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THE ENERGY ARCHIPELAGO

converting the Maldives to a global alternative energy hub


INDEX

The Problem The Solution Design//macro Design//micro


THE PROBLEM understanding the input, framing the research


The Maldives is a country at risk. As sea levels continue to rise while governments abroad continue to deny the immediacy of issues concerning our environment, the Maldives is a nation whose demise will be decided by the actions of others. Despite a fickle commitment to progressive energy and without a global interest, the country remains helpless, holding on to little relevance through fishing exports and a thriving tourism industry. Under a veil of romantic beaches and pretty fish, there remains a looming thought of future demise and the inherent displacement of the Maldivian people. Similarly, a splintered government lends little help to a situation in need of compliance. It is these conditions and the realities of political-economic interests abroad that should force the Maldives to do more than take a vow of carbon neutrality; the country must take action.


-

+

ECONOMIC PROSPERITY

+

+ CLIMATE CHANGE

PRO DEMOCRACY

+

+ MELTING ICE

SEA LEVELS

MIGRATION

-

LAND AREA

+ AUTHORITARIAN

+ REGUGEES


+

CLIMATE CHANGE The results of global climate change are due to the depletion of the Earth’s ozone. Climate change manifests itself in carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, sea levels, ocean acidity, arctic ice, rain patterns, and snow patterns. The changing of climate has an immense affect on the environment and, in turn, both plants and animals.

+

MELTING ICE Due to the pollution of fossil fuels, less heat escapes from the atmosphere, causing the surface temperature of the Earth to rise. This causes land and sea ice (which is responsible for keeping temperatures down around the globe) to melt which has a direct affect on water levels as well as surface temperature.

+

SEA LEVELS Sea levels continue to rise due to the melting of the polar ice caps. Rising water levels threaten many geographies globally and begin to affect the ecosystems of flora and fauna. Ocean water also continues to get warmer. Certain organisms, such as algae and coral, have specific needs concerning water temperature while storm surges often become more frequent and stronger with higher water temperatures.

- ECONOMIC PROSPERITY The Maldives is highly dependent on tourism and fishing. Tourism, being an extrememly volative industry, is susceptible to market change as it is, for most people, a luxury. Fishing, while historically secure, is threatened by warming waters and changing ecosystems due to climate change. Neither market is necesarily progressive and their economic viability remains threatened. - LAND AREA

The Maldives is composed of nearly 1,200 islands with the country’s highest point resting only three meters above sea level. With rising tides, many of these islands will be completely submerged, leaving very little buildable land.

+

PRO DEMOCRACY Currently operating under a tarnished Democractic government, the Maldivian people continue to rally protests encouraging full democractic reform. The mounting frustration with the authoritarian governing and lack of organization within the government (which has left the Maldives with very few options to deal with the rising sea levels) has created a seemingly splintered mis-represented consistuency.

+

AUTHORITARIAN Under the pressure of the Maldivian people as well as the looming issues regarding the environment and a fragile economy, the government feels the need to increase authoritarian rule - suggesting the apparentness of the issues leaves no opportunity for a truly democratic response.

+

MIGRATION With the loss of land area, naturally, the people of the Maldives will need to move. As a backup plan, assuming an inability to house the thousands of displaced residents, the government has begun plans to acquire land in both Australia and India.

+

REGUGEES While the government has made plans to move, without proper preparation and an acceptance of the governmental plan by its people, there becomes issues of refugees emigrating out of the country. Besides their moving to a new area, these people will have very little to rebuild their lives with.


Gan Hithadhoo Isdhoo Kunahandhoo Maabaidhoo Maamendhoo Maavah Mundoo Dhaandhoo Dhevvadhoo Gemanafushi Kanduhulhudhoo Kolamaafushi Kondey Maamendhoo Nilandhoo Vilingili Fares-Maathodaa Fiyoaree Gaddhoo Hoandeddhoo Madaveli Nadellaa Rathafandhoo Thinadhoo Vaadhoo Fuvahmulah

Baarah Dhiddhoo Filladhoo Hoarafushi Ihavandhoo Kelaa Maarandhoo Mulhadhoo Muraidhoo Thakandhoo Thuraakunu Uligamu Utheemu Vashafaru Finey Hanimaadhoo Hirimaradhoo Kulhudhuffushi Kumundhoo Kunburudhoo Makunudhoo Naivaadhoo Nellaidhoo Neykurendhoo Nolhivaram Nolhivaranfaru

Feydhoo Foakaidhoo Funadhoo Goidhoo Kanditheemu Komandoo Lhaimagu Maaungoodhoo Maroshi Milandhoo Narudhoo Noomaraa Foddhoo Henbandhoo Holhudhoo Kendhikolhudhoo Kudafaree Landhoo Lhohi Maafaru Maalhendhoo Magoodhoo Manadhoo Miladhoo Velidhoo Alifushi

Kaashidhoo MalĂŠ Maafushi Thulusdhoo Bodufulhadhoo Feridhoo Himandhoo Maalhos Mathiveri Rasdhoo Thoddoo Ukulhas Fesdhoo Dhangethi Dhiddhoo Dhigurah Fenfushi Haggnaameedhoo Kunburudhoo Maamingili Mahibadhoo Mandhoo Omadhoo Felidhoo Fulidhoo Keyodhoo

Meedhoo Rasgetheemu Rasmaadhoo Ungoofaaru Vaadhoo Dharavandhoo Dhonfanu Eydhafushi Fehendhoo Fulhadhoo Goidhoo Hithaadhoo Kamadhoo Kendhoo Kihaadhoo Kudarikilu Maalhos Thulhaadhoo Hinnavaru Kurendhoo Naifaru Olhuvelifushi Dhiffushi Gaafaru Gulhi Guraidhoo

Veyvah Bileddhoo Dharanboodhoo Feeali Filitheyo Magoodhoo Nilandhoo Bandidhoo Gemendhoo Hulhudheli Kudahuvadhoo Maaenboodhoo Meedhoo Rinbudhoo Burunee Vilufushi Madifushi Dhiyamingili Guraidhoo Gaadhiffushi Thimarafushi Veymandoo Omadhoo Hirilandhoo Kandoodhoo Vandhoo

Fainu Hulhudhuffaaru Inguraidhoo Innamaadhoo Boli Mulah Dhiggaru Kolhufushi Madifushi Kinolhas Maakurathu Maduvvaree Muli Naalaafushi Bileffahi Fonadhoo Gaadhoo Huraa Thinadhoo Huraa Kinbidhoo Dhanbidhoo Rakeedhoo Himmafushi Vaikaradhoo Angolhitheemu Dhuvaafaru


MALE MALDIVES POP AREA DENSE

92,555 0.75 47,416

1 km 1 : 25 958


MANHATTAN NEW YORK

POP 1,634,795 22.9 AREA 27,484 DENSE

5 km 1 : 180 442


TSING YI HONG KONG

POP AREA DENSE

200,400 4.1 18,746

2 km 1 : 50 100


AMAGER DENMARK POP AREA DENSE

160,030 37.1 1,662

5 km 1 : 138 699


POP

9.2

1634

200

160

AREA

.75

22.9

4.1

37.1

DENSE

47.1

27.4

18.7

1.6


THE SOLUTION finding opportunity through research and design


“Renewable energy in the Maldives could be at grid parity already for moderate levels of penetration, and could, with care, be at grid parity for near full penetration within five years if the investment conditions were as straightforward and risk free as investment in, say, Europe. Therefore, the overarching objective of the SREP funding is to make investing in the Maldives as technically and commercially straightforward and risk free as possible. This is the key deliverable that will enable long--�term affordable access to renewable electricity for all. it will transform the economics of renewable energy and move it from niche to mainstream. The specific objectives of the SREP Investment Plan are to overcome five barriers to decarbonising the electricity sector; the challenge of raising capital in the Maldives; the lack of human resources and technical capability; the high transaction costs and small scale of projects; the lack of preparedness of island power stations in the Maldives to accept high levels of renewable energy; and the challenge of internal logistics.� SREP Investment Plan Republic of the Maldives


THESIS PROPOSAL

Alternative energy represents a potential opportunity for the Maldives that would benefit the country both economically and ethically. The financial viability of progressive energy has yet to be realized and while the technology is still in its infancy, it promises to pay dividends as fossil fuels continue to be depleted. Mainstream awareness and heightened government pressures will continue to grow as the global economy begins to shift away from petroleum. With its advantageous geography, the Maldives can become a worldwide hub, a generator of energy research and production. The country will grow to be a proving ground of offshore tidal turbines and floating solar panel arrays, exemplifying the untapped potential of alternative energy technologies. A unique system of soft infrastructure and organized complexity, the archipelago will no longer be a collective of independent resorts but rather a collective of independent multinational entities. With a complete overhaul of its industry and infrastructure along with a drastic repurposing of the local population, the country will develop a stable and prosperous economy. The Maldives will come together not only toward the advancement of technology but toward the advancement of humanity.


GLOBAL ENERGY 1975-2051 (CALCULATED PROJECTION) By observing trends in energy production over the past three decades along with the rise of alterantive energy research, production, and implementation, a projection can be made of the future of global energy. With the inherent end to the fossil fuel age, a shift occurs during the second decade of the 21st century pitting alternative energy as the primary producer globally. Alternative energy begins to diversify as it grows - not merely consisting of wind farms and solar arrays but also including geothermal, tidal and wave, and biomass energy production. The rise of renewable energy and fall of petroleum marks a shift in infrastructure as well. Old networks of oil pipelines and plants are replaced cable grids and energy converters.

1979

1983

1987

1991

1995

1999

2003

2008


2017

2021

2025

2030

2034

2038

2042

2047


CAPITAL COST FORECAST (RENEWEABLW TECHNOLOGIES)

1997

2000

BIOMASS

PHOTOVOLTAIC

(GASIFICATION BASED)

(RESIDENTIAL)

2005 SOLAR THERMAL (POWER TOWER)

2010 GEOTHERMAL (HYDROTHERMAL)

PHOTOVOLTAIC (UTILITY SCALE)

2020 WIND TURBINE (HORIZONTAL AXIS)


205 143 115 60

24

31

46

51

56

63

66

70

66

61

19

97

20

00

20

05

20

10

20

20

20

30

COAL PRODUCTION (MILLION BARRELS/DAY)

19

80

19

85

19

90

19

95

COAL COST

20

00

20

05

20

10

20

15

(PRICE INDEX - U.S. DOLLARS PER METRIC TON)


ENERGY CURRENTLY

DEMAND

NEEDS OF THE COUNTRY

SUPPLY PRODUCTION

TYPE ENERGY

RESORTS

RESORTS

DIESEL

GREATER MALE

STELCO

PRETROL, JETA1

OUTER ISLANDS

IDC

KEROSENE, BIOMASS, LPG

INDUSTRIAL

AIRPORTS


ENERGY

2050 PROJECTION

DEMAND

NEEDS OF THE COUNTRY

SUPPLY PRODUCTION

TYPE ENERGY

RESORTS

RESORTS

SOLAR

GREATER MALE

STELCO

WIND

OUTER ISLANDS

IDC

BIOMASS

INDUSTRIAL

AIRPORTS

HYDRO DISEL OCEAN THERMAL


PRODUCTION CURRENTLY TOURISM COMMUNICATIONS GOVERNMENT FISHING MANUFACTUING ENERGY WHOLESALE OTHER

SERVICES INDUSTRY AGRICULTURE


PRODUCTION 2050 PROJECTION TOURISM COMMUNICATIONS GOVERNMENT FISHING MANUFACTUING ENERGY WHOLESALE OTHER

SERVICES INDUSTRY AGRICULTURE


WIND GGC : 2,200,000 Mw (Global Generating Capacity)

71

Mw

EQR : 3

(Energy Quality Rating)

“Community� Wind Multi-megwatt wind farms owned by cooperatives and municipalities Tens of megawatt wind farms as an independent power producer Third party or investor owned utility wind projects are more readily financeable and can produce larger amounts of energy at more efficient rates. A local governing body has to support the implementation of large scale community wind projects while local community members are often offered an opportunity to take ownership and lend input to the decision making process. Community win projects serve to reduce retail power costs by offering an alternative energy source, benefiting the local grid by feeding into publicly owned utility, or resolving remote power issues. Land Wind Highest energy yield Reliable Grid integration

Deep Offshore Wind Lightweight Durable Compact Protected (from corrosion)


BIOMASS GGC : 280,000 Mw

25

Mw

EQR : 2

Virgin Wood: from forestry, arboricultural activities or from wood processing Energy Crops: high yield crops grown specifically for energy applications Agricultural Residues: residues from agriculture harvesting or processing Food Waste: from food and drink manufacture, preparation and processing, and post-consumer waste Industrial Waste and Co-products: from manufacturing and industrial processes Chemical Conversion Biomass gasification through pressure causes an incomplete combustion of the biomass to produce combustible gases. This process can provide fuel for internal combustible engines or substitute for furnace oil in direct heat applications.

Biochemical Conversion The enzymes of bacteria and other microorganisms break down molecules in plant matter which, through anaerobic digestion, fermentation, or composting, can produce clean fuels such as hydrogen.

Thermal Conversion Use heat to convert biomass into another chemical form through processes including combustion, torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification.


LAND SOLAR GGC : 5,000,000 Mw

46

Mw

(based on current generation, functioning at 0.15 percent of potential)

EQR : 1

Photovoltaic A solar cell is a device that, because of its material, emits electrons (photoelectrons) upon absorbing energy from light which get converted into direct current electricity. Multiple solar cells are connected inside modules which are wired to form arrays which is tied to an inverter and sometimes connected to a power grid. Concentrated Solar Power Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small, concentrated beam. In most CSP systems, a working fluid is heated by the concentrated sunlight which is then used for power generation and energy storage.


20

Mw

OCEAN SOLAREQR : 4 GGC : 500,000 Mw Floating solar panel arrays have the potential to generate even more energy than on-land arrays. Energy research shows that floating arrays generate up to 16% more energy because they stay cooler. While there is a great opportunity for small scale, backyard floating arrays in certain regions, there is a limited potential of large scale, offshore floating arrays. As research and implementation is somewhat delayed (compared to its on-land counterpart), researchers are unsure of floating arrays and their ability to withstand currents, salinity, waves, etc. Concerns regarding efficiency versus cost also leave researchers skeptical. However, assuming suitable conditions and adaquate technology to maintain efficiency, ocean solar arrays have a large generating potential and remain a valuable option for localized energy production (much like solar panels on a house).


OCEAN THERMAL EQR : 5 GGC : 1,000,000 Mw

22

Mw

Ocean thermal energy conversion, uses ocean temperature differences from the surface to depths lower than 1,000 meters, to extract energy. A temperature difference of only 20째C (36째F) can yield usable energy in most situations. Closed Cycle System A working fluid, such as ammonia, is pumped through a heat exchanger and turned into vapor. This steam vapor then runs a turbine which generates electricity. The cold water found deep below the surface naturally condenses the vapor back to a fluid where it returns to the heat exchanger and the cycle begins over.

Open Cycle System The warm surface water is pressurized in a vacuum chamber, converting it to steam, which then runs a turbine which generates energy. The steam is then condensed using cold ocean water from lower depths so the cycle can begin again.


OCEAN TIDAL EQR : 5 GGC : 90,000 Mw

35

Mw

Tidal Stream Generator Tidal stream generators use the kinetic energy of moving water to power turbines, very similar to wind turbines. Some tidal generators can be installed on infrastructure such as bridges or breakwaters. Tidal Barrage Generates energy from the potential energy in the different in wave heights between high and low tides. Through the placement of specialied dams, the rising in tides channel into a large basin which is drawn out, powering turbines that drive electric generators. Dynamic Tidal Power Uses the potential and kinetic energy of tidal flows. Long dams being built from the coastline straight out into the open ocean (much like a pier) generate energy from the water level differential in shallow coastal seas. Limited to a specific coastal condition, the system best works in areas of strong coastal-parallel oscillating tidal currents.


OCEAN WAVE EQR : 7 GGC : 2,000,000 Mw

24

Mw

Attenuators Capture wave energy as they are placed in the path of the wave. Situated parallel to the waves and energy is captured over the surface area. Point Absorbers Capture wave energy as they are placed in the path of the wave. Are moored to the sea bed or float near the surface, collecting wave energy from all directions. Overtopping Terminators “These terminators include a stationary component and a component that moves in response to the wave. The "stationary" part could be fixed to the sea floor or shore. It must remain still, in contrast to the movable part. The moving part works kind of like a piston in car -- moving up and down. This motion pressurizes air or oil to drive a turbine.� Oscillating Wave Column (OWC) Terminators Capture water from an opening in to a partially submerged platform and let that water rise in an air column. The air is compressed, which drives a turbine to generate electricity.


71

25

46

20

22

35

24


DESIGN // macro design research - converting the archipelago


TOPOGRAPHY

CURRENT

WIND


URBAN CENTERS by population

ACTIVITY

RESORTS


ENERGY FUEL CELL

By converting the Maldives to a global hub for alternative energy it becomes not only the testing grounds for the future of global energy production, but it secures a economically viable market that will continue to grow over time, a market far more sustainable than tourism or fishing. With the implimentation of alternative energy technologies, the Maldives is making an environmental statement (as it remains a country most affected by global climate change) as well. Large scale conversion to alternative energy sources will provide the country a new, primary export and pit India as its primary consumer as it continues to grow and develop - becoming more in need of energy. With funding from multi-national entities, the development of infrastructure, and the re-purposing of the workforce, the Maldives might find itself at the forefront of a progressive field.


4MW FEEDING: 5

12MW FEEDING: 2

1MW FEEDING: 2

4MW FEEDING: 2

1MW FEEDING: 1

4MW FEEDING: 2

6MW FEEDING: 3

FEEDING: CITY

1MW

10MW FEEDING: 7

3MW FEEDING: 1

11MW FEEDING: 4

6MW FEEDING: 2

12MW FEEDING: 2

4MW FEEDING: 2

4MW FEEDING: 1

FEEDING: CITY

1MW

4MW FEEDING: 3

8MW FEEDING: 5

9MW

FEEDING: CITY

5MW FEEDING: 4

6MW FEEDING: 2

FEEDING: CITY

3MW

3MW FEEDING: 1

7MW

FEEDING: CITY

1MW FEEDING: 3

13MW FEEDING: 3

1MW FEEDING: 2

2MW FEEDING: 4

6MW FEEDING: 7

7MW FEEDING: 3

12MW FEEDING: 3


A

10MW FEEDING: 3

6MW FEEDING: 3

5MW

5MW FEEDING: 3

10MW FEEDING: 2

5MW FEEDING: 3

FEEDING: CITY

10MW FEEDING: 3

5MW FEEDING: 2

6MW FEEDING: 3

5MW FEEDING: 2

12MW FEEDING: 4

FEEDING: 3

9MW

3MW FEEDING: 1

4MW

FEEDING: CITY

(WAVE)

OCEAN

(TIDAL)

OCEAN

(THERMAL)

OCEAN

(OCEAN)

SOLAR

(LAND)

SOLAR

BIOMASS

WIND

SETTLEMENT

ISLES OF MALDIVES

MW

24

MW

35

MW

22

MW

20

MW

46

MW

25

MW

71


Circulation (existing)

Green Space (existing)


Urban Density (Masdar overlay)

Circulation

(Masdar overlay)

Green Space (Masdar overlay)


3

5

5

100 1

POPULATION ADDITION

Adding additional space off the main island to reduce density and accomodate future populations

1

1


MULTINATIONAL DIVISION

Designating new land to multinational energy investors and research entities - providing a means to support long term economic growth.


C

B

2 A D

3

1 E

POWER STATION

ACCESS PORT

PROTECTIVE BUFFER

ENERGY ZONE

HOUSING ZONE

ECLOGICAL ZONE


WIND

HOUSING TOWER A wind tower housing typology is formed based on wind direction and velocity. The tower is tall enough to capture wind but maintains a connection to the existing city of MalĂŠ by maintaining a reasonable footprint within the city grid - twisting to capture wind. By placing these pockets of wind towers in areas with the most prevalent wind, the housing typology might not only produce enough energy to supply its residents, but also enough to being to feed into the city grid.

TIDAL

INVERSE TOWER This housing type acts much like the wind towers, but flipped. The tower, fixed with tidal turbines at a subgrade level, is maintained mostly underwater, capturing energy from tidal currents. With most of its structure existing below the surface the of the water, its unique structural qualities allow it maintain dwellings underwater.

SOLAR

MAT HOUSING The largest scale of the new housing types, the mat solar housing is a low rise, high surface area solution to capturing the sun’s energy. Equipped with large spanning solar skin roofs, cutouts create courtyards to allow for natural light within the mat for residents. Circulation happens within the dense network of housin blocks beneath the solar roof as well as around its edges.

WAVE

JOINT HOUSING The offset joint housing acts much like kinetic wave energy technology, using the displacement of wave heights to capture energy. Perhaps the most unique new type of housing, each building and its units can move freely, connected by joints that drive pistons which drive a generator as each unit offsets and shifts. Unlike the wave technology deployed in open water, this housing type accomodates residents by only shifting slightly with the passing waves - making the space liveable.


B


DESIGN // micro design research - energy producing housing


What is an architecture that is purely about producing energy? What is capturing the sun or wind become more important that the inhabitants inside? How can energy begin to shape form, structure, and facade?


DESIGN CONCEPTS

With four different housing typologies, all uniquely distinct, the wind housing tower was chosen to further develop as wind energy represents the largest potential producer in the Maldives. The tower typology also lends itself well to the urban density issues existing within MalĂŠ which currently exists as a collection of micro-towers. By developing an energy producing tower solution, an offshore infrastructure began to develop alongside the architecture - leading to a pontoon boardwalk type landscape. The ecological zone as both a buffer, but also a green space also became integral in developing the housing tower.


40’ X 40’ 6 FLOORS (average existing)

48’ X 82’ 13 FLOORS (proposed)


95

95

CONNECT TO CITY GRID

PROMOTE CIRCULATION

CAPTURE WIND

CAPTURE SUN


FACADE DIFFERENTIATION

Due to the location of MalĂŠ on the equator, there is a large opportunity to have sun exposure on each facade. Each side of the facade should capture the sun differently. Shading for the interior should be considered as well.


C


ELEV. SE-001

ELEV. NE-002


ELEV. NW-003

ELEV. SW-004


40

DT.R-324

DT.R-36

50

DT.R-250

60

DT.R-116

A

B

70

DT.R-28

C

WIND SOLAR TIDAL

69 112 38

ELEV. NW-003

ELEV. SE-001

80

SPACE HEATING SPACE COOLING WATER HEATING ELECTRONICS LIGHTING VENTILATION REFRIGERATION OTHER

ELECTRICITY NATURAL GAS RENEWABLES USE

TYPE

70 150 20 30 60 80 15 10

33% 17% 50%

” 05’6

0” 137’ EL.+

ELEV. SW-004

+1 +1 0 -1 -1 0 -1 0

-50 -50 +100

ELEV. NE-002

70 75 50 30 60 20 0 0

143 73 219


DT.F-28

DT.T-107

D

F

DT.F-319

DT.F-171

DT.F-179

DT.S-120

DT.C-004

DT.S-39

DT.F-201

DT.R-89 DT.P-100

E

DT.F-165

D

DT.B-43

.-

’0

’0”

63

+21

EL

EL.

EL.+


DT

DT.R-28

C

DT.F-28

DT.R-89 DT.P-100

DT.C-004

DT.F-319

DT.F-165


D

T.F-171

DT.F-201

DT.B-43

DT.F-179


DT.R-250

A DT.R-36

DT.R-116

B

DT.R-324


DT.C-004

DT.F-171

DT.F-28

WIND SOLAR TIDAL

69 112 38


WATER

WIND

SUN


BIBLIOGRAPHY


INFORMATION & INSPIRATION Catalogue: Foster and Partners. Munich: Prestel, 2005. Print. Bullivant, Lucy. Masterplanning Futures. London: Routledge, 2012. Print. Al-Kodmany, Kheir, and Mir M. Ali. The Future of the City: Tall Buildings and Urban Design. Southampton: WIT, 2013. Print. Mayne, Thom, and Val K. Warke. Morphosis. London: Phaidon, 2003. Print. "EVolo | Architecture Magazine." EVolo Architecture Magazine RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2013. "ArchDaily | Broadcasting Architecture Worldwide." ArchDaily. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2013. Denari, Neil M. [CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE. New York: Architectural, 1999. Print. IMAGES http://www.openhydro.com/images/platform.jpg http://www.pelamiswave.com/upload/image/winter_testing_two_pelamis_machines_1.jpg http://www.inhabitat.com/wp-content/uploads/napa3.jpg http://news.stanford.edu/news/2012/september/images/andywind_news.jpg http://iliketowastemytime.com/sites/default/files/Male-Capital-Maldives.jpg


Maldives Proposal 2013  

Converting the Maldives into a Global Alternative Energy Hub