 (Under-Character Usage appears with two common reasons: 1. With the continuing development of Chinese language, new words are formed. Some times it is hard to create a new character for a type of meaning. Also, doing so would tremendously increase the amount of Chinese characters there is to learn. Hence, characters in similar shapes or meanings are used to represent new words. For example, “ 我 ”, used to represent the shape of armory weapons, was Under-used to represent the first-person. 2. In the early times of ancient education, paper had not been invented. Words are carved onto hard materials takes a lot of time and effort, while words written on cloth are very costly. The transmission of knowledge was carried mainly by mouth and ear. In some circumstances, the listener may choose a certain character to represent a meaning of the words he hears from others. Some characters are hence under-used. For example, the character “来” from the word “进来” was originally supposed to be “麦”, with the radical “攵”, to represent an action. However, the character “来”is symbolic of wheat, but is now under-used in the action “进来”.) 四.反义词。(Antonyms) 意义相反的词互为反义词。(Character of opposite meanings) 问题: 请把反义词写在括号里。(Please write the antonyms in the bracket) ) 来( ) 小( ) 对( 五.给下列量词搭配上适当的名词,写在括号里。 (Please add a necessary noun in the brackets following the quantifiers.) 一杯( )、( ) 一瓶( )、( ) 六.语气词。(Mood Words) 表示一定语气的词称作语气词。如“吗”表示疑问语气,是疑问语气词。


语气词一般以“口”作为部首。 (Words used to represent a mood or tone are Mood Words. For example, the character “吗” can be used to post a question, or to show doubt. Mood words usually use “口” as radical.) 问题: 请圈出两个语气词。(Please circle two mood words.) 喝 啤 听 七.请各写出两个有下列部首的汉字。(Write two characters for each radical) 1.辶:( )( ) )( ) 2. :( 3.囗: ( )( ) 4.饣: ( )( ) 5.木: ( )( ) 6.纟: ( )( ) 7.氵: ( )( ) 8.土: ( )( ) 9.忄: ( )( ) 八.试一试。 (Take a Try) 请用英语解释“回”(to return)字的字形。(Please explain in English the meaning of the shape of the word 回.)

*每课一个部首。 (One Radical a Lesson) 耳:(ear)

“耳”是一只耳朵的象形。以“耳”作部首的字意义一般与耳朵的动作和 功能有关。如“聊” 。聊天时倾听别人很重要,聊天的目的是声音和信息的相互 传递,所以“聊”字从“耳”。 (“耳”is symbolic of the ear. The characters that use “耳” as radical are usually related to actions involving the ear or functions of the ear. For example, “聊” relates to the function of the ear, because when people chat, i.e. 聊天, they must use their ear. Hence the function of listening is involved. )


*翻译小知识。(The Art of Translation) 翻译外语时直接用汉字来表示外语词的读音的方法叫音译法。如“咖啡”, 音译自英语中的 coffee。 有时候,为了让译词表达的意思更清楚明白,在音译的基础上加上一个注解, 来表明词语的意义范围,这种翻译方法叫“音译加注”法。如“啤酒”是在直接 音译 beer 的基础上加上 beer 的类属“酒”作意义提示。 (The Chinese translation of a foreign word that is made of sounds that represent the foreign word is called transliteration. For example, “咖啡” is transliterated from “coffee” Sometimes, in order for the translation to be more accurate, annotations are added to the transliterated words. This is called annotated transliteration. For example, “啤酒” came from the transliteration of beer, but 酒 is added to the word to annotate that beer is a type of alcohol.)

你知道 吗? 英语中的 tea 也是一个音译词,是从中国闽南话“茶”的发音音译过去的。 (The word “tea” in English is a transliteration of the Chinese word for tea in the Hokkien dialect.)


《第 6 课 约时间》 (Lesson 6 Making Appointment) 一.汉字说源。(Characters and their origin) 行(be all right; OK)

汉字“行”是一个摹写十字路口的象形字,十字路口四通八达,而且有秩序, 所以又引申有“通行”、“整齐” 、 “排列”、“可以”等意思。 (The character “行”pictures a counter-drawn cross-section. A cross-section is orderly, and can extend to all directions. Hence could also amplify to words such as “通行” passing through, “整齐” trimness, “排列” order, and “可以” okay.) 二.形近部首比较。(Comparison of the look-alike radicals) 宀(house):室 穴(hole) :空

“宀”是房屋的象形。以“宀”作部首的字意义一般与房屋或覆盖有关。 如“家”、“室”。 “穴”是洞穴的象形。上面的“宀”表示洞穴上方的覆盖物(石头等),其 中的“八”不是数字“八”,只表示空间。以“穴”作部首的字一般有“空洞” 或“空无”的意思。如“空”。 (The radical“宀”pictures the shape of a house. Hence the character that uses “ 宀 ”are usually related to the house. For example, the characters“家”home and “室”room. )


三.请为下列部首各写出两个汉字。(Please write 2 characters for each radical.) 耂: 纟: ⻊: 讠: 刂: 四.把下列形近汉字的拼音写在横线上,并组一个词写在括号里。(Please write the pinyin for the characters below. Form a word for each character in the bracket) 开: ___ ( ) 午: ___ ( ) 会: ___ ( ) 公: ___ ( ) 为: ___ ( ) 办: ___ ( ) 后: ___ ( ) 同: ___ ( ) 周: ___ ( ) 五.形声字形旁和声旁的位置。(The position of particles in a Phonogram) 形声字由形旁和声旁两部分组成。形旁表示形声字的意义范围,声旁提示形 声字的读音。形旁和声旁在形声字中的位置并不固定,呈现出各种各样的结构类 型。主要有: ( Phonograms are made from two major particles: the sound-denoting and the meaning denoting particle. The sound-denoting particle gives the broad sense of the pronunciation of the character. The meaning denoting particle, on the other hand, gives the relative meaning of the character. With the variation on the positions of the particles, different phonogram characters are formed. Some main structures are :) 1.形旁在左,声旁在右。如“们”。(Meaning on the left, sound on the right) 2.形旁在右,声旁在左。如“玩”。(meaning on the right, sound on the left) 3.形旁在外,声旁在内。如“图”。(meaning on the outside, sound in the inside) 4.形旁在内,声旁在外。如“问”。(meaning inside, sound outside) 5.形旁在上,声旁在下。如“室”。(meaning on top, sound on the bottom) 6.形旁在下,声旁在上。如“常”。(meaning on the bottom, sound on top) 7.形旁在形声字的一角。如“题”。(meaning wrapped by the sound) 8.声旁在形声字的一角。如“起”。(sound wrapped by meaning) 问题: 请写出下列形声字的拼音,看看这些形声字属于上面的哪种结构类型。 (Please write the pinyin, and the location of the particles for the phonograms below.) 钟 空 考 意 瓶 进 歌 星


六.根据上下文的意思,在横线上填写合适的汉字。 (Please write on the blanket a character that correspond to the meaning of the paragraph)

____电话 小高:____,____问小张在家____? 小张:我____是。您是哪____? 小高:我是你的朋友小白的同学,我____高。 小张:啊,我知____你。小高你好!你有什么____? 小高:明天我有中文考____,但是我现在还有几个问____,____以想请你今 天晚上____我练____一下中文。不知道你几点方____? 小张:我晚上有一____课,七点三____以____有空儿。八点怎么____? 小高:____好了!我们在____儿见? 小张:在____书馆见____! 小高:好,今天晚上八点我在那儿____你。谢谢! 七.请用下列部件(作部首时可以变形)组合新字,一个部件可以用多次。 (Use the listed characters below to form new characters. You may use them as radicals.) 口 人 日 门 囗 立 木 心 田 不 手 大 月 八 目

*每课一个部首。 (One Radical a Lesson) 讠(言):(to speak) (图片:一人嘴部特写,有语词从嘴巴里流出的样子。) “讠”是“言”作部首时的简化。以“讠”作部首的字意义一般与语言行为 有关。如“话”。 我们以前学过部首“口”。表示嘴巴的“口”有两种功能:说话和吃饭。所 以用“口”作部首的汉字意义或者跟“说”有关,或者跟“吃”有关。 有了部首“讠”以后,“讠”可以分化“口”的说话的功能。 (The radical“讠”came from the character 言. The characters that use“讠”as radical are usually related to language or actions related to speaking. For example, 话.


We have learned before the radical “口”, which caries two related meanings: speaking, and eating. Now we have the radical“讠”to differentiate between the eating and speaking functions.)

*汉字小知识:问 VS.间(Character Knowledge) 问:(to ask) 间:(space; time) (图片:两张图片并列。一张是教室中一个学生正在向老师问一个问题。学 生手指着黑板问: “老师,那是什么字?”图片要注意突出“?”以表示这是一个 问题。另一张图片是太阳光从门缝中照射进来。) “问”和“间”虽然字形相近,但造字方法却完全不同。“问”是一个声旁 在外(“门”)形旁在内(“口”)的形声字,提示“问”的读音与“门”接近、意 义与嘴巴动作有关;而“间”却是一个会意字,从太阳光从门缝中照射进来会意, 引申有“缝隙”、“分开”、“空间”、“时间”等等意思。 (The character “问” and “闻” looks similar, but the way they were made is very different. “问” has the sound particle on the outside and meaning particle on the inside. It denotes an action that involves the opening and closing of the mouth. “闻” on the other hand, denotes the meaning of a ray of light entering through the gap of the door, which amplifies to words with meanings such as aperture, separation, space, and time, etc. )


《第 7 课 学中文》 (Lesson 7 Studying Chinese) 一.汉字说源。(Characters and Their Origin) 笔(筆):(pen)

繁体字“筆”是一个形声字,形旁是“竹”,表示制作笔的材料;声旁为“聿”, 提示“筆”的读音。 简化字“笔”是一个会意字,从竹从毛,分别说明了制作笔杆儿部分和笔尖 部分的材料。 “笔”是一个非常成功的简化字例。 (The traditional character is“筆”a phonogram. The meaning particle is “竹”, representing the material that writing tools are made of. The sound particle is “聿”, prompting the pronunciation of“筆”. The simplified character “笔” denotes the meaning that the writing tools are made of bamboo and hair. The character “笔” is a very successful simplification of its traditional version.) 问题: 请把下列汉字的简化字写在括号里。 (Please write the simplified version of the traditional characters in the bracket.) — 寫( ) — 難( ) — 裏( ) — 漢( ) 二.请从这一课各找出两个有下列部首的汉字。(Please find from this lesson two characters that use the following radicals.) — 竹:( )( ) — 忄:( )( ) )( ) — 力:( — 氵:( )( ) — 讠:( )( ) 三.合体汉字的结构。(The combined-form character structure.) 合体汉字的多个部件之间存在着一定的形体位置组织关系,主要有以下四种 类型:(The particles in a combined-form character usually follow the 4 structural forms below.) 1.左右结构。(Left-Right structure)


(1) 左右相等。如“朋”。(Left equals right in size, e.g. 朋) (2) 左大右小。如“都”。(Left big, right small, e.g. 都) (3) 左小右大。如“难”。(Left small, right big, e.g. 难) 2.上下结构。(Top-Bottom structure) (4) 上下相等。如“男”。(Top equals bottom in size, e.g. 男) (5) 上大下小。如“意”。(Top big, bottom small, e.g. 意) (6) 上小下大。如“室”。(Top small, bottom big, e.g. 室) 3.包围结构。(Wrapped structure) (7) 全包围结构。如“国”。(Fully wrapped, e.g. 国) (8) 多包围结构。如“周”。(Mostly wrapped, e.g. 周) (9) 半包围结构。如“这”。(Half wrapped, e.g. 这) 4.穿插结构。(Interlude structure) (10)嵌入结构。如“裏”(“里”的繁体字)。(Embed, e.g. 里) (11)对称结构。如“坐”。(Symmetry, e.g. 坐) 问题: 看看下列汉字属于上面介绍的哪种结构类型。(Determine what structural category the characters below each belong to.) — 懂( ) ) — 影( — 起( ) — 半( ) — 点( ) — 多( ) — 星( ) — 可( ) — 来( ) — 回( ) 四.汉字小游戏:改动一个或两个笔画,变成一个新字。 (Character game: Change one to two strokes on the character to form a new character.) — 为( ) — 天( ) — 平( ) — 午( ) — 木( ) — 中( ) — 田( ) 五.请在括号中写出下列各词的反义词。(Please write the antonym on for each of the characters below.) — 来( ) — 早( ) — 上( )


— 快( ) — 难( ) — 复习( ) 六.请在横线上填写合适的汉字。(Write the necessary character on the blank) — 听____音 — 生词很____易 — 现在开____上课 — 语____有点儿难 — 我们的____课真多 — 今天学习____七课 — ____常他来得很早 — 李老师____我们学中文 — 他每天学习到____里两点 — 这个女孩子很漂亮,那个男孩子很____。

*每课一个部首。 (One Radical Each Lesson) 力:(power)

“力”是人筋的象形,力量的象征。以“力”作部首的字意义一般与“用 力”有关。如“助”指用力量帮助别人,“功”指用力量去作什么。 (The character “力” is symbolic of tendon and power. The characters that use “力” as radical are usually related to applying force. For example, the character “助” means using force/energy to help another person, the character “功” means using force to do something.)

*汉字小知识: “汉字”名称的由来。 (Character Knowledge: the origin of the name Han Zi) 汉:(Chinese)


“汉”本是一条江的名字,所以从“氵” 。因为汉水流域处于中原地带,是 居民的主要聚居地,再加上中国历史上曾经有过鼎盛的大汉朝代,所以后来多以 “汉”作为中国的代称。占中国人口最多数的的民族称作“汉族” ,其语言称作 “汉语”,用来记录汉语的文字称作“汉字” 。 (“汉” originally is the name of a river. Because the water from the “汉” river flows by the land where people mainly resided, plus there existed the great Han Dynasty, hence “汉” became a name and a symbol for China in the past. The most populated folk people in China are called 汉族, and their spoken language is called 汉语, their written language is hence called the 汉字.)


《第 8 课 学校生活》 (Lesson 8 School Life) 一.汉字说源。(Indicate Chinese Character’s Source) 经:(pass through)

“经”是一个形声字,从“纟”,本义指织布时纵向不动的主线。因为与纬 线相比,经线是固定不动的,所以“经”引申有“经常”、 “不变”的意思。又因 为织布时所有的纬线都需要通过那些固定的经线,所以“经”也可以引申表示“经 过”、“已经”等的意义。 (“经” is a phonogram character. From “纟”, means longitudinal wire of loom keep fixedly. “经” longitudinal wire compare with “纬”latitude, longitudinal is fixedly and not moved, so “经”- longitudinal amplify word’s means on“ often” and “fixedness” Also when the loom weaving, all the latitude have to though that fixed longitudinal wires, so longitudinal also can be amplify the mean on “经过” “pass through” and “already” ) 二.部首辨析:左“阝”vs.右“阝” 。 (Radical discriminate: lift side“阝” vs. right side “阝” ) 左“阝” :(hill) 右“阝” :(place)

左“阝”指用在汉字左边作部首的“阝”,它是石头台阶的象形,以左“阝” 作部首的汉字意义多与上山、下山或抽象的上、下(动作)有关。如“除”。 (“除” 的本义是台阶。) 右“阝”指用在汉字右边作部首的“阝”,它是城邑的象形,以右“阝”作 部首的字意义多与城市、地方、位置有关。如“那” 。 (Lift side “阝”means “阝”used on lift side of character, its a shape like stone steps. The character with lift side “阝”, usually means going up to the mountain, or


going down from a hill, or abstractly up and down action. For example, 除,original meaning is step. Right side “阝”means “阝” used on right side of character, it’s a shape like castellar. The character with right side “阝”, usually means city, place, and location, position and relatives. As: “那” there.) 三.写量词。(Write on measure words) — 一( )信 — 一( )报 — 一( )课 — 一( )床 — 一( )酒 — 一( )照片 — 一( )宿舍 — 一( )问题 — 一( )咖啡 — 一( )日记 四.哲学观念对汉字的影响:脑和心。 (Influence of Chinese character by Philosophy: Brain and heart.) 脑:(brain) 心:(heart)

脑和心是人体的两种完全不同的生理器官,对人体承担着不同的功能。可是 中国古代哲学家多混淆这两种器官的功能,特别是认为思想一事由心脏器官承担 (“心之官则思” )。所以反映在汉字中,一些与意识、思考、感觉意义有关的汉 字多以“心”或“忄”作为部首,如“懂”。 (Brain and heart are total deferent physiology apparatus of human and provide deferent function for the human body. But Chinese ancient philosophers have confused these two apparatus function, specially they have thought thinking assumed by heart. So in Chinese character, the words relative with consciousness, consider, perceive most used“心”or“忄” as radical, as “懂”understand.) 想一想: 在学过的汉字中,哪些字有部首“心”或“忄”?请写出至少五个并领会它 们的意思。 (As you leaned characters, which words have radical“心”或“忄”? Please write five or more also understand these words meaning.)


五.简化汉字。(Simplified character) 1.草书楷化 (Regularized-draft script) “草书楷化”是汉字简化的方法之一,是把繁体字的草书形式用楷书的形式 写出来作为简体字。如“专”的繁体字是“專”,笔画繁多,记忆困难,所以就 用它的草书楷化形式“专”作为简体字而固定下来。 在第四课我们已经介绍过“草书楷化”,你还记得是哪个例子吗? (Regularized-draft script is one of the ways of Chinese characters are formed. It is to form the simplified character by regularizing draft script into regularized-draft script. For example, the traditional form of “专”is “專”, which has many stokes and is difficult to remember. Therefore, we use regularized-draft script character “专”to fix the simplified form. 2.以部分代整体 (to use segment instead of the whole character) “以部分代整体”是汉字简化的的方法之一。是用繁体字的一部分作为简体 字。如“业”是它的繁体字“業”的一个部分。 (To use segment instead of the whole character is one way of simplifying Chinese character. It is using one part of the traditional character as the simplified character. For example, “业”is a segment of the traditional form of“業”) 六.错字与别字。 (Misspelled forms and mispronounced character) 书写汉字时由于错误地增减笔画或改换部件而 “创造”了一个根本不存在 (汉字上方的“日” 的字的现象称作“写错字”。如把“容易”的“易”写成“ ” 错写成了“目”)。 书写汉字时由于汉字之间读音相同、相近或字形相近而误把甲字写成乙字的 现象称作“写别字”。如把“再见”的“再”写成“在” 。 “错字”与“别字”不同。错字是根本不存在的字,但别字是存在的,只是 不应当用在某个地方而已。 习惯上对这二者大多不进行严格的区分,把错字和别字合称“错别字” 。 (Misspelled character is a non-existing character resulted from adding or missing strokes or segments. For example, “易” from “容易” is misspelled as “ ”, where the upper segment “日” is spelled as “目”. Mispronounced character is resulted from using character A for character B due their same or similar pronunciation or form. For example, using “在” for “再” of “再见”. Misspelled character is different from mispronounced character. Misspelled characters do not exist at all. Mispronounced characters exist but being used at wrong places. However, we do not usually separate them but put them together as misspelled and mispronounced characters.) 问题:(Questions) 请找出下列句子中的错别字。(Please find out misspelled and mispronounced characters from the following sentences.) 1.小高告䜣我他的姐姐在学校图书馆工作。( ) 2.明天的中文课你已 预习了吗?( ) 3.这个周末你有什么亊吗?( )


4.明天有中文考试,小张正在宿客复习。( ) 5.今天下午三点在李老师的刅公室见。( ) 6.晚上八点已前我有空儿。( ) 7.最进我很忙,因为这个星期有期末考试。( ) 8.因为有中国朋友帮助他,他的中文进歩很大。(

七.看图写词:请把合适的词或词组写在图片下方的横线上。(Write proper characters for the following pictures: please find out the proper characters or character groups in the underlined areas under the pictures.)


*每课一个部首。 (One radical each lesson) 食(饣):(to eat; food)

“食”字从“艮” , “艮”是食器的象形, “食”意为在食器上放满了美味的 食物。以“食”作部首的字意义一般与食物或吃饭有关。如“餐”。 当部首“食”用在汉字的左边时,多变形作“饣”。如“饭”。 (“食” comes from “艮”, “艮”is the form of a food container. “食” means the food container is full of nice food. Therefore, characters with “食” as radical usually relates to food or eating. For example, “餐”. When radical “食” is used as the left segment of a character, it usually changes its form to “饣”, for example “饭”.)

*字谜。 (Character puzzles) 牛:(cattle)

“牛”是一个象形字,重点摹写了牛的头部。 下面是一个谜面跟牛有关的字谜: (The following is the form of a character puzzle related to cow) 谜面: 一口咬(yao)掉(diao)牛尾巴(weiba)。 (One bite cut the cow tail) 你知道这是什么字吗?(Do you know what this character is?)


《第 9 课 买东西》 (Lesson 9 Shopping) 一.汉字说源。(Indicate the source of characters) 双:(pair)

“双”字从二“又” ,是一双手的摹写。 “双”常常被用为量词。由于双手是 常常在一起、不可分离的,“双”在作量词时也要求它的对象名词有两事物不分 离的特点。如“一双袜子(wazi)”、 “一双手套(shoutao)”、 “一双眼睛(yanjing)” 等等。 (“双” is from two “又”, is an intimation of one pair of hands. “双” is often used as a measure word. Because a pair of hands always stays together and cannot be separated, when “双” is used as a measure word, it always requires the related nouns to have to characteristic of being together and cannot be separated. For example, a pair of socks (wazi), a pair of gloves (shoutao), a pair of eyes (yanjing), etc.) 问题:(Questions) 请从这一课找出一个可以用“双”作量词的名词。 (Please find out from this lesson a noun that can be used with “双”)

二.意义引申。 (Meaning Explication) 直接从汉字形体中表现出来的意义是汉字的本义。但在实际使用中的意义并 不都是本义。很多时候用从汉字本义中发展演变出来的意义,即“引申义”引申 义与本义之间一定存在着某种联系。 (The meaning coming from the form of a Chinese character is the root meaning of the character. Often times, we use meanings derived from the root meaning of a Chinese character, i.e. meaning explication. There is always a relation between the root meanings and explicated meanings.) 西:(west)


“西”字本来是鸟落在巢上的象形。因为鸟儿一般都是在太阳落山的时候回 巢,所以鸟在巢上可以引申出“西方”的意思。 (“西” originally comes from the form of a bird landing on its nest. Because birds always get back to their nests during sunset, the meaning of “西方” derived from the form of a bird on its nest.) 问题:(Questions) 根据“东”的繁体字“東”的字形特点, 利用意义引申的理论,用英文回 答为什么“东” (東)有“东方”的意思。 (Based on “東”, the traditional form of “东”, use the theory of meaning explication, answer in English why “东” (東) has a meaning of the East.)

三.人民币。 (Ren Min Bi) 每个国家的钱有自己特别的名字。如美国的钱叫美元,中国的钱叫人民币 (renminbi)。 (The currency of each country has its own special name. For example, the currency of the United States is US Dollar, the currency of China is renminbi.) 问题:(Question) 请用汉字写出下列人民币的数值。(Please write down the value of the following renminbi in Chinese.)

四.形近部首辨析:页 vs.贝(Analysis of similar radicals) 页: (head) 贝: (cowry shell)

“页”是人头部的象形。以“页”作部首的字本义一般多与头或头部动作 有关。如“题”,本义指人的额头,因为额头在人脸的上部,所以“题”引申而 有“上面”或“前面”的意思,如“问题” (总是在答案前面)。


“贝”是贝壳的象形。因为中国古代曾经以贝壳作为物品流通的中介,也就 是说,贝壳起过货币的中介作用,所以用“贝”作部首的字意义多与商品或买卖 有关。如“買”(“买”的繁体字)。 (“页” is the form of a human head. Characters with “页” as their radical generally relate to head or movements of head. For example,“题”originally indicate forehead. Because forehead is at the upper part of face, “题” explicates above “上 面”, or front “前面”. For example, “问题” questions always come in front of answers. “贝” comes from the form of a shell. Because the ancient China used shells as media for commodity circulation, i.e. shells played roles of currency, characters with “贝” as radical mostly relate to commodities or buy and sell. For example, “買” which is the traditional form of “买”.) 问题:(Questions) 请各写出两个有下列部首的汉字。(Please write down two characters with the following radicals) — 页:( )( ) — 贝:( )( ) — 宀:( )( ) — 穴:( )( ) — 衤:( )( ) — 礻:( )( ) 五.从这一课找出三个表示颜色的词。(Find out from this lesson three characters for colors) — 颜色 1: — 颜色 2: — 颜色 3: 六.假借用字法。(Borrowed characters) 语言中有的词特别抽象,很难为这个词造出专门的代表字来记录,只好借用 汉字系统中已经有的同音字或近音字来记录,这样不但解决了记录的问题,还使 得有限的汉字可以发挥无限的作用。这种方法就是假借用字法。如“然”部首是 “灬”(火),本义是燃烧,这里被借用来与“虽”一起表示转折连词。 (In languages, there are abstract characters, for which it is extremely difficult to make specific characters to express. Therefore, we borrow a specific existing character in the Chinese character system which has the same or similar pronunciation for them. It resolved not only the expression, but also maximized utilization of the limited number of characters. This method is called borrowed characters. For example, (火) fire, is borrowed here to be used together with “虽” the radical of “然” is “灬” as a connecting word for transition.) 问题:(Questions) 你还知道哪些字是假借用法?举一个例子。(Do you know any other ways of borrowed characters? Give an example.)


七.请给下列汉字注拼音。(Phoneticize the following characters) — 这:( ) — 适:( ) — 话:( ) — 说:( ) — 舍:( ) — 合:( ) — 惯:( ) — 慢:( ) — 快:( ) — 块:( ) — 付:( ) — 对:( )

*每课一个部首。 (One radical each lesson) 衤(衣):(cloth)

“衤”是“衣”字作部首时的变形,是古代中国斜襟上衣的生动摹写。以 “衤”作部首的字意义一般与衣服有关。如“裤”。 (“衤” is a radical from “衣”, which is the vivid description of the traditional Chinese shirt. Characters with “衤” usually relate to clothes, for example “裤”.) 问题:(Questions) 请找出这一课中以“衤”或“衣”作部首的汉字。 (Please find out from this lesson the Chinese characters with “衤” or “衣” as their radical.)


《第 10 课 谈天气》 (Lesson 10 Talking about the Weather) 一.字形比较。(Character form comparisons) 1. 比(to compare)

“比”是一个会意字。两个人紧紧靠在一起,引申有“比较”的意思。 (“比” is a knowing character. Two persons standing together closely, explicate the meaning of comparison.) 2. 北(north)

“北”是一个会意字。两个人背靠背站在一起,本来是“背”的本字。因 为中国传统心理以南方为正,有“坐北朝南”的习惯,所以“北”引申有“北方”、 “北面”的意思。 (“北” is a knowing character. Two persons standing together back-to-back originally means back “背”. Because traditionally the Chinese take south as the base of direction, which derives a custom of sitting the north facing the south, therefore, “北” explicate “北方” the north and “北面” the north side.) 3. 从(from)

“从”是一个会意字。两个人一人在前,一人在后,有“跟着”的意思, 1


引申有“从……(出发/开始)”的意思。 (“从” is a knowing character. Two persons one in front and the other at the back with a meaning of following, explicating the meaning of from (start/set off) “从……(出发/开始)”) 二.汉字说源。(Indicating sources) 1. 雨(rain)

“雨”是一个象形字。其中“一”表示天, “冂”表示云,中间的“丨”和 四个“丶”描写雨点零落的样子。 (“雨” is a gliph, in which “一” means sky, “冂” means clouds, “丨” and the four “丶” describe rain drops.) 问题(Questions): 请从这一课再找出一个象形字,说说它是什么意思。 (Please find out from this lesson a gliph and explain its meaning.) 2. 而(and; in addition)

“而”是一个假借字。它本来是“胡须”的象形,被借来表示抽象的连词。 问题:(Questions) 请写出一个你知道的假借字,说说它原来的意思和假借以后的意思。 (Please write down one borrowed character, and explain its original meaning and the meaning after being borrowed.) 三.形声字的读音。(Phonogram 英文) 例子:凉(cool) “凉”是一个形声字,但是这个字的读音跟声旁“京”的读音已经相差很远 了。 (“凉” is a phonogram, but the pronunciation is very different from the one of its sound segment “京”.) 问题(Questions): 读一读下面三个形声字,看看形声字的读音和声旁的读音是不是相同,写出 2


形声字和声旁的汉语拼音。(Read out the following three characters to see if the pronunciations of the characters are the same as the ones of their sound segments. Write down the Bopomofo of the phonograms and the sound segments.)

四.形义关系。(Relation of forms and meanings) 热(hot)

根据“热”的意思,猜一猜其中的“灬”是我们学过的什么部首?(Based on the meaning of “热”, guess what radical it is by “灬”, which we have learnt.) 五.读一读,想一想。(Read out and think) 读一读:(Read it out)

想一想:(Think) 以“冫” 、 “氵”作部首的字意思有什么不同。 (What is the difference in meaning of characters with the above radicals) 六.请从课文中找出四个表示季节的汉字。(Find out from this lesson four characters expressing seasons.)

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七.请用下列部件/部首组成合体汉字,看看你能组成多少个,请写出你组成的 汉字和它们的拼音。*同一个部件/部首可以用多次。(Please use the following segments and radicals to form Chinese characters and see how many you can make. Please write down the characters you form with their Bofomopo. You can use the segment and radicals repeatedly.)

*每课一个部首。 (One radical each lesson) 日:

“日”是太阳的象形,以“日”作为部首的汉字一般来说都跟太阳的特点有 关系,很可能是以下三种意思中的一种: 1.明亮(太阳可以给我们光) 2.暖和(太阳可以给我们热) 3.时间(看太阳能知道时间) (“日” is the image of the Sun. Characters with this radical usually have relations with the features of the Sun, which have most likely one of the following meanings: 1. brightness (the Sun gives light) 4


2. warmness (the Sun gives heat) 3. time (we can tell time by the Sun)) 你能不能给每一种意思找到一个汉字的例子?(Can you fine a character against each meaning?)

汉字小游戏:猜字谜。 (Character game: word puzzle) 谜面:(The puzzle) 画(hua)时圆(yuan),写时方,冬天短(duan),夏天长。 (it is round when drawing, it is square when writing, it is short in the winter, it is long in the summer) 你知道这是什么字吗?

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《第 11 课 交通》 (Lesson 11 Transportation) 一.汉字说源。(Indicate resource of Character) 走:(to walk)

“走”是一人甩开双臂大步走路的样子。下边的“ ”是脚的象形。“走” 同时也可以是一个部首。以“走”作部首的字意义一般与走路、行动有关。如“起”。 ( “ 走”is a people walk swing with his arms. The character lower part “ ” is a shape of foot. “走”also can be a radical. “走” as a radical in a character means relative to walk or action. As“起”to get up.) 二.你知道汉字“寒”中的“冫”表示什么意思吗?请用一个学过的汉字来解释。 (Do you know what is the mean of “冫”in character “寒”? Please use a character as you have leaned to explain it.) 三.比较下列形声字和它们的声旁的读音。 (To Compare flowing phonograph and their pronunciation of sound particle. ) 起: ( ) 汽: ( ) 地: ( ) 绿: ( ) 让: ( ) 机: ( ) 都: ( ) 租: ( ) 四.形近字辨析:给下列每组形近字注拼音、组词。(Discriminate similar form characters) 已: ( ) 己: ( ) 才: ( ) 在: ( ) 边: ( ) ) 过:( 两:( ) 而:( )


五.简化汉字。(Simplify Character) 在第八课我们已经介绍过汉字简化的两种方法:草书楷化;以部分代整体。 除了这两种简化方法,还有一种比较常用的方法是:用一个笔画简单的声旁 来代替笔画繁难的声旁。如繁体字“機”简化作“机”。 ( In Lesson 8, we have leaned two ways to make simplify character : Draft-regular; Use parts instead of whole characters. Except for this two way of simplify, there is a other usual way: which is to use one stroke or a simple sound particle. As traditional character “機”simplify as “机”) 问题: 请在括号中写出简化字。(Please write down simplified character in the bracket) — 線:( ) — 過:( ) — 讓:( ) — 禮:( ) — 鐵:( ) — 飛:( ) — 場:( ) 六.根据图片内容,在横线上填写合适的汉字(*每个横线只可以填写一个汉字)。 (According the picture, fill in proper Chinese character above the line. )

小李和小王去了小高的家。从学校____小高家可以坐公共汽车或者地____。 坐公共汽车要走高____公路,还要____三次车,小王觉得太____ ____了。可是 出____汽车又很贵,他们都觉得坐地____很方____。


*每课一个部首。 (One radical each lesson) 礻(示):(to show) (图片:日、月、星在同一图片中。) “示”中的“二”表示“上”,下边的“小”表示日、月和星。看日、月、 星这些天文现象可以预知天气等。 “示”作部首时变形作“礻” 。以“礻”作部首的字意义一般与表示、出现、 神事等有关。如“票”是在乘车、入园或进入其他特定场所时的需要出示的凭证。 *要注意区分部首“礻”和部首“衤”。 部首“衤”是“衣”字作部首时的变形,比“礻”多一笔。“衤”与“礻” 所表示的意义完全不同。以“衤”作部首的字意义一般与衣服有关。 (In the character“示”, “二”means up“上”, down part“小”means the Sun, the Moon, and start. Look the Sun, the Moon and start can be predicted the weather. “示” as the radical can be change to shape “礻”. The character with“礻”, means show, occur, sacred event. For example, “票” ticket, it is a pass you show when you get on the bus or get in the park. Distinguish carefully the difference between “礻” and“衤”. The radical “衤”is “衣”change the shape. It has one more stroke than“礻”. “衤”and“礻”have total different meaning. The character with“衤”radical usually means relate with cloth. ) 问题: 读拼音写汉字。 (Read BPMF, write character) ku zi( ) yi fu( ) li wu( ) dianshi( ) chen shan( ) fei ji piao( )

*小知识:颜色词。(Knowledge: Color Words ) 蓝:(blue) 黑:(black)

一些颜色词是用跟这种颜色有关系的事物来表示的,大多是这种颜色的 来源。如“蓝”,部首是“艹”。“蓝”本来是一种草,因为这种草可以提炼染蓝


的色剂,所以就引申为抽象的颜色词。再如“黑”,下方的“灬”是“火”字的 变形。“黑”是指被火熏黑的那种颜色,抽象为颜色词“黑”。 另如“红”、“绿”,本来专指丝绸的颜色,抽象为表示一般的颜色。 (Some color words are expressed by matters of specific color, mostly the sources of color. For example, “蓝”whose radical is “艹”. “蓝” originally is a grass. Because this grass produces blue dying element, it is explicated in the abstract color word. Another example is “黑” whose bottom part is “灬” which is the changing form of “火”. “黑” indicates the color of smoked black, abstracted as color word “黑”. Further more examples are “红”and “绿”which originally colors of silk, are now abstracted as general color words.


《第 12 课 吃饭》 (Lesson 12 Dining) 一.独体字。(Single component characters) 根据组成汉字的部件的个数是否大于一,可以把汉字分成独体字和合体字。 独体字只有一个部件,不能拆分;合体字有两个或两个以上的部件,可以拆分。 (Depending on whether the number of components is greater than one, Chinese characters can be categorized into those with single component or with multiple components.) 1.瓜:(melon)

“瓜”是一个象形字,是横枝错节的瓜蔓中间结着一个大瓜的摹写。两边的 “⺁”和“乀”表示瓜蔓,中间的“厶”表示瓜的果实。 “瓜”是一个独体字。 瓜的种类很多,如“黄瓜” 、 “冬瓜”、“西瓜”等。 (“瓜” is a pictographic character; the character resembles the crossing of the horizontal and vertical vines with the fruit in the center. The“⺁”and“乀” on the two sides represent the vines,the“厶”in the middle represents the fruition of the melon。 “瓜”is a single component character。 There are many types of “瓜”, such as“黄瓜”(cucumber),“冬瓜”(winter melon/squash),“西瓜”(watermelon), etc.) 2.鱼:(fish)


“鱼”是一个象形字。上边是鱼头,中间是鱼身,下边的“一”是鱼尾巴。 本来这三个部分是连在一起的,可是随着汉字形体的演变,笔画之间渐渐分离, 看起来已经不像独体字了。 “鱼”的种类很多,如“金鱼”、“带鱼”、“鲤(li)鱼”等。 (“鱼”is a pictographic character。On the top is the fish head, the middle part is the body of the fish, and the“一” on the bottom is the tail. Originally these three parts were connected together, but as the character develop and evolve, the strokes gradually space out, and it no longer appears like a single component character. There are many types of“鱼”,such as“金鱼”(goldfish),“带鱼”(hairtail), “鲤(li)鱼”(carp), etc.) 问题: 看看下列汉字哪些是独体字,哪些是合体字。请拆分你找出来的合体字。 (Question: Take a look at the following characters to categorize them as either 独体字 or 合体字. Analyze and breakdown the multi-component character.) 日 月 看 人 子 女 男 片 因 而 牛 米

二.从这一课找出三个表示味道的词,给它们加上拼音,并且说出一种有这种味 道的中国菜。(Find three words from this lesson that describe taste,write out their Pinyin and a Chinese dish with this taste.)

三.找出下列汉字的部首,写在括号里,并写出一个有相同部首(可以是变形部 首)的汉字。(Write the radicals of the following characters in the parentheses and write a character with the same radical, (those with transformed radicals are fine). ) — 桌:( ) — 素:( ) — 饿:( ) — 傅:( ) — 烧:( ) — 菜:( ) 四.请找出下列形声字的声旁,给形声字和它们的声旁都加上拼音。 (Please find the phonetic components of the following characters and write out the Pinyin for both the characters and their phonetic components) — 饿:( ) — 放:( ) — 杯:( ) — 拌:( ) — 题:( )


五.给下列形声字加上拼音,并且各组一个词。(Please write the pinyin for the following characters and include a word that has the character for each.) — 渴: — 喝: — 饺: — 校: — 精: — 清: — 完: — 园: — 级: — 极: 六.在括号中写出一个部件,使它和左边的部件、右边的部件分别都能组成一个 合体字。(Write a character component in the parentheses so that it can be combined with the parts from either side to make a multi-component character.) 例子:(Example:) 者(阝)余:都;除 讠( 又( 禾( 氵( 女(

)甘: )寸: )未: )昔: )亥:

*每课一个部首。 (*A radical for every lesson) 酉:(bottle)

“酉”是一个装了液体的瓶子的象形,可以作汉字的一般部件,也可以作 部首。以“酉”作部首的字意义多与瓶装或长时间在密闭的容器内发酵有关。 (“酉”has the figure of a bottle with fluid inside; it can be either regular component or a radical in characters. Characters with“酉”as the radical usually have meaning associated with bottles or enclosing in a container for a long time for fermentation.) 从这一课找出两个以“酉”作部首的字。 (Please find two characters from this lesson that has the radical“酉”.)


*小方法巧记“买”和“卖”。(*An mnemonic device to differentiate“买”and“卖”) 买:(to buy) 卖:(to sell)

“买”和“卖”虽然声调不同,意义也不一样,但由于读音和字形差别很 小,常常容易混淆。 有一个小方法可以帮助记忆这两个字: “卖”字比“买”字多一个“十”。 “十” 有“多”的意思。东西多了才可以卖,没有的时候才需要买。所以,没有“十” 的就是“买”,有“十”的就是“卖” 。 (Although “买”and“卖” have different pitches and different meanings, the difference in the pronunciations and the shape is very minute, therefore easy to get confused by. A small mnemonic device can help you remember these two characters. “卖” has an extra “十” compared to“买”. “十” has the connotation of“多”(a lot). You can only sell when you have a lot of something, and you need to buy when you don’t have it. So without the“十” is“买” (buy); with the“十” is“卖”(sell).)


Exercise: 一、看看下列汉字哪些是独体字,哪些是合体字。请拆分你找出来的合体字。 (Question: Take a look at the following characters to categorize them as either 独体字 or 合体字. Analyze and breakdown the multi-component character.) 日 月 看 人 子 女 男 片 因 而 牛 米

二、从这一课找出三个表示味道的词,给它们加上拼音,并且说出一种有这种味 道的中国菜。(Find three words from this lesson that describe taste,write out their Pinyin and a Chinese dish with this taste.)

三、找出下列汉字的部首,写在括号里,并写出一个有相同部首(可以是变形部 首)的汉字。(Write the radicals of the following characters in the parentheses and write a character with the same radical, (those with transformed radicals are fine). ) — 桌:( ) — 素:( ) — 饿:( ) — 傅:( ) — 烧:( ) — 菜:( ) 四、请找出下列形声字的声旁,给形声字和它们的声旁都加上拼音。 (Please find the phonetic components of the following characters and write out the Pinyin for both the characters and their phonetic components) — 饿: — 放: — 杯: — 拌: — 题: 五、给下列形声字加上拼音,并且各组一个词。(Please write the pinyin for the following characters and include a word that has the character for each.) — 渴: — 喝: — 饺: — 校: — 精:


— — — — —

清: 完: 园: 级: 极:

六、在括号中写出一个部件,使它和左边的部件、右边的部件分别都能组成一个 合体字。(Write a character component in the parentheses so that it can be combined with the parts from either side to make a multi-component character.) 例子:(Example:) 者(阝)余:都;除 讠( 又( 禾( 氵( 女(

)甘: )寸: )未: )昔: )亥:

七、 从这一课找出两个以“酉”作部首的字。 (Please find two characters from this lesson that has the radical“酉”.)


第十二课汉字练习: 1.看看下列汉字哪些是独体字,哪些是合体字。请拆分你找出来的合体字。 (Question: Take a look at the following characters to categorize them as either 独体字 or 合体字. Analyze and breakdown the multi-component character.) 日 月 看 人 子 女 男 片 因 而 牛 米

2.从这一课找出三个表示味道的词,给它们加上拼音,并且说出一种有这种味 道的中国菜。(Find three words from this lesson that describe taste,write out their Pinyin and a Chinese dish with this taste.)

3. 找出下列汉字的部首,写在括号里,并写出一个有相同部首(可以是变形部 首)的汉字。(Write the radicals of the following characters in the parentheses and write a character with the same radical, (those with transformed radicals are fine). ) — 桌:( ) — 素:( ) — 饿:( ) — 傅:( ) — 烧:( ) — 菜:( ) 4. 请找出下列形声字的声旁,给形声字和它们的声旁都加上拼音。(Please find the phonetic components of the following characters and write out the Pinyin for both the characters and their phonetic components) — 饿: — 放: — 杯: — 拌: — 题: 5. 给下列形声字加上拼音,并且各组一个词。(Please write the pinyin for the following characters and include a word that has the character for each.) — 渴: — 喝: — 饺: — 校: — 精: — 清: — 完: — 园: — 级: — 极:


6. 在括号中写出一个部件,使它和左边的部件、右边的部件分别都能组成一个 合体字。(Write a character component in the parentheses so that it can be combined with the parts from either side to make a multi-component character.) 例子:(Example:) 者(阝)余:都;除 讠( 又( 禾( 氵( 女(

)甘: )寸: )未: )昔: )亥:

7. 从这一课找出两个以“酉”作部首的字。(Please find two characters from this lesson that has the radical“酉”.)


《第 13 课 在图书馆》 (Lesson 13 At the Library) 一.汉字说源。(Origin of Character) 1.果:(fruit; result)

从现代汉字的角度来看,“果”字可以被拆分为两个部分:木+田。但是从 字源的角度来说, “田”并不是一个独立的部分,它只是树上长着的果实的象形。 (From the perspective of modern characters, the character“果” can be broken down into two components: 木+田 (wood + field)。However, from the perspective of the word origin, “田”is not an independent part, but the figure of fruit growing on a tree.) 2.须:(beard; must)

“须”字本来是胡须的意思, “页”代表头部、 “彡”代表胡须的样子。在这 一课中用作 must 的意思是一个假借字,跟胡须完全没有关系。 (“须” originally meant beard;“页” represents the head,“彡” represents the mustache. In this lesson the use of beard is a borrowed meaning: the context of the word has no association with beard.) 二.多音字和同音字。(Words with multiple pronunciations and multiple words with same pronunciation.)


如果一个字有几个不同读音,我们把这个字叫做多音字。 如果几个字有完全相同的读音,我们把这几个字叫做同音字。 (If a word has multiple different pronunciations, we called it a 多音字. On the contrary, if multiple words have the same pronunciation, we call these words 同 音字.) 问题:请给下面的多音字和同音字注音,组词。(Question: Please write the pinyin for the following and make a compound for each.) ________ 得 ________ ________ 还 ________ ________ zài ________ ________ jí ________ 三.同义词/近义词。(Synonym) 意思相同或相近的两个或多个词叫做同义词或近义词。(Two or more words with same/similar meaning are called 同义词 or 近义词.) 问题:(Question:) 请把下面句子中划线各词的同义词或近义词写在括号里。(Please write the synonym of the underlined word.) ) 1.你有没有别的证件?( ) 2.四点我去您的办公室行吗?( ) 3.图书馆半个钟头以后关门。( 4.我要借中文书。( ) ) 5.要是过期,每天罚五毛。( 四.形声字。(Pictophonetic character) 形声字是现代汉字的主体,占 90%以上。随着读音的演变,大多数形声字 的声旁已经不能准确地表示读音了,只能起到提示读音的作用。所以,形声字和 它的声旁之间,以及有相同声旁的形声字之间读音不一定相同,有时甚至相差很 远。 (Pictophonetic characters account for the majority of modern characters, over 90%. Along with the evolution of pronunciations, the phonetic component of most pictophonetic characters are no longer so accurate to the actual pronunciation of the character itself. They can only be used as a reminder to the reader. Therefore, not all pictophonetic characters have the same pronunciation as their respected phonetic components, and the difference can be huge in certain cases.) 1.请写出一个以下列汉字作声旁的形声字,并给声旁和形声字都加注拼音。


(Use each of the following character as the phonetic component, please write a pictophonetic character.) — 及: — 其: — 门: 2.请找出下列形声字的声旁,并写出一个有相同声旁的形声字。给前后两 个形声字都加注拼音。(Please identify the phonetic component for the following characters and wrote another pictophonetic character with the same component.) — 把: — 忘: — 职: 五.根据图片内容,圈出下面词组或句子中的错别字,把正确的字写在括号里; 并在横线上填写合适的量词。 (According to the depiction in each picture, circle the the mistake in the following phrase. Write the correction in the parenthesis and fill the blank with the appropriate quantity words.)


1.一______录言带(

2.一______学生征(

3.一______信周卡(

4.一______语言买验室(

5.借书的学生:“我还没有着完。”(

图书馆的老师:“你可以读借半______月。”( 6.学生:“糟糕,那______书忘了常了。( 7.老师:“这______字售不可以借走。”(

) )

*每课一个部首。 (*A radical for each lesson.) 刂(刀):(knife)

“刀”是一把长刀的象形,古代用作兵器。 “刀”作部首时常常变形作“刂” ,位于汉字的右边。如“别”。 由于“刀”的主要功能是切分和宰割,所以以“刀”作部首的字多有切分或 宰割的意义。如“剩”,是分割的结果。


(“刀”is the figure of a long knife, used as a weapon in ancient times. When used as a radical it is often transformed to“刂”,positioned on the right side of the character, such as in“别”. Because the function of the knife is mainly used for cutting and dividing, the characters with“刀”as the radical have meanings associated with cutting, such as “剩”,which is the result of a division。)

*说“到”。(About“到” ) 到:(arrive) 现在一般认为“到”的部首是“刂”(刀) 。实际上,从字源来说, “到”是 一个形旁是“至”、声旁是“刀”的形声字,从“刀”的汉语拼音 dao 和“到” 的汉语拼音 dao 也可以感觉到“刀”就是“到”的声旁。 之所以人们会认为“刂”(刀)是“到”的部首,是一种“规则泛化”的心 理行为。就像儿童在初学期认为所有英语动词的过去式都是动词原型加上 ed 一 样,不规则动词被忽略,淹没在占大多数的规则动词的变化形式中。由于“刀” 常常变形作“刂”、用在汉字的右边作为部首,本来是“到”字声旁的“刂”也 就很容易被认为是部首了。 (The radical of “到” is now considered to be“刂”(刀)。Actually, from the perspective of the origin of the word, the character “到” is a pictophonetic character with the radical “至” and the phonetic component“刀”. This is also apparent from the pinyin of “刀” (dao) and “到” (dao). The reason people think of “刂”(刀)as the radical for “到” is because of an psychological behavior known as “ 规 则 泛 化 ” (Generalization of rules). It is analogous to how children think the past tense of all verbs is the addition of “ed” to the original form. Irregular rules are overlooked in the process of overly-generalizing. Since “刀” is often used as a radical in the form “刂”, written in the right side of the characters, the original phonetic component “刂” in the pictophonetic character “到” is easily mistaken to be the radical. )


《第 14 课 问路》 (Lesson 14 Asking Directions) 一.汉字说源。(Origin of Characters) 田:(field; a surname)

“田”是一块规划整齐的田地的象形,田地用来种植谷物。四周的“囗”和 中间的“十”都是不同所有者的田地的分界线,象征阡陌之制。 本课中,“田”被用来作为一个姓,类似“李”、“王”、“张”、“高”等。 (“田”is the figure of a piece of field that shaped and divided perfectly. A field is used to plant crops; the enclosing“囗”and the“十”in the center are the dividers of everyone’s properties, 象征阡陌之制。 In this lesson, “田”is used as a surname, similar to“李”、 “王”、 “张”、 “高” etc.) 问题: 请用英文回答: “果”字上方的“田”是“田地”的意思吗? (Please answer in English: Does the“田”on the top of“果”mean“田地” (field)?) 二.形近字辨析。(Analysis of similar looking words) 字形近似的汉字叫做形近字。形近字因为形体相近的关系很容易混淆,但是 它们的意思和读音却截然不同。 (Characters that look similar are called 形近字. Although they are easily confused with each other, their pronunciations and meanings are very different ) 问题:请给下面的形近字注音,组词。 (Question: Please write the pinyin and a compound for the following characters.) 心 ______ ( ) 必 ______ ( 往 ______ (

) )

住 ______ ( 床 ______ (

) )

店 ______ (

)


______ (

)

______ (

)

三.请写出下面各词的反义词。 (Please write the antonym for the following words.) — 上―― — 远―― — 关―― — 单―― — 左―― — 小―― — 去―― — 北―― — 从―― — 这―― 四.给下列汉字增加两个笔画,变成新的汉字。(Add two strokes to each of the following to change it to a new character) — 言—— — 买—— — 上—— — 京—— — 木—— — 工—— — 看—— — 火—— — 直—— — 天—— 五.请圈出下面句子中的错别字,把正确的汉字写在括号里。 (Please circle the erroneous word and write the correct one in the parenthesis. ) (2) 我没去讨中国城。(

(3) 学校图书馆在运动场旁辺。( (4) 你得高诉我怎么走。(

(5) 那个地方我闭着眼晴都能找到。(

(6) 请你一真开,下一个路口就到了。( (7) 小东京在中国城和运动场中问。(

) )


六.请找出下列形声字的形旁,写在括号里。(Please write the radical for each character next to them.) 2.动:( ) 3.路:( ) 4.闭:( ) 5.拐:( ) 6.灯:( ) 7.那:( ) 8.想:( ) 9.起:( ) 10. 到:( ) 11. 图:( ) 七.请找出下列形声字的声旁,写在括号里;并且写出一个有相同声旁的形声字。 (Please write the phonetic component of the following characters; in addition, come up with another character that has the same phonetic component.) 例子 (Example) : — 问:(门);闷 — — — — —

远:( 动:( 还:( 睛:( 旁:(

); ____ ); ____ ); ____ ); ____ ); ____

八.根据所提供的汉语拼音,选择正确的一个写成汉字填写在相应图片下方的横 线上。(From the bank of pinyins below, choose the correct one for each picture and write out the words on the blank.)diannao zhongxin; tushu guan; shudian; xuesheng huodong zhongxin; yundong chang; zhongguo cheng; honglv deng; danxing dao; ditu.


*每课一个部首。 (* A radical for each lesson.) 门(門):(eye)

“门” (門)是两扇门以及门框的象形。可以单用,也可以用作部首。以“门” 作部首的字意义一般与“门”这一事物或涉及“门”的动作有关。如“开”的繁 体字“開”和“关”的繁体字“關” ,部首都是“門” (门)。 “开”、 “关”本来只 指“开门”、“关门”,后意义引申,可以用来表示“开灯” 、“关灯”等。 (“门” (門)has the shape of a frame and two doors. It can be uses by itself or as a radical. Characters with“门”as the radical usually have meanings associated with the object“门”or actions connotated with“门”. Examples are the traditional characters of“开”and“关”:“開”and“關”, both with“門” (门)as their radicals. Originally“开”and“关”are only used for“开门”and“关门”(opening and closing doors),but the meanings have extended beyond to represent“开灯”(turning on the light),“关灯”(turning off the light) and etc.) 请从这一课找出一个以“门”作部首的字,用英文解释它的意思。 (Please find a character from this lesson that has the radical“门” and explain its meaning in English.)

*谜语。 (Riddle) 谜面:上边毛,下边毛,中间一颗(ke)黑葡萄(pu tao) 。 (Upper lashes, lower lashes, and one black grape in the center) 提示: 谜底?从这一课的生词中找找看。(Hint: find the answer among the new vocabulary for this lesson.)


*汉语小知识:歇后语。 (FYI: 歇后语)

汉语中有一种很生动的表达形式——歇后语。歇后语一般由两部分组成,第 一部分是表面意思,第二部分是从表面意思引申而来的深层意思。 使用歇后语时可以两部分同时出现,也可以只出现其中的一部分。 (In the Chinese language there is a type of figurative language with vivid presentation; they are known as 歇后语. 歇后语 are usually composed of two parts, the first part an apparent observation or superficial meaning and the latter part ideas with a deeper understanding drawn from the previous component. When expressing 歇后语, both parts or just one can be expressed) 读一读下面的这个歇后语,根据第一部分想一想“多余(yu)”是什么意思。 (Try to read the following 歇后语 and take a guess on the meaning of “多余 (yu)”based on the first phrase.) 太阳下面点灯——多余(yu)


《第 15 课 生日晚会》 (Lesson 15 Birthday Party) 一.词语说源。(Origin of vocabulary) 聪明:(bright; intelligent; clever)

王朋又聪明又用功 “聪明”一词是从成语“耳聪目明”压缩而来的。本来,“聪”指的是听力 好,“明”指的是视力好。 现在,人们多用“聪明”一词来表示脑子好,想事情很快。 (The vocabulary“聪明”is an abbreviation of the 成语 (idiom)“耳聪目明”. Originally, “聪”meant good hearing while“明”meant good eyesight. Now, people mostly use the phrase“聪明”to represent a clever mind with a quick thinking.) 问题:(Question:) 请写出一个部首是“耳”的字。(Please write a character with “耳”as its radical.)

二.强化形声字。(英文) 鼻:(nose)

自 鼻 “自”是一个象形字,是鼻子的象形,本来就是“鼻子”的意思。由于古人 在说自己时有用手指指鼻子的习惯,后来, “自”被借走表示抽象的代词(“自己”)。 为了减少使用时意义的混淆,于是就新造了“鼻”字来表示“鼻子”的意思。 “鼻”字是在“自”的基础上加上声旁“畀”组成的形声字。“自”已经有 “鼻子”的意思,声旁“畀”起再次强化的作用。这样的形声字叫做“强化形声


字”。 (“自”is a pictographic character with the figure a nose. The word originally meant“鼻子” because of the ancient tradition of pointing to one’s own nose when talking about oneself. Later, the character“自”is borrowed to represent the pronoun “自己”. To avoid confusion of these two characters’ usage,“鼻”is created to with the meaning of“鼻子”. The phonetic character“鼻”is created by the addition of the phonetic component “畀”to the foundation of“自”. Since“自”already has the meaning of“鼻子”, the phonetic component“畀”has the function of emphasis. These type of phonetic characters are called“强化形声字” (emphasized phonetic character).) 三.给下列汉字各加上一个笔画,变成新的汉字。 (Add one stroke the following characters to create a new one.) — 帅—— — 心—— — 日—— — 住—— — 米—— — 木—— — 牛—— — 头—— 四.声调。 (Tones) 汉语有四个声调,称作四声。另外还有一种轻声,读得又轻又短。这些调子 和声母、韵母一起组成区别音节的三要素。如果声调不同,即使声母、韵母完全 相同,也不是相同的音节。 (Chinese characters have four tones, called 四声 (four-sounds). In addition there is a light tone, read very light and short. These tones, along with consonants and vowels, are the three important components that construct and distinguish sound. Even if the consonants and the vowels are exactly the same, different tone will give two different syllable.) 问题:(Question:) 请给下列各组汉字注音,组词。(Please write the Pinyin of the following characters and make a compound for each.) 接:________ 借:________ 介:________ 班:________ 半:________ 办:________ 常:________ 场:________ 唱:________


应:________ 英:________ 影:________ 五.请给下面的多音字注音,组词。(Please write the Pinyins of the following characters and make a compound for each pinyin of each character.) ________ 长 ________ ________ 还 ________ ________ 好 ________ ________ 觉 ________ 六.请找出下面形声字的声旁,写出一个有相同声旁的形声字;并给前后两个形 声字加注拼音。(Please find the phonetic component for the following phonetic characters. Write another character with the same phonetic component and add pinyin for both.) 验:( ); ____; ____( ) 汁:( ); ____; ____( ) 该:( ); ____; ____( ) 钢:( ); ____; ____( ) 狗:( ); ____; ____( )


七.根据图式写出合适的词。(Write the appropriate word for each of the picture)

2. ________ 3. ________ 4. ________ 5. ________ 6. ________ 7. ________ 8. ________ 9. ________ 10. ________ 11. ________


*每课一个部首。 (* A radical for each lesson) 月(肉):(meat)

“肉”是一个象形字。其中的“仌”描摹的是肉的纹理。 “肉”可以用作部首,有时变形作“月”,与“月”(yue)极其相似,很容 易混淆。不过,以“月(肉) ”作部首的字意义多与人体或动物的肉有关,以“月” 作部首的字意义多与时间或明亮有关。我们可以根据汉字的意思来判断它们的部 首到底是“月(肉) ”还是“月”(yue)。 (“肉”is a 象形字。 The“仌”in the center is the figure of lines and veins in the meat. “肉”can be used as a radical and is sometimes transformed as“月”,which is very similar to“月” (yue)and easily to be confused with. However, characters with“月(肉)”as the radical usually have meanings associated with body or meat, whereas those with the radical“月”are mostly associated with time or light. We can judge the radical based on the context and meaning of the character and tell if it is really“月(肉)”or“月”(yue)。) 问题: 下列汉字中的“月”是“肉”还是“月” (yue)?(Which radical is used for the following characters?) — 脸: — 期: — 腿: — 明:

*画谜。 (Picture Riddle) 根据图画猜一个汉字。(Guess a character based on the picture.)


《第 16 课 看病》 (Lesson 16 Seeing a Doctor) 一.汉字说源。(Origin of Characters) 1.泪:(tear)

“泪”字由“氵”和“目”组成。 “目”是眼睛的象形, “氵”是从眼睛里流 出的液体——眼泪。 (The character“泪”is composed of“氵”and“目”. “目”is the figure of the eye and“氵”is the liquid that flow out of the eye, which is tear.) 2.药:(medicine)

“药”字的部首是艹,本来就是一些草类植物。中国古代选择一些对病痛有 疗效的草熬制成药物,用来外敷或内服,称作“草药” 。 (The character“药”has the radical “艹”,originally herbal plants. In ancient times herbs that are effective in easing pain were processed into medicine, both internal and external, and these were called“草药” (herbal medicine).) 二.形声字。 (Phonetic characters) 1.各写出两个有下列部首的汉字并加注拼音。 (Write two characters for each of the following radicals and add their pinyin.) 犭:( )( ) 走:( )( ) 釒:( )( ) 亻:( )( ) 月:( )( ) 氵:( )( ) 阝:( )( ) 土:( )( )


2.请各写出两个有下列声旁的汉字并加注拼音。(Write two characters for each of the following phonetic components and add their pinyin.) 佥:( )( ) 十:( )( ) 每:( )( ) 中:( )( ) 不:( )( ) 青:( )( ) 尚:( )( ) 冬:( )( ) 三.给下列动词搭配两个合适的宾语。(Please think of two objectives for each of the following verb.) 试——( )( ) 花——( )( ) 想——( )( ) 拿——( )( ) 看——( )( ) 打——( )( ) 四.在图片下方写上合适的名词并加注拼音。(Write the appropriate noun below the picture for each of the following and add its pinyin.)

1. __________

3. __________

5. __________

2. __________

4. __________

6. __________


7. __________

8. __________

9. __________ 五.在横线上填写合适的汉字。 (Please write the appropriate character on the blank spaces.) 1.小高昨天很忙,没有时间做______,就吃了一些______菜。吃了以后肚 子快______ 死了,去了很多次______所。所以,小高来看医生。医生请小高______ 下,给他检______了一下。说是吃______肚子了,不过不必打______,吃______ 就可以。一天要吃三次,一次吃一______。 2.小谢最近几天______体很不______服,眼睛又红又______,还一直______ 眼泪。一定是过______了。可是小张没有买______康______险,看医生很______。 小张没有______,不能去看医生,所以他的病越来越______。 六.想一想。 (”Thoughts to ponder” ☺) 1. “好几次”的“好”和“好朋友”的“好”意思一样吗? (Does the character“好”in“好几次”and“好朋友”have the same meaning?)

2. “想家”的“想”和“想唱歌”的“想”意思一样吗? (Does the character“想”in“想家”and“想唱歌”have the same meaning?)

*每课一个部首。 (*A radical for every lesson) 疒:(illness) (图片:病人躺在一张卧榻上。*要突出卧榻的靠背部分。) “疒”是卧榻的象形。因为患病的人需要卧床休养,所以卧榻成了疾病的象 征。以“疒”作部首的字意义多与病患有关。如“病”。 (“疒”is the figure of a sick bed。Since most people who are ill need to rest on the bed, it has become symbolic of illness. Most characters with“疒”as the radical more than likely has meanings associated with illness, such as“病” (sick, ill, disease).) 问题:(Question:) 请从这一课再找出两个以“疒”作部首的字。 (Please find two characters from this lesson that has the radical“疒”.)


*动物的名字。(Animal names) 你知道这些动物的名字吗?(Do you know the name of these animals?)

1.马 ma; horse 2.牛 niu; cow 3.羊 yang; sheep 4.狗 gou; dog 5.猪 zhu; pig 6.猫 mao; cat 7.鸡 ji; chicken 8.鸭 ya; duck 9.鹅 e; goose


《第 17 课 约会》 (Lesson 17 Dating) 一.汉字说源。(Origin of Characters) 扫:(sweep)

“彐”是笤帚的象形,“扌”是“手”的变形。手拿笤帚,不是打扫还能做 什么呢? 在古代中国,男女分工很清楚:男人负责在外劳动,女人负责家务。所以“男” 字从“田”和“力”会意,女人因为没有经济基础而完全顺从男人,表现在字形 上,就是“女”字屈折笔画的摹画。 (“彐”is the figure of a broom, and“扌”is the transformation of“手”(hand). With a hand holding a broom, you can only sweep and clean. In ancient China, there is a clear divide in women and men’s choirs:men are responsible for working outside the house, and women choirs inside the house. Therefore the character for man“男”is composed of“田”(field) and“力”(strength). Women have no economic resources and thus are made obedient to men; this is represented in the character“女”, made of flexible and amenable strokes.) 问题: 根据上面的介绍,猜一猜“妇”是什么意思。 (Based on the explanation above, take a guess on the meaning of“妇”.)

二.给下面的形近字注音、组词。(Label the pinyin for each of the following synonyms and make a word compound.) 庆:______ 床:______ 同:______ 周:______ 剧:______ 别:______ 红:______ 纽:______

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三.声 旁 带 义 的 形 声 字 。( Phonetic words with meaningful phonetic components.) 俩(two people)

形声是汉字的造字方法之一。形声字由两部分组成:形旁和声旁。形旁一般 提示这个字的意义范围,声旁一般提示这个字的读音。声旁带义是形声字中比较 特殊的一种。即声旁不但可以提示读音,而且有示源的作用。 “俩”的意思是“两个人” ,正好是部首“亻”加上声旁“两”的意思。 ( Phonetics is one method of character creation. Phonetic characters are composed of two parts: the descriptive component and the phonetic component. The descriptive component usually gives the hint of the boundary of the character’s meaning, while the phonetic component suggest the pronunciation of the word. Phonetic component with meaning is one special type of phonetic component, they not only suggest the pronunciation but also hint at the origin of the character. The meaning of“俩”is“两个人” (two people),and coincidentally is composed of the radical“亻”(person) with the phonetic component“两”with the meaning of two.) 问题: 请从下面的形声字中找出两个声旁带义的形声字来。(From the following phonetic characters, please find the two with meaningful phonetic components.) 图 酒 药 动 姓 鼻 饿 四.读一读下面的形声字,分别写出形声字和声旁的汉语拼音,看看形声字的读 音和声旁的读音是不是相同。 (Read the following phonetic components and write out the pinyin for each and its respective phonetic component’s pinyin; see if the pronunciations are same.)

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五.下面每个句子中都有一个错别字,请圈出来,并把正确的汉字写在句子后边 的括号里。 (Each of the following sentences has a typo, please circle the mistake and write the correction in the blank.) 1.王朋赏帮助李友学习中文。(

2.上个星期王朋叁加了小林的生日舞会。( 3.李友对王朋的卯象很不错。(

4.这个周末小林的学校潢新电影。(

5.王朋贾了很大的力气才买到票。(

6.好,今天晚上见。一言为疋。(

7.下下个周末李友要去旋行。(

8.李友不知道小张的电话号玛。(

9.星期六李友得帮妈妈打扫戻子。( 10.

你不想去也没关糸。(

*每课一个部首。 (* A radical for every lesson) 纟:(silk)

“纟”是一束丝线的象形。以“纟”作部首的字意义多与丝线有关。如“经” 本来是指织布机上纵向的、固定不动的主线。 因为丝线可以把两个东西联系在一起,所以以“纟”作部首的字有时引申有 “联系” 、“联合”的意思。如“纽”。 (“纟”is the figure of strings of silk. Characters with“纟”as the radical usually are associated with silk and cloth. An example is“经”, originally meaning the main permanent thread in the loom. Because threads and lines can chain together two separate objects, characters with the radical“纟”sometimes have the meaning of“联系” (association) and“联 合”(union). An example is“纽”(knot).) 3


*音译词:用汉字表示声音。 (Using characters to represent sound: translating words phonetically)

有一种翻译法是直接用汉字记录外语的发音,如“咖啡”记录了英文的 coffee、“可乐”记录了英文的 cola 等。这样的词叫做“音译词”。 当然,这种记录并不是精确的声音的记录,而是大概的、近似的。 音译词中的汉字只表示声音,不表示意思。 (One method of translation is record the pronunciation of foreign words directly with characters, such as“咖啡”records the English word coffee、“可乐” records the English Cola, etc. These words are called“音译词” 。 Of course, this method of footage does not record the sound accurately, only approximately. The character of 音译词 does not represent meaning, only sound. Side note from the TA: when translating, the translator does try to pick appropriate meanings for the word. Coke-Cola for example, is translated to“可口可 乐”, which literally means “tasty and enjoyable”. The more appropriate character chose, the better the skill of the translator.) 问题:请从这一课找出一个音译词,写出它的拼音,说说它记录了哪种外 语的哪一个词。想一想,你还知道哪些音译词。 (Question: Please find a 音译词 from this lesson and write its pinyin and its English counterpart.)

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《第 18 课 租房子》 (Lesson 18 Renting an Apartment) 一.汉字说源。(英文) 安:(peaceful; quiet)

“安”是一个会意字,从女在宀下。旧式女子的特点就是安静地呆在房间 内作女红,过着几乎与世隔绝的生活。所以“安”字以女子在房间内表达安静、 详和的意思。 (The word “安”describes the meaning of a girl underneath a roof, denoted by 宀。 This is because women in the past spend most of their lives sitting quietly at home doing housework, living a life that is totally aloof from world affairs. That is why, the word “安” uses the female being indoors to denote quietness and peacefulness.) 问题: 1.请再写出三个以“宀”作部首的字,说说以“宀”作部首的字一般有什 么意思。(Please write out three words that uses the radical “宀”. Talk about the meaning that these three words.)

2.根据“女”、“安”、“妇(fu; woman)”等几个汉字,用英文说说中国旧 式女子的家庭分工和社会地位。(According to the words “女”, “安”, and “妇”, use English to describe the social status and responsibilities of women in the past.)

二.左“阝”和右“阝”。(Left and right “阝” radical) 根据“阝”作部首时在汉字中的位置不同,我们称作左“阝”和右“阝”。 (Since the radical“阝”appear at different positions in some Chinese characters, we call them “left 阝 and right 阝) 问题: 请分别各写出两个以左“阝”和右“阝”为部首的字。(Please write out two characters for both the left 阝 and the right 阝)

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三.合体汉字的部件拆分。(Analysis of the components of compact characters) 合体字一般由两个或两个以上的部件组成。部件在组合成汉字时有一定的层 次,不一定多个部件都在同一个层面。所以,根据部件之间的关系,一个合体字 也可以被拆分成不同的层次和部分。 (There are two types of characters: simple characters and compact characters. Compact characters usually is assembled by two or more parts. There are different levels/layers in assembling characters, not all parts are in the same layer. Depending on the difference in layering, the parts can be distinguished by 1st level, 2nd level part, etc.) 如“谢”字的部件拆分:(An example of the breakdown of the word“谢”) 讠 谢 身 射 寸 问题: 请拆分汉字“附”、“搬”、“架”。(Please analyze these characters) 四.连线:连接 AB 两列中合适的汉字,组成词。一个字只能用一次。 (Connect a characters in A to a character in B to form a word with real meanings. Each character can only be used once.) A B 太 理 准 琴 家 吵 非 备 押 具 搬 常 附 金 付 家 整 近 弹 钱 五.根据图片内容写名词,并在括号中加上合适的量词。 (Look at the information given in the pictures. Write out the corresponding nouns, and add the right quantifier in the brackets)

(图片 4:一套公寓的内部。包括 d 卧室、e 单人床、f 客厅、g 沙发、h 电 2


脑、i 书桌、j 书架、k 厨房、l 餐厅、m 饭桌、n 碗、o 椅子、p 洗澡间等。) (*为了表现更清楚,可以在各个房间加上人物,如在书桌前加上看书的孩 子,在卧室的床上加上睡觉的孩子,在餐厅加上正在准备晚饭的妈妈等等。)

*每课一个部首。 (One Radical for Each Lesson) 木:(tree; wood)

“木”是一棵树的象形。用在汉字的左边作部首时右下方的“乀”变得短促。 以“木”作部首的字意义一般与树木或木制品有关。如“果”是树上结的果 实,“架”早期多是用木头制作的等等。 (“木” is the figure of a tree. When used as a radical on the left of a character, the “乀” on the lower right becomes short. The characters that uses “木” as radical are often related to wood or tree. For example, the word “果”denotes the fruits on a tree; the word “架” used to denote wooden material in the past, etc. ) 问题: 请写出三个以“木”作部首的字。 (Please write out three words that uses “木” as radical)

*字谜。 (Word Puzzle) What’s black and white and read all over? 请用中文回答。(Please Answer in Chinese)

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你知道

*出租房子的主人为什么叫“房东”?(Why is the landlord called “房东”, or “房东”?) 房

堂 西阶

东阶

门 上图是中国古代一个普通院落的示意图。“室”和“房”都是主人的房间, “堂(tang)”类似于今天的客厅,是主人会客或赏景的地方。从院子到“堂” 或进入“室” 、 “房”需要上若干节台阶。一般来说,如果主人、客人同行,主人 走东边的台阶,客人走西边的台阶,以示礼节。因为主人经常走东边,所以东逐 渐可以用来指代主人。比如:在美国举行一个国际比赛,美国就是“东道主”; 你拥有某个公司的股份(gu fen),你就是这个公司的“股东”;某个人出租房子, 这个人就是“房东”等等。 (Above is a picture shows the arrangements of a traditional house in China. Both “室”and“房” are rooms of the landlord, the “堂(tang)” is used like the living room we talk of today, where the landlord welcomes his guests or enjoys the sceneries in the garden. From the garden to the “堂”, or into the “室” or“房”, one needs to climb some stairs. Usually, the landlord will take the stairs on the east, while the guests take the stairs on the west, to show respect. As this practice became more popular, the landlord began to be affiliated with the east. For example, if an international competition is held in the United States, the US is then called the “东道主”;if you are a stockholder of a company, you are called a “股东”; if someone is leasing his house, this person is called the “房东”。)

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《第 19 课 邮局》 (Lesson 19 At the Post Office) 一.汉字说源。(Characters and their Origins) 束:(measure word for flowers, etc. )

“束”摹写了一棵树被一圈什么东西套住的画面,引申有“束缚” 、“约束” 的意思。 “束”可以用作量词,但以“束”为量词的名词一般不可以是一个,而是捆 绑在一起的若干个组成的集体。如“一束花” ,一定是两朵或两朵以上扎在一起 的花才可以说“一束”。 (The word“束”describes a tree being surrounded by something, which could be used to describe being constrained, being controlled. The word“束”can be used as a measuring word, it is used to describe more than one unit of an object, usually a group or bunch of it tied up together. ) 二.请给下面的多音字和同音字注音,组词。 (Please give the correct sound for the polyphonic characters and synonyms below. ) _____ ( ) 行 _____ ( ) _____ ( ) 还 _____ ( ) _____ ( ) 觉 _____ ( ) 三.给下面的汉字各组两个词。(Please form two words with the characters given below.) — 平: — 邮: — 服: — 票: — 新: 四.在方格中加上合适的部件,使得不同方向上都可以组成一个字。 (Please add the right radicals or parts to the give character in both the empty box, so that a new character is formed.)


五.请各写出一个有下列部件的汉字。(Please write out a character that contains the following character as a part or radical.) — 首: — 另: — 鱼: — 丁: — 丩: — 子: — 匕: — 艮: 六.请圈出下面句子中的错别字,把正确的汉字写在句子后边的括号里。 (Please circle the incorrectly used character, and right the correct character in the bracket.) 1.快信要贻多少钱的邮票?(

)

2.这封信很重要,我想寄桂号。(

)

3.钱不够,还要再另十四块。(

)

4.我在邮局买了五张名信片。(

)

5.这个邮局只可以存人民币,不可以存美园。(

)

七.从括号中选择合适的汉字填写在横线上。*每个汉字只可以用一次,有一个 汉字不能用。(Please choose the correct character to fill in on the line. Each character can be used once, one of the characters cannot be used. ) (存、样、天、鲜、重、过、系、该、片、订、老、寄、诉、束、把、首) 饰 我的朋友下个星期____生日,我不知道应____送什么东西。____是送 没意思,这次我想送点儿新____的东西。 我想了半____,觉得还是送一____花比较好。可是她住在上海,我住在北京, 我们不在同一个城市,花又不可以在邮局____,怎么办呢? 小王告____我,不在同一个城市也没关____,可以在北京的邮局____花,上 海的邮局就会____花送给她了。 北京的邮局跟美国的真不一____,在北京的邮局还可以做很多事情:____ 钱,买明信____等等。


*每课一个部首。 (One radical on lesson) 攵(攴):(hit)

“攵” (攴)意为手拿一个小棍子之类的东西击打或将要击打。以“攵” (攴) 为部首的字意义多与教育、检查或处置、击打有关。 如“教” 。中国古代教育制度对学生极其严厉。如果学生没有达到老师的要 求或做了什么出格的事情,就要被老师给以“击掌”的处罚。即学生伸开手掌, 老师拿一个小棍子之类的东西在手掌上面击打,根据错误的严重程度击打的次数 也不同。 “学”的繁体字“斆”(斅)有相同的部首。 随着时间的推移和社会情况的变化,这种用来教训学生的小棍子逐渐演变成 了教鞭,其功能也发生了转移:从击打学生的手掌变为指示黑板或幻灯等上面的 内容。 (The radical“攵”denotes a handheld object, such as a stick, placed in the action of hitting something. The characters that has the radical“攵”are usually related to education, inspection or penalize, or beating.) 问题: 请再写出两个以“攵” (攴)为部首的字。 (Please write out two characters that has the radical“攵”.)

*说“新鲜”。(Speaking of the amusing things.) 新鲜:(fresh; novel) 汉语中有的词有两个或两个以上的意思,并且这些意思互相之间有所关联, 这样的词叫做多义词。 “新鲜”就是一个多义词。看下面两个句子: 1.这里的菜都很新鲜,都是今天上午刚到的。 2.张意文下个月过生日,我想送点儿新鲜的东西。 在第一个句子中,“新鲜”的意思是刚从田里采摘来,上市的时间很短;在 第二个句子中,“新鲜”的意思是特别的、不常见的、与众不同的。 这两种意思之间有引申的关系。因为上市的时间短,所以自然就不常见;因 为不常见,所以就显得特别和与众不同。引申系列如下: 刚上市 不常见—— 显得特别 (Some Chinese words have two or more meanings, and each of the meanings have some relationship in between. These words are called ‘multi-meaning’ words. For example, the word“新鲜”has multi-meanings. Look at the sentences below:


1. The dishes here are all “fresh”, they all arrived today. 2. Zhang Yiwen’s birthday is next month, I want to send her something amusing. In the first sentence, the word“新鲜”means being brought back ‘fresh’ from the farm, or just recently placed on the market; in the second sentence, the word“新鲜” means special, new, and amusing. The two meaning have implied meaning. Because the object is recently placed on the market, it is naturally new, and not often seen. Hence, because it is new and not often seen on the market, it seems rather amusing. The implied meaning is then: Newly placed on the market not often seen seems amusing.)


《第 20 课 运动》 (Lesson 20 Sports) 一. 汉字说源。(Indicate resource of character ) 网:(net)

“网”是渔网的象形,引申表示其他的网格状的东西,如“蛛(zhu)网” ; 因为网线之间彼此联系,“网”进而又可以抽象为联络网,如“无线(wu xian) 网”、“因特(yin te)网”等等。 (“网” is the image of fishing net, explicate also objects of net form, for example spider net; because of the relations of net thread, net can be abstracted as connecting net such as wireless net and internet, etc.) 想一想:(Answer in English) 1. “网”的量词应该是什么?为什么?(What is the measuring character of net? Why?)

2.“网球”的名字是怎么来的?(How is the name of tennis created?)

二. 说说你知道的运动的名字(最少四个)。 (Give at least four names of the sports you know)

三. 形近字辨析。(Analysis of characters of similar forms) 蓝 vs.篮


“蓝”,部首是“艹” 。 “蓝”本来是一种草,因为这种草可以提炼染蓝的色 剂,所以就引申为抽象的颜色词。 “篮”,部首是“⺮” 。最初的篮子多用竹子制成,所以“篮”以“⺮”为部 首。 (The radical of “蓝” is “艹”. “蓝” originally is a grass. Because this grass contains a color element that can be used in dying, it has been explicated into an abstract character for color. The radical of “篮” is “⺮”. Originally baskets were made of bamboo, therefore, “篮” uses radical “⺮”.) 想一想: “lan qiu” (basketball)的“lan”是“蓝”还是“篮”?为什么?(Which character does basketball use, “蓝” or “篮”? Why?)

四.把下面的五个汉字翻译成英文,并说说部首“月”在这些汉字中表示什么意 思(不是一个一个说,是总结。)。(Translate the following five Chinese characters into English, and explain what the radical “月” means in these words (not by each word but in a summary form)) 肚 脚 胖 脸 腿

五.给下面的十个汉字各组两个词。(Make two vocables for each of following ten Chinese characters) 意 险 死 然 步 受 高 为 起 单


六.多义词。(multi-vocals) “上”是一个多义词。看看在下面两个句子中, “上”的意思有什么不一样。 (“上” is a multi-vocal. Please find in the following two sentences what difference in meanings by “上”.) 1.今天上午我去了图书馆。 2.意文的弟弟在美国上大学。

想一想: 你还可以再说出一个多义词吗?(Can you find another multi-vocal?)

七.请找出下面八个形声字的声旁,并给形声字和声旁都加上拼音。 (Please find the sound particles of the following eight phonograms, and add bo po mo fo for the sound particles.) 踢 起 坏 调 简 拍 提 听

*每课一个部首。 (One radical each lesson) 车(車):(vehicle; car)

“车”是一个象形字,主要突出了车轮部分,这从“车”的繁体字“車” 可以更清楚地看出来。这个字采取了以部分代替整体的表现手法,利用一个车轮 和两边固定用的车辖来代表整个车子。 随着社会的发展,车子的形状发生了很大的变化。但最重要的车轮部分仍然 存在,其作为交通工具或战斗工具的特点也没有改变。 “车”可以用作部首,用作部首时最下边的笔画“一”稍稍向右上方倾斜。 如“输” 。因为车的功能是作为交通或运送、传递的工具,所以用“车”作部首


的字本义一般与运送、传递、交通等有关。 “输”有“运输”的意思, “输赢”的 “输”用的是引申义:把胜利果实(如金牌、土地等)送给了对方。 (“车” is a visual word. It focuses on the wheels, which can be seen more clearly from its traditional form “車”. This character uses parts instead of the whole character, i.e. using the wheels and the wheel clips instead of the whole vehicle. Along with social development, vehicle shapes changed greatly. However, the most important wheel parts still remain and the functions of vehicle as means of transportation and war fighting have not been changed at all. “车” can be used as a radical. When it is used for radical, the bottom stroke “一”will go incline towards the right direction. For example“输”. Because vehicle functions as means of transportation and war fighting tools, words with radical “车” generally have relations with moving, transporting etc. “输” means transportation. “输” in “输赢” is explicated, i.e. to pass the victory results (such as gold medal, land etc.) to others.

*你知道这两种运动吗?(Do you know these two sports?) 1.乒乓球(ping-pong; table tennis)

“乒乓”是一个象声词。因为打球时一来一去不断发出“乒” 、 “乓”的声 音 , 所 以 这 种 球 被 命 名 为 “ 乒 乓 球 ”。 英 文 翻 译 可 以 直 接 用 这 个 声 音 译 作 ping-pong。又因为乒乓球是一种桌上的球类运动,所以又可以译作 table tennis。 (注意:“乒”、“乓”两个字表示一个语素,不可以分开使用。 ) (“乒乓” is a phonogram. It is named as “乒乓球” because the continuous sound of “乒”、“乓”when playing the game. The English translation of this sound can directly be ping-pong. Also because the game is a sport played on a table, it is also translated as table tennis. Note, “乒”、“乓” the two words should always be used together and cannot be separated.) 想一想: 你还知道哪个英文词是从中文音译过去的?(Do you know any other English words that have been translated from Chinese pronunciations?)


2.太极拳(Tai Chi: a kind of traditional Chinese shadow boxing)

太极拳是中国传统武术项目之一,因为动作柔缓,又被翻译作 Slow-motion Chinese boxing。太极拳看似柔缓,但柔中带力,能以柔克刚,可用于拳击和健 身。因为不需要其他的辅助设施,练习起来很方便,太极拳流传的区域越来越广。 已经逐渐普及成为中国大众健身的一种运动项目。 (Tai Chi is one of the Chinese traditional martial arts. It is also translated as slow-motion Chinese boxing because its slow moving movements. Tai Chi looks soft and slow, but shows strength in the soft and defeat strong by soft. It can be used for boxing and health exercise. It is very convenient to practice because it does not require any equipment. Tai Chi has been widely spread and has become gradually a popular sport item for mass Chinese population.) 猜一猜: “拳不离手,歌不离口”是什么意思?(figure out the meaning of “拳不离 手,歌不离口”.)


《第 21 课 旅行》 (Lesson 21 Travel) 一. 意义引申。(Meaning explication) 1.折(break; discount)

“斤”是斧子的象形,“扌”是“手”的变形。“折”字的本义是手拿斧子 砍东西。引申有断裂、片段、折扣等意思。 (“斤” is the shape of axe. “扌” is the altered form of “手”. “折” originally means to break by hands and an axe. It is explicated to mean break, episode, and discount, etc.) 想一想: 一件衣服$50.00,打七折是多少钱?$15.00 还是$35.00? 2.涨:(rise)

“涨”的部首是“氵”(水) ,本义是指水面的涨高。经过抽象引申,也可 以用来指价钱的涨高,如“涨价” 。 (The radical of 涨” is “氵”, which is (水)water, originally means the rise of water surface. It is therefore explicated to indicate the rise of price, for example “涨价”.) 想一想: “水涨船(chuan; boat/ship)高”是什么意思? 二. 形声字练习。 (Phonogram exercises) 1.读下面的形声字,各写出一个同形旁的形声字。 (Read out the following phonogram and write the phonogram with the same form particle.) 城 顿 减 转 钱 矶


2.以下面的汉字为声旁,各写出一个形声字。(Use the following Chinese characters as sound particle and write down one phonogram.) 户 亢 十 叚 张 介 3.读下面的形声字,各写出一个同声旁的形声字。(Read out the following phonograms and write down phonograms with the same sound particle.) 证 签 空 洛 矶 城 三. 部首的位置。(Position of radicals) 部首在汉字中的位置不是固定的,可以在汉字的左边,如“灯”;也可以在 汉字的右边,如“放”;可以在汉字的上边,如“家”;也可以在汉字的下边,如 “盘”;可以在汉字的里边,如“问”,也可以在汉字的外边,如“国”等等。 (Radicals in Chinese characters do not have fixed positions. It can be at the left side, such as “灯”, it can also be at the right side, such as “放”. It can be on the top of a character, such as “家”, it can also be at the bottom, such as “盘”, it can also be inner part of a character, such as “问”, and it can be at the outer side of a character, such as “国”, etc.) 问题: 请 为 这 些 位 置 各 举 出 两 个 汉 字 的 例 子 。( Please give two characters as examples for the following positions.) 四. 音译词。(Sound translated characters) 地名的翻译多用音译法,用汉字来大概地表示地名的发音。在这些地名中, 汉字只表示声音,没有意思。 (Most of place names are translated from their pronunciations using Chinese characters to show generally the pronunciations of the place names. Among these place names, the Chinese characters only show sounds with no meanings.) 问题: 请写出下面这些地方的中文译名。 (Please write down the translated names in Chinese of the following places.) 1.Washington 2.Chicago 3.New York 4.Hong Kong 5.Los Angels 想一想: 除了这些地名,你还知道别的音译词吗?请写出最少三个。(Do you know any other translated sound characters except the following place names? Please write at least three characters.)


五.同音字。(Homophonic) 读音完全相同(声、韵、调全同)的字叫做同音字。 (It is called homophonic when the pronunciation of a character is exactly the same (sound, rhyme and tones are exactly the same)) 问题: 读下面的汉字,各写出一个同音字。 (Read out the following Chinese characters and write down one homophonic.) 夜 假 城 划 初 杉 韩 芝 六.找出下面句子中的错别字,把正确的汉字写在句子后面的括号里。 (Find out wrongly-written or mispronounced words, and write down the correct Chinese characters in the bracket at the end of the sentences.) )

4.你想买哪家航空公同的票?(

5.有的椅子一干多快钱,有的几百快。(

6.这个春假你有什么汁划?(

7.小白的哥哥在一家旅行衦工作。( 8.你想买单秸票还是来回票?(

9.王朋想六月切去韩国的汉城。(

10.

直飞的玨机要贵几百块。(

11.

现在订票,一个星期肉必须付钱。(

*每课一个部首。 (One radical each lesson) 舟:(boat) (图片:一条小船在海中航行。) “舟”是船的象形。在中国古代,船和车一样是很重要的交通工具,以“舟” 作部首的字意义多与船、航行、运输等有关。如“航”。 “航”的本义是指在大海中航行如“航海”,所以部首是“舟”。经过意义引 申,在天空中行进也可以叫“航”,如“航空”。 (“舟” is the shape of a boat. In the ancient China, boats and vehicles were very important means of transportation. Characters with“舟”as radical normally relate to boat, sailing and transportation, for example “航”. “航” originally means sailing in the sea such as “航海”, therefore, its radical is “舟”. By explicating, it is also called “航” when moving in the sky, such as “航 空”.) 问题: 你还知道别的交通工具吗?(Do you know any other means of transportation?)


《第 22 课 家乡》 (Lesson 22 Hometown) 一. 汉字说源。(Indicate character sources) 1.山(mountain)

“山”是连绵山脉的象形,突出了山脉高低起伏的特点。 (“山” indicates the form of mountains, showing specially the up and down characteristic of a mountain) 问题: “山”的量词是什么?(What is the measuring word for “山”?)

2.州(state)

“州”也是一个象形字。中间的三个“丶”指流水中的小块陆地,即岛屿。 后引申为划分区域的一种单位。 (“州” is a glyph. The three“丶” in the character indicate small piece of land in the flowing water, i.e. island, and then explicated as a unit of region classification.) 问题: 请写出你知道的美国州名。最少两个。 (Please write down at least two names of U.S. states that you know.)

二. 称谓。 (Prefixes) 汉语中的称谓词跟英文有很大的不同。根据父母不同一方或年龄的不同,会 用到不同的称谓词。 (Prefixes in Chinese are very different from the ones in English. We use


different prefixes when age and parent relations are different.) 1.父(father)

“父”字是手举木棒或其他家法用具的摹画,意为父亲教导子女。这个字 反映出中国古代家长制的社会中常常用的是体罚的方法。“父”字可以说是“棍 棒下面出孝郎”式传统教育思想和具体实施的活化石。 用作称谓时,称“父亲”或“爸爸”。 (“父” is a drawing of holding wood sticks and other family punishment tools, meaning father to teach children. It shows that in the ancient China, parents always used body punishment to teach. “父”means that good children came from sticks, which was a traditional education vision and a sample of its implementation.) 问题: 请写出合适的称谓词。(Please write down proper prefixes.) 爸爸的哥哥

2.母(mother)

“母”也是一个象形字,是一个哺乳妇女的摹画。 “母”字中间的两“丶” 指双乳,突出了哺乳妇女与一般妇女的典型区别。 用作称谓时,称“母亲”或“妈妈” 。 (“母”is also a glyph, indicating the image of a breading woman. The two “丶” the two tits, distinguishing the typical difference of breading women and normal women. When it is used as prefix, called “母亲” or “妈妈”.) 问题:


请写出合适的称谓词。(Please write down proper prefixes) 妈妈的妹妹;妈妈的父母

三.老字组新词。(Use old words to form new words) 首都:(capital of a country)

“首”、“都”两个字分别在第十九课和第二课学习过,但“首都”这个词 是一个新词。 在“我的哥哥和姐姐都是大学生”这个句子中,“都”的拼音是 dou,但是 在“首都”这个词中,“都”的拼音是 du。即“都”是一个多音字。 问题: 1.请写出下面各国的首都。(Please write down the capitals of the following countries.) 中国 美国 韩国

2. “便”、 “还”、 “觉”、 “行”都是多音字,请写出它们的两种拼音并各组 一个词。 (“便”、 “还”、 “觉”、 “行” are all multivocals. Please write down their two kinds of bopomofo and make one word group.) 便


觉 行

四.方位词。(Direction words) 表示方向的词叫做方位词。(The words expressing directions are direction words.) 问题: 请根据英文意思写出合适的方位词。(Please write down proper direction words based on the English meanings.) 1.Left side 2.Back side 3.West side 4.South side 5.Right side 6.Front side 7.Top side 8.East side 9.North side 10. Bottom side 五.请在横线上填写合适的汉字。(Please fill in proper Chinese characters above the lines.) 李友现在的家在大城____,是一个____治、经____和文____的中心。可是, 那儿的气____不太好。她的老家在____下的一个小____。老家的人____很少。有 两座____和一____河。河边____着很多树。春天的时候,树都是____色的,还开 ____了花,风____美极了。冬天的时候,还可以____雪。李友请同学们到她的老 家去玩。她说她有几个亲____住在那儿,他们可以____同学们的____游。

*每课一个部首。 (One radical each lesson) 禾:(standing grain)

“禾”是一颗成熟谷类植物的象形,重点突出了因沉甸甸而下垂的谷穗, 即“禾”字上方的“丿”。 “禾”字“丿”下的部分写作“木”,但与树木的“木”并没有关系,只是


摹画了谷子的株茎。 以“禾”作部首的字意义多与农作物有关。如“香”,本来只指农作物成熟 时的香味,后引申可以指其他的香味。 (“禾” is a seed of ripe grain, showing specially the heavily dropping ears, i.e. the “丿” on the top of “禾”. The lower part of “禾” from “丿” indicates“木”, which does not have any relation with the “木” of the tree. It indicates only the stem of grains. Characters with radical “禾” mostly relate to farm produce, such as “香”, which originally indicates the fragrant smell of ripe farm produce, then explicated as other good smells. 问题: 1.区别下面两个形近字,分别写出它们的拼音。(Distinguish the following two similar-form characters and write down their bopomofo.) 季 李

2.试着用英文解释:“季”的意思跟“禾”有什么关系。(Try to explain in English: What is relation of the meaning of “季” with “禾”.)

*美国的州。(American States) (图片:美国区划图。) 用汉语翻译美国的州名,有的用直接音译的办法,如“加利福尼亚” (jia li fu ni ya);有的用音译加意译的办法,如“北卡罗莱那” (bei ka luo lai na)。 因为美国州名的全称很多比较长,所以有的时候人们对长的州名用简称,如 把“加利福尼亚州”称作“加州”,把“北卡罗莱那州”称作“北卡州”或“北 卡”。 问题: 你知道这些州的中文名字吗?(全称或简称都可以)(Do you know the Chinese names of these states? The complete names or short names.) South Carolina State New York State Washington State Massachusetts State


《第 23 课 在机场》 (Lesson 23 At the Airport) 一. 意义引申。(Meaning explication) 醒:(wake up) (图片:窗上有硬物撞击,一人醒来,在床上揉眼睛。*突出撞击声音的标 志。) “醒”的部首是“酉”,本义指酒醒。引申可指睡醒。由于酒醒和睡醒都是 从脑部沉睡到有清楚意识的转变,所以又可引申出从不知觉到知觉、从不清楚到 清楚等意思。如“提醒”。 请记住这三个词:酒醒;睡醒;提醒。 (The radical of “醒” is “酉”, originally indicate wake up after drinking, explicated to indicate wake up from sleep. Due to the fact that waking up from drinking and sleeping both means a transition from brain deep sleep to clear consciousness, it has then be explicated as from no consciousness to being consciousness, from unclear to clear, etc. such as “提醒”.) 二. 形近字比较。(Comparisons of similar formed characters) 顺(in the same direction)vs.须(mustache) (两张图片并列:畅流而下的河水;猫眯的胡须。*简单勾画,突出“川” 和“彡”的不同。) “顺”字左边的部件是“川”。 “川”字是畅流而下的水流的象形,引申有通 顺、顺利等义。 “须”字左边的部件是“彡”。 “彡”字是人或动物的胡须的象形,引申有花 纹、纹饰等义。 (The left particle of “须” is “川”. “川” indicates the scene of smoothly flowing water, explicated to have meanings of through and smooth, etc.) 问题: 请写出“顺”和“须”的汉语拼音。 (Please write down the bopomofo of “顺” and “须”.) 三. 请在横线上填写合适的汉字。(Please fill in proper Chinese characters above the lines.) 1.一年有四个季节:春天、____天、秋天和____天。 2.我的学校一年有四个假期:春假、____假、秋假和____假。 四. 请写出合适的称谓词。(Please write down proper prefixes.) 1.爸爸的爸爸: 2.爸爸的妈妈: 3.妈妈的爸爸: 4.妈妈的妈妈: 5.儿子的儿子:


猜一猜: 儿子的女儿称什么?(What do you address the son of your daughter?) 五.请在括号中写出反义词。(Please write down in the bracket characters with opposite meanings.) — 哭——( ) — 苦——( ) — 前——( ) — 进——( ) — 瘦——( ) — 才——( ) — 多——( ) — 好——( ) — 接——( ) — 贵——( ) 六.请给加点字选择一个正确的读音。(Please choose the correct pronunciations for the dotted characters.) 3.行 ; B. hang) .李( 4.提 .醒(A. shi; 5.收拾 .(A. he;

) )

6.辛 ) .苦(A. xing; 7.托 ; B. tu) .运( 七.读下面的汉字,并各写出两个同部首的汉字。 (Read out the following Chinese characters and write down Chinese characters with the same radicals.) 醒 箱 随 称 超 途 瘦 苦 八.请在横线上填写合适的字组词。(Please write down proper word groups above the lines.) 重:_____重;_____重 证:_____证;_____证 起:起_____;起_____ 表:表_____;表_____ 口:_____口;_____口


九.请用下面的部首/部件组字并加上拼音。最少组十个字。每个部件可以用多 次。(Please use the following radicals and parts to form words and add bopomofo. At least make 10 groups. You may use each part more times.)

合 小 是 巴

⻊ 宀 艹 口

女 子 手 卩

十.根据图片内容写词。(Write characters based on the following pictures.) (图片 1:地下停车场。) (图片 2:商场服务台。*突出 service center 的字样。) (图片 3:手提小皮箱。) (图片 4:飞机场。) (图片 5:登机牌。) (图片 6:出租车。)

*每课一个部首。 (One radical each lesson) 子:(child) (图片:一个襁褓中的孩子,露出头部和两条手臂。) “子”是襁褓中孩子的象形。突出了婴儿的大脑袋。以“子”为部首的汉字 多与孩子、年幼或辈分低的意思有关。 (“子” indicates children of swaddle, showing specifically the head of a baby. Chinese characters with radical “子” always relate to meanings of children, young and lower age generations.) 问题: 1.请区别形近字“子”和“了”,给它们注音、组词。 (Please distinguish the similar formed character “子” and “了”, and give the bopomofo, and make word groups.)

2.请写出两个以“子”为部首的字。(Please write down two characters with radical “子”.)

Supplementary material for characters from IC Lessons 1-23  

This material preapred by Carolyn (Kunshan) Lee & Junghong Li of Duke University under a Creative Commons non-commercial use license.

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