Page 1

2011

...FOR COMMUNITIES, MARKETS AND NEW ECOLOGIES PRECEDENT STUDIES FOR WEINLAND PARK


2011

...FOR COMMUNITIES, MARKETS AND NEW ECOLOGIES PRECEDENT STUDIES FOR WEINLAND PARK

All images in this publica on are from associated project sources, authors of this study, and other publicallly available resources. The work that provided the basis for this publica on was supported by funding under an award with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The substance and findings of the work are dedicated to the public. The author and publisher are solely responsible for the accuracy of the statements and interpreta ons contained in this publica on. Such interpreta ons do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government.


This volume is dedicated to Mary Macklin Jones

DEDICATION AND CONTENTS

For many ciƟzens whose youth was defined by the Great Depression and World War II, the role they played in their communiƟes, neighborhoods, and families transcended their individual acclaim. Mary Macklin was sworn into the Women’s Army Corps by Eleanor Roosevelt. She served as director of the SwiŌ & Company test kitchens, which led to hosƟng a locally televised cooking program. She presided over service organizaƟons from the Minnesota Quilters to her own Victory Garden that fed her family and neighborhood for 60 years. Mom planted seeds of wisdom in all areas of food, living, and love that will long bare fruit.

01 INTRODUCTION


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

CONTENTS

WE WISH TO EXPRESS GRATITUDED TO: GOODNESS GREENNESS BOB SCAMAN GROWING HOME, INC. HARRY RHODES GROWING POWER ERIKA ALLEN GROWING POWER ERIKA HOUGLAND KNOWLTON SCHOOL (KSA) PHIL ARNOLD NEW HARVEST CAFE KWODWO ABABIO OARDC CASEY HOY OARDC JOE KOVACH OSU EXTENSION SUSAN COLBERT OSU EXTENSION MICHAEL HOGAN OSU RESEARCH STUDENT JENNIFER REEVES OSU RESEARCH STUDENT KUHUK SHARMA OSU RESEARCH STUDENT PRIYANKA YADAV OSU RESEARCH STUDENT YUMI CHOI THE DELTA INSTITUTE RYAN ANDERSON THE PLANT MELINDA HOEKSTRA WATER COMMUNITY GARDEN AMANDA ROELLE WEST END MARKET CHRISTINE ZUNIGA EADIE

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 ICONS AND SCALE MARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . 11

APPENDIX

AND

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . 113

KNOWLTON SCHOOL of ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH TEAM : ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR GRADUATE RESEARCH ASSOCIATE GRADUATE RESEARCH ASSOCIATE INSTRUCTOR GRAPHIC DESIGNER

CHARISMA ACEY JACOB ROSS BOSWELL KATHERINE BENNETT KAY BEA JONES REBECCA KEMPER ROYA SEYEDSADRY SARAH BONGIORNO JONATHAN LEONARD

RESEARCH PROJECT SUPPORTED BY : INTERNATIONAL POVERTY SOLUTIONS COLLABORATIVE OF THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY ( IPSC ) KNOWLTON SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE OF THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY ( KSA ) MID-OHIO REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION AND COMMUNITY CHALLENGE GRANT STEERING COMMITTEE ( MORPC ) US DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT ( HUD ) INTRODUCTION 02

DEDICATION AND CONTENTS

LIST OF CASE STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 15 . SCALE TOOLBOX 29 . SCALE HOUSE 35 . SCALE ROOFTOP 43 . SCALE BLOCK 57 . SCALE NEIGHBORHOOD 71 . SCALE CITY 87 . SCALE REGION 95 . MAP OF CASE STUDIES 97 . SCALE NATION


FOODSHEDS, URBAN FARMSCAPES AND MARKET ECOLOGIES OF THE NEW CITY PRECEDENT RESEARCH FOR THE WEINLAND PARK FOOD CENTER

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

Na onwide Americans are experiencing a wave of food-conscious cultural transforma ons. From Michael Pollan’s defense of local food in the wake of industrial farm monocultures to ubiquitous ba les against childhood obesity and other health pa erns connected to our poor nutri on, we appear ready to atone. Yet while Americans run from our fad diets and fast food habits, and try to recall what our grandparents knew about healthy ea ng, we face blighted urban neighborhoods in many ci es that have been called food deserts where even the working poor struggle to acquire sufficient calories for their families. As the wealthiest na on on the planet with so many resources, how did we get to a level of inequity in food access with so many hungry children below the poverty level? And more importantly, how do we change this condi on? The Victory Gardens of World War II once gave nearly every family with a yard the chance to eat healthy produce. We must establish quality of life indicators that measure well-being based food security for all ci zens. As we note the ineffec veness of corner stores and the absence of well-stocked supermarkets in inner city neighborhoods, urban revitaliza on has a new challenge; yet we are presented with opportuni es. If blighted lands, abandoned housing, and remediated territories are in need of rehabilita on, the opportunity to grow local food presents possibili es for jobs, nutri on educa on, small business development, and social ac vi es that unite communi es while improving health.

03 INTRODUCTION

The following compila on of selected projects, organiza ons, food hubs, distribu on networks, and ecological innova ons is intended to s mulate crea ve thinking and challenge assump ons about the role of food produc on in urban redevelopment. By focusing on some key issues, including food security, business models, social jus ce, community knowledge, jobs, legisla on, and youth, while recognizing the promise of ecological advancements in infrastructure such as roo op farming, we aim to paint a canvas that predicts an urban farming future for the City of Columbus. The wealth of ideas and contemporary projects from rust-belt ci es to communi es across the globe invites op mism. Everybody eats. We are faced with the need to revitalize our food systems and our ci es. Urban agriculture presents promise for both.


FOOD SECURITY

Food insecurity and hunger are also determinants of the broader social, economic, and ins tu onal characteris cs of communi es in which they occur. Of par cular concern are those factors that affect the availability, accessibility, and affordability of food, such as the proximity of retail food store, the variety, quality, and price of food for sale; the adequacy of public transporta on to support food access; and the sustainability of local food produc on and marke ng infrastructures.

holds, food spending is o en the most flexible item in the family budget and the first to get cut when unexpected economic events occur, such as job loss or high medical expenses. Community food security concerns the underlying social, economic, and ins tu onal factors within a community that affect the quan ty and quality of available food, and its affordability for a specific community, which can vary in scale. The USDA has targeted community food security in its recent research, resul ng in grant support for food hubs. A en on to the overall health of rural and urban communi es at a regional scale, while suppor ng interdependencies and food chain values that seek to balance supply and demand, has been shown to posi vely impact community food security.

Food insecurity for 10% of the popula on implies high public health costs to both communi es and individuals through reduced cogni ve development in children, impaired work performance and earnings poten al for adults, and lower intake of key nutrients. This in turn leads to increased medical costs, disability, and pre-mature death due to diet–related illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease and obesity, which are preventable. Socioeconomic and demographic factors, including household size, homeownership, educa on level, accrued savings, and access to health care have been shown to be addi onal determinants, independent of household income. For such house-

INTRODUCTION 04

INTRODUCTION

The U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) es mates that at least one in ten American households is food insecure; that is, they do not have access at all mes to enough food for an ac ve and healthy life, without recourse to emergency food sources or other extraordinary coping behaviors to meet their basic food needs. Household food security is defined, at a minimum, as ready availability to nutri onally adequate and safe food with an assured ability to acquire healthy food in socially acceptable ways.


BUSINESS MODELS AND FOOD HUBS

INTRODUCTION

The types of opera onal structures and business plans for innova ve food-based industries vary as widely as the contents, sizes, loca ons, patrons, products grown and employment models of the urban farms and infrastructure we have iden fied. One of the most significant variables concerns start up funding sources, amounts, and plans for con nuing opera onal support—both financial and in-kind. Some projects in this compila on have been selected specifically for the ingenuity and poten al applicability of their business models. A few are for-profit opera ons, while the majority of food hubs and urban agricultural installa ons are non-profit endeavors that were begun and con nue to operate with a mix of philanthropic, founda on and government subsidies. Will Allen has noted that the difference between them in food industries is negligible. Specific components of interest include provisions for training and jobs, impacts on historic neighborhoods, economic enrichment of exis ng urban areas, cost and availability of land resources, diminishing transporta on distance and storage me for healthy fresh food, assets in physical structures, buildings and urban spaces, and the allied social impact and improved quality of life that comprise each project’s mission. Food hubs have grown rapidly in recent years as suppliers of local food help neighborhood cafes and restaurants as a wholesale source and supply individual buyers with fresh, local food. A “food hub” is defined by the USDA as “a facility centrally located to serve its region with a business management structure to facilitate the aggrega on, storage, processing, distribu on, and/or marke ng of locally/regionally produced food products.” Food hubs typically provide an integrated

05 INTRODUCTION

approach to food access and address food deserts by providing high quality, locally produced consumables. The three core components of hubs include aggrega on and distribu on, ac ve coordina on of supply chains, and permanent facili es providing space, equipment, knowledgeable staff, and community iden ty. There are currently over 100 food hubs na onwide, many clustered in the Midwest and northeast, and the USDA is suppor ng and tracking their expansion. Detroit’s Eastern Market, led by urban planner Dan Carmody from a public market to a food hub, is an example of a food-centered urban redevelopment ini a ve in its early stages. The Wallace Center of Winrock Interna onal received a 63% response rate to its survey of food hubs and public markets conducted during spring 2011 providing key economic data. Average food hub sales are nearly $1 million annually. On average, each food hub creates 13 jobs. The median number of small and midsize suppliers served by an individual food hub is 40. Nearly 40% of food hubs were started by entrepreneurial producers, nonprofits, volunteer organiza ons, or producer groups, of which 31% received founda on support to begin operaons and 29% currently have funding from founda ons. Over 40% of exis ng food hubs are specifically working in "food deserts" to increase access to fresh, healthful and local products in communi es underserved by common retail outlets. JOBS AND YOUTH While urban gardens cannot replace other strategies to reduce food insecurity and promote economic development, they are very effec ve at local income redistribu on and income independence while building community engagement. Entrepreneurial community


There are a variety of formal compensa on schemes in community agricultural programs. These include revenue sharing models, where rather than pay an hourly wage, earnings are collected from sales with expenses subtracted, then profits are divided among par cipa ng

worker-families. Some projects, such as Food from the ‘Hood, award points to students for hours worked, which they cash in a er graduaon for scholarship money to a college of their choice. Case studies show that wages and employment figures tend to be modest but have high impact, given that they support the hard to employ with wages that will be reinvested locally.

INTRODUCTION

gardens also provide significant avenues for youth and adult educaon, employment and entrepreneurship. Such gardens include formal retail components selling garden products and employing community residents. O en these projects target specific popula ons such as at-risk youth or may mix popula ons such as youth with seniors or the homeless. Adult-oriented projects focus on paid work, employing people from 20 to 30 hours per week at above minimum wage. Around the country, novel projects use gardens to generate economic development through new jobs, job training, and value-added businesses. These kinds of ac vi es are especially cri cal given persistent federal cuts to the social safety net.

In selec ng cases for this sec on, we focused on precedents with successful track records and targeted objec ves in providing educaon and training to the unemployed, living wage employment, and business development opportuni es for at-risk popula ons, such as ex-oenders and at-risk youth. The Gary Comer Youth Center on Chicago’s South Side is of par cular interest as the home of the neighborhood drill team housed in award-winning architecture. Serving youths 8-18 with advancement programs, the produc vity of its landscapes, which include a 1/3 acre year round roo op garden, help provide 175 meals served per day.

INTRODUCTION 06


SOCIAL COMMUNITY AND KNOWLEDGE What does it mean to plan for community? How does one address this issue in a culturally diverse, economically distressed neighborhood? We propose that through respect for pre-exis ng knowledge along with the transmission of new, market-ready skills to Weinland Park residents, the exis ng neighborhood can emerge as a healthier, more vibrant community. And such efforts could be best focused upon a universal commodity common to all socio-economic classes, food.

integrate older genera onal knowledge of canning and compos ng with newer intensive gardening techniques to enhance a community’s food produc on capacity and know-how. Other programs, such as The Rural Enterprise Center in southern Minnesota, assess community members’ pre-exis ng food produc on knowledge to help guide them into curricula that fill their knowledge gaps. And there are community knowledge building ini a ves focused on K-12 classrooms, such as the New York Edible Schoolyard program, which aligns gardening skills with New York’s educa onal requirements.

INTRODUCTION

Community and knowledge building around market-ready food prepara on and produc on skills could be the contemporary Victory Garden model for rebuilding the economically distressed residen al neighborhood of Weinland Park. ECO STRUCTURES

In the words of Berkeley’s planning researcher, Alvaro Huerta, “it takes more than a village.” Revitaliza on efforts should focus on evidence-based case studies that respect and add to the community’s pre-exis ng knowledge and heritage. Programs such as the South End Lower Roxbury Open Space Land Trust (SELROSLT) and Growing Power, Inc (Will Allen) establish non-profit en es that work to acquire garden produc on spaces for community and sustainable food produc on that include knowledge building. Such programs

07 INTRODUCTION

Eco-structures a empt to a ain sustainability in urban and rural environments in eco-systema c ways, such as reconciling mul ple complex systems in order to create projects that are environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable. This is typically referred to as the triple bo om line. Like the social objec ves that may be achieved through innova ve urban community farming, it must be recognized that fiscal economies are inextricably linked to environmental and social wellbeing. One cri cal connec on between projects in this category is that they all share a desire to u lize exis ng, untapped resources –more tradi onally considered as waste – in order to aid in closing the project’s material loop, or as a way of establishing a secondary or ter ary energy, revenue, and social good. These characteris cs place


Notably, projects in this category span the range of high to low technological components. Advanced “net-zero” housing such as that found at BedZED incorporate highly technological components like photovoltaics and combined heat and power biomass plants while also paying close a en on to simple low-tech concerns such as efficient solar orienta on and effec ve insula on.

The Bio-Works Pyramid, or Kolding Pyramid, exemplifies this project type. On the surface the Bio-Works Pyramid is a simple a empt at redevelopment of an urban residen al block. Yet in addi on, the designers sought to experiment with block level, wastewater treatment. By playing out the ramifica ons of closing the wastewater loop within the ght confines of the block, the designers were able to augment stages of standard biological wastewater treatment in order to create a thriving public space, add value to the nearby residen al units, create animal habitat, and provide space and water for small scale hor cultural produc on.

Although generally more expensive at the outset, it is the aim of projects in this category to eventually offset elevated ini al costs with net long-term savings in energy, water, space, and environmental impact. And while the number of these projects that have been in existence long enough to provide reliable data are scarce, some long-term projects do exist. Residents of BedZED, for example, consistently use fi y to sixty percent less electricity and water than their peers in more tradi onally housing.

INTRODUCTION 08

INTRODUCTION

Eco-Structures within an emerging set of ‘layered’ projects, that is, projects that ask singular spaces to perform in mul ple ways – to be, for instance, both well inhabited civic spaces while also taking on a produc ve or infrastructural role. Or, alterna vely, to be an efficient waste water system that also provides the opportunity for social ac vity, learning, and public interac on.


For the purposes of this report we have looked specifically at projects that support local agriculture and/or sustainable urban communi es that are comparable to Weinland Park in terms of their socioeconomic condi on and rela ve scale and/or density. Projects were selected for their documented success at achieving stated goals along with their prominence as na onal and interna onal models of sustainable design.

INTRODUCTION

ROOFTOP GARDENING Roo op agriculture can evolve into a las ng movement with con nued support from growers, consumers, educators and designers, in what has been described as local foodscape architecture. By extrapola ng from roo ops, we can envision hybrids of produc ve landscapes and buildings. This model employs roo ops, courtyards, solid exterior walls and curtain walls, in short, any means of growing food on inhabited structures. Urban agriculture and green roofs offer opportuni es to create produc ve roo ops while reducing carbon, especially in dense, built up areas. While green roofs may be used for environmental reasons, urban agriculture’s goal is also to use all available city spaces, such as those abandoned or deemed without value, to produce food. Roo ops have many ecological benefits, including: reduc on of the urban heat island effect, decrease in storm water, decrease in energy

09 INTRODUCTION


used for hea ng and cooling, improvement in air quality, diminu on of global climate change, job generators, building community, food produc on, improvement in community access to locally grown food, sustainable support for growing popula ons, be er access to fresh food, and reduc on in fuel consump on associated with transportaon from distant farms.

- Kay Bea Jones Knowlton School of Architecture The Ohio State University

INTRODUCTION

As designers, we are faced with an extraordinary opportunity. Ci es in need of revitaliza on to address changes in land use with residenal popula ons posi oned to improve quality of life in their neighborhoods are inves ng in urban farming. Growing food and flowers on roo ops and small urban patches are not viewed as independently lucra ve economic ventures in themselves. Instead the poten al benefits of youth and adult educa on and job training, incuba on of allied food based industries, social exchange around shared meals, collec ve clean up of abandoned lands, and community building to engage residents in the beau fica on of their neighborhoods, all promote a healthy urban lifestyle. The poten al for success lies in the hands of urban dwellers that are mo vated to take back their neighborhoods.

farming around the Midwest and beyond inspires several ideas for food-centered futures. Weinland Park and her ci zens are well posi oned to become the most dynamic model yet of the new American urban farmscape.

Joint eorts of planners, designers, investors, and neighbors will be required to address the most complex urban areas in mes of economic struggle where chronic health issues, lack of jobs, drug infesta on and home foreclosures have taken their toll in recent years. The re-crea on of vibrant urban neighborhoods through coopera ve investment of me and energy promises healthier lives with food produc on and consump on as a core value to improve everyday life. This compila on of recent interven ons in urban

INTRODUCTION 10


CROSS-REFERENCE ICONS Many of the case studies contained in this book have more than one innova ve aspect to them and while the case study write up may only showcase the most innova ve thing about the project, we wanted to be sure that other notewhorthy aspects to each project were called to a en on. To that eect, an icon system was developed to help corss reference. If on of these icons is present on a case studey detail page, we deemed it innova ve in that category as well.

ICONS AND SCALE MARKERS

PRODUCE

FRUIT TREES

POLINATORS

RAINWATER HARVESTING

AQUACULTURE

COMPOSTING

These icons are not used as simply a checklist of program elements, but rather to highlight where that certain project is par cularly successful.

SCALE The case studies showcased in this book are organized by scale star ng with the scale of one tool or implementa on technique and growing outward to include the house, one block, a neighborhood, a city, whole regions and finally na ons.

TOOLBOX

11 INTRODUCTION

HOUSE

ROOFTOP


JOBS

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

CLOSED LOOP SYSTEMS

YEAR-ROUND PRODUCTION

BICYCLE PATH / TRANSPORTATION

BLOCK

YOUTH PROGRAMMING

NEIGHBORHOOD

TRANSPORTING GOODS

IMMIGRATION

EDUCATION + TRAINING

FLOWERS

INTEGRATED HOUSING

WILDLIFE

COMMUNITY

CITY

REGION

INTRODUCTION 12

ICONS AND SCALE MARKERS

BUSINESS MODEL


TOOLBOX 15 - 28

01

LIST OF CASE STUDIES

These projects and ini a ves are at the scale of the object, they represent transferable ideas and concepts that could include such projects as innova ve containers, hoop houses, chicken coops, etc. Chicken Coops by Omlet - UK Mobile Food Collec ve - Chicago, IL Mount Dennis Mobile Kitchen - Toronto CAN SVSU Compost Machine - University Center, MI Compos ng Recipe - Milwaukee, WI Modular Ecological Design - Wooster, OH The High Tunnel - Wooster, OH Raised Beds - Wooster, OH Asphalt Gardening - Wooster, OH Public Farm 1 - New York, NY Project Have Hope Sack Gardens - Kampala, Uganda HOUSE 29 - 34 02 These projects and ini a ves are at the scale of the home and may include ideas for the single family house or mul unit buildings. Urban Homestead - Pasadena, CA Troy Gardens - Madison, WI Edible Estates - UK & USA Urban Habitat Chicago - Chicago, IL ROOFTOP 35 - 42 03 These projects and ini a ves are at the scale of the roo op, they represent innova ve ideas on some of the most underu lized space in ci es. 2nd Street Residence - Brooklyn, NY Uncommon Ground - Chicago, IL Bas lle Cafe and Bar - SeaĆŠle, WA Forest House - Bronx, NY Gary Comer Youth Center Green Roof - Chicago, IL Brooklyn Grange - Brooklyn, NY

13 INTRODUCTION

BLOCK 43 - 56

04

These projects and ini a ves are the scale of the urban block. They represent smaller scale community gardens (one acre or less) with only one or two loca ons. Blue Pike Farm - Cleveland, OH Chicago Urban Lights Farm - Chicago, IL Eco Village Produce - Cleveland, OH Emme Avenue Community Gardens - Toronto, CAN Fort York Community Gardens - Toronto, CAN Edible Schoolyard - New York, NY City Farmer - Vancouver, BC New Harvest Cafe & Urban Arts Center - Columbus, OH Felege Hiywot Center - Indianapolis, IN Permacultural Ar sans - Sebastopol, CA Greensgrow Philly - Philadelphia, PA NEIGHBORHOOD 57 - 70

05

These projects and ini a ves are at the scale of a neighborhood or community. The projects are all larger than one acre and/or have mul ple loca ons throughout a neighborhood. These projects are beginning to form a network within their neighborhood. Jones Valley Urban Farm - Birmingham, AL D-Town Farms - Detroit, MI Earthworks Urban Farm - Detroit, MI Community Design Center for Minnesota - St. Paul, MN Toronto Urban Farm - Toronto, CAN Veggie Project Teaching Kitchen - Memphis, TN BedZED - United Kingdom Iron Street Farm - Chicago, IL Waters Community Garden - Chicago, IL Village Gardens - Portland, OR Growing Home: Wood Street Urban Farm - Chicago, IL


CITY 71 - 86

06

REGION 87 - 94

07

These projects and iniƟaƟves are at the regional scale and represent resources and projects that go beyond the city itself. Urban Agriculture Hub - Toronto, CAN Pollinator Partnership & NAPPC - Eastern Broadleaf Forest Wooster Food Hub - Wooster, OH Goodness Greeness Food Hub - Chicago, IL North Bay InsƟtute of Green Technology, Sonoma County Permaculture ArƟsans The New Agrarian City - Northeast Ohio Goodness Grows - Youngstown, OH

ACGA (American Community Gardening AssociaƟon) Central Ohio Local Food Assessment and Plan Community Food Security CoaliƟon Growing Power Workshop Programs InsƟtute of Urban Homesteading NaƟonal Good Food Network North Bay InsƟtute of Green Technology North American Biodynamic ApprenƟceship Program Resources Centers on Urban Agriculture and Food Security Rural Enterprise Center USDA-United States Department of Agriculture VerƟcal Farm Ecology Wallace Center at Winrock InternaƟonal Chicago Building Chicago’s Community Food Systems Chicago Food Policy Advisory Council Delta InsƟtute Urban Habitat Chicago Detroit The Greening of Detroit Detroit Black Community Food Security Network Detroit CollaboraƟve Design Center, Detroit Mercy Philadelphia Healthy Corner Store IniƟaƟve Rodale InsƟtute Ohio The Cleveland Memory Project Feeding Cleveland: Urban Agriculture Evergreen CooperaƟves Ohio State University Organic Food & Farm EducaƟon Research Program Ohio State University Urban Agriculture Program INTRODUCTION 14

LIST OF CASE STUDIES

These projects and iniƟaƟves are at the scale of the city. These projects are larger than 10 acres and also could include infrastructure projects and other larger system based or community outreach projects or iniƟaƟves. Green Reach : Botanic Garden Youth Program - Brooklyn, NY Burnsville Rainwater Gardens - Burnsville, MN Rio Grande Community Garden - Albuquerque, NM SeaƩle Market Gardens - SeaƩle, WA Recovery Park - Detroit, MI Four Seasons City Farm - Columbus, OH South End/Lower Roxbury Community Gardens - Boston, MA White Bay Eco City 2050 - Sydney, Australia Parc Downsview Park - Toronto, CAN Evergreen Brickworks - Toronto, CAN Kronsberg - Hanover, Germany Cultural Trail - Indianapolis, IN Waste Energy Use - Copenhagen, Denmark Middlesbrough Urban Farming Project - Middlesbrough, UK Chef’s Kitchen - Los Angeles, CA Sweetwater Organics - Milwaukee, WI Growing Power - Milwaukee, IL & Chicago, IL GreenCorps - Chicago, IL The Food Trust - Detroit, MI Grown in Detroit - Detroit, MI Five Borough Farm - New York, NY

NATION 97 - 112


TOOLBOX ideally with recycled gray water, and containment structures that increase produc vity have economic and ecological implica ons. Designs to accommodate plants in raised beds, self-watering planter boxes, and recycled sacks make it possible to grow food on hardscapes. Polyculture plan ng techniques that limit the need for pes cides and affordable, mobile enclosures that extend growing seasons can increase food produc vity while improving the taste and nutri on of our food. The set of selected tools in this array represent only a few of the possible support structures that can make growing food on ght and limited ground a viable reality to posi vely impact food deserts in urban America. Based on familiar agrarian principles, local climates and available resources, it is meant as an inspira on for more new well-designed ideas.

TOOLBOX

The virtues of applying good design to solve formal problems as applicable devices range in impact from the scale of the ar fact to the city. Work AC’s installa on for New York City’s PS1 [PF1] serves as an inspira onal public demonstraon of the poten al aesthe c and social assets in produc ve urban spaces. If they are beau ful, enjoyable and engaged by city dwellers, these installa ons may sa sfy a recrea onal func on while educa ng a mass audience. At the scale of the object, devices for rapid vermi-compos ng at home and others for solving food access challenges through pedal powered distribu on vehicles suggest systems that introduce new possibili es and efficiencies. Adequate irriga on,

SCALE INTRODUCTION

Case studies included in this first category feature a series of transferable elements that facilitate urban agriculture. Where adequate space, sunlight and soil are at a premium, as in most ci es, these components can increase produc vity, efficiency and affordability of public and private a empts to produce food locally. Some examples illustrated here are well designed contemporary devices such as chicken coops and mechanical compost machines that address the challenges of bringing ordinary rural prac ces into densely populated environments and accomplishing effec ve results without nuisance to neighbors and environments. Some toolbox cases are truly novel inven ons, while others appear as reinterpreta ons of tradi onal prac ces.

TOOLBOX 16


Chicken Coops by Omlet Contact: h p://www.omlet.co.uk Designer: Omlet UK Date: On the Market

CHICKEN COOPS BY OMLET

There has been an increasing trend in ci es towards of people raising chickens in their private yards. Many ci es are responding by changing current codes and regula ons that prohibit such ac vity to accommodate and embrace the new prac ce. However, concerns about the noise, cleanliness and the suitability of raising animals such as chickens within city limits are s ll very much present.

TOOLBOX

Omlet, a UK based company, has developed an innova ve series of chicken coops that provide not only a safe space for chickens to live and flourish, but also a nicely designed object that can easily be customized to many residen al loca ons. Each of their three different designs provides a different scale shelter for the chicken that will protect it from fox and other animal prey as well as the weather. The coops provide shade and include specially configured food and water containers. These chicken coops are successful at providing an affordable, well designed solu on to the issues of raising livestock in the city. Omlet also designed apiaries as well as housing structures for other small animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs. Omlet provides training courses on chicken keeping and bee keeping. These courses are run by customers and are currently only available in the UK.

Sources: h p://www.omlet.co.uk/homepage/ h p://www.ryerson.ca/carrotcity/products.html

17 TOOLBOX


Mobile Food CollecƟve Contact: Mar n Felsen, Director of Archeworks Designer: Archeworks Status: Built

MOBILE FOOD COLLECTIVE

The Mobile Food Collec ve is an innova ve cart for distribu ng all parts of the urban agriculture process from plan ng to consuming. This Mobile Food Cart was designed by students from Archeworks, a Chicago based alterna ve design program, and was exhibited in the 2010 Venice Biennale. The cart can be moved to different loca ons and can perfrom a variety of func ons including distributing seeds and tools for plan ng, as a farmer’s market stand to distribute produce or as a table for cooking classes and demonstraons.

TOOLBOX

Archeworks o en collaborates with community organiza ons to leverage design and also serve local ini a ves or programs. This project came out of the school’s ongoing interest in how infrastructure can be used to create public architecture, but also to seek to improve a current problem in today’s society, in this case access to healthy food. Archeworks ini ally partnered with the Gary Comer Youth Center and the cart was to be used to expand the farming ini a ves at the center, but it has grown into a movement all its own. “The MFC (Mobile Food Collec ve) is many things; an educa on/exchange pla orm for plan ng, growing and cooking; demonstra ons and distribu on of seeds, soil, compost, and produce; a space ac vator within a community event; the centerpiece of a harvest dinner.” - MFC webpage. The project’s success is due to its ability to operate at different scales, the larger mobile unit houses the harvest table with flexible storage cabinets that can also be used as seats. While at a smaller scale, bicycles and trailers are equipped to carry modular storage units for distribu ng seed, soil, food etc. This fluid mobility allows the MFC to go anywhere, bringing different things to a variety of audiences.

TOOLBOX 18


Mount Dennis Mobile Community Kitchen MT DENNIS MOBILE COMMUNITY KITCHEN

Contact: Adrian Blackwell Designer: University of Toronto, M. Arch Students Led by Professor Adrian Blackwell Status: Built (2008)

The Mount Dennis Mobile Community Kitchen is a collabora on between students and faculty at the University of Toronto and the Mount Dennis Community Kitchen. The project was born from three simple goals within the studio curriculum: 1. to build a full scale performing structure, 2. to work with a community group, and 3 to focus on an urgent issue within the city. In this case the produc on, distribu on and consump on of healthy food within selected communi es. The studio class began with a series of community meals at which the students presented evolving designs and ideas to residents while cooking and ea ng together.

TOOLBOX

Through this series of meals/mee ngs the students developed the final design, which centered around the use of the bicycle to house three dierent components needed in a community kitchen. The first bicycle housed three large garbage cans for distribu ng and collec ng. The second bicycle serves as the prepping and cooking cart, accommoda ng a grill and a sink that unpacks to double its size. The third bicycle serves as the ea ng and distribu ng cart, which has a large fold-out surface which can be used as a table or market counter. The users can assemble the three carts in dierent configura ons depending on the site and event. This innova ve project brings together the need for a community to feed its people with the flexibility of an object that can meet the needs from produc on to consump on. This project has been built full scale and served many community meals and events. Sources: h p://www.ryerson.ca/carrotcity/products.html h p://cca-ac ons.org/ac ons/mount-dennis-mobile-community-kitchen

19 TOOLBOX


SVSU Compost Machine Contact: Edward Meisel, SVSU Professor Designers: Jason Haubenstricker, Douglas Bu erfield, Brennan MacMillan, Professor Edward Meisel Status: Built (2011)

SVSU COMPOST MACHINE

Three Saginaw Valley State University students along with their professor developed a compos ng machine that makes compos ng both simple and fast. The ini al idea was conceived by professor Meisel, while the three students designed and built the final working prototype.

TOOLBOX

The WFARM (Worm Factory; Automa on and Recycling Ma er) takes organic waste materials, such as food scraps, grass clippings and leaves,and coee grounds from the SVSU dining halls and Starbucks and turns them into rich organic soil in just 5 days. The material ini ally goes through a grinder that is powered by electricity for one minute per day. A er the ini al grinding the Red Wriggler worms go to work and break down the material into vermicompost and worm tea. The machine weighs roughly 400 pounds empty and the prototype cost was less than $2000. Professor Meisel believes the system could handle up to 100 pounds of food per week.,The exis ng prototype has been tested to handle up to 25 pounds of food. With access to good soil being one of the biggest obstacles to successful urban gardening, this inven on could help create good soil for rapid distribu on within urban communi es. This compost machine could provide an infrastructural asset at the scale of the residence or neighborhood for those interested in growing their own food. Similar to cardboard, newspaper, plas c, glass and metal recycling, organic food and garden waste can be collected at recycling centers. Residents who donate their food scraps and grass clippings to the compost machine can return a week later to pick up fresh organic soil for their gardens.

Sources: h p://ws/saginaw/index.ssf/2011/06/making_worm_tea_svsu_students.html

TOOLBOX 20


Growing Power Compost Recipe

GROWING POWER COMPOST RECIPE

Contact: Will Allen, Growing Power Designer: Will Allen Status: Ac ve

The “Path to Freedom” Urban Homestead project began in 1985 when the Dervaes Family of four in Pasadena, California made a decision to change their lifestyle to become more self-sufficient and environmentally conscience. They set out to transform their ordinary urban lot into a model of sustainable urban living. The lot is 66‘x132’ and is able to provide the family with 6,000 pounds of organic produce each year, which meets 99% of their produce needs. The family es mates that they eat for about $2.00 per day per person. They have over 400 different varie es of flowers, vegetables and fruits, and they gross roughly $20,000 annually from the produce they sell at their Front Porch Farm Stand. The family has taken further steps into living a more sustainable lifestyle by powering their house with alterna ve energy and making home-brew bio-diesel for their car.

TOOLBOX

The Urban Homestead offers workshops, lectures, classes, and film screenings to share skills and ideas to others interested in the urban homesteading lifestyle. They created a website to distribute ideas and informa on to a wider audience and keep a blog about the happenings in and around the Urban Homestead. This noteworthy project shows that one family can make a difference in their own lives and the lives of others. The original dream of transforming one block gave birth to a number of other outlets. The family now manages the Front Porch Farm Stand, host events and workshops, offers up their garden as a set for filming and photography. Un l 2006 their outreach endeavors were funded privately by the family, however they now are a private founda on and non-profit which allows them access to other funds for their outreach efforts.

Sources: Growing Power Workshop, July 16-17, 2011

21 TOOLBOX


Modular Ecological Design Contact: Size: Date:

Joe Kovach, OARDC 1.4 acres 2008 - 2011

MODULAR ECOLOGICAL DESIGN

OARDC’s (Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center) Modular Ecological Design Project makes use of a modular plot (roughly 44’ x 60’) and a polyculture system for growing crops to test for effec veness in the reduc on of pests without chemical addi ves, thus striving to eliminate the use of pes cides. This experimental project in Wooster, Ohio u lizes two main concepts of gene c and spa al diversity.

TOOLBOX

Typical large scale food produc on uses rows of the same type of crop, which o en leads to wide spread devasta on when a pest a acks that par cular crop, requiring pes cide use. In a polyculture system, different crop types are mixed together to make it less suscep ble to pest damage. The other concept explored in this experiment is the use of spa al diversity by plan ng crops in specific loca ons rela ve to each other to achieve a height differenal. For example, the taller perennial crops (apple and peach trees) are planted in a row next to a lower growing crop (strawberries, blueberries, tomatoes). This height differen al confuses pests, including birds, thus making it hard for them to take hold within a field. Another experimental plot at OARDC uses this same strategy but in a checkerboard design, varying the height of the crops in two different direc ons. Typically if a pest gets onto a crop, it will follow the line of the crop, con nuing to cause problems un l the crop line ends. By varying the crop type and height in two direc ons, damage is significantly reduced. In the same test plots, raised beds proved to improve plant health by allowing aeria on of plants at the root level. While the 7-year polyculture experiment proved successful, Japanese Beetles and animal pests, including mice remain problema c. The use of fencing was prescribed along with the use of special wrap or paint on the bo om of the trees to prevent pests from ea ng the tree bark and roots.

TOOLBOX 22


The High Tunnel Contact: Date: Status:

Joe Kovach, OARDC 2008 - 2011 Ac ve

THE HIGH TUNNEL

A subset experiment within the Modular Ecological Design experiment at OARDC in Wooster, Ohio was the use of High Tunnels. High Tunnels are half circular frames built with bent metal tubing anchored in the ground covered with wind resistant plas c or visquine. Their height is determined to accommodate standing inside and plant types, including taller crops like fruit trees. The High Tunnels are simple and low tech, but serve to significantly extend the growing season for midwest climates. The OARDC was able to harvest produce grown in high tunnels weeks early demonstra ng the opportunity to be first to market. In the spring, doors are placed on the high tunnels which helps to keep the inside temperature warmer thus leading to the earlier harvest.

TOOLBOX

Typical pollinators, including birds, bees, bu erflies, and insects enter high tunnels when doors are opened daily for a couple hours. For gravity and wind pollinated crops like strawberries, a broom is used to brush the rows to kick up the necessary pollen exchange. Once into the growing season, the doors are removed.

23 TOOLBOX


Raising Beds Contact: Date: Status:

Joe Kovach, OARDC 2008 - 2011 Ac ve

RAISING BEDS

Troy Gardens is a 26 acre mixed-income community that follows the principles of co-housing, and includes organic community gardens and agricultural farming along with natural areas restora on management. Troy Gardens came about through a process that involved the landscape architecture firm Ziegler Design Associates along with the community as a whole. The project developed from a visionary idea to realiza on through a series of charre es and community mee ngs in which future community residents lead the design process. Troy Gardens integrates community gardens, an organic farm, and restored prairie and woodlands. State-owned surplus land provided parcels to begin the community’s vision for a new neighborhood combining housing with open space and local agriculture. A non-profit organiza on, Community Groundworks, a community land trust, was set up to help develop, manage and steward the Troy Gardens Community. The children who live in the 30 co-housing residences along with other kids from local community centers work together to plant and maintain a “kids garden.” The produce from the gardens is used in cooking lessons and community meals, while surpluses are donated to local food banks.

TOOLBOX

“Troy Gardens is many projects rolled into one. It is about feeding a community with a culturally and economically diverse popula on and teaching residents - both young and old - the skills to grow, prepare, preserve and sell their own food, and to care about the environmental resources around them. It is about growing community ownership and cul va ng a sense of place. It is about community residents and local ins tu ons working together to preserve, sustain and strengthen their community” (Zielger Design Associates, 2005)

TOOLBOX 24


Asphalt Gardening Contact: Date: Status:

Joe Kovach, OARDC 2011 - Current Ac ve

ASPHALT GARDENING

A newly established research ini a ve at OARDC (Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center) in Wooster, Ohio is a series of experimental plots located on an old parking lot behind a decommissioned campus dormitory building. The project involves methodologies for growing food on urban hardscapes. Compara ve plot strategies for polyculture plan ng from previous experiments are located on grass areas adjacent to the parking lot. Three dierent plot types were created. For the first series, large round containers each with fruit bush or tree occupying a single container. For the second series, taller raised beds (2 feet) are built in plas c lined wire frames, and for the third plot, plan ng beds were cut into the asphalt in rows trenched 12-18 inches below the surface with a small raised bed placed on top with 6-8 inches of soil.

TOOLBOX

This experiment is in the early stages, so data is not yet available . The results will provide data to assess preferred models for growing crops on hardscapes rather than in the ground.

25 TOOLBOX


Public Farm 1 Funded: MoMA & P.S.1’s Young Architects Program Designer: WORKac Date: Summer 2008, Temporary Installa on

PUBLIC FARM 1

Troy Gardens is a 26 acre mixed-income community that follows the principles of co-housing, and includes organic community gardens and agricultural farming along with natural areas restora on management. Troy Gardens came about through a process that involved the landscape architecture firm Ziegler Design Associates along with the community as a whole. The project developed from a visionary idea to realiza on through a series of charre es and community mee ngs in which future community residents lead the design process. Troy Gardens integrates community gardens, an organic farm, and restored prairie and woodlands. State-owned surplus land provided parcels to begin the community’s vision for a new neighborhood combining housing with open space and local agriculture. A non-profit organiza on, Community Groundworks, a community land trust, was set up to help develop, manage and steward the Troy Gardens Community. The children who live in the 30 co-housing residences along with other kids from local community centers work together to plant and maintain a “kids garden.” The produce from the gardens is used in cooking lessons and community meals, while surpluses are donated to local food banks.

TOOLBOX

“Troy Gardens is many projects rolled into one. It is about feeding a community with a culturally and economically diverse popula on and teaching residents - both young and old - the skills to grow, prepare, preserve and sell their own food, and to care about the environmental resources around them. It is about growing community ownership and cul va ng a sense of place. It is about community residents and local ins tu ons working together to preserve, sustain and strengthen their community” (Zielger Design Associates, 2005)

Sources: h p://www.publicfarm1.org/

TOOLBOX 26


Project Have Hope Sack Gardens

PROJECT HAVE HOPE SACK GARDENS

Contact: Date: Status:

Karen Sparacio 2008 - Present Ac ve

Project Have Hope is an organiza on that is transforming the lives of women living in the Acholi Quarter of Uganda through dierent enterprising eorts and support. The primary focus of the organizaon is to help women feed their families and send their children to school through the making and selling of handmade paper bead jewelry. However it has expanded to include school and voca onal programs as well as agriculture.

TOOLBOX

Shortly a er Project Have Hope was established in 2005, the founder, Karen Sparacio, began learning about sustainable agricultural techniques from the Uganda Rural Development Team. She was interested in finding an appropriate farming technique for this par cular region of Uganda that the women could partake in as another economically viable enterprise. Through the Uganda Rural Development Team, she discovered sack gardening, a method of growing vegetables in jute bags. Soon a er, Project Have Hope teamed up with the Uganda Rural Development team to train 20 people in the sack gardening technique. Women are able to purchase seeds through Project Have Hope and then grow and maintain their own gardens, selling the produce for profit. Currently, the women are growing spinach, onion, sukumawiki (similar to cabbage), carrots, naka (tomato/eggplant cross) and okra. With a fully planted garden, a women can earn up to the equivalent of US$18 per week. Currently the women only sell their produce within the Acholi Quarter, however as the program grows they plan to expand to other surrounding markets.

Sources: h p://www.projecthavehope.org/

27 TOOLBOX


TOOLBOX TOOLBOX 28


200 CATEGORY


HOUSE and distribu ng the efforts to grow food on communal land allows for sharing of tools, equipment, soil amendment, and farming knowledge along with the fruits of joint efforts. Domes c experiments in growing food in the domain of the private dwelling can require innova ve uses of private property. Because solar exposure, land area, and healthy soil may be limited commodies, it may be more effec ve to cul vate ver cal surfaces for townhouses or courtyard bound apartments. One can occasionally find good harvests on urban fire escapes.

HOUSE

Growing food in America’s front yards as well as back yards can be a radical act. It may violate neighborhood covenants while challenging some conven onal dwellers’ sensibili es. Our cultural preference for well-maintained bluegrass lawns comes at an environmental price measured in chemical lawn care and gas-powered maintenance equipment. However, maximizing available ground to produce food can be both aesthe cally and economically desirable while le ng families know the sources of their food.

SCALE INTRODUCTION

This set of case studies considers domes c endeavors for growing food. By virtue of their scale they make two arguments: One for the mutually beneficial rela onship of the individual household ac ng collec vely and the second for the lifestyle amendment that favors knowing where one’s food originates and minimizing the miles it travels, while maximizing its freshness, to get to one’s table. Both have implica ons for environmental ecologies of residen al communies of various scales.

Community land trusts and co-housing communies provide models that exploit the virtues of private home ownership in a context of shared resources. These residen al types require coopera on and in turn offer improve quality of life for all residents. By maintaining a smaller yard

HOUSE 30


The Urban Homestead Contact: Jules Dervaes, Founder & Director Designer: Dervaes Family Date: 1985 - Present

THE URBAN HOMESTEAD

The “Path to Freedom” Urban Homestead project began in 1985 when the Dervaes Family of four in Pasadena, California made a decision to change their lifestyle to become more self-sufficient and environmentally conscience. They set out to transform their ordinary urban lot into a model of sustainable urban living. The lot is 66‘x132’ and is able to provide the family with 6,000 pounds of organic produce each year, which meets 99% of their produce needs. The family es mates that they eat for about $2.00 per day per person. They have over 400 different varie es of flowers, vegetables and fruits, and they gross roughly $20,000 annually from the produce they sell at their Front Porch Farm Stand. The family has taken further steps into living a more sustainable lifestyle by powering their house with alterna ve energy and making home-brew bio-diesel for their car.

HOUSE

The Urban Homestead offers workshops, lectures, classes, and film screenings to share skills and ideas to others interested in the urban homesteading lifestyle. They created a website to distribute ideas and informa on to a wider audience and keep a blog about the happenings in and around the Urban Homestead. This noteworthy project shows that one family can make a difference in their own lives and the lives of others. The original dream of transforming one block gave birth to a number of other outlets. The family now manages the Front Porch Farm Stand, host events and workshops, offers up their garden as a set for filming and photography. Un l 2006 their outreach endeavors were funded privately by the family, however they now are a private founda on and non-profit which allows them access to other funds for their outreach efforts.

Source: h p://urbanhomestead.org/

31 HOUSE


Troy Gardens Contact: Jill Jacklitz, ExecuƟve Director of Community Groundworks Designer: Ziegler Design Associates Size: 26 acres

TROY GARDENS

Troy Gardens is a 26 acre mixed-income community that follows the principles of co-housing, and includes organic community gardens and agricultural farming along with natural areas restora on management. Troy Gardens came about through a process that involved the landscape architecture firm Ziegler Design Associates along with the community as a whole. The project developed from a visionary idea to realiza on through a series of charre es and community mee ngs in which future community residents lead the design process. Troy Gardens integrates community gardens, an organic farm, and restored prairie and woodlands. State-owned surplus land provided parcels to begin the community’s vision for a new neighborhood combining housing with open space and local agriculture. A non-profit organiza on, Community Groundworks, a community land trust, was set up to help develop, manage and steward the Troy Gardens Community. The children who live in the 30 co-housing residences along with other kids from local community centers work together to plant and maintain a “kids garden.” The produce from the gardens is used in cooking lessons and community meals, while surpluses are donated to local food banks.

HOUSE

“Troy Gardens is many projects rolled into one. It is about feeding a community with a culturally and economically diverse popula on and teaching residents - both young and old - the skills to grow, prepare, preserve and sell their own food, and to care about the environmental resources around them. It is about growing community ownership and cul va ng a sense of place. It is about community residents and local ins tu ons working together to preserve, sustain and strengthen their community” (Zielger Design Associates, 2005)

Sources:

h p://www.troygardens.org/ h ps://www.ryerson.ca/carrotcity/products.html

HOUSE 32


Edible Estates Contact: Fritz Haeg Designer: Fritz Haeg Date: 2005 - Present

EDIBLE ESTATES

The typical residen al lawn has come under scru ny in recent years by environmentalists as well as food ac vists for its limited usefulness and rela vely detrimental environmental impact. Common residen al lawns waste poten ally produc ve land (especially in urban areas) and large quan es of potable water used to irrigate grass, while pes cides uses to keep lawns impeccable kill na ve species and pollute waterways.

HOUSE

Designer, Fritz Haeg began a series of prototypical edible landscapes to repurpose the pervasive residen al lawn into something that benefits people, communi es and the environment. His first installa on was at the Salina Art Center in Kansas in 2005. Since then he has designed mul ple edible landscapes across the United States as well as in Italy, United Kingdom, Turkey and will reveal a new landscape in 2012 in Budapest, Hungary. He has successfully transformed water-hogging grass lawns into producve and aesthe cally desirable gardens which need less water and provide the family with a variety of fruits and vegetables. Currently, many zoning ordinances or covenants restrict non-lawn landscaping in some neighborhoods, which is a challenge to Haeg’s movement, yet these restric ons are being challenged. Haeg has successfully argued that his prototypical edible landscapes are just as beau ful as an immaculate lawn, oer economic, health and environmental advantages.

Sources: h p://www.ryerson.ca/carrotcity/housing.html h p://www.fritzhaeg.com/garden/ini a ves/edibleestates/main.html h p://www.fritzhaeg.com/wikidiary/info/

33 HOUSE


Sunlight of the Spirit Recovery Garden SUNLIGHT OF THE SPIRIT RECOVERY GARDEN

Urban Habitat Chicago

Contact: Dave Hampton, Urban Habitat Chicago Designer: Urban Habitat Chicago Status: Phased The Sunlight of the Spirit Recovery Gardens is a project designed, engineered and implemented by Urban Habitat Chicago, an organiza on devoted to demonstra ng successful sustainable ini a ves in the urban environment through research, educa on and hands-on experiments and projects.

Sources:

HOUSE

This forthcoming project suggests a model for integra ng urban gardening into exis ng dense housing environments. The site currently has zero living ma er on it. The proposed project will transform it into a “diverse, robust, produc ve, and beau ful ecosystem." The gardens will be located on top of, along side, and within a 36-unit residen al and community service buildings. The first phase of the project is an 8,000 SF food producing roo op garden, the following phases include ver cal and horizontal plan ngs, storm water reten on and energy efficient upgrades to the envelope of the building, which all help to integrate the building and site together as a whole food producing and energy efficient place to live. The current funding for the project is through a USGBC Legacy 2010 Grant in the amount of $3,000. The building serves people who are recovering from alcohol and drug addic on and also includes a food pantry and job search and training facility. The gardens will provide hands-on job training for the people living at the facility and the food harvested will supply the food pantry. The garden hopes to employ one person per 1,000 sf, or 8 workers total, who will lead up to 4 youths from the community. Most of the residents living at the facility can earn rent credits for volunteering in the maintenance of the garden. This place is intended to help people to gain valuable job skills and help the youth of the city connect with nature. The project philosophy is to give people a “hand-up” not a “hand-out.” h p://urbanhabitatchicago.org/projects/sots-3600wfulton/ h p://soschicago.org/RecoveryRoo op.aspx

HOUSE 34


ROOFTOP Just like many earlier garden movements, today’s roo op projects are responding to poor environmental, social and economic condi ons in ci es. Global climate change, hunger and an economic recession are among those issues shaping current urban gardens. A number of movements, including Community Food Security, sustainable agriculture and locavorism, are addressing these issues and a growing number of consumers who are conscious of the impacts of their food choices are suppor ng them. While there are many encouraging signs for the growth of roo op agriculture, land tenure, natural resources, zoning, funding and development trends con nue to affect their success.

SCALE INTRODUCTION ROOFTOP

Urban agriculture and green roofs are keys to the existence of roo ops. While green roofs are used for environmental reasons, urban agriculture’s goal is to use all available city spaces such as le over spaces to produce food. In fact, Roo ops are green roofs that can effec vely address current environmental challenges while providing produc ve and healthy growing space for people, flora and fauna (Burros 2009). Roo ops have many benefits, including: ecological func ons, reduc on of the urban heat island effect, decrease in storm water runoff, decrease in energy used for hea ng and cooling, improvement in air quality, contribu on to global climate change, job generator, support for local economies, building community, food produc on, improvement in community access to locally grown food, support for growing popula ons in a sustainable way, improvement in access to fresh food, reduc on in fossil fuel consump on associated with transporta on from distant farms and many others.

ROOFTOP 36


The Second Street Residence Contact: Jeff Heehs Designer: 180 sq. . Status: Private

THE SECOND STREET RESIDENCE ROOFTOP

The private owner of the top floor of this building decided to design and build a roof deck with a combination on of extensive and irrigated intensive planning beds, including 180 sq. ft. of planning area, which was completed on June 1, 2005. The main design intention is for private use and enjoyment by the owner, with ac ve cultivate on of vegetable, herb, and decorative garden plants. Cold frames have been added to extend the growing season, a particularly successful strategy with the hardier plants. The intensive and extensive green roofs are planted in movable plan ng beds supplied by Green Grid. This system is mainly designed for pre-planted green roof installations that combine planning and drainage features. For the 2nd Street Residence, the planning trays used are Weston Green Grid 2 x 4 ft. modules - eight 4-inch and thirteen 8-inch deep. For water supply, these trays contain drain holes in raised channels to allow exit paths for water. In addition, the tray bottoms are lined up with “weed block” material to contain roots and fi lter soil from runoff water. Since standard soil is too heavy to use on roof gardens, particularly on roofs not originally designed for such use, the planning medium is a lightweight mix of Stalite Permate l expanded slate, perlite, vermiculite and compost, which is approximately 24 pounds per square feet when dry. For organic matter, a composting bin for household food scraps is located on the roof. The 8-inch intensive modules are planted with common garden vegetables, kitchen herbs, wildfl owers, and some perennial flowers. A drip tape irrigation system has an auto-timer a ached to a semi-permanent, detachable garden hose that connects to an

Sources: “Carrot City”

37 ROOFTOP


Uncommon Ground on Devon Contact: Size: Status:

Edward Meisel, SVSU Professor 4000 sq.ft. (Roof area), 650 sq.ft. (Planted area) For-Profit

UNCOMMON GROUND ON DEVON

Uncommon Ground is host to a weekly Friday farmers’ market/block party with music, food and activites for kids. The food grown on the roof however only supplies the Uncommon Ground kitchens. Regular garden work par es are hosted on the weekends and neighborhood residents are encouraged to participate. Also hosted monthly is the Green Room Sessions, an eco-themed social gathering for community members and local organizations with free appetizers, music, local growers and a full assortment of signature rooftop cocktails. Schools also benefit from regular garden workshops, tours and class activities. Helen has opened her rooftop farm up to the community and says she has had a “big quality of life improvement” (Cameron 2010). To ensure the weight of the soil, people and snow would be supported, all load bearing walls were reinforced. The building was excavated 5 feet below the foundation and new underpinnings and footings were poured to support the replacement steel beams. A new steel beam structure was installed on the roof to support the deck (Uncommon Ground 2010).

ROOFTOP

“Earth Boxes” are also used. These sub-irrigated planter boxes make farming more effi cient by allowing nutrients to move from more highly concentrated areas to less concentrated areas, allowing plants to grow at their full potential. The plastic covers of the Earth Boxes reduce the water evapora on rate from the soil, keeping the soil saturated. The perimeter beds and the rolling planters are custom made steel and cedar frames. Materials were chosen for their durability and non-toxicity. The “EarthBoxes” are recyclable, UV resistant, food grade, polypropylene #5 plastic (earthboxes.com). The EarthBoxes are subirrigated, meaning a reservoir beneath the bed is fi lled with water so the roots can use what they need and runoff is eliminated. Source: Benjamin Engelhard, 2010, “Rooftop to Tabletop”

ROOFTOP 38


BasƟlle Cafe and Bar Contact: Size: Status:

Deming Maclise & James Weimann 4500 sq. . (roof), 750 sq. . (planted area) Entrepreneur

BASTILLE CAFE AND BAR

In 2008 Seattle entrepreneurs Deming Maclise and James Weimann partnered to develop a Parisian bistro located on a historic commercial strip in northwest Seattle. Each Sunday the street in front of the restaurant transforms into one of the most popular farmers’ markets in the city. An engineer determined the old building would need structural retrofi ng, a task that ended up fixing well within the planned building remodel schedule. With a number of innovative growing strategies, a thriving business, and a devoted clientele of locavores, Bastille is proving to be a successful model for integra ng rooftop food product on into the restaurant business (McCrate 2010).

ROOFTOP

Compost is an essential part of the soil building strategy for the Bastille garden. The organic waste from the roof and the kitchen are collected with the municipal yard waste program. An interesting note here is that the company that processes the city yard waste, Cedar Grove, is the same local company that supplies Bastille with their growing medium that contains 1/3 compost. This is a very convenient way to close the nutrient cycle loop. The raised beds are made out of treated lumber and lined with fi lter fabric to keep the growing medium from washing away. The pool planters are of an unknown plastic and stacked two high. The top pool has holes drilled to allow for plant roots to access the water in the bottom pool acting as a reservoir. The runoff from the beds drains to downspouts connected to the city stormwater system. The runoff from some of the beds has been observed to create algae in the scuppers however as their fertilization and watering schedule has been fi ne tuned this is no longer a problem (Hughes 2010).

Source: Benjamin Engelhard, 2010, “Rooftop to Tabletop”

39 ROOFTOP


Forest House Contact: Size: Status:

Deming Maclise & James Weimann 10,000 sq. . Commercial Company & Local Non-Profit Food Coop

FOREST HOUSE

Forest House, an aff ordable housing complex planned by Blue Sea Development Corporation at 1071 Tinton Avenue in the south Bronx, will feature a 10,000 sq. ft. commercially run, hydroponic green house on its rooftop designed by Bright Farm Systems. The planning process started in 2008, with construction scheduled for end 2010. The cooperation between these partners is intended to integrate emerging environmental technologies into affordable housing developments in New York City, while making some of the food produced available affordably to residents at local food cooperatives in order to fight the food desert in the South Bronx.

ROOFTOP

The Proposed greenhouse will make use of the heat leftover from the building’s residential units. It will also harvest from the greenhouse roof, which covers almost all of the roofed area of the building, the water runoff , estimated at almost 200,000 gallon per year. The greenhouse will be operated year round, with a product on of 100,000 pounds of vegetables - half tomatoes and half lettuce - a year, at a current value of $400,000. The greenhouse will not be accessible to residents as it will be run by a commercial company to cultivate food for sale as well as to be given to a local non-profit food coopera ve for distributi on in the neighborhood.

Source: “Carrot City”

ROOFTOP 40


Gary Comer Youth Center Green Roof GARY CORNER YOUTH CENTER GREEN ROOF

Contact: Size: Status:

John Ronan Architect, Hoerr Schaudt Landscape 8160 sq. . Private

“The Gary Comer Youth Center is a shining new youth center located in one of Chicago’s poorest neighborhoods. It demonstrates a commitment to its community by providing a constructive environment for area youths ages 8-18 to spend their after-school hours. Educational and recreational programs focus on health and nutrition, performing arts, technology, physical fi tness, civic engagement and leadership development. In them, more than 600 disadvantaged youth work to better their chances of success in life.

ROOFTOP

A central element is the green roof. The Building supports a 8,160 sq ft. Located over the gymnasium and cafeteria and encircled by the broad windows of the third floor. This courtyard garden provides students who have little access to safe outdoor space the opportunity to interact with the natural world freely. With a 24” depth of soil, children can plant and harvest vegetables, fruits, flowers, herbs, and grasses as part of a comprehensive educational program developed by the center’s Garden Manager. As children learn about the seed-to-harvest cycle, they also learn about environmental concerns, the green roof, botany, cooking, and the processes of nurturing growth in a garden. The garden collects rainwater, and serves to reduce the urban heat island eff ect in a way that simultaneously reinforces the educa onal mission of the youth center,” (John Ronan Architect). This design has transformed the disadvantaged neighborhood of Chicago’s south side into a safe haven for children and seniors to enjoy and learn about plants and food. Solar gain and heat loss from the gymnasium below extends the growing season of some

Source: “Carrot City”

41 ROOFTOP


Brooklyn Grange Contact: Size: Status:

Deming Maclise & James Weiman 40,000 sq. . Ac ve

BROOKLYN GRANGE

Behind Flanner’s move is an ambition to set up a much larger rooftop farm, covering a full acre. In 2009, the commercial organic farming business was started by Ben Flanner, together with the team behind Roberta’s Pizza’s backyard farm in Brooklyn. Brooklyn Grange was eventually established in Long Island City in Queens, covering over 40,000 square feet on the roof of a threestory building at 37-18 Northern Boulevard.

ROOFTOP

It took six week to transform the vacant rooftop into an operating commercial venture. Plans, including a structural analysis showing how the weight of the farm will be supported, were fi led with the Buildings Department. Traffic was diverted along Northern Boulevard to hoist up to the roof truckloads of the engineered soil mix Rooflite Intensive (weighing almost a million pounds), which were then raked over drainage and protective material. Once the eight-inch layer of engineered soil was stretched, volunteers began planning the 9,000 seedlings to cultivate a wide variety of vegetables ranging from salad greens, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, squash and kale, selected for their ability to thrive in the sunny, windy conditions of an open city roof.

Source: “Carrot City”

ROOFTOP 42


BLOCK O en mes, block-scale projects become social des na ons for their community and the immediate areas surrounding them, while their impact remains diligently focused on their own block, thus contributing to local iden ty.

SCALE INTRODUCTION

The following block scale projects range in size from a few dozen individual plots to over an acre. The case studies selected are primarily located in distressed urban contexts in need of ac vely inhabited green public spaces. All of the following projects address this issue through varia ons of the community garden or farming model. The social and psychological rehabilita ve quali es of block-scale community gardens have been well-documented. In addi on, at the 1992 Earth Summit community gardens were recognized for their ability to increase community sustainability and economic viability as well.

BLOCK

The following projects transcend individual household boundaries to address larger issues of revenue/employment genera on, local ecological systems and integra ng tradi onally marginalized sub-popula ons (e.g. immigrants, youth, ex-oenders, unemployed). Community gardens decisively increase healthy lifestyle choices, and many of the featured block-scale projects also have a specific healthy lifestyle component, including the dissemina on of informa on about healthy ea ng and food prepara on techniques.

BLOCK 44


Blue Pike Farm Contact: Size: Date:

Carl Skalak (carl@bluepikefarm.com) 1 acre 2000

BLUE PIKE FARM

Blue Pike Farm a 1 acre farm located at 900 E. 72nd St. in Cleveland Ohio. It func ons as the block’s Communitysupported Agriculture (CSAs) by distribu ng its locallygrown organic produce to an integrated farmer’s market with the block’s First Bap st Church of Greater Cleveland and a smaller Thursday farmer’s stand. Blue Pike Farm is instrumental in hos ng workshops to increase block residents’ knowledge of healthy food produc on and consump on, including Dr. Mary Gardiner’s youth-oriented Bugfest to point out necessary insect diversity in gardens and partnering with food expert/author Judi Strauss and her Charmed Kitchen to disseminate canning, pickling, sauce and jam-making knowledge.

BLOCK

The Blue Pike Farm serves as a good model for how urban agriculture in Weinland Park can generate posi ve ac vi es for youth.

Sources: www.omlet.co.uk/homepage/ www.ryerson.ca/carrotcity/products.html

45 BLOCK


Chicago Urban Lights Farm Contact: Size: Date:

Natasha Holbert (nholbert@fourthchurch.org) 1.2 acres 2010

CHICAGO URBAN LIGHTS FARM

The Chicago Urban Lights Farm is a nonprofit community outreach organiza on with the Fourth Presbyterian Church. It is a 1.25 acre Will Allen Growing power model serving as a fresh food produc on and youth engagement ini a ve for the surrounding blocks of the Cabrini-Green neighborhood. Its excellent service to the community has led the program to be awarded mul ple grants and awards, including the city’s $100,000 Impact 100 grant in June 2011 for the construc on of a green house.

BLOCK

Chicago Urban Lights Farm has been able to increase its posi ve block-level impact by being open to partner with neighbors and other organiza ons; to date the Chicago Urban Lights Farm has partnered with Ceasefire and gun restric on lobbying ac ons for violence preven on, public schools to organize school supply drives, and community members for mentorship and tutoring programs (such as the Chicago Lights Tutoring ini a ve). Located on a busy street, the Chicago Urban Lights Farm displays its ini a ve through highly-visible orange cut-out signs succinctly sta ng “Grow” and “Plant” to a ract a en on at the automobile scale. Given the vehicular scale of Weinland Park, this strategy could be par cularly useful at our site as well.

Sources: “Chicago Lights”

BLOCK 46


EcoVillage Produce Size: Date:

0.2 acres 2009

ECOVILLAGE PRODUCE

EcoVillage Produce has a main farming site of .2 acres, being a prime example how a small farming lot can s ll be useful to the surrounding block. EcoVillage Produce has been awarded the Self-development of People (SDOP) and the Reimaging Cleveland, Neighborhood Progress, Inc grants to aid in its planning and infrastructure . With these grants, the EcoVillage Produce ini a ve is in the process of establishing a block-oriented, consistent annual plan ng and farmer’s market schedule. The EcoVillage Produce could be an example of how smaller, individual plots can s ll eec vely produce food and engage the block. Addi onally, the ability of this model to win grants to sustain itself through the ini al years, something that is needed at the beginning stages of the Weinland Park urban agrarian system.

BLOCK 47 BLOCK


EmmeƩ Avenue Community Gardens Rebekka Hu on 38 plots (4’ x 8’ each) 2006

EMMETT AVENUE COMMUNITY GARDENS

Contact: Size: Date:

Emme Avenue Community Gardens is a member of the Toronto Community Garden Network (similar to Columbus’ the Growing Green program directed by the Franklin Park Conservatory) and is the only healthy food produc on site for Eglinton Flats park, located at the corner of Jane-Eglinton. Emme Avenue Community Gardens started in 2006 funded by Evergreen Inc. and by the year 2011 the garden was sufficiently sustainable for ownership to transi on from Evergreen to community ownership; the sustainability and funder-partnership with the community is an excellent example for the Weinland Park agrarian planning.

BLOCK

Emme Avenue Community Gardens provides a place for community members to learn about food prepara on and preserva on prac ces, grow food as well as to nurture the social climate of the block by providing for social programs that bring women together from different cultures. The garden ac vely disseminates informa on about naviga ng and acquiring Canadian ci zenship to immigrant (typically Somali) popula ons. Emme Avenue Community Gardens could be a useful model for Weinland Park given that our neighborhood also has a substan al La no immigrant popula on in need of discovery, support, and integra on.

BLOCK 48


Fort York Community Gardens Contact: Size: Date:

Aimee Carson (acarson@evergreen.ca) 38 plots (4’ x 8’ each) 2010

FORT YORK COMMUNITY GARDENS

Fort York Community Gardens (FYCG) started out small with 26 4’x8’ raised plots. Eventually, FYCG became a self-sufficient block-focused community garden, restric ng membership to those within a 3 kilometer radius of the garden and expanding upon the original plots to include an exclusively herb sec on. The FYCG also ac vates the block by hos ng a year-end banquet from the garden’s harvest. Given that there is a significant demand by Short North businesses for fresh herbs, the FYCG could be a useful model in crea ng a self-sustaining community food-produc on site in Weinland Park.

BLOCK 49 BLOCK


The Edible School Yard Contact: Size: Date:

David Prior (davidp@chezpanisse.com) 1 acre 1995

THE EDIBLE SCHOOL YARD

The Edible School Yard (ESY) project is a 1 acre farm and urban kitchen serving the Mar n Luther King Jr. Middle School by being a hands-on learning lab for middle schoolers to learn about organic farming and healthy food prepara on. ESY is the philanthropic outgrowth of restaurant entrepreneur Chez Panisse’s founda on; a er the success of her restaurant she created the Chez Panisse Founda on to start and fund educa onal endeavors about organic food produc on and consump on. The ESY has also generated numerous books about youth gardening, healthy ea ng, and combining school subjects, such as math, within cook books. Weinland Park’s own elementary school could benefit from a hand-on learning lab exemplified by the ESY project to promote healthy ea ng and educa on.

BLOCK BLOCK 50


Growing Home: Wood Street Urban Farm Inc. Size: Date:

2/3 acre 1992

WOOD STREET URBAN FARM INC

This 2/3 acre farm, located in Englewood, produced an astounding 11,000 lbs of sold produce in 2010. It is a USDA cer fied organic produc on site specializing in plants that enjoy warm moist hoop-house environments such as spinach and arugula. But beyond its ability to produce and sell large quan es of produce, the Wood Street Urban Farm is a Growing Home transi onal employment program oering adults with employment barriers the chance to become educated in food produc on and to establish good references for employment a er the program.

BLOCK

The Wood Street Urban Farm’s model for both producing USDA organic cer fiable vegetables and providing transional employment opportuni es is especially useful to the Weinland Park neighborhood as it has tradi onally been underserved in providing healthy food and blue-collar jobs to residents. Addi onally, many Weinland Park residents who need employment face barriers including criminal records and mental/physical disabili es; these barriers are best addressed by a transi onal employment opportunity exemplified by the Wood Street Urban Farm.

51 BLOCK


City Farmer Contact: Size: Date:

cityfarm@interchange.ubc.ca 1/3 acre 1987

City Farmer garden is a demonstra on garden for the City Farmer News, an award-winning blog-site for all things related to organic community and individual plot gardening. The demonstra on garden, located in Vancouver, has created the impetus for the City Farmer to take over not only the block but regional compos ng.

CITY FARMER

While the demonstra on garden is small, the City Farmer’s extended online presence has allowed it to influence and promote organic gardening throughout the city. In a similar way, Weinland Park could incorporate City Farmer’s online strategy to link together inter- and intra- neighborhood organic gardening eorts to maximize its community gardening impact.

BLOCK BLOCK 52


New Harvest Cafe & Urban Arts Center NEW HARVEST CAFE AND URBAN ARTS CENTER

LocaƟon: 2490 Cleveland Ave, Columbus Ohio

New Harvest Café has become established as the AfricanAmerican Urban-Arts Complex for Columbus, Ohio. Its locally-grown soulfood becomes the generator for AfricanAmerican cultural expression in the form of performing arts, social events, and community gardening. Given the largely marginalized popula on in Weinland Park, the New Harvest Café & Urban Arts Center model could be extremely useful in giving a voice to Weinland Park residents by building community capacity through a common ea ng and gardening area.

BLOCK 53 BLOCK


Felege Hiywot Center LocaƟon: 1648 Sheldon St., Indianapolis IN 46218 2/3 acre Size: 2004 Date:

FELEGE HIYWOT CENTER

The Felege Hiywot Center’s (FHC) mo o is, “cul va ng community growth by tending to the youth.” The FHC is heavily involved in aiding Ethiopian orphans and first genera on Ethiopian immigrants through socialprogramming around food. While the FHC does not have a strictly “community gardening” focus, it s ll generates cultural cohesion on the block by engaging marginalized Ethiopians and youths. Given the large Somali and La no immigrant popula on in Weinland Park, the FHC could be a good model for engaging frequently-marginalized immigrant popula ons into the larger community.

BLOCK BLOCK 54


Permaculture ArƟsians LocaƟon: 208 Nelson Way Sebastopol CA 95472 Contact: erik@permaculturearƟsans.com 1/4 to 275 acres Size:

PERMACULTURE ARTISIANS

Permaculture Ar sans, located out of Sabastopal, CA, is a service-provider designing and building regenera ve landscapes that can func on at the block-level as social ac vators. Spaces that Permaculture Ar sans design are such as to be true closed-loop systems. Permaculture Ar sans func ons both as an ecological model and a business model for Weinland Park. Weinland Park is in need of both a business incubator and mi ga on efforts to slow down run-off water speeds. Agrarian efforts in Weinland Park could morph into providing residents the knowledge to strike out on their own to disseminate permaculture prac ces to other Columbus areas, poten ally in a for-profit capacity.

BLOCK 55 BLOCK


Greensgrow Farms LocaƟon: 2501 E. Cumberland Street Philadelphia, PA 19125 Contact: farm@greensgrow.org 3/4 acre Size:

GREENSGROW FARMS

Greensgrow Farms is a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) model that has both a nursery and a farmers market providing the local area with affordable, locally-grown organic foods. The 15 week LIFE program provides SNAP/ACCCESS users the ability to earn an extra $2 of purchasing ability for every $5 spent at the farmers market for a dedicated 15 weeks period. Greengrow Farms also acts as a buyer of organically-raised livestock and other produce to be sold at its farmers market as well Greensgrow Farms is a useful model in Weinland Park as it presents how urban agriculture can become a well-func oning farmer’s market for not only neighborhood-grown produce but also for organic foods grown throughout the city.

BLOCK BLOCK 56


NEIGHBORHOOD

With food, educa on, training and, above all, community building as goals, projects in this category consistently show the capacity of community food and agriculture projects to be transforma ve for the neighborhoods in which they are located.

NEIGHBORHOOD

All projects in this category have the produc on of food on urban lands at their heart. Produc on scales and technologies range widely, from small half-acre plots with simple season extension technologies like raised beds to mul -acre farms with green houses and hoop houses for year around growing. Gardens and farms in this category o en begin as the result of grass roots efforts within a community, such as the Village Gardens in Portland Oregon or D-Town Farms in Detroit. However, successful projects can also result from top-down programs like the Chicago Public School’s Building School Gardens Program, Vanderbilt University’s Veggie Project, and The Toronto Urban Farm. All aim to produce and distribute fresh, healthy, food to their local communi es increasing food access and raising awareness about healthy ea ng habits.

as a vehicle for more significant social goals. Youth training, employment, and educa on is the most ubiquitous of the social agendas outlined by the projects in this survey. Every project cataloged a empts to engage young people at mul ple points throughout the food producon, distribu on, and prepara on chain. Projects in this category u lize farming and gardening as a mechanism for teaching valuable work habits and skills such as: meliness, the value of hard work, problem solving, career awareness in agriculture, the sciences, and the environment, sales, marke ng, and entrepreneurship. Such endeavors may provide a source of income for young people while they develop good habits around exercise, healthy cooking and ea ng. Addi onally, many projects provide transi onal employment for adults who may be out of work, homeless, or carrying a past felony convic on. These models serve as a way to reintegrate into the working world by providing low skill, steady employment, which helps build confidence while making new contacts and building new skills sets.

SCALE INTRODUCTION

Projects in this category a empt to capitalize on urban gardens and farms as a way to build community health, educa on, pride, and economic prosperity. These projects show how gardens can act as catalysts for greater achievement through engaging young people and adults in rewarding, neighborhood focused, projects. Communi es are reinforced through three primary mechanisms: food produc on and distribu on, youth educa on and employment, and transi onal employment for adults.

While produc on is an obvious output of such projects, it would be a mistake to understand produc on as the end goal. Producing food acts NEIGHBORHOOD 58


Jones Valley Urban Farm Contact: Size: Date:

Grant Brigham, ExecuƟve Director 3 acres (downtown) 2001 –present

JONES VALLEY URBAN FARM

Jones Valley Urban Farm was founded in 2001 by Page Ellison and Edwin Marty as experiment in transforming abandoned urban land into organic produc on space. Today the JVUF has over three acres of land in Downtown Birmingham, plus a seven acre farm in Mt. Laurel Alabama that it runs in coopera on with EBSCO Industries. The JVUF specializes in produc on farming for local markets and restaurants, but also devotes itself to food educa on programs for children and adults such as preschool gardening, adult gardening workshops, community nutri on programs, internship opportunies for high school, college, and graduate students, and an accredited high school Agriscience program. The JVUF also maintains a number of community partnerships focusing on: preven ng childhood obesity, hunger and access to healthy foods, sustainable agriculture, farm to school markets, and community compos ng.

NEIGHBORHOOD

In 2006 the JVUF took over the 3.5 acre site at Park Place and sought to develop it as their home and centerpiece. To do this, they worked with Auburn University’s Urban Studio and Organic Research Sta on, The USDA Soil Tillage Lab, Landscape Architect Jane Reed Ross, and Architecture Works. The collabora on lead to a strategic plan for building and soil improvement within the garden along with plans to incorporate green technology and materials into architectural and site components of the garden. Currently, an outdoor classroom center with a bu erfly roof diverts rainwater into a 1000 gallon cistern. Solar panels on the roof power an irriga on pump that carries water from the cistern to the gardens. Eventually this structure will be replaced by a more permanent facility that will house offices along with classrooms and space for vegetable processing.

Source: www.jvuf.org/

59 NEIGHBORHOOD


D-Town Farms Contact: Marilyn Barber, Detroit Black Community Food Security Network Designer: 2006 –present Size: 2 acres

D-TOWN FARMS

D-Town Farm was founded in 2007 as part of the Detroit Black Community Food Security Network (DBCFSN). D-Town Farm began as a ½ acre lot on Detroit’s Westside but moved to a more permanent 2-acre site in Detroit’s Meyer’s Tree Nursery in Rouge Park. D-Town is a model urban farm that includes organic vegetable plots, beehives, and a hoop house for year round food produc on. Produce from the farm is sold at D-Town along with Eastern Market and other urban growers markets throughout Detroit.

Sources:

NEIGHBORHOOD

The DBCFSN was founded in 2006 to raise awareness about food, its provenance, distribu on, and role in healthy families and communi es. It was founded as a way to organize the Detroit black community around an issue that it saw as dispropor onately dominated by young white immigrants to Detroit who had moved to the city specifically to engage in agricultural work. The DBCFSN believes that the food system must be governed by those whom it is designed to serve, and thus that African–Americans must take a larger leadership role in advoca ng for food jus ce and food security. The DBCFSN organizes itself around six major goals: “influencing public policy; promo ng urban agriculture; encouraging coopera ve buying; promo ng healthy ea ng habits; facilita ng mutual support and collec ve ac on among member; and encouraging young people to pursue careers in agriculture, aquaculture, animal husbandry, bee-keeping and other food related fields.” So far the DBCFSN has successfully implemented D-Town Farm, lead efforts to create the Detroit Food Policy Council, passed The City of Detroit Food Security Policy though Detroit’s City Council, Organized the Ujamaa Food Co-op, and provided leadership for the “Undoing Racism in the Detroit Food System” ini a ve.

www.thinkdetroit.blogspot.com/ www.detroitblackfoodsecurity.org/

NEIGHBORHOOD 60


Earthworks Urban Farm Contact: Size: Date:

Patrick Crouch, Program Manager 1/2 acre farm, apiary on 7 gardens occupying 20 city lots

1997 –present

EARTHWORKS URBAN FARM

Earthworks Urban Farm was founded in 1997 by Brother Rick Samyn of the Capuchin Soup Kitchen. The Capuchin Franciscan order strives to retain a rela onship with “all of crea on,” and thus an urban farm felt like a natural step. Earthworks and the Capuchin Soup Kitchen partnered ini ally with The Gleaners Community Food Bank, which had ini ated its own farming project. This collabora on formed the core volunteer group for Earthworks and allowed opera ons to expand. In 2004 they added a 1,300 sq. . greenhouse for the produc on of vegetable seedlings. Today it produces over 100,000 seedlings for their own gardens and for distribu on to local families, community and school gardens.

NEIGHBORHOOD

In 2001 Earthworks partnered with the Wayne County Department of Health to bring local farmers into local health clinics in Detroit. This allowed low income families to spend WIC coupons on fresh local food. Earthworks also began to produce value added products such as canned tomatoes, pickles, jams, and honey from its apiary as promo onal objects. Earthworks worked along with the Iroquois Avenue Christ Lutheran Church in 2003 in order to begin the Growing Healthy Kids youth program. The program focuses on nutri on, growing, cooking, and ea ng homegrown food. Originally, Earthworks worked to make fresh locally grown produce available at local markets. They have recently shi ed produc on away from markets and into meals served at the soup kitchen. Today the soup kitchen serves fresh vegetables every day during the growing season. Addi onally, Earthworks hosts monthly community potlucks for neighbors and supporters to discuss food policy and to encourage bo om up development of programs within the community, which strengthen access to healthy, nutri ous, food. Source: www.cskdetroit.org

61 NEIGHBORHOOD


Community Design Center for Minnesota COMMUNITY DESIGN CENTER FOR MINNESOTA

Contact: Size: Date:

Tamara Downs Schwei, ExecuƟve Director 7 gardens 1996 - Present

The Community Design Center of Minnesota (CDCM) seeks to build vibrant and healthy communi es through food, conserva on and youth development. The CDCM runs seven gardens throughout East St. Paul. The primary purpose of these gardens is to serve as learning labs for their Youth Enterprise in Food and Ecology Program. The Youth Enterprise in Food and Ecology Program “provides opportuni es for youth to learn basic work skills and habits, expand their awareness of career opportuni es, develop leadership skills, improve their academic performance, increase their knowledge of the local environment, improve personal and community health, and develop an ethic of community service.”

NEIGHBORHOOD

The Youth Enterprise Program has two primary venues for internships, the East Side Garden Corps and the Conserva on Corps. The East Side Garden Corps accepts young people between the ages of 14 and 18 who live or go to school on St. Paul’s East Side. Garden Corps interns maintain the seven gardens, run a local CSA, operate two farmer’s markets, sell and distribute food to local restaurants. During the fall and winter, Garden Corp Interns make and sell value added garden related products. The Conserva on Corp also accepts young people between the ages of 14 and 18, engaging them in large scale local conserva on and community restora on projects as well as small scale design build projects for rain gardens, local parks, and streetscapes. The Conserva on Corp prepares interns for careers in the environment, exposing them to concepts such as habitat restora on, stormwater treatment and environmental stewardship.

Sources:

www.comdesignctrmn.org

NEIGHBORHOOD 62


Toronto Urban Farm Contact: Size: Date:

David Love 8 acres 2002 –present

TORONTO URBAN FARM

The Toronto Urban Farm engages youth and the community in urban organic farming. Located in the Jane and Finch Neighborhood of Toronto, The Toronto Urban farm sits on 8 acres of land donated by the Toronto Regional Conserva on Authority (TRCA) to the City of Toronto’s Community Gardens Program (CGP). The Farm operates as part of the Rockcliffe Demonstra on and Teaching Garden which offers a number of services in support of community gardening and urban agriculture across Toronto. At the Toronto Urban Farm, the CGP offers programs in beneficial management Prac ces in urban agriculture, heirloom vegetable seedling producon, youth and adult training in organic food produc on, and children’s gardening. The Toronto Urban Farm project seeks to fulfill the City’s mandate to promote urban agriculture while also fulfilling the TRCA’s commitment to Sustainable Communi es as specified by its The Living City vision – a vision plan for the transforma on of Toronto into a sustainable metropolis. It does this by:

NEIGHBORHOOD

- Providing youth employment and leadership. - Increasing parƟcipants knowledge and skills of organic farming, environmental stewardship and local food systems. - Building community capacity to address local food security and environmental issues. - PromoƟng healthy nutriƟon and acƟve lifestyles. - Increasing the availability of rare and nearly exƟnct vegetables and other plant species.

Source: www.trca.on.ca/understand/near-urban-agriculture/

63 NEIGHBORHOOD


Veggie Project Teaching Kitchen Liz Aleman, Healthy Children’s Program Manager 5 markets and mul ple teaching kitchens 2007 – Present

VEGGIE PROJECT TEACHING KITCHEN

Contact: Size: Date:

The Veggie Project , run by Children’s Hospital at Vanderbilt University, seeks to combat childhood obesity in neighborhoods designated as food deserts by increasing access to fresh fruits and vegetables and increasing awareness about healthy lifestyles. The project aims to impact lifestyle choices among youth, their families, and their role models. The Veggie project hosts produce markets once a week in five different loca ons throughout greater Nashville to shorten the distance and other socio-economic barriers between residents and healthy food. The Veggie project also provides a series of interacve nutri on educa on classes directed primarily at children to sponsor healthy ea ng habits at a young age.

Sources:

NEIGHBORHOOD

As part of the Veggie Project, Children’s Hospital maintains a series of teaching kitchens which further the educa onal goals of the Veggie Project. Teaching kitchens put par cipants into contact with a professional chef and die cian who instruct them on healthy cooking techniques using the fruits and vegetables available at the Veggie Markets. 104 people par cipated in sessions at the teaching kitchens in 2010.

www.childrenshospital.vanderbilt.org/blogs/veggieproject/

NEIGHBORHOOD 64


BedZED LocaƟon: Beddington, England Size: 3.5 acres Date: 1999 - present

BEDZED

The BedZED zero energy housing development is located in Beddington, Eng¬land. The project is a collabora on between Bill Dunster, ARUP and the Peabody Trust, one of the largest housing associa on in England. BedZED is notable for its integra on of building and ecological systems. Units are oriented to allow for passive hea ng and cooling. Superior insula on allows for the homes to func¬ on without individual furnaces. Strategic use of photovoltaics, mini-turbines, and biomass powered district heat and power, on-site grey water treatment, and integral water harves ng contribute to proven reduc ons in energy and water consump on. In addi on to its sustainable built footprint. BedZED encourages occupants to reduce their personal food miles. This is done through a series of local ini a ves including a CSA, and community training and tools to help residents cul vate their allotment gardens and terraces. A closed loop community compost scheme transforms kitchen scraps and garden waste into compost. This program was established with funding from the Onyx Environmental Trust.

NEIGHBORHOOD

- Zero hea ng homes - Passive hea ng and cooling. - Locally sourced materials. - Biomass for combined heat and power. - On-site grey water treatment and re-use. - On-site rainwater water harves ng. - Individual roof gardens.

Source: www.bioregional.com/ inhabitat.com/bedzed-beddington-zero-energy-development-london/

65 NEIGHBORHOOD


Iron Street Farm Contact: Size: Date:

Erika Allen 7 acres June, 2011

IRON STREET FARM

Iron Street opened on June 21st 2011, taking over an abandoned industrial site along the Chicago River. The farm u lizes the closed loop approach to compos ng that is common in all of Growing Power’s sites, but couples Growing Power’s desire for strong youth programming, community engagement, educa on, and produc on with ventures in agricultural research and development. The Iron Street Innova on Center (ISIC) provides an “environment where promising ideas can flourish (in order to) create economic development and posi ve societal impact.” Ms. Allen has also set up a for-profit en ty—GreenERA—that will expand the farm’s ability to invest in renewable energy ini a ves and enable Allen to offer permanent full- me jobs at living wages to some of her farm workers.

NEIGHBORHOOD

Growing Power’s Chicago Youth Corps is located at Iron Street, and is focused on entrepreneurial youth development and appren ceship. Young people learn a wide range of transferrable skills while par cipa ng with the urban farm projects and take that knowledge to the streets with their Food Literacy Project. Iron Street, as a community food center, allows for an integrated approach to addressing community concerns by bringing together food related ac vi es that are typically dispersed. Design projects at Iron Street engage youth and families in ac vi es that move beyond food produc on and consump on. However, the center is complete with hoop houses, vermiculture, and aquaponics. These allow teens to learn both farming and ecological principles along with teamwork, planning, coordina on, and most importantly pride in accomplishment. Iron Street not only produces food, but also sells it in a CSA program called Market Basket. The Farm-to-City Market Basket Program consists of deliveries of safe, healthy and affordable produce to neighborhoods throughout Milwaukee, Madison, and Chicago.

NEIGHBORHOOD 66


Waters Community Garden Chicago Public Schools

Contact: Size: Date:

CPS Environmental Affairs Half of the Chicago Public Schools 2006 - Present

WATERS COMMUNITY GARDEN

The Building School Gardens Program began helping schools and teachers build gardens at Chicago’s public schools in 2006. Today approximately half of Chicago’s public schools have learning gardens. Gardens range in size from several hundred square feet to several acres. In this program Teachers work with local environmental organiza ons like Openlands, Greencorps Chicago, and the Chicago Botanical Garden to develop a garden that will further the curricular interests of the school. Together, organiza ons work with the schools to develop garden support teams, use art crea vely in the landscape, iden fy na ve plan ng ,and install environmental technology like solar panels, rain barrels, and rain gardens. Gardens have been developed which focus on: vegetable produc on, na ve plan ng for insect and animal habitat, ecological history of Chicago, ABC, color, or literature-inspired themes.

NEIGHBORHOOD

Recently the schools have been able to u lize city funding in order to remove asphalt on school campuses. It is the goal of the Building School Gardens Programs to ins ll an environmental ethic in students, and introduce students to careers in science and the environment. The Chicago Public School system maintains that “students perform be er when they get me to enjoy and interact with nature.” In each school garden, students and parents work with teachers to plant and maintain the garden plots. Produce from the garden is sold or donated. Cri cs have pointed out that, while students grow food on school property, that food never makes it into school cafeterias despite concerns about childhood obesity and access to fresh fruits and vegetables.

Sources: www.openlands.org/

67 NEIGHBORHOOD


Village Gardens LocaƟon: St. John Woods, Portland, Oregon Size: 2+ acres Date: 2006

VILLAGE GARDENS

Village Gardens is a consor um of community gardens in the St. John Woods Community of Portland, Oregon. Village Gardens began in 2001 as the New Beginnings community garden. New Beginnings was an a empt by community leaders to unite the community for posi ve change, and offer posi ve ac vi es for the children and youth of the neighborhood. In 2005 garden leaders expanded their project to the New Columbia and Tamaracks communi es crea ng a garden called Seeds of Harmony. Together these gardens are credited with reducing crime and vandalism and increasing neighborhood pride in their apartment complexes. Also in 2005, youth from Village Gardens started Food Works farm, a 1.5 acre intended to provide employment opportuni es for teenagers in the in the St. Johns Woods community.

NEIGHBORHOOD

New Beginning and Seeds of Harmony Gardens provide over 35,000 sq. . of vegetable gardens along with thirty fruit and nut trees. Together they are a source of supplemental fruits and vegetables for over 300 neighborhood residents. Addi onally, Village Gardens sends community residents to be trained by the Multnomah County Health Department in a wide variety of skills needed to assist neighbors with health ques ons and accessing appropriate health services. Food Works farm employs local teenagers in produc on and distribu on of food from the farm. Food Works farm produced 10,000 pounds of vegetables in 2009, half of which was donated to the community, and half of which was sold for $34,000. Village Gardens created the Village Market in 2010. The market is community governed and provides jobs for young people and adults. Above all, the market is intended to provide quality products at affordable prices.

NEIGHBORHOOD 68


Growing Home: Wood Street Urban Farm Contact: Size: Date:

Marilyn Barber, Detroit Black Community Food Security Network 2/3 Acre 1992 - Present

WOOD STREET URBAN FARM

Located in the Englewood neighborhood on the South Side of Chicago, Growing Home has several sites, including Wood Street, which provide transi onal employment and training for individuals facing mul ple barriers to permanent and unsubsidized employment. At Wood Street, organic agriculture is used as a tool to empower people and provide hope.

NEIGHBORHOOD

Transi onal employment helps people get back on their feet. According to the Na onal Transi onal Jobs Network Transi onal employment programs “offer a model of employment by which par cipants learn through experience the customs and rou nes of work, acquire work-task skills, establish an employment record, and generate employer references to enhance their compe veness in private sector employment.” Some of the barriers to employment that Growing Home’s program helps individuals address are: a need for adult basic educa on and/or formal educa on creden als (i.e. high school diploma, GED, voca onal cer ficates, college degree etc.), large gaps in employment history/long term unemployment, housing instability, history of substance abuse, criminal record, health problems, need for suppor ve services. Growing Home assists par cipants by providing training, work focused case management, links to employers, and placement and reten on services. Finally, referrals are made to competent agencies that provide GED, housing, legal aid, and human services. Since its incep on, Growing Home has worked towards providing transi onal job programs that lets previously-incarcerated and previously-homeless individuals prepare to re-enter the workforce not only by teaching job skills, but also by providing the chance to engage in what is for many a transforma onal experience. Their program is different from other workforce development programs because of the intense focus on the transforma onal possibili es inherent in learning to nurture and grow one’s own food.

69 NEIGHBORHOOD


Ohio City Farm Contact: Size: Date:

Amanda Dempsey 6 acres 2006 - present

OHIO CITY FARM

Ohio City Farm is partnership between the Refugee Response, Great Lakes Brewing Company, the Ohio City Near West Development Corpora on, and the Cuyahoga Metropolitan Housing Authority. The Farm is an incubator, meaning that it has been designed to support entrepreneurial farmers who are running their por on of the farm as an economically viable business. Operators are business people who derive a significant por on of their income from the farm. The farm incubator allows these business start-ups: low land costs, shared facili es and equipment, technical assistance, and access to the community of fellow prac oners at Ohio City Farm. The Ohio City farm provides prepara on and distribu on opportuni es to business start-ups through their Ohio City Farm Stand, Ohio City Community Kitchen, and the West Side Market, all of which are located within immediate walking distance of the farm for easy distribu on. Currently Great Lakes Brewing Company is a major buyer of food under cul va on at Ohio City Farm and also supports the farm with soil amendments like spent brewery grain.

NEIGHBORHOOD

At Ohio City Farm the Refugee Response’s Refugee Empowerment Agricultural Program (REAP) provides educa on, employment, and job training to refugees who already posses an agricultural skill set. This serves as a bridge for new Refugees who may be limited to food stamps or WIC while also helping to integrate refugees into the broader West Side community. The Ohio City Community Kitchen supports growers and entrepreneurs with a place to process food as well as facili es for canning, freezing, and crea ng other value added products. The Ohio City Farm Stand and Westside Market are both places where Ohio City farmers can sell their produce along with prepared and value added goods.

NEIGHBORHOOD 70


CITY The following case studies are typically larger than 10 acres in total (either on one site or across mul ple sites) and also could include infrastructure projects and other larger system based or community outreach projects or ini a ves.

Similarly, approaching urban agriculture at the scale of the city allows for broader design thinking around how food produc on and distribuon can be incorporated into the built environment. Urban farmers, architects, landscape architects and planners are finding crea ve solu ons to grow and distribute food in new ways—inside buildings and across mul ple sites and backyards to create farm-scale landscapes in the city.

SCALE INTRODUCTION CITY

Urban agriculture programs at the city scale are a natural way to bring together city resources and the passion and know-how of community groups. By encouraging residents to grow and share their own produce, these programs help reduce household food costs and create green spaces in urban neighborhoods. The most striking feature of urban agriculture, which dis nguishes it from rural agriculture, is its integra on into the city’s economic and ecological system: urban agriculture is embedded in-and interacts with-the metropolitan ecosystem. City and suburban agriculture takes the form of backyard, roof-top and balcony gardening; community gardening in vacant lots; and parks, urban fringe agriculture and livestock grazing in open spaces.

their residence or neighborhood. Projects at this scale also include coordina on around educa on, training, and business support services for urban gardeners throughout a city. Larger scale projects have the poten al for increased produc on of jobs for urban residents, along with remediated land and new soil produced from organic waste.

Urban agriculture at the city level allows for the coordina on of farming ac vi es across mul ple sites to create economies of scale for farming inputs such as land and diverse access to markets for producers and residents who do not have immediate access to land for food produc on in

CITY 72


Burnsville Rainwater Gardens Contact: Size: Status:

City of Superior Wastewater Treatment Division 5.3 acres, 17 Rainwater Gardens Ac ve

BURNSVILLE RAINWATER GARDENS

The Rain Garden demonstra on project is unique because it involved retrofi ng prototypic rain gardens in a suburban neighborhood of Burnsville, Minnesota that already had a tradi onal curb-and-gu er design. It was characterized by individual designs for each resident-par cipant’s property with close a en on to homeowner educa on and easy maintenance. The gardens were primarily designed to capture street runoff through the installa on of curb cuts at each garden. The depressions feature gradual side slopes, limestone retaining walls, and colorful plan ngs. Seventeen sites were iden fied in the treatment watershed; thirteen along Rushmore Drive and four in a backyard swale that drains to Rushmore Drive. The cost for each garden was approximately $7500, with about $500 of this going toward plants. Most residents chose a combina on of the less labor-intensive perennial and shrub gardens to plant the rain gardens.

CITY

The gardens feature gradual side slopes, limestone retaining walls, and colorful plan ngs. They were carefully sized to at least accept the first 0.9 inches of rainfall runoff from the impervious surfaces in the subwatershed for each storm event. The installa on became a neighborhood block party, with residents making a potluck lunch and then strolling up and down the street to admire other gardens.

73 CITY


Rio Grande Community Garden Contact: Size: Status:

Marika Ray 50 acres Ac ve

RIO GRANDE COMMUNITY GARDEN

Rio Grande Community Farm (RGCF) is a cer fied 50 acre organic farm in the center of the city and provides city dwellers with rural experiences, growing food for their families or for needy members of the community, learning about agriculture. It is a model for teaching methods of sustainable, organic agriculture. Wildlife habitat is maintained along with food crops. Hedgerows provide cover, nes ng sites and food for many species of birds. Community gardens cons tute 2 acre parcels and form the center of ac vity with over 100 individuals, schools, groups and organiza ons tending their garden rows. RGCF provides seeds, water, tools and exper se for free. 16 acres of fields use subsurface drip irriga on which saves water and enables the Farm to grow produce year round, using both acequia (irriga on) water and well water. RGCF maintains its own all season greenhouse that is used to start crops for spring plan ng as well as plants for sale to local farmers markets.

CITY

One of the highlights is its Annual Maize Maze which runs from September to October and a racts thousands of people. Each year they adopt a theme that educates and demonstrates some aspect of our natural surroundings. The theme for 2010 was: “Coyote Magic – Discover the Wonders of High Desert Wildlife” and educated the people about the cri cal role of bu erflies and other pollinators.

CITY 74


SeaƩle Market Gardens Contact: Size: Status:

Michelle Jones, MarkeƟng Manager 12 Gardens Ac ve

SEATTLE MARKET GARDENS

The organiza on is proud of involving local residents in organic methods of farming located on the south side of Sea le. They work in partnership with P-Patch trust, which supports a majority of their financial needs. This is also a nonprofit volunteer organiza on that acquires land and then builds and maintains community gardens on that land. Their primary concern is to improve the living environment in the urban neighborhood. The land that they acquire is permanently maintained as community gardens. The Market Garden’s efforts help provide a means of livelihood for the farmers and promote a sense of community. Gardens such as the High Point Garden have farm stands where the community members and others can buy vegetables and fruits freshly picked only a few hours before.

CITY 75 CITY


RecoveryPark Contact: Status:

Gary Wozniak Ac ve

RecoveryPark represents an academic collabora on with Detroit/Mercy Detroit Collabora ve Design Center and UM-Dearborn, Wayne State. Ten years of planning have included considera on for educa on, housing, and commercial development along with urban farming to reinforce the poten al for connec ons in revitalizing the city.

RECOVERYPARK CITY

RecoveryPark’s mission is to address employment, rehabilita on of addicts and ex-offenders, and other social programs. A leadership Task Force represen ng more than 25 partners in government, educa on, art, finance and philanthropy has been formed to help with outreach, design, support, and strategic planning. RecoveryPark is being driven by Self Help Addic on Rehabilita on (SHAR), a Detroit-based Therapeu c Community (TC) established in 1969. The business plan aims to provide jobs through the en re food produc on value chain. The task force has met with community groups across the city focusing in par cular on Brightmoor, the lower East Side, and the Northeast sides of Detroit. Through repurposing urban land and redirec ng city resources, the Park’s objec ve is to be both financially and ecologically self-sustaining.

CITY 76


Four Seasons City Farm Contact: Size: Status:

1101 Bryden Rd., Columbus, OH (614 360 3279) 14 Plots Ac ve

FOUR SEASONS CITY FARM

Four Seasons City Farm is a non-profit organiza on dedicated to food produc on and community-building projects in and around the near eastside of Columbus, Ohio. Started in the early growing season of 2004 as part of a ministry of the Old First Presbyterian Church, the City Farm vision has expanded to include fourteen dierent plots in the city. City Farm is working to create a sustainable program through weekly sales at local farmers' markets, as well as through distribu on to local grocers and restaurants. All proceeds from these sales go directly back into expanding the urban farm. In addi on, City Farm is commi ed to using the most sustainable farming techniques (including organic growing) and making the byproduct of those techniques (fresh vegetables and fruits) accessible to all in the immediate community. Four Seasons City Farm is commi ed to building a sense of community and renewing the urban neighborhood by beau fying the area, turning abandoned lots into gardens, crea ng a self-sustaining and coopera ve food produc on system, and spiritual renewal through sharing the garden work.

CITY 77 CITY


SOUTH END / LOWER ROXBURY COMMUNITY GARDENS

South End / Lower Roxbury Community Gardens Contact: Size: Status:

South End Lower Roxbury Open Space Land Trust 14 Gardens Ac ve

The South End Lower Roxbury Open Space Land Trust (SELROSLT) is a membership-supported non-profit organiza on that works to acquire, own, improve and maintain open space for community gardening and pocket parks in the South End of Boston and Neighboring Lower Roxbury. This area has long been among the poorest in Boston, though is now undergoing gentrifica on and redevelopment pressures. Approximately 600 gardeners use 16 gardens run by SELROSLT. SELROST has been working with architects for green designs, including an ini al project at Worcester Street Garden Pavilion designed by students from Boston Architectural College, designed to serve as a mul purpose structure providing a central gathering space in the center of the garden.

CITY CITY 78


Growing Power Contact: Size: Status:

Will Allen, Milwaukee NaƟonal Headquarters and Urban Farm 2 acres Ac ve

GROWING POWER

Will Allen returned to his farming roots, inherited from his father, to start Growing Power in 1993, expanding his own produc on in a neglected plant nursery as a youth urban agriculture program. Today, Growing Power employs 35 individuals in urban farming, aquaponics, vermiculture, food recycling and compos ng. Produce is sold to restaurants, local public schools, retailed through an online store, at farmers’ markets and low-cost market baskets delivered to neighborhood pickup loca ons. Growing Power’s vermiculture processes have converted 6 million pounds of spoiled foodstuffs into compost in one year at a rate of about 100,000 pounds every four months The organiza on uses a quarter of it and sells the rest.

CITY

Compos ng process in each of the corners of two of the hoophouses provides enough heat to keep them produc vely growing hardy greens like spinach and kale through the winter. Poten al ammonia stench is kept at a minimum by piling wood chips on top of the compost areas. An anaerobic digester is being experimented with as a power and heat generator for some of the other greenhouses. It is expected to convert 5 tons/day of food waste, with le over digested material being u lized as soil fer lizer. Mr. Allen’s greatest emphasis is on the recycling of waste into fer le, produc ve soil. He has hopes of convincing the Milwaukee government that collec ng residen al food waste for conversion into compost is a realizable goal. Over the years he became an advisor for other groups asking for assistance in se ng up their urban agriculture start-up projects across America. He has taken to teaching seminars to convey his understanding of vermiculture,

79 CITY


Green Corps Contact: Status:

Department of Environment, City of Chicago Ac ve

GREEN CORPS

Greencorps is the city of Chicago's community landscaping and job training program. The program provides a green jobs training program for qualified individuals, as well as hor cultural instrucon, plant materials and technical assistance to organiza ons that garden in a public space—including schools, faith ins tu ons, libraries, public housing communi es and block clubs. Individuals are hired by the Department of Environment. The Green Industry Job Training program is a 9-month paid training program for up to 75 Chicago residents each year who are at least 18 years old, able to li 50 lbs and can pass a drug screening.

CITY

This project was chosen for its proven success for crea ng jobs. Interns usually acquire permanent jobs a er comple ng their training in five technical areas: landscaping and hor culture, tree care training, environmental health and safety, warehousing and electronics recycling, and weatheriza on. Work experience is gained hands on in community gardens registered with the city. The program also targets ex-oenders by partnering with social service agencies and represents a successful transi onal program.

CITY 80


Evergreen Brick Works Contact: Size: Date:

David Stonehouse, General Manager Michelle Bourdon-Bas an, Coordinator 40 Acre 2006 - Present

EVERGREEN BRICK WORKS

Located on a former forty acre brownfield and historic preserva on site, the Evergreen Brick Works community environmental center is a model for urban adap ve re-use. Emerging from a partnership between the nonprofit Evergreen and the city of Toronto, the site includes numerous examples of adapta on, such as the farmer’s market, nursery, and children’s play area at the Pavilions outdoor shelter built from a former factory.

CITY

The MarchĂŠ building is another loca on on the site where visitors can buy food from local producers and learn about cooking. Just next to it is Discovery Gardens, a factory transformed into a sheltered open air na ve plant demonstra on garden. A new floor supports 20,000 square feet of na ve plant beds in raised mounds, providing learning opportuni es for students, community groups and home gardeners. The garden is converted into an ice rink during the winter, when the beds become decora ve. Another building on site, Evergreen Gardens, features edible plant and na ve species demonstra on gardens. It also serves as a place to source seeds, organic soil and fer lizers and learn about growing na ve plant and vegetables organically. From its incep on, the integra on of urban agriculture was envisioned as a means to promote community engagement, educa on, recrea on and healthy living.

81 CITY


The Indianapolis Cultural Trail Contact: Size: Size:

Brian Payne, Central Indiana Community FoundaĆ&#x;on 8-mile Corridor 2007 - Present (In Progress)

THE INDIANAPOLIS CULTURAL TRAIL

The Cultural Trail urban bike and pedestrian path is being built in seven stages of corridors that run throughout the city, connec ng neighborhoods, cultural districts and recrea on facili es. It also serves as a natural stormwater management system, having been lined with stormwater planters, structures with open bo oms that enable stormwater to slowly drain into the ground. The planters reduce stormwater runo, flow rate, volume and pollutants, and recharge the groundwater. Perennial plant mixes, accent plants, structural plants and evergreen ground cover have been planted along the trail. The trail also serves as the downtown hub for the central Indiana greenway system.

CITY

The five downtown cultural districts connected by the Indianapolis Cultural Trail include Fountain Square, Indiana Avenue, Mass Ave, The Canal & White River State Park, and the Wholesale District. The Cultural Trail will also connect with the Monon Trail, allowing easy access to Broad Ripple Village from downtown. The Cultural Trail represents a large public and private collabora on led by Central Indiana Community Founda on, the City of Indianapolis and several not-for-profit organiza ons.

CITY 82


Waste To Energy Date:

1980s to Present

WASTE TO ENERGY

Copenhagen, Denmark has made cri cal investments in environmental waste disposal. The people of Copenhagen have been recycling nearly 67% percent of household, industrial and commercial wastes for over two decades, with less than a quarter incinerated. The biggest recycling category is garden waste which is turned into compost. The remaining waste is incinerated in an eďŹƒcient process, where steam from the heat is converted into energy providing a fi h of the city’s hea ng needs, and electricity to 80,000 homes. Residues from this process fuel road construc on. Ul mately, only seven percent of all waste in Demark ends up in landfills. The city began its waste management overhaul a er disastrous landfill overflow and complaints about incinerator pollu on. New laws were introduced in the early 1990s manda ng recyclable materials were separated at homes and businesses.

CITY

Copenhagen's "Waste Plan 2008" is a detailed plan to reduce waste and improve management. The Plan is revised every four years and covers a twelve-year period to ensure it delivers long-term solu ons.

83 CITY


Middlesbrough Urban Farming Project MIDDLESBROUGH URBAN FARMING PROJECT

Contact: Size: Date:

David Barrie, Designs of the Time 80 sites 2007 - Present

The Middlesbrough Urban Farming Project grew out of a yearlong community design ini a ve in North East England, Designs of the Time (DOTT 07).

CITY

The ini a ve explored a variety of themes related to sustainable living, with food integra on into ci es considered the most formidable of the challenges. Middlesbrough became the experimental site for food, and exemplifies innova ve ways urban agriculture can be brought into ci es. Architects Brown and Viljoen, developers of the London Plan for Con nuous Produc ve Urban Landscapes, were called into to map the possibili es for food produc on in the former industrial town. In the end, their project, “Opportuni es for a Green and Edible Middlesbrough,” revealed eighty loca ons for food produc on in exis ng, unused and adaptable spaces, based on exis ng garden ac vi es and resident’s expressed desires. From this exercise, small, medium and large container gardens began to spring up around the city, planted by youth groups, schools, and community organiza ons. Addi onally, kitchen gardens were established at the main park and art gallery, and urban farming ac vi es integrated with Middlesbrough’s Healthy Town Ini a ve. More than a dozen community groups, 51 schools and 4,000 people are involved in the project, with plans to establish a community owned and run food co-op to supply the town council’s proposed community restaurant project. The restaurant project is designed to involve disadvantaged youth and long-term unemployed in training and employment opportuni es.

CITY 84


Five Borough Farm Contact: Size: Date:

Megan Canning, AcƟng Director, Design Trust for Public Space Citywide 2010 - Present

FIVE BOROUGH FARM

Five Borough Farm is a strategic plan to support the grassroots urban agriculture movement taking place throughout New York City. A project of the Design Trust for Public Space and Brooklynbased nonprofit Added Value, which runs the Red Hook Community Farm (one of the largest in New York), the project is in the process of surveying and mapping New York City's exis ng urban agricultural ac vity, crea ng a shared framework and tools to evaluate and quan fy the many benefits of urban agriculture; and developing recommenda ons to city government about what role they could play to support urban agriculture.

CITY

Five Borough Farm brings together urban farmers, community gardeners, educators, and advocates from across the city to partner with experts in sustainable development, urban planning, food policy and program evalua on. The kick-off event for the project was a half-day workshop for urban agriculture prac oners, advocates and funders en tled "Five Borough Farm: The Future of Farming in NYC." Over 90 prac oners and supporters gathered together to discuss their goals and priori es, resource needs, and metrics to evaluate the benefits of urban agriculture. In addi on to the mapping project, Five Borough Farm has plans for an interac ve website to allow everyone involved with urban agriculture (including prac oners, policymakers, and supporters) to use the project’s tools and findings and share their own exper se.

85 CITY


Grown in Detroit Contact: Size: Date:

Lindsay Turpin, Garden Resource Program Coordinator Citywide 2006 - Present

GROWN IN DETROIT

The Grown in Detroit coopera ve, started in 2006, provides fruits and vegetables grown by families and youth in community gardens and urban farms throughout Detroit, Hamtramck, and Highland Park. The program provides a local alterna ve for anyone seeking fresh, healthy and accessible produce in the city at Farmers’ Markets, restaurants and other retail outlets. The coopera ve is a program of Detroit’s Garden Resource Program Collabora ve.

CITY

The Collabora ve is comprised of nearly 200 organiza ons, lead by The Greening of Detroit, Detroit Agriculture Network, EarthWorks Urban Farm/Capuchin Soup Kitchen, and Michigan State University. It provides support to 875 community gardens, 55 schools, and 557 families while distribu ng fi y thousand seed packets and nearly 210,000 Detroit grown plants. Educa on and training programs include Urban Roots (hor culture), Keep Growing Detroit (season extension), and Sweet On Detroit (urban beekeeping). The collabora ve also facilitates working groups, including the Detroit Farmers’ Market Workgroup, Compost Workgroup, and Detroit Bee Club and Workgroup. The Garden Resource Program Collabora ve facilitates the crea on and development of “workgroups” made up of leaders within the Garden Resource Program to ensure programming con nues to grow to reflect the needs and interests of the gardeners. Job and volunteer opportuni es include the Dig in Detroit program for volunteers to assist with garden prepara on, plan ng, harves ng, compos ng and other special projects. There is also an Urban Agriculture Appren ceship program, and geographically-based cluster groups, which facilitate community connec ons for gardeners and urban farmers living and working in the same area of the city.

CITY 86


REGION

Elements that differen ate food hubs from tradi onal farmers’ markets, public markets or terminal markets are their ownership structure, management prac ces and community benefits. Coordinaon of supply and demand is the focus of hub management, which works to oversee the local food supply coming into and going out of hubs in order to maintain adequate supply. Hubs also work with farmers to coordinate farm plan ng schedules, manage variety in local product supplies, and assure consistent year-round produc on while reducing compe on amongst par cipa ng growers. They o en will have a regional label, while maintaining individual farm iden ty. The hub will also be a pick up point for distribu on firms and customers that want to buy source-verified local food by the pallet. There are two principal benefits to par cipa ng in a regional food hub: 1) product reliability, variety and strategic distribu on, and 2) shared costs and knowledge.

At the regional level, food hubs are emerging as cri cal ins tu ons in establishing robust local

REGION 88

REGION

Distribu on infrastructure is one of the most significant barriers to sustainable urban food systems. This is especially crucial for small and midsize farmers who may not have enough capital to own their own trucks, refrigera on units, or warehouses. Such operators may lack the resources to iden fy distribu on routes, build effec ve marke ng campaigns or network with regional buyers and customers. While these farmers might be growing high quality products, they o en lack the support to get their goods to the consumer. Urban farming at the regional scale allows for much-needed coordina on between producers and buyers, permi ng small scale producers to sell on a bigger scale. This means the size of the farm does not have to limit a producer’s ability to feed the local market, especially important in urban areas given the rela vely small size of city farms.

food systems. A food hub, opera ng out of a permanent market loca on, centralizes the business management structure to facilitate the wholesale aggrega on, storage, processing, distribu on, and/or marke ng of locally/regionally produced food products.

SCALE INTRODUCTION

These projects and ini a ves are at the regional scale and represent resources and projects that extend beyond the city itself, incorpora ng surrounding areas, establishing coopera ve marketplaces and networks between growers and buyers, and o en integra ng city and rural agriculture. Moreover, urban agriculture within ci es is in mately linked with food security and public health at the regional level.


Wooster Food Hub Contact: Date:

Joe Kovach, OARDC Casey Hoy, OARDC and Local Food Systems 2008 - Present

WOOSTER FOOD HUB

At The Ohio State University, researchers at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster are exploring urban farming best prac ces and business ecosystems management. Professor Joe Kovach is exploring polyculture and agriculture without pes cides. His study begun in 2005 to evaluate spa al diversity within high tunnels is based on three varia ons of ver cal and horizontal pa erns. By varying species pa erns of organiza on, the use of pes cides can be reduced since pests are less able to propagate or and birds and other predators are less able to navigate. High tunnel interiors significantly extend growing season and produc vity and offer economic advantages over open lot farms. Raised beds provide more access for oxygen to roots and promote fruit tree growth. Addi onally, his research on comparave farming on asphalt surfaces will provide useful data and methods for urban farm installa ons on parking lots and other urban hardscapes.

REGION

Local Food Systems represents a collabora on between OARDC and partners in Michigan and Pennsylvania. The effort emerged from a 2008 workshop held by OARDC’s Agroecosystems Management Program The social networking site is designed to connect entrepreneurs focused on business systems around agriculture to a supply chain network of locally owned businesses and locate capital to launch new ventures. Over 1200 members registered to over 60 networking groups are ac ve on the site, organized by theme from marke ng and educa on, to logis cs and transporta on, youth groups, inner city wellness and much more. To further promote collabora on, Professor Casey Hoy has published through the Local Food Systems site an interac ve and business cluster map of food growers and producers in the region to promote greater efficiency, networking and mutual support.

89 REGION


Goodness Greenness Food Hub Contact: Date:

Robert Scaman, President 1991 - Present

GOODNESS GREENNESS FOOD HUB REGION

Troy Gardens is a 26 acre mixed-income community that follows the principles of co-housing, and includes organic community gardens and agricultural farming along with natural areas restora on management. Troy Gardens came about through a process that involved the landscape architecture firm Ziegler Design Associates along with the community as a whole. The project developed from a visionary idea to realiza on through a series of charre es and community mee ngs in which future community residents lead the design process. Troy Gardens integrates community gardens, an organic farm, and restored prairie and woodlands. State-owned surplus land provided parcels to begin the community’s vision for a new neighborhood combining housing with open space and local agriculture. A non-profit organiza on, Community Groundworks, a community land trust, was set up to help develop, manage and steward the Troy Gardens Community. The children who live in the 30 co-housing residences along with other kids from local community centers work together to plant and maintain a “kids garden.” The produce from the gardens is used in cooking lessons and community meals, while surpluses are donated to local food banks. “Troy Gardens is many projects rolled into one. It is about feeding a community with a culturally and economically diverse popula on and teaching residents - both young and old - the skills to grow, prepare, preserve and sell their own food, and to care about the environmental resources around them. It is about growing community ownership and cul va ng a sense of place. It is about community residents and local ins tu ons working together to preserve, sustain and strengthen their community” (Zielger Design Associates, 2005)

REGION 90


The New Agrarian Center Contact: Date:

Jules Dervaes, Founder & Director 2000 - Present

THE NEW AGRARIAN CENTER

In 2000, the nonprofit New Agrarian Center (NAC) established the George Jones Farm and Nature Preserve in Oberlin, Ohio. The site, owned by Oberlin College, was leased to commodity grain producers un l the NAC nego ated a long term lease with the college and took over ecological restora on of the site a er degrada on caused by industrial farming. Over the following six years, NAC transformed the farm into a mul purpose site, featuring market gardens, free-range livestock, learning spaces, naturally designed buildings, and restored wetland, prairie, and woodland habitat.

REGION

The farm employs five social entrepreneurs who share in the responsibili es of providing educa on for local schools, applied research and learning for Oberlin College students and faculty, and produc on for local markets. Farm produc on income exceeded $70,000 in 2008. The farm is also an incubator for young and new farmers in the Oberlin area. In 2003, NAC partnered with Cleveland State University Urban Aairs College to carry out a food assessment, which revealed a $7 billion food market in Cuyahoga and the six surrounding coun es. Subsequently, a Food Congress was organized and NAC worked with OSU Extension and Cleveland partners to develop the City Fresh Ini a ve in 2005. The ini a ve seeks to create a sustainable local food system in Northeast Ohio by improving local food access in inner city food desert neighborhoods lacking grocery stores. The City Fresh program impacts the local food system through the development of neighborhood food centers called Fresh Stops, along with nutri on educa on, garden installa ons in urban areas, and the cul va on of direct farm-to-business connec ons.

91 REGION


Goodness Grows Contact: Date:

Steve Fortenberry, Founder & ExecuƟve Director 2007 - Present

GOODNESS GROWS

Common Ground, a church-based agricultural nonprofit, purchased the 31-acre site of the defunct Mellinger’s Garden Center in 2006. The church’s mission is to inspire hope through regenera ve agriculture, model best prac ces, provide voca onal training, educa on and agriculture-based therapy, and raise awareness of local and world hunger. Steve Fortenberry, pastor of the Common Ground Church, partnered with ins tu ons, agencies, community groups and businesses in and close to the Youngstown metropolitan area to launch a small-scale sustainable agriculture ini a ve called Goodness Grows in 2007, serving as the hands on ministry for the mission oriented congrega on. The program also operates five Fresh Stops for the Mahoning Valley City Fresh (similar to the Cleveland City Fresh Ini a ve of Northeast Ohio), suppor ng local food systems through community supported agriculture.

REGION

Goodness Grows provides summer internship opportuni es for college students, works with at-risk youth through Flying High in Youngstown and collaborates with the Rescue Mission of Mahoning Valley to create jobs, establish a local food source, and enhance local sense of community. The Goodness Grows program is collabora ng with Joe Kovach of the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster, Ohio to exchange informa on on producing high value on small plots in environmentally responsible ways. Future plans include poultry farming and aquaculture.

REGION 92


NORTH BAY INSTITUTE OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

North Bay InsĆ&#x;tute of Green Technology Contact: Date:

Evelina Molina & Chris Oseguera 2007 - Present

The mission of the North Bay Ins tute of Green Technology provides training, job placement, and reten on of low-income, unemployed, or underemployed persons in Sonoma County for careers in green collar jobs: environment sustainability, energy conserva on, and green (non-carbon based) energy produc on. NBIGT partners with leading organiza ons and agencies to provide educa on and training services.

REGION

Youth Green Jobs (YGJS) - Academia Quinto-Sol (AQS)- Fi h Sun Academy for Young Visionaries - is the flagship program of NBIGT, which began summer 2009 to promote energy educa on and awareness, resource conserva on, and employment readiness for under-served, in-crisis and at-risk youth for the green collar jobs sector. A whole person approach is used to eliminate personal barriers to success while teaching the technical skills, me management, goal se ng, cri cal thinking, budge ng, resume wri ng, workplace conduct, u lizing community resources and working in small groups. Coopera ve learning is emphasized in a non-compe ve environment.

93 REGION


Contact: Date:

AMERICAN POLLINATOR PROTECTION CAMPAIGN

Pollinator Partnerships AND American Pollinator ProtecƟon Campaign Laurie Davies Adams, ExecuƟve Director Pollinator Parnership 1997 - Present

Animal pollinators are needed for the reproduc on of 90% of flowering plants and one third of human food crops. However, the numbers of both na ve pollinators and domes cated bee populaons are declining, threatened by habitat loss, disease, and the excessive pes cide use. To counter these trends, the Pollinator Partnership’s mission is to promote the health of pollinators, cri cal to food and ecosystems, through conserva on, educa on, and research. Its primary ini a ves include the NAPPC (North American Pollinator Protec on Campaign), Na onal Pollinator Week, and the publica on of Ecoregional Plan ng Guides. NAPPC's mission is to encourage the health of resident and migratory pollina ng animals in North America. NAPPC and partners throughout North America and interna onally raise public awareness, promote pollinator habitat protec on, and support pollinator research.

REGION

Columbus, Ohio lies in the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Ecoregion. Pollinator Partnership produces a regional guide for farmers, land managers and gardeners in the region. Alfalfa, melons, soybeans, and tomatoes are some of the crops raised in the Eastern Broadleaf Forest that rely on honey bees and na ve bees for pollina on. Abundant and healthy popula ons of pollinators can improve fruit quality and size, increasing farming produc on per acre.

REGION 94


LOCATION MAP

2,552 mi

The adjacent map shows the case studies featured in this publica on by geographic loca on and in rela on to Columbus, Ohio, the city for which this body of research is being generated.

Vancouver Canada City Farmer 2,418 mi 2,426 mi

Seattle, WA

MAP OF CASE STUDIES

Seattle Market Gardens Bastille Cafe and Bar

Portland ,OR Village Gardens

United Kingdom Chicken Coops by Omlet Edible Estates BedZED Middlesbrough Urban Farming Project

3,8

86

mi

i 2,420 m

San Francisco / Oakland, CA Hanover, Germany

4,144 mi

North Bay Institute of Green Technology Permaculatural Artisans

Kronsberg

i 5 m

2,23 7

Copenhagen, Denmark

4,20

mi

Waste Energy System 19

75

i

m

9,

45

9

m i

Kampala, Uganda Project Have Hope Sack Gardens

Sydney, Australia White Bay Eco City 2050

95 LOCATION MAP

LA / Pasadena, CA Urban Homestead Chef’s Kitchen


Toronto Canada

Milwaukee, WI Growing Power Composting Recipe Sweetwater Organics

Mount Dennis Mobile Kitchen Emmett Avenue Community Gardens Fort York Community Gardens Toronto Urban Farm Parc Downsview Park Evergreen Brickworks Urban Agriculture Hub

Cleveland, OH Blue Pike Farm Goodness Grows Eco Village Produce Ohio City Farm The New Agrarian City

New York, NY

Detroit, MI

St. Paul, MN

Boston, MA

Community Design Center for Minnesota Burnsville Rainwater Gardens

South End/Lower Roxbury Community Gardens

754 mi

2m 43

mi

3 14

535 mi

i

m

469 mi

m

i

203 mi

502 mi 356 mi

Troy Gardens

776

i

443 mi

Madison, WI

i

1,4

5

9m

176

Indianapolis, IN

571

mi

Cultural Trail Felege Hiywot Center 58 9m i

Uncommon Ground Gary Comer Youth Center Growing Home: Wood Street Farm GreenCorps Chicago Urban Lights Farm Iron Street Farm Mobile Food Collective Urban Habitat Chicago - Vertical Gardens The Waters Community Garden Goodness Greeness Food Hub

mi

Philadelphia, PA Greensgrow Philly

96

Chicago, IL

Wooster, OH Modular Ecological Design Raised Beds Asphalt Gardening Wooster Food Hub

Columbus, OH New Harvest Cafe & Urban Arts Center Four Seasons City Farm Pollinator Partnership & NAPPC

Memphis, TN Veggie Project Teaching Kitchen

Albuquerque, NM

Birmingham, AL

Rio Grande Community Garden

Jones Valley Urban Farm

LOCATION MAP 96

MAP OF CASE STUDIES

Public Farm 1 2nd Street Residence Edible Schoolyard Green Reach : Botanical Garden Youth Program Brooklyn Grange Forest House Five Borough Farm

D-Town Farms Earthworks Urban Farm Recovery Park The Food Trust Grown in Detroit SVSU Compost Machine


NATION Amid unprecedented shi s in Americans’ rela onships to food produc on and consumpon, resources that support access, educa on, policy and the economics of food and nutri on have mul plied. Na onal clearing houses, research ins tutes, entrepreneurial incubators, non-profit think tanks, and other networks have been established to improve food security and support the development of urban agriculture and economics of healthy food produc on. Those featured here have been selected for their poten al to assist in crea ng a food produc on and distribu on system that fosters economic development in Weinland Park.

NATION NATION 98


ACGA (American Community Gardening AssociaĆ&#x;on) h p://www.communitygarden.org/ The American Community Gardening Associa on (ACGA) is a bi-na onal nonprofit membership organiza on of professionals, volunteers and supporters of community greening in urban and rural communi es. The Associa on recognizes that community gardening improves people’s quality of life by providing a catalyst for neighborhood and community development, s mula ng social interac on, encouraging self-reliance, beau fying neighborhoods, producing nutri ous food, reducing family food budgets, conserving resources and crea ng opportuni es for recrea on, exercise, therapy and educa on. The ACGA supports na onwide and local networking to facilitate gardeners finding each other. The Associa on web site also makes available resources including videos, ar cles and publica ons, for public use and for purchase, along with blog dialogs, to support community development through successful gardening.

Central Ohio Local Food Assessment and Plan h p://www.morpc.org/pdf/CentralOhioLocalFoodAssessmentAndPlan2010.pdf

NATION

This plan, adopted in 2010, presents a strategy for strengthening the economy, ensuring access to healthful food, reducing food-shipping distance, and preserving farmland. The report was dra ed to assess all components of a regional food system in the 12 central Ohio coun es, to make policy recommenda ons to local governments, and to serve as a resource to businesses and organiza ons on food decisions. The full 18-page pian is available on-line. For updates and events, see: h p://www.morpc.org/energy/center/LocalFoods.asp

99 NATION


Community Food Security CoaliƟon h p://www.foodsecurity.org/ The Community Food Security Coali on (CFSC) is a non-profit 501(c)(3), North American organiza on dedicated to building strong, sustainable, local and regional food systems that ensure access to affordable, nutri ous, and culturally appropriate food for all people at all mes. It seeks to develop self-reliance among all communi es in obtaining their food and to create a system of growing, manufacturing, processing, making available, and selling food that is regionally based and grounded in the principles of jus ce, democracy, and sustainability. CFSC has over 300 member organiza ons. The mission of CFSA is to “catalyze food systems that are healthy, sustainable, just, and democra c by building community voice and capacity for change.” Funding support comes for large and small public en es, including the USDA and philanthropic organiza ons including the Kellogg Founda on, George Gund Founda on and Wallace Center of Winrock Commons.

Growing Power Workshop Programs h p://www.growingpower.org/workshops.htm

NATION

Will Allen’s Milwaukee and Chicago based Growing Power transforms communi es by suppor ng people from diverse backgrounds and the environments in which they live through the development of Community Food Systems. The organiza on aims to impact our food system and food deserts through 1. projects and growing methods, 2. Educa on and technical assistance, 32. Food produc on and distribu on. Workshops are intensive, hands-on trainings offering diverse groups the opportunity to learn, plan, develop, operate, and sustain community food projects. Project par cipants leave the workshop with improved skills that they can take back into their communi es and pass on to others. These workshops are for both rural and urban projects. The workshop takes place over five weekend sessions between January and May ($2500)

NATION 100


InsƟtute of Urban Homesteading h p://iuhoakland.com/ The Urban Homestead classroom, based in Oakland, CA, is a gathering place to research, ferment and learn together throguh small class sizes and experien al learning. IUH’s mission is to: 1. offer affordable classes in the art of living in an urban environment, 2. preserve a slower, more inten onal, more sustainable and more pleasurable way of life, 3. rescue the lost arts of the garden, the kitchen and things done by hand, 4. Imbue everyday tasks with wonder and beauty, 5. promote self-determina on and the ability of each person to educate themselves. The Ins tute of Urban Homesteading is a response to current interest in food security, localiza on and self-determina on. Aiming to change our rela onship to food and resources, IUH employs small-scale person-to-person, person-to-land based projects. Affordable, one day courses are offered in topics ranging from urban gardening with limited space and resources, to animal husbandry, honey produc on, canning, preserving, and seed stewardship.

NaƟonal Good Food Network NATION

h p://www.ngfn.org/ Subsidy of The Wallace Center, Winrock Interna onal The Na onal Good Food Network brings together people from all parts of the rapidly emerging good food system – producers, buyers, distributors, advocates, investors and funders – to create a communi es dedicated to scaling up good food sourcing and access. The NGFN is the primary food hub informa on center with database, sponsored research, clearing house, consultants, monthly webinars and other resources to facilitate the success of food hub systems, business entrepreneurship and to human networks. Close affilia on with USDA.

101 NATION


North Bay InsĆ&#x;tute of Green Technology h p://nbgreenins tute.shu erfly.com/ The mission of the North Bay Ins tute of Green Technology provides training, job placement, and reten on of low-income, unemployed, or underemployed persons in Sonoma County for careers in green collar jobs: environment sustainability, energy conserva on, and green (non-carbon based) energy produc on. NBIGT partners with leading organiza ons and agencies to provide educa on and training services. Youth Green Jobs (YGJS) - Academia Quinto-Sol (AQS)- Fi h Sun Academy for Young Visionaries - is the flagship program of NBIGT, which began summer 2009 to promote energy educa on and awareness, resource conserva on, and employment readiness for under-served, in-crisis and at-risk youth for the green collar jobs sector. A whole-person approach is used to eliminate personal barriers to success while teaching the technical skills, me management, goal se ng, cri cal thinking, budge ng, resume wri ng, workplace conduct, u lizing community resources and working in small groups. Coopera ve learning is emphasized in a non-compe ve environment.

North American Biodynamic ApprenĆ&#x;ceship Program h p://www.biodynamics.com/nabdap

NATION

The North American Biodynamic Appren ceship Program (NABDAP) is a program of the Biodynamic Associa on for beginning farmers. NABDAP combines two years of structured on-farm training and mentoring with a course of classroom study in biodynamics. NABDAP appren ces benefit from a comprehensive training curriculum, carefully selected mentor farms, and access to networking, support, and educa onal resources. Graduates of NABDAP are awarded a cer ficate in biodynamic farming from the Biodynamic Associa on. By working crea vely with these subtle energies, farmers are able to significantly enhance the health of their farms and the quality and flavor of food. Recogni on that the whole earth is a single, self-regula ng, mul -dimensional ecosystem. Biodynamic farmers seek to fashion their farms likewise as self-regula ng, bio-diverse ecosystems in order to bring health to the land and to their local communi es.

NATION 102


Resources Centers on Urban Agriculture & Food Security h p://www.ruaf.org/ The RUAF Founda on is an interna onal network of seven regional resource centres and one global resource centre on Urban Agriculture and Food Security. RUAF provides training, technical support and policy advice to local and na onal governments, producer organiza ons, NGO's and other local stakeholders. The RUAF website contains informa on on the RUAF-FSTT program, the ac vi es in each pilot city and all RUAF publica ons, including the Urban Agriculture Magazine as well as an extensive online bibliographic database and other valuable resources.

Rural Enterprise Center h p://www.ruralec.com/

NATION

The Rural Enterprise Center based in Northfield, MN has created an innovave, scalable small-scale approach to sustainable farming, focused on crea ng economic opportuni es for rural low-income families. Because poverty affects rural La nos, the new system seeks to maximize the u liza on of this popula on’s assets that come in many forms such as tradi ons, culture, and work experience. A training process builds on assets to address challenges head on, such as access to land, training and technical assistance, financing, marke ng and business support infrastructure. Beginning with the grassroots work of building broad business/community support infrastructure, REC supports “agripreneurs” or family-scale farmers. Its goal is to create a compa ble path for rural La no@ immigrant families to break the cycle of poverty so they can par cipate in, contribute to and benefit from a new large scale system of small scale sustainable food and agriculture enterprises.

103 NATION


United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) h p://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome USDA is headed by the Secretary of Agriculture, a member of the President’s Cabinet. The current Secretary of Agriculture is Tom Vilsack. Deputy Secretary Kathleen A. Merrigan oversees the day-to-day opera ons of USDA's many programs and spearheads the $149 billion USDA budget process. USDA is the overarching branch of the federal government that deals with all policy and programs related to agriculture, food safety, and food security, from the evolving poli cs and economics of US industries to the prac ces of organic cer fica on, livestock health and insurance, disaster relief, farm bills, and data collec on

VerĆ&#x;cal Farm Ecology NATION

Ver cal farming is a concept that argues for the economic and environmental viability of cul va ng plant or animal life within skyscrapers, or on ver cally inclined surfaces. Despite contemporary no ons of ver cal faming, there is a long history of 'ver cal farming'. The no on was first defined by Gilbert Ellis Bailey in 1915 in response to increasing land values and inexpensive explosives to intensify produc on. Later architect Ken Yeang proposed agriculture on skyscrapers for personal and community food sources while depending upon natural resources of light, air, and water. More recently, Dr. Dickson Despommier argued in favor of herme cally enclosed ver cal farms to elude the toxicity of urban soil and water and natural landscapes. His technically derived greenhouse environs for aeroponics and hydroponics borrow from assump ons about energy consump on and greenhouse gas emissions. Proposals for ver cal farms abound, yet to date nothing similar to these visions for social, agricultural, economic, or architectural advancement have been successfully achieved.

NATION 104


Wallace Center at Winrock InternaƟonal The Wallace Center has been a key organiza on in fostering a more sustainable food and agricultural system in the United States since 1983. It has employed research, policy analysis and educa on to drive change that benefits farmers, urban and rural communi es, our natural resources and the health of our ci zens. In 2000, the Center joined Winrock Interna onal, enhancing its poten al to foster food systems change and complemen ng an already extensive program in interna onal development. The current focus is on developing market-based solu ons that link a larger number of people and communi es to "good food"- food that is healthy, green, fair, and affordable. The approach is four-fold: build links within a diverse and growing network of food and farm innovators with convenings and communica ons that bring par cipants together strengthen this network by gathering,, crea ng and sharing knowledge, prime the pump of change by monitoring the emergence of useful models and helping others adopt or adapt them The Wallace Center is working to bring financial resources and other capacity building support to good food innovators.

Building Chicago’s Community Food Systems h p://www.morpc.org/pdf/CentralOhioLocalFoodAssessmentAndPlan2010.pdf

NATION

This document introduces readers to the larger issues of the food system and all ci zens’ inevitable par cipa on. By providing a broad overview to community food systems, highlights emphasize the growing links between community food systems and several branches of Chicago government including eight city departments’ rela onship to community food systems. Case studies illustrate local Chicago-based partnerships between city government and community organiza ons, with calls for public and private entrepreneurship. The full 30-page report is available online.

105 NATION


Chicago Food Policy Advisory Council h p://www.chicagofoodpolicy.org/ The Chicago Food Policy Advisory Council (CFPAC) facilitates the development of responsible policies that improve access for Chicago residents to culturally appropriate, nutri onally sound, and aordable food that is grown through environmentally sustainable prac ces. As a network of organiza ons and individuals sharing their experiences and concerns about food security in the Chicago region, they assert influence over policy makers to make informed decisions mo vated by the goals of community food security.

Delta InsĆ&#x;tute h p://www.delta-ins tute.org/

NATION

For over a decade, Delta has helped individuals, organiza ons and communi es demonstrate that building be er economies and reforming our rela onship with the environment go hand in hand. The Delta Ins tute focuses on green technology, green jobs and innova on in the Great Lakes Region. By removing carbon from the atmosphere and helping businesses cut costs by adop ng green best prac ces, Delta aims to transform urban wastelands into vibrant, profitable marketplaces. One branch of the Ins tute is directed toward suppor ng program, policy and direc ng resources to the advancement of urban agriculture.

NATION 106


Urban Habitat Chicago h p://www.urbanhabitatchicago.org/ The mission of Urban Habitat Chicago is to demonstrate the viability of sustainable concepts and prac ces in urban environments through research, educa on, and hands-on projects. By working at the intersec ons of urban agriculture, the built environment, materials recovery and reuse, emerging local industries, and focusing on crea ng seamless transi ons in the cycles of resources at all scales. UHC is a project-based 501c3 federal tax-exempt non-profit that formed in 2004 through Chicago’s Center for Green Technology. UHC members are drawn from many professions and interests - healthcare, architecture & urban planning, biology, product design, interior design, media produc on, landscape architecture, construc on, real estate, and educa on. UHC staff and team members work on a volunteer basis to develop and apply unique solu ons to the many challenges presented in ci es.

The Greening of Detroit h p://www.greeningofdetroit.com/

NATION

The Greening of Detroit was founded in 1989 to improve the quality of life in Detroit by guiding and inspiring the reforesta on of Detroit's neighborhoods, boulevards and parks through tree plan ng projects and educa onal programs. Over the years The Greening has expanded its outreach to include a broad sector of greening ac vi es. Its mission reflects this growth: “Guide and inspire the growth of a ‘greener’ Detroit through plan ng and educa onal programs, environmental leadership, advocacy, and by building community capacity.” Annually, The Greening hosts plan ng projects, ranging from full park restoraons to streetscape renova ons and massive street tree plan ngs to the crea on of community and family vegetable gardens. The Greening of Detroit supports hundreds of family and community gardens each year. Marke ng opportuni es are available for these community gardeners under the Grown in Detroit® brand at a GRP sponsored booth at Detroit's Eastern Market and mini-Farmer's Market's throughout the city. These gardens are currently producing around 100 tons of food each year, and the program is growing on an average of 20% annually.

107 NATION


Detroit Black Community Food Security Network h p://detroitblackfoodsecurity.org/ Since February 2006, at a me when many Detroiters have limited access to healthy food choices, the Detroit Black Community Food Security Network has worked relessly to raise our awareness about food, where it comes from, who controls it, and the role it plays in building healthy families and communi es. We have created models of community self-determina on and grassroots ci zen engagement that have a racted na onal a en on. Among our accomplishments are: 1) Establishment of D-Town Farm, a four acre organic farm in Detroit’s Rouge Park. 2) Selec on by Will Allen as the Detroit Regional Outreach Training Center for Growing Power, Inc. 3) Successfully led efforts to have Detroit City Council approve The City of Detroit Food Security Policy and to create the Detroit Food Policy Council. 4) Organized the Ujamaa Food Co-op Buying Club. 5) Provided leadership to the “Undoing Racism in the Detroit Food System” ini a ve.

Detroit CollaboraƟve Design Center, Detroit Mercy NATION

Dan Pitera is the Director of the Detroit Collabora ve Design Center at the University of Detroit Mercy School of Architecture. With the view that "design" is an essen al force in establishing human rela ons, the Design Center is dedicated to fostering university and community partnerships that create inspired and sustainable neighborhoods and spaces for all people. The sustainability of any neighborhood lies in the hands of its residents. Thus, the Design Center provides not only design services but also empowers residents to facilitate their own process of urban regenera on. Recovery Park is among the projects to which they have contributed:

NATION 108


Healthy Corner Store IniƟaƟve h p://www.thefoodtrust.org/ In communi es that lack supermarkets, families depend on corner stores for food purchases. The choices at these stores are o en limited to packaged food and very li le, if any, fresh produce. Corner stores are also frequent des na ons for children, many of whom stop daily on the way to and from school for snacks. A study published in Pediatrics found that the average Philadelphia student purchases more than 350 calories on each visit to the corner store -- and 29 percent of them shop at corner stores twice a day, five days a week, consuming almost a pound worth of addi onal calories each week. In partnership with these communi es, The Food Trust developed the Healthy Corner Store Ini a ve to increase the availability of healthy foods in corner stores and to educate young people about healthy snacking through nutri on educa on in schools. This pilot program is ac ve in five North Philadelphia communi es. As part of the campaign, The Food Trust will expand the Philadelphia Healthy Corner Store Network to 1,000 stores throughout the city.

Rodale InsƟtute NATION

New Farm represents a partnership between the nonprofit Ins tute for Innova ons in Local Farming and the Philadelphia Water Department, which was exploring innova ve and environmentally friendly ways to u lize the expansive grassy lawns that surround its many facili es. "We’ve converted many to meadow grass, but we were looking for something that was more produc ve for the city and for the economy,” says Nancy Weissman, economic development director for the water department. “We also want to encourage sustainable business ac vity in and around the city to protect our watershed.” The goal was to see if the 1/2-acre farm could produce $25,000 in gross revenue, an ini al benchmark met the first growing season. Last year, in its third season of opera on, the farm grossed $52,200 in sales. New Farm is an example of SPIN-Farming: Small Plot Intensive agriculture.

109 NATION


The Cleveland Memory Project Feeding Cleveland: Urban Agriculture h p://www.clevelandmemory.org/urbag/ Recording the history of men’s working farms, work relief gardens, victory gardens, community gardens and Cleveland Public Schools Hor culture Programs provides a long range perspec ve on current trends in local food produc on and urban farming economies.

Evergreen CooperaƟves h p://www.evergreencoop.com/

NATION

The Evergreen Coopera ves of Cleveland are pioneering innova ve models of job crea on, wealth building, and sustainability. Evergreen’s employee-owned, for-profit companies are based locally and hire locally to create green jobs and keep precious financial resources in the community. Workers earn a living wage and build equity in their firms as owners of the business. Evergreen is a partnership between the residents of six Cleveland neighborhoods and some of its “anchor ins tu ons” – the Cleveland Founda on, the City of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, University Hospitals, and others.

NATION 110


Ohio State University Organic Food & Farm EducaƟon Research Program h p://oardc.osu.edu/offer/ The OFFER program was established in 1998 in response to requests by organic producers and supporters to provide science-based informa on to Ohio’s exis ng organic farmers and to newcomers to organic produc on and marke ng. The Program aims to provide outstanding research and educa onal support for sustainable produc on, processing, and marke ng of organic foods from the field to the table for farmers, gardeners, processors, retailers, and consumers. Ohio State University researchers, Ohio farmers, and other stakeholders who share a goal of enhancing the vitality of organic agriculture in Ohio comprise a team working together to develop research ini a ves to be er understand the principles behind organic agriculture, par cularly in terms of underlying crop-soil rela onships, pest control, economics, and system management.

Ohio State University Urban Agriculture Program OSU Agriculture and Natural Resources

NATION

BEAN, Beginning Entrepreneurs in Agricultural Networks, is the newest Urban Agriculture ini a ve of OSU Extension, Cuyahoga County. In an effort to help make locally grown, healthier op ons for food available in the Greater Cleveland Area, OSU Extension has partnered with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Ohio Department of Agriculture, local government, and community based organiza ons to coordinate an increase in small local farms. In 2010, Ohio State University Extension was awarded a “Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Grant” from USDA to fund this project. OSU Extension is reaching out to area individuals and organiza ons who can benefit from access to farming and eventually, local markets to distribute the products of their efforts.

111 NATION


NATION NATION 112


APPENDIX LIST OF ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

LOCAL FARMS AND URBAN AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES - 4th Street Farms - Ace Networks

- Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) of The Ohio State University

- Franklinton Gardens

- Ohio University Innova on Center

- Franklin Park Conservatory Community Gardening

- Swainway Urban Farm

- Local Ma ers - NatureHood

APPENDIX

OTHER AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS AND RELATED RESOURCES 10,000 Urban Farms

The Local Beet, Chicago

Altgeld/Sawyer Corner Farm, Chicago

Local Food in Northern Illinois

Center for Resilient Ci es, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Mr. Brown Thumb, Chicago

Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture

Mural Arts Program, Philadelphia

Chicago Chicken Enthusiasts

Na onal Community Land Trust Network

Chicago Honey Co-Op Blog

PBS Series – Edens Lost and Found

City Harvest, Philadelphia Pennsylvania Hor culture Society

Pilsen Paseo de Jardines (Roots & Rays), Chicago Sea le P-Patch Gardens

The Edible Schoolyard, Mar n Luther King Middle School, Berkeley, CA

SPIN-Farming, Philadelphia

Fondy Food Center, Milwaukee

Sustainable South Bronx

Food Environment Atlas

Thirty Five by Ninety, New York

Greenmarket Farmers Markets, New York

Toronto Food Policy Council

Green Roof Growers, Chicago

Twin Ci es Urban Ag Connec on (TCUAC)

Kilbourn Park Organic Greenhouse & Community Garden, Chicago

Walnut Way Conserva on Corps, Milwaukee

113 APPENDIX


BOOKS AND REPORTS Cohen, Barbara. 2002. (July) USDA Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit. E-FAN-02-013. Electronic Publica ons from the Food Assistance & Nutri on Research Program. Economic Research Service/US Dept. of Agriculture.

Berry, Wendell. 2009. Bringing it to the Table, On Farming and Food. Introduc on by Michael Pollan. Berkeley: Counterpoint.

Despommier, Dickson. 2010. The Ver cal Farm: Feeding the World in the 21st Century. 1st ed. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. h p://www.ver calfarm.com/essays.html.

Berry, Wendell. 2002. The Art of the Commonplace: The Agrarian Essays. Berkeley: Counterpoint.

Feenstra, Gail Whi ng, Sharyl McGrew, and David Campbell. 1999. Entrepreneurial community gardens: Growing food, skills, jobs and communi es. Davis, CA: ANR Publica ons/UC Davis.

Brown, Katherine. 2002. Urban agriculture and community food security in the United States: Farming from the city center to the urban fringe. Venice, CA: Prepared by Urban Agriculture Commi ee of the Community Food Security Coali on. Buchmann, Stephen L., and Gary Paul Nabhan. 1997. The Forgo en Pollinators. Island Press. Campbell, Marcia Caton. 2004. "Building a Common Table: The Role for Planning in Community Food Systems." Journal of Planning Educa on and Research; 341-55. Cochrane, Willard W. 1993. The Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Frank, Karen A. ed. 2005. Architectural Design: Food + the City. London: Academy Press. Gali-Izard, Teresa. 2005. The Same Landscapes: Ideas and Interpretaons. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili. Gorgolewski, Mark, June Komisar, and Joe Nasr. 2011. Carrot City: Crea ng Places for Urban Agriculture. The Monacelli Press, September 20. Go lieb, R., A. Fisher, M. Dohan, L. O'Connor, and V. Parks. 1997. Homeward Bound: Food-Related Transporta on Strategies in Low Income and Transit Dependent Communi es. Los Angeles: University of California Transporta on Center. Haeg, Fritz. 2008. “Full-Frontal Gardening.� Edible Estates: A ack on the Front Lawn. New York: Metropolis Books. APPENDIX 114

APPENDIX

Beil, Kurt, Michael Budds, Emily Hicks, David Kennedy, Ken Rencher, Sarah Stacy Iannarone. 2009. Land Use and Planning for Secure Regional Food Systems. Portland State University.


APPENDIX LIST OF ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

BOOKS AND REPORTS (CONTINUED) Hodgson, Kimberly, Marcia Caton Campbell, and Mar n Bailkey. 2011. Urban Agriculture: Growing Healthy, Sustainable Places. American Planning Associa on (Planners Press), April 16. Jacke, Dave. 2005. Edible Forest Gardens: Ecological Vision and Theory for Temperate Climate Permaculture, vols. 1 -2. White River Junc on, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.

Magidan, Garleen. ed. 2009. The Backyard Homestead. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. Mostafavi, Mohsen, editor, with Gareth Doherty. 2009. Ecological Urbanism, Harvard University Gradua on School of Design, Cambridge: Lars Muller Publishers.

APPENDIX

Resource Centers on Urban Agriculture & Food Security. 2003. Guidelines for Municipal Policymaking on Urban Agriculture.

Kaplan, Rachel and K. Ruby Blume. 2011. Urban Homesteading: Heirloom Skills for Sustainable Living. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.

Slama, Jim, ed. 2010. “Wholesale Success: A Farmer’s Guide to Selling, Postharvest Handling, and Packing Produce.” Oak Park, IL

Kaufman, Jerry, and Mar n Bailkey. 2000. Farming Inside Ci es: Entrepreneurial Urban Agriculture in the United States,” Lincoln Ins tute of Land Policy.

Nairn, Michael & Dominic Vi ello. 2009. “Lush Lots: Everyday Urban Agriculture.” Harvard Design Magazine 31. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Design.

Kingsolver, Barbara, with Stephan L. Hopp and Camille Kingsolver, Animal, Vegetable, Miracle, A Year of Food Life, New York: Harper Collins, 2007.

Peemoeller, Lynn, ed. 2008. “Building Chicago’s Community Food System, A Report by the Chicago Food Policy Advisory Council.”

Lawson, Laura. 2005. City Boun ful: A century of community gardening in America. Berkeley: University of California Press. Macias, Thomas. 2008. “Working Toward a Just, Equitable, and Local Food System: The Social Impact of CommunityBased Agriculture.” Social Science Quarterly 89 (5): 10861101. 115 APPENDIX

Reynolds, Richard. 2008. On Guerilla Gardening: A Handbook for Gardening without Boundaries. New York: Bloomsbury USA. Smit, Jac, Annu Ra a and Joe Nasr. 1996. Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Sustainable Ci es. UNDP, Habitat II Series. Ch. 1, “Ci es That Feed Themselves.” Solomon, Debra. 2008. “Cultured and Landscaped Urban Agriculture.” Volume 18: A er Zero. Netherlands: Archis.


SPEAKERS AND CONSULTANTS Steel, Carolyn. 2008. Hungry City: How Food Shapes Our Lives. London: Vintage. Teyssot, Georges. 1999. “The American Lawn: Surface of Everyday Life.” The American Lawn. New York: Princeton Archi¬tectural Press.

APPENDIX

White, Mason and Maya Przybylski. 2010. Bracket Almanac 1: On Farming. New York: ActarBirkhauserD.

APPENDIX 116


APPENDIX LIST OF ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

MODEL ZONING

/

CITIES

Bal more, Maryland Virtual Supermarket Program allows residents with no food and transporta on access to get their grocery orders at the library; Soda tax.

APPENDIX

Chicago, Illinois Mayor’s legisla on to add community gardens and commercial urban farms to the city’s zoning ordinance; GOTO 2040 Comprehensive Regional Plan New Orleans, Louisiana Fresh Food Retailer Ini a ve (FFRI) provides $14 million in subsidies and low interest loans to retailers who bring fresh food into underserved areas. New York City, New York “Truck Gardens” and farm stands in residen al and commercial districts, Allows food sales from farm sites; two commercial roo op farms

117 APPENDIX

Oakland, California Allows vegetable farming on empty lots. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Philly Food Bucks program in collabora on with The Food Trust, provides $2 rebate for every $5 in food stamps spent at 30 par cipating farmers markets; Mayor’s proposed Soda Tax. Pi sburgh, Pennsylvania Mayor’s new guidelines for the raising of chickens and honeybees in urban areas. San Francisco, California Green Development Agreement ordinances to expedite interim green/art uses on vacant lots; Allows food sales from farm sites. Sea le, Washington 2010 Year of Urban Agriculture Campaign; Allows food sales from farm sites; land use code changes allow community gardens as permi ed uses in all zones; allows roo op greenhouses to rise up to 15 feet above the height limit of property in the manufacturing, commercial, industrial, and downtown zones if the greenhouses are dedicated to food produc on.


APPENDIX APPENDIX 118


URBAN FARMSCAPES

Urban Farmscapes  

... for communities, markets and new ecologies: precedent studies for Weinland Park. This publication is also available for print: http://w...

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