NASHVILLE ROSE LEAF
Official Publication of The Nashville Rose Society Serving Rose Enthusiasts Throughout Middle Tennessee
June 25th Annual NRS Picnic
6:00 pm -Hosted by Sam & Nancy Jones 130 Belle Glen Drive, Nashville 37221 (Bellevue) june 2011 Volume 44, Issue 6
Affiliated with the American Rose Society - www.ars.org
Welcome to the Wonderful World of Whit Wells Roses! If you are as old as I am you will remember the Lay’s potato chip slogan, “No one can eat just one”. Trying to pick one Whit Wells rose to feature as the rose of the month places a rose lover in the same predicament, because no one can pick just one!
‘Great Speckled Bird’
Consider the facts: To his credit Whit has registered over one hundred roses. These are not just any old roses either. The latest stats from roseshow.com lists seven of the top twenty-five miniflora roses as Whit Wells creations; more than any other hybridizer! And when you look at his newest introductions it is safe to say there will soon be more Wells roses added to the list of top miniflora roses. Watch for names like ‘Mikayla Danielle’ and ‘King of the Road’ that will be finding their way to a show table. Even more amazing than these stats are the rows of incredibly stunning roses he has in his greenhouse that are yet to be named. Every time we visit Whit he just laughs when we ask why he hasn’t named this or that rose yet. As for the ones he has named, here are Whit’s roses in the top twentyfive minifloras, along with some of our favorites.
(Cont’d on page 6)
Photo courtesy of Tammy Rodriguez
Photo courtesy of Jim Harding
Photo courtesy of Jim Harding
By: Jim Harding
As we near halfway in the year, and watch the fading of the first bloom cycle of our roses for the year, we are saddened by the loss of a great friend of ours and of the rose in the Tenarky District. If you were not privileged to know Dr. Kent Campbell of Bowling Green, Kentucky he was an avid rosarian and exhibitor. Kent was also the Director of the Tenarky District of the American Rose Society after his retirement from a very successful career as a musician and band director at Western Ky. He will be sorely missed. Good–bye Kent. (See page 7 for additional details)
Having already considered Whit Wells a friend, I eagerly accepted Jim’s request to interview him for our newsletter. I assured myself it would be one of my easiest interviews to date. Naturally, it turned out to be one of my most difficult. You see, Whit and I have seldom spoken to one another in a serious light. When we have, it seems we both suffer from a frankness that others might not appreciate.
I hope you were able to attend the May meeting where we were finally able to hear the long awaited program by Tom Beath on our spring rose care. A lot of great information was well presented, (See page 9 if you missed it). Thanks Tom! The table of roses looked great at the May meeting, and we appreciate everyone bringing examples of what you are growing (see photo on page 12). If you don’t have a vase, see Marty at the welcome table next meeting, and join the fun of sharing your roses. Thanks also, to Anne Owen for all the rose rootings we had for door prizes. I know all the winners plus the people who bid on her roses will enjoy them. Also, don’t forget Anne has offered to teach us how to start roses from cuttings. So if you are interested, contact Anne or one of our officers so we can set up sessions. We also have a gracious offer from Sam and Nancy Jones to host our annual NRS picnic in their lovely Bellevue garden on the 25th of June. You don’t want to miss this so see more info on page 5 plus the map insert for directions. See you at the picnic! —— Larry Baird 2
Still, I tried my best to interview Whit using the same “formula” that had worked for me many times prior. I start out with basic questions that any rose enthusiast might ask a hybridizer. Before I even finished my typical “do you have a favorite rose?” question, Whit plainly said “No.” “Well what about your..”, I began. Without looking up, he waved his hand and again answered “No”. I looked at my long list of questions. Here was a good one. “What do you consider your greatest achievement?” Not keeping his answer in the realm of roses, he answered honestly. “Living a little longer than some folks, I guess.” Feeling a bit foolish, I forged on. “Given all of your awards and accomplishments as an exhibitor and hybridizer, are there any rose visions for the future that elude you?” His reply? “Same as any other hybridizer. I’d like to see a black or blue rose and more roses that are diseaseresistant.” Now, I was boring him. I looked across the table and studied him for a moment. He still had that magical quality about him, but he seemed to be just a bit different when not tending to his roses. Once inside his greenhouse, however, there is no finer example of a “man in his element.” As I followed him, it became clear that his life was an open book. One he would share in his own way and in his own time. All I had to do was stop asking questions and practice the fine art of listening. (Jim’s heart just skipped a beat, my friends). It was then that I realized my interview would not be a simple question and answer format.
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After I stopped taking notes and the “interview” seemed over, Whit and I stumbled onto a conversation about how we both had been caretakers to ill spouses that were now departed. It was a side of each other we had not shared before. We agreed that planting a rose for someone is a beautiful way to sustain their memory and I shared with Whit how I have planted roses in honor of loved ones, living and deceased and even the loved ones of friends, some whom I never met. Of course, Whit bested my tradition by actually creating roses for the same purpose. After Jim and I tallied up and paid for this year’s harvest of Whit purchases, Whit gifted me another pot. “I’m going to give you this one” he said “I think you’ll like it.” It was bloomless so I looked at the tag… “My Wife Kathryn”. I hugged his neck, told him how special his gesture was and promised to take special care of it. I felt I had expressed sufficient gratitude, until a week later when it bloomed. She is breathtaking, Mr. Wells. I will do my best to keep her alive. —— Starla & Jim Harding
June Rose Tips Mobile Beauty - Tree roses are favorites of mine. I have had as many as 25 in pots in my yard. In summer’s extremely heated periods, it is well to move them to shade until the heat subsides. Also, their mobility makes them ideal accent pieces for the garden. Move them to outdoor patios or near sitting areas where guests can enjoy their beauty. A very flexible advantage Drainage - Often, rosarians plant their tree roses in decorative pots. Most vendors sell containers with only one small hole in the bottom. Not enough for good drainage. Unless the pot is ceramic, use an electric drill and create added holes in the bottom of the container. It just might save your rose roots from trying to survive in a flooded home. —— Ted Mills, Master Rosarian
Nashville Rose Leaf Honored The Nashville Rose Leaf received the American Rose Society’s 2010 Silver Medallion award for newsletter bulletins in Class B, (rose societies larger than 75 members). There any many people that graciously contribute their time, talent and knowledge in order to help produce a quality newsletter and perpetuate the tradition of excellence established by previous editors. Thank you to the editorial advisory committee of Sam and Nancy Jones, Marty Reich, and Leann Barron who provided continuous support throughout the year. Special congratulations go to our ARS Award of Merit winners; Dr. Raymond Cloyd for two articles….. and Leann Barron for her article “Dirty Words 101”. We also want to acknowledge and express our appreciation for all those who contributed their writing talents in 2010:
Marty Reich Wilma Wrongfoot (aka Connie Baird) Ken Wood began sharing his photographic talents with the newsletter last year and we really appreciate his contribution. Last but certainly not least a big thank you to Charles Lott. Even though he does not want any recognition he continues to be a source of encouragement and support that is greatly appreciated. Looking forward, if you have a desire to share your rose related experiences let us know. There are lots of ways to contribute and it is a wonderful way to give back to the organization that gives so much to all of us. Thank you! Jim & Starla Harding
“Roses in Review”
By: Phil Schorr
It’s time again for the annual Roses in Review survey. The July/August issue of the American Rose magazine will have the RIR insert with the paper forms and the list of varieties. The online survey will follow shortly thereafter on the ARS website.
Kathy Brennan Kent Campbell Dr. Raymond Cloyd Lori Emery Gaye Hammond Jennifer Harvey Sam Jones Dillard Lester Ted “RoseDoc” Mills Anne Owen Scott and Helen Rankin - father and daughter team!
This survey is the source of all the Garden ratings in the Handbook for Selecting Roses. It gives us all an idea of how the newer roses are doing in other rose growers’ gardens. Clearly, the more people we have reporting, the more reliable the results will be. Completing the survey is easy. The deadline for submission is September 26th, 2011. Even if you only have one of the roses on the list, your input is important. The Handbook for Selecting Roses is widely used by rose growers for their buying decisions. As you complete the survey, you also help yourself by reviewing the performance of your own roses.
ARS Trial Membership The American Rose Society is now offering a four-month trial membership for only $5 to members of local societies, ($10 for non-members), who are interested in becoming members. Most ARS members are home gardeners who enjoy growing roses and want to expand their knowledge of rose culture. Four-Month Trial Members receive: - Free advice from Consulting Rosarians. The ARS Consulting Rosarians program connects members with expert rosarians that provide free assistance with your rose questions. - Free or reduced garden admissions, a $25 value after just 3 uses. With the ARS Reciprocal Garden Admission program, members enjoy free or reduced admission to and discounts at hundreds of gardens, conservatories, and arboreta nationwide. - Free online access to four quarterly bulletins, a $45 value. Previously available by subscription only, the Mini/Minflora Bulletin, Old Garden Rose & Shrub Gazette, Rose Arrangers’ Bulletin, and Rose Exhibitors’ Forum are all now available online for free to all ARS members. - 2 issues of American Rose magazine, $16 value. The only magazine devoted exclusively to roses and rose culture, these bi-monthly, 84-page issues feature informative articles and beautiful color photography for beginners and experienced rose growers alike. View a free issue online at www.ars.org. - Discounts of up to 30% at merchant partners. The ARS Member Benefit Partner program offers discounts at various merchants with new partners being added continuously. A four-month trial membership is valued at $86 for only $10 so join now! You may complete the online form at www. ars.org or call 1-800-637-6534.
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A Man of Many Roses By: Starla Harding for six years straight, I had to try my hand at something so somebody else had a chance to win.”
Capturing the character of Whit Wells with mere words is as challenging as capturing the beauty of his roses with a mere camera lens. More than just a hybridizer, Whit Wells is a rose artist, of sorts, and I believe that a little drop of this unique man is hybridized directly into each and every one of his distinctive rose creations. Jim and I have visited his greenhouse, tucked away in the little town of Brighton, TN, on three separate occasions (so far) and each visit leaves us wanting more. Our first visit was three years ago on Mother’s Day weekend. The rose blooms in his greenhouse had peaked only days before so that vibrant splashes of color and the scent of rose petals still filled the space in abundance. Jim and I stood there in a hypnotic trance as Whit began to walk. Like me, Whit Wells is more a story-teller than a lecturer and I have come to affectionately term his colorful spins on speech as “Whitisms.” One of my favorites is his humble declaration that “God does 90% of my work while I do the other 10% and, truth be told, many times I’m not holding up my share.” As he began to walk he shared some of the more familiar stories of his life in roses including his involvement in starting Tennessee’s Jackson Rose Society. This was only after he served as President and an active member of the Memphis Rose Society for many years prior. He made sure to note that out of a twenty-five year span, he missed only two meetings. When I asked what made him decide to try his hand at hybridizing, he joked “Well, I won everything there was to win at the rose shows, won Queen of Show in Jackson 4
He then spoke, almost half-heartedly, of the devastating year of 1989 when he bought a defective spray mixture from a large chemical company that resulted in the destruction of his entire hybrid tea collection of 17,000 rose bushes. “The more it costs you, the more you will remember it” he muses. These are the catastrophes that define a person’s resolve and even though Whit was completely wiped out, referring to that year himself as “The Big Kill,” he was not deterred and went on to begin hybridizing with miniature roses which would, serendipitously, lead him to unparalleled success in hybridizing a classification of roses that did not yet exist. Whit began our walk again and it was then that I realized he was not only gloveless, but there were no pruners on his person. As he walked, sharing particulars about whatever rose was in our immediate path, he reached out and effortlessly snipped off rose blooms between his bare thumb and forefinger presenting them to me for closer examination. A small bouquet was forming in my hands as we continued our walk. Whit then began telling us about how he used to consider many of his early creations as “oddball” roses. He used to simply toss them away because the blooms were too big to be classified as miniatures, yet too small to be considered floribundas. However, he soon developed an appreciation for these unique roses and began planting them within the circular driveway outside his greenhouse. He had no way of knowing at the time that the ARS would later add a new classification of roses to its list and, as such, his “oddball” roses would now have a name… Minflora’s. By the end of our first walk with Whit, the grin on my face was rivaled only by my beautiful bouquet of roses.. hand-picked by their hybridizer. Jim and I left with over a dozen of Whit’s
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roses that day and it was excruciating whittling our selections down to that number. But this was a good reason to plan a return trip. Our next trip to Whit’s wonderland would be a year later, but Jim and I were reluctant about contacting him for a visit having just learned he had broken his hip and was recovering from major surgery. He politely consented to our request to visit as we envisioned hospital beds, wheelchairs and a greenhouse full of neglected roses. Instead, as we pulled up close to his greenhouse, we saw his unmistakable figure maneuvering the pathways of his greenhouse with the aid of a walker. He seemed as occupied with his passion as ever and not at all inconvenienced by his dependency on the walker. Drawing from the inspiration of Sampson’s hair, I wondered if the source of this man’s strength was his roses. I asked when he had been able to return to them post-surgery. “Not until the day I came home from the hospital” he replied with a grin. “I tried to feel sorry for myself for a few minutes but that wasn’t getting me any attention so I had to give it up and get back to work.” Jim and I thought we should move slower to accommodate Whit’s walker but oftentimes we found ourselves not keeping up with his pace. Again, we walked the aisles of his greenhouse learning the stories behind the names of some roses and the relationship of family and friends for which other roses had been named. His rose “Shameless” was named such because in his opinion “that rose had nothing at all to be ashamed of”, likewise “Best of ‘04” was in his opinion “the best rose of the bunch that year.” There was also a very noticeable recurring theme where rose names reflected his enthusiasm for country music singers and/or their songs. Not surprisingly, the first rose Whit ever introduced was named “Elvis” in 1972. In this regard, Whit was, once again, ahead of his time since his custom of
A Man of Many Roses
NRS Picnic Meeting
pairing rose names with the country music industry preceded Pat Bullard’s dream child The Nashville Music Garden, now home to many of Whit’s creations. As the daylight began to slip away, I asked Whit if the absence of lighting in his greenhouse was an overhead issue. “No” he replied. “I could never put lights out here because if I did, I’d never have a quitting time.” He applies this same practical approach to growing roses. “I only know what does and doesn’t work because I tried things about every way there is to try”. When asked, if like us, he learned by making mistakes, he just laughed, “Well, If something I do works, I brag about it. If it doesn’t, I just don’t tell anybody.” He then surprised me when I asked what he considered to be the biggest myth about growing roses. “Water. I don’t water my roses like other people do. Give them a chance and the roots will find the water. This makes for deep, strong roots”. Despite three years of summer droughts, Whit has not watered the roses that are planted inside his circular driveway even once in those three years. Nevertheless, let me be the first to bear witness to their health and beauty. We left this visit with another healthy collection of Whit’s one-of-a-kind creations and enough stories to write a book. Our latest visit with dear Mr. Wells was the third Mother’s day weekend in a row that we found ourselves in his greenhouse. In between customers he traced his rose roots back to his grandmother, Annie, who first introduced the future hybridizer to roses. She grew roses in an era when the only available methods were “organic.” Her fertilizer consisted of cow and horse manure and her “spray” program was nothing more than spent wash water in which the main ingredient was lye soap. As Whit recalled
her beautiful roses, his youngest son, Alton, joined us at a table outside the greenhouse. More a vegetable gardener than a rose enthusiast, he still remembers being carted to rose shows at a very young age by his parents. Although Alton made it clear, more than once, that roses were not his “cup of tea” I noted while he was helping his father with customers that he certainly seemed to know the name and location of many of his father’s roses. As he spoke about the types of vegetables he grows, it seems to be clear that he at least inherited his father’s hard work ethic and love for cultivating things. The only down-side Jim and I found of touring Whit’s greenhouse is the frequency in which we would come upon a spectacular bloom and inquire about its name only to hear Whit utter, time and time again, “Oh, I haven’t gotten around to naming that one yet.” As such, these were roses he was not able to sell. He estimates that at any given time he will have 500 roses that are numbered and not named. Of course, every now and then he will wink and say “I can’t sell you one, but I can give it to you”. This follows a strict provision that we not share cuttings which is more than reasonable since doing so would be, as he calls it, “flat-out stealing” especially if he isn’t receiving a royalty. It is one of the few times he speaks seriously and with conviction as this is the only negative aspect he has voiced about his passion. Well, that and having more roses than he has names for. Of course, he could take the advice of his oldest granddaughter, Samantha Ruth, for which he has named a rose: She thinks he should “name them all Samantha Ruth and just number them”. Hmmmm, sounds like that petal didn’t fall far from its rose.
June 25th At Sam and Nancy Jones’ Garden The NRS June meeting will be a picnic on Saturday, June 25th, 6:00 PM, at the rose garden of Sam and Nancy Jones in Bellevue (130 Belle Glen Drive, Nashville 37221). Besides their garden of about 175 rose bushes, the Belle Wood Glen Subdivision lake will be available for strolling. Sam and Nancy grow a variety of hybrid teas, climbers, miniatures, and old garden roses. For the dinner, a ham and paper goods are provided by the society. Bring folding chairs, a potluck dish, walking shoes and insect repellent. Parking will be on the commons area beside the Jones’ home, where the picnic will be held. Entry to the commons will be from Bellevue Road (between Old Hickory and Old Harding) in southwest Nashville, near Highway 100 and Percy Warner Park. Guests are welcome, as with all NRS meetings, and the Joneses are looking forward to seeing everyone there.
Photos courtesy of Sam Jones
(Cont’d from page 4)
I believe every rose garden needs a fair amount of Whit. For more information on how to sprinkle your rose garden with some of his magic, visit his website at www.wellsmidsouthroses.com
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Welcome to the Wonderful World of Whit Wells Roses! (Cont’d from Page 1)
‘Abby’s Angel’ is a deep yellow with red edges on the first few outer petals and deep yellow reverse. The fact that Whit was sold out of this rose earlier this year is a testament to its popularity on both the show table and in the garden. ‘First Choice’ is a white rose that glows with petals highlighted by touches of pinkish mauve. ‘Shameless’ is also classified as a white rose but has deeper red edges that only help to intensify its beauty. As Whit would say, ‘Shameless’ has nothing to be ashamed of. The red blend with a white reverse of ‘Regina Lee’ rounds out the list of Whit Wells roses in the top 25. Favorites - Whit has so many great roses it is really hard to pick out just a few, but here are some of our personal favorites ‘Memphis Music’ is one of those roses that always makes people stop and look. We have two planted in different parts of our garden and during the recent NRS garden tour I watched first hand as person after person would stop and marvel at this rose. The striking combination of this rose’s deep dark reds punctuated by bright yellow stripes is the reason for all the attention. During last year’s visit to Whit’s 6
If you love roses with fragrance then the beautiful purple mauve blend miniflora rose with a lighter reverse named after Willie Nelson’s song ‘Always on My Mind’ is one you definitely want to add to your garden. Another miniflora on the opposite end of the color spectrum is a large butter yellow single named ‘Sunglow’ that will brighten any garden with both its scent and simple elegance. Even when the list of superlatives used to describe Whit Wells roses runs out, his list of hits continues on and on. Which is one of the reasons why this spring we once again visited his greenhouse yearning for yet more Whit Wells magic, with or without a name. All in good time I am sure, but nevertheless we still carted home several roses with numbers for names to enjoy while we willingly wait to see what new names Whit will add to his already long list of wonderful creations.
Photos courtesy of Jim Harding
‘Dr. Troy Garrett’ is another great red with exhibition form. Like many of Wells roses this one is named after a dentist friend who lives in Oklahoma.
One example of many of Whit’s roses yet to be named
Photos courtesy of Two Sisters Roses
‘Memphis King’ is a brilliant red that wins in both the horticulture and arrangement divisions
‘Brenda Lee’ - featured rose of the month in March 2010 Nashville Rose Leaf
We love our Whit Wells roses almost as much as we love the hybridizer himself.
Photos courtesy of Two Sisters Roses
‘Louisville Lady’ may be classified as a deep pink but has a lot of hot red to go with its excellent form.
home in Brighton, Tennessee I spotted a rose out in the field that stood out above all the rest. Like many of his roses this toasty russet red beauty with sunshine yellow stamens did not have a name yet, but we took one home anyway wondering what kind of name would do this rose justice. For anyone who knows Nashville and lower Broadway, Whit came through with the perfect name, ‘Tootsie’s Lounge’.
Photos courtesy of Jim Harding
Top 25 Miniflora List
‘My Wife Kathryn’ watching from the field over Whit’s greenhouse
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‘Blue Suede Shoes’
Photo courtesy of Howard Carmen
For the first time ‘Crescendo’ was named hybrid tea Queen. Complete BGRS rose show results are posted on the Tenarky and BGRS websites along with photographs.
Hybrid Tea Queen ‘Crescendo’ Howard Carmen & Paula Williams
Long Time Tenarky District Director Remembered Dr. F. Kent Campbell, 80, passed away on May 11, 2011. He was director of bands and professor of music at Western Kentucky University from 1971 until his retirement in 1993.
Claire Campbell with Kent Campbell’s roses
Upon retirement, he became a member of the Bowling Green Rose Society, serving two terms as president. He was a member of the Board of Directors of the American Rose Society and served as district director of the rose societies in Kentucky, Tennessee and eastern Arkansas. Not only did he exhibit roses, but he also served as a judge of rose shows and as a consulting rosarian. He was named Outstanding Consulting Rosarian of the Year, Outstanding Judge of the Year and received the Bronze Medal from the Bowling Green Rose Society.
Photo courtesy of Mary Ann Hext
The 49th Bowling Green Rose Society rose show was dedicated to Kent and Claire Campbell and Claire brought some of Kent’s roses to display on the entry table. Even though Kent was missed, we felt that he was watching over our rose show giving his nod of approval.
Photo courtesy of Mary Bates
Highlights from the Bowling Green Rose Show
Photo courtesy of Mary Ann Hext
Photo courtesy of Mary Ann Hext
Large Gold Certificate & Artist’s Award - ‘Veteran’s Honor’ and ‘Let Freedom Ring” - Mary Ann Hext
Best Floribunda Spray ‘Brass Band’ Bob Jacobs
Challenge Class – Small Rose Trio ‘Autumn Splendor’ – Larry Baird
The Elizabethton, TN, native graduated from the University of Kentucky and received graduate degrees from the University of Illinois. While serving in the military, he was a member of the Third Army Band, stationed at Fort McPherson in Atlanta. His first teaching jobs were as band director in Henderson and at Eastern High School in Jefferson County. Prior to teaching twenty-two years at WKU, he taught at Bradley University in Peoria, IL, and at the University of Southern Maine in Gorham, ME. Expressions of sympathy may take the form of contributions to the Kent Campbell Scholarship Fund at College Heights, Western Kentucky University or Christ Episcopal Church.
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Pesticide Resistance: Relationship with Plant Defenses and Natural Enemies By: Dr. Raymond Cloyd, Professor - Kansas State University Pesticide resistance is a concern because once an arthropod (insect and/ or mite) pest population can no longer be adequately suppressed or controlled with existing pesticides (in this case, insecticides and miticides) then management options become limited. Resistance is the genetic ability of some individuals in an arthropod pest population to survive an application or multiple applications of a pesticide. In other words, the pesticide(s) no longer effectively kills a sufficient number of individuals in the arthropod pest population. Resistance develops at the population level and is an inherited trait. As such, surviving arthropod pests can pass traits (genetically) onto their offspring (young) or next generation thus enriching the gene pool with resistant genes (alleles). The amount of “selection pressure” or the frequency of applying pesticides is the main factor that influences the ability of an arthropod pest population to develop resistance to pesticides. This then increases the proportion or frequency of resistant individuals. However, there are often inquires regarding why pesticide resistance is rare or occurs less often in natural enemies (e.g., parasitoids and predators) compared to arthropod pests. Well, there are two hypotheses that may explain this phenomenon: the pre-adaptation hypothesis and food limitation hypothesis. The food limitation hypothesis proposes that natural enemies do not readily develop or evolve resistance because pesticide applications, depending on frequency, reduces their food supply by killing susceptible prey or hosts. After applying pesticides, natural enemy populations usually rebound at a slower rate in response to the lack of food whereas insect and/or mite pests recover quicker in the absence of natural enemies. This is associated with a “low” density of prey or hosts, which results in natural enemies being negatively impacted in terms of consumption rates, fecundity, and survival. 8
The pre-adaptation hypothesis proposes that plant-feeding insects and mites are already pre-adapted to detoxify pesticides (insecticides and miticides) because they have evolved the ability to detoxify plant defensive compounds (e.g., secondary plant metabolites) such as plant alkaloids. Because plant-feeding insects and mites are commonly exposed to a broad diversity of plants and thus plant allelochemicals (non-nutritional chemicals produced by an organism that affects growth, survival, and behavior of certain member species) they are able to metabolize or break down a broad range of chemical defenses by producing enzymes associated with specific compounds. The mechanisms by which insect and mite pests can overcome these plant defenses include detoxification of chemicals, altering target site or sites, reduced penetration, and behavioral avoidance. As such, insect and/or mite pests are more likely to be pre-adapted to detoxify pesticides than natural enemies. For example, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has various metabolic detoxification enzyme systems designed to overcome secondary plant defenses including esterases, cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases. These same enzyme systems may be used to detoxify insecticides, which may explain why western flower thrips has developed resistance to numerous insecticides with different modes of action. Okay, how may these factors influence natural enemy populations? Well, any remaining resistant arthropod pests that survive, following exposure of a spray application, may have an abundant food supply (e.g. plants). However, any natural enemies that survive an insecticide application may find their food supply of prey substantially reduced. Therefore, resistance evolves more slowly in natural enemy populations than arthropod pest populations because natural enemies either starve
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or disperse/move to a new location after spray applications have reduced or eliminated their food source. Excessive pesticide use may initially result in the suppression of arthropod pest populations; however, natural enemies such as parasitoids and/ or predators may starve or disperse/ move in response to the “low” prey densities present thus resulting in local extinction of natural enemies under intensive pesticide use. As a consequence of natural enemy extinction, frequent applications of pesticides will be required, which may promote rapid resistance developing in the prey population due to “selection pressure.” This results in an increase in the proportion or frequency of resistant individuals in the population. Less pesticide use may still reduce natural enemy numbers; however, prey populations are likely to remain at sufficient levels to sustain natural enemy populations. Furthermore, reducing pesticide usage may decrease resistance developing in prey populations. Applying pesticides at “high” rates may effectively suppress prey populations such that a natural enemy’s food supply is substantially reduced. Additionally, in the absence of immigration, natural enemy populations tend to decline due to the frequency of applying pesticides. As such, natural enemies will starve. This may be avoided by allowing more susceptible individuals to survive, which are then fed upon by natural enemies. This also may slow the evolution of resistance by reducing “selection pressure” or the number of pesticide applications required; and thus resistance developing in arthropod pest populations. Moreover, an increase in the survival of prey results in an abundant food supply for natural enemies—thus decreasing starvation and dispersal/ movement. Finally, reduced pesticide usage allows natural enemies to maintain or regulate arthropod pest populations over an extended time period.
Rose Care Talk (From May NRS Meeting) By: Tom Beath, NRS Vice President Last year, then Vice President, Ron Daniels stood up here waving his pH meter to drum into us the importance of knowing and, or correcting your soil’s pH. Know what yours is.
There are many in the room that are more knowledgeable and more experienced than me, so when I’m finished, I’ll open this conversation to the group. We all benefit when we hear other’s personal experiences and realize that there is more than one method or technique to growing beautiful roses. Soil & pH - Hopefully you tested the pH of your soil last fall. If not, do it now. What is pH? Simply put, pH is the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogenion concentration, in gram equivalents per liter of solution. That reciprocal is ten million. The log of ten million is seven, so pH is seven. Larry, I guess the Chemical Engineers from the UT Extension Service haven’t arrived yet? For our purposes, pH is the symbol of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of our soil. Seven is considered neutral. A number less than seven indicates acidity, while a number greater than seven indicates alkalinity. Roses prefer a slightly acidic soil of 6 – 6.5. This is the range where most of the mineral elements are at maximum availability to our roses. That statement is very important. You can have the best, most friable soil that drains excess water away and is loaded with every type of organic element, nutrient and micronutrient known to exist. If your soil’s pH is incorrect, none of those will be available to your roses. We could dive into the ocean and catch lobsters on the sandy bottom but we couldn’t pull them apart and eat them because we can’t breathe underwater. In the same way, roses can’t partake of the abundance of food around them, unless the soil pH is within their required range.
Fall is the best time to adjust your soil’s pH, but there is no time like the present if changes need to be made. Test your soil pH. The addition of limestone will increase alkalinity and sulphur will increase acidity, if necessary. A professional soil test will recommend the rate of these additions in lbs. per sq. foot and can be done by the Ellington Agricultural Center, or many of the County Co-ops. Pruning - Spring is the time to start caring for your roses. Getting them off to a healthy start includes removing any winter protection that you placed around them last fall, pruning them and starting this years’ spray and fertilizer programs. The timing of our spring rose care can begin when one or all of these three situations occurs. One, the forsythia blooms, the leaf buds begin to swell on our rose plants or the third week of March rolls around. Carefully remove the mulch or winter protection that you put in place, taking care to avoid damaging any new growth. New, basal breaks or canes are the future of that particular rose. Generally speaking, begin pruning by removing dark brown discoloration from the more vigorous canes that you’ve chosen to keep. You must prune down to creamy white wood. Cut out old stems to the crown. Also, remove any crossing or rubbing branches and canes that are growing into the middle of the plant. They will eventually interfere with the growth and development of other canes. Always prune to an outward facing bud to set the shape for this years’ growth. The pruning cut should be ¼ of an inch above an outward facing bud eye and angled down and away from that bud. A small dab of Elmer’s Wood Glue can prevent problems caused by cane borers.
All roses are not equal. I don’t just mean that Don Gill’s hybrid teas look better than mine, but different roses are pruned in a manner specific to their type. For instance, hybrid teas, grandifloras and floribundas bloom on new wood. Remove dead and weak wood. Create an open vase shape. Leave 3 - 5 healthy canes, evenly spaced around the plants and cut them back to 18 – 24 inches, at a quarter of an inch above an outward facing bud eye. With the grandifloras and floribundas, you may leave some smaller, branching canes because they produce an inflorescence of blooms that take longer to grow and open. Ramblers and other once blooming roses get their more severe pruning after flowering. However, you can cut out dead wood or winter damage or prune to keep size and shape in check. Climbers flower on mature wood, last year’s growth or older, and on the side shoots that grow from the main canes. Depending on space, select 3 – 6 healthy main canes and completely remove any others. Older canes can be removed if newer canes are available for replacements. Prune the side shoots to 3 or 4 buds. Canes should be trained horizontally for maximum bloom production. Modern shrub roses are repeat bloomers. Use the 1/3 rule. Each year, remove 1/3 of the oldest canes on established plants and 1/3 of the height. You can remove 2/3’s of the height if you want a smaller shrub. Spraying - This is also the time to start our spray program to prevent common fungus issues like blackspot, powdery mildew, rust and downy mildew. There are many rose care products on the market. Quite a few of us in the Nashville Rose Society purchase products from Rosemania, or our local County Co-ops. As soon as we finish pruning, we spray with Mancozeb or Pentathlon DF. This will eliminate any black spot spores that may have overwintered. (Cont’d on page 10)
nashville rose leaf, june 2011
Rose Care (Cont’d from page 9) One week later, start your preventive spray program and continue until the next dormancy period. Rosemania recommends spraying with Banner Maxx or Honor Guard every two weeks, and adding Pentathlon DF or Mancozeb to every other spraying. Always mix in Indicate 5, a spreader/sticker that enables the spray to easily coat the top and undersides of the leaves. Choose a day for spraying that is consistently convenient to your schedule. We don’t recommend spraying insecticides preventively because they also kill helpful insects. The insects and their damage should be evident. If it is necessary to spray insecticides, like Orthene, Merit or Talstar, they can be added to your spray mix or used when necessary. Let’s not forget the wonderful talk about Beekeeping, given by Ken Correll. Spray early in the morning or later in the evening when the bees are not flying, to protect that valuable resource.
Photos courtesy of Reed Working
Here in Zone 6, it would be wise to re-cover our roses with whatever winter protection or mulch that we had in place. It is safer to wait until after our last frost date, around the 15th of April, to fertilize. But you could add a slow release fertilizer like Osmocote or Mills Mix or Superphosphate, which doesn’t contain nitrogen, at this time. Fertilizing - Fertilizing too early can push your roses into early growth only to have them zapped by a late freeze or “nipped in the bud”. Fertilizing promotes new growth and lush blooms. Some people make their own fertilizer by combining 1 cup cottonseed meal, 1 cup bone meal, 1/2 cup blood meal and 1/4 cup epsom salts per rose bush. I’ve had lots of experience with Rosetone and Bayer products that are readily available at Home Depot or Lowe’s. So any products that I’ve mentioned or will mention are not the only ones available to us. This year, I’ll be using Mills Mix II and Bloomkote scratched into the top 2 10
inches of soil at the dripline of my rose plants. Also, I’ll be using Easy Feed as a liquid fertilizer. It is always best to investigate these products on your own. Read all that you can and follow the manufacturer’s instruction. Planting Roses - Plant your roses in early spring or late autumn in a location that receives at least 5 – 6 hours of sunlight each day. The planting site should be well drained. It can be easier to control the environment and the quality of the soil if you plant in raised beds. Dig a hole about 18” across and 20” deep. Discard the soil from the bottom third of the hole. Add soil amendments like peat moss, composted cow manure and organic matter to make a light, airy modified clay soil. For potted roses remove the pot by cutting off the pot’s bottom. Place the plant in the hole, then cut down the side and take the pot away. The bud union should be just above level with the soil around the hole. Fill the hole to about 4” below level and water in. When the water has soaked in, fill to the top and water again. Cover the hole with mulch and mound the mulch to cover the exposed bud union, to prevent moisture loss. Bareroot roses should be soaked in water as soon as you receive them to prevent drying out. Overnight or for 24 hours is a good soaking time. I add Superthrive to the water and use that water to plant with. Before planting, prune the roots so that they comfortably fit into your 18” X 20” hole without bending or winding around, usually about 10” long. Make a mound or cone with your amended soil so that you can set the rose over that cone and the bud union is just above level with the soil around it, as with the potted rose. Continue to fill the hole to 4” from the top and water in. Check the height of the bud union and finish filling the hole, water and mulch as before.
nashville rose leaf, june 2011
Mycorrhizae - Some of you may not know that I am partners in a Professional Gardening business with my wife Lisa. So now, more or less, she is my boss 24 hours a day! But, we are Beath & Company. We’ve been maintaining many landscape plantings in the Belle Meade area. We specialize in boxwood and rose care. I tell you this to lend credibility to a recommendation that I am about to make. For 10 years we have been using an Espoma product called Biotone. It is an all natural plant food that has been enhanced with a blend of bacteria and mycorrhizae to ensure superior plant growth. We use it because of its ability to stimulate rapid root growth. Over the years we have planted and transplanted many trees and perennials. Without exception, when we dig shrubs that have been planted by landscapers, we notice that rarely have the roots advanced much past the original root ball. When we dig shrubs that we have planted, we notice an abundance of new secondary and tertiary roots, and primary roots reaching well beyond the original root ball. All of the roots are covered in mycorrhizal fungi. The word “mycorrhizae” literally means fungus-roots and defines the close mutually beneficial relationship between specialized soil fungi and plant roots. The colonized root is called a mycorrhiza. Mycorrhizal fungi are the dominant microbes in undisturbed soils accounting for 60 – 80 % of the microbial biomass, and are fundamental to plant establishment. These fungi increase the surface absorbing area of roots 10 to 1000 times. They increase nutrient uptake and dissolve hard to capture nutrients, such as phosphorous and iron. Because of my own personal observations regarding root system development, I wouldn’t plant anything, from bulbs to trees, without Biotone.
A Rose Lover’s Calendar
NRS, Tenarky, & ARS Coming Events
25 Annual NRS Picnic - 6:00 PM, at the rose garden of Sam and Nancy Jones in Bellevue (130 Belle Glen Drive, Nashville 37221)
Heather Brannon 1885 Portway Rd. Spring Hill, TN 37174 615-482-2537
Cathy Payne 2576 Devon Valley Dr. Nashville, TN 37221 615-496-6238
5 NRS Meeting at Cheekwood 6:30 PM Refreshments - 7:00 Ken Wood - Photographing Roses
Ms. Lois R. Chumley 2550 Highway 70 E. Dickson, TN 37055 615-587-8316
2 NRS Meeting at Cheekwood - 6:30 PM Refreshments 7:00 Denise Thorne - Arranging Roses + Ice Cream Social!
SEPTEMBER 2 NRS Meeting at Cheekwood - 6:30 PM Refreshments 7:00 Rose Show Basics + Grand Prix
Details & other event news available at www.nashvillerosesociety.com Nashville Rose Leaf is printed by: The Print Authority, Brentwood, Tennessee
Nashville Rose Society is a 501c-3 organization and all contributions to the society are tax-deductible. Contributions may be made as memorials or to honor some person, group or occasion. Checks for contributions should be made payable to Nashville Rose Society and mailed to: CINDY WORCH 137 Urban Farms Rd. Manchester, TN 37355 ((931) 723-2142
Nashville Rose Leaf
The Nashville Rose Leaf is published eleven times annually by the Nashville Rose Society, Nashville, TN Editors: Jim & Starla Harding, Sam Jones & Leann Barron Editorial Advisory Committee: Marty Reich
ARS Consulting Rosarians South Nashville Leann Barron Marty Reich*
(615) 269-0240 (615) 833-0791
West Nashville Keith Garman (615) 352-6219 Sam* & Nancy Jones (615) 646-4138
Nashville Rose Society 2011 Officers President Larry Baird.........(931) 729-5259 Vice-Pres Tom Beath..........(615) 673-2435 Treasurer Gary Spencer......(615) 662-3819 Rec. S’ty Hayes Gibson .......(615) 794-1708 Cor. S’ty Cynthia Worch .....(931) 723-2142
Nashville Rose Society Membership
We are a non-profit organization serving the middle Tennessee area to educate persons on growing and exhibiting roses. Membership is open to everyone who supports the objectives of the organization. Annual dues of $20.00 per household include a subscription to The Nashville Rose Leaf, the official newsletter of the society. To join, send a check payable to Nashville Rose Society to: Marty Reich, 5020 Dovecote Dr., Nashville, TN 37220-1614 Phone: (615) 833-0791; E-mail: email@example.com
Disclaimer: While the advice and information in this newsletter is believed to be true and accurate at the time of publication, neither the authors nor the editor(s) accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The Nashville Rose Society makes no warranty, expressed or implied with respect to the material contained herein.
Brentwood Area Cecil* & Bessie Ward (615)373-2245 Jerry & Marise Keathley(615)377-3034 Franklin Area Anne Owen* (615) 794-0138 Logan* & Joan Shillinglaw(615) 790-7346 Robbie*&Marsha Tucker(615) 595-9187 Hendersonville Area Ron Daniels (615) 330-7083 Charles Lott (615) 824-5614 Jack Wedekind (615) 824-8696 Murfreesboro Area Dillard & Diane Lester(615) 896-0203 Columbia Area Lyle Worsham*
Lebanon-Watertown Area Jeff Harvey (615) 268-7089 Jennifer Harvey (615) 268-7032 Denise Thorne (615) 237-9757 Duck River-Centerville Area Larry* & Connie Baird(931) 729-5259 Manchester Area Cindy Worch
*Indicates ARS Master Rosarian
nashville rose leaf, june 2011
NON-PROFIT O R G A N I Z A T I ON U.S. POSTAGE PAID BRENTWOOD, TN PERMIT NO. 162
5020 Dovecote Drive Nashville, TN 37220-1614 Address Service Requested
Photos courtesy of Ken Wood
Highlights from the May NRS Meeting
Early spring blooms filled the table with color!
Denise Thorne promoting the Annual NRS Rose Garden Tour
Photos courtesy of Jeff Harvey
Highlights from the OGR Symposium
Symposium attendees were treated to examples of Old Garden Roses
Ann Peck demonstrates how to use a Hori to get weeds around roses protecting the roses shallow roots.
The newsletter of the Nashville Rose Society